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Sample records for crystalline lens

  1. Lens Aging: Effects of Crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. Krishna; Santhoshkumar, Puttur

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of the eye lens is to focus light on the retina. The major proteins in the lens—a, b, and g-crystallins—are constantly subjected to age-related changes such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation, glycation, and methylation. Such age-related modifications are cumulative and affect crystallin structure and function. With time, the modified crystallins aggregate, causing the lens to increasingly scatter light on the retina instead of focusing light on it and causing the lens to lose its transparency gradually and become opaque. Age-related lens opacity, or cataract, is the major cause of blindness worldwide. We review deamidation, and glycation that occur in the lenses during aging keeping in mind the structural and functional changes that these modifications bring about in the proteins. In addition, we review proteolysis and discuss recent observations on how crystallin fragments generated in vivo, through their anti-chaperone activity may cause crystallin aggregation in aging lenses. We also review hyperbaric oxygen treatment induced guinea pig and ‘humanized’ ascorbate transporting mouse models as suitable options for studies on age-related changes in lens proteins. PMID:19463898

  2. Ontogeny of human lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    1985-03-01

    The soluble proteins from prenatal and neonatal human lenses were fractionated by gel filtration into four distinct size classes viz. high molecular weight alpha-crystallin (HM-alpha), alpha-crystallin, intermediate molecular weight (IMW) proteins and low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. Extinction coefficients of the isolated proteins were determined and used to calculate the proportions of each fraction on a weight basis. The distributions of polypeptides within each of these fractions were analyzed by SDS gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focussing, followed by densitometric scanning of the gels. HM-alpha is detectable as early as the 14th week of gestation and its proportions increase rapidly, to about 9% of the total protein in the 1 year postnatal lens. The alpha-crystallin, IMW and LMW fractions show concomitant decreases and by 1 year they represent about 34, 35 and 18%, respectively. However, the proportions of IMW and LMW proteins do not accurately reflect those of the beta- and gamma-crystallins, as is often assumed. Substantial levels of non-crystallin polypeptides were found in the IMW protein fractions, including a group of very basic polypeptides (VBP) which comprised up to one-third of this material in the youngest lenses. Moreover, in postnatal lenses beta s-crystallin accounted for almost half of the LMW proteins. These points considered, alpha-crystallin is the major protein in the neonatal lens (approximately 42%, including HM-alpha), followed by the beta-crystallin (approximately 36% at most and probably less), the gamma-crystallins (approximately 11%) and beta s-crystallin (approximately 9%). Substantial changes in the proportions of specific polypeptides were observed throughout early development. These appear to result from changes at the level of protein synthesis and from postsynthetic modification. The A:B subunit ratio of alpha-crystallin drops from about 12 to below 3 during early development. This coincides with increasing levels of

  3. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  4. In vivo human crystalline lens topography

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Gambra, Enrique; de Castro, Alberto; Marcos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye with known surfaces geometry and on a human lens in vitro, and demonstrated on three human lenses in vivo. Not correcting for distortion overestimated the anterior lens radius by 25% and the posterior lens radius by more than 65%. In vivo lens surfaces were fitted by biconicoids and Zernike polynomials after distortion correction. The anterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 10.27 to 14.14 mm, and the posterior lens radii of curvature ranged from 6.12 to 7.54 mm. Surface asphericities ranged from −0.04 to −1.96. The lens surfaces were well fitted by quadrics (with variation smaller than 2%, for 5-mm pupils), with low amounts of high order terms. Surface lens astigmatism was significant, with the anterior lens typically showing horizontal astigmatism (Z22 ranging from −11 to −1 µm) and the posterior lens showing vertical astigmatism (Z22 ranging from 6 to 10 µm). PMID:23082289

  5. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life.

  6. Optical density of the crystalline lens

    SciTech Connect

    Hemenger, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The optical density for the noncataractous crystalline lens is written as a sum of two terms, each with a specific dependence on wavelength. The first term, proportional to 1/lambda 2, represents all light-scattering processes in the lens. The second term, assumed significant only for lambda less than or equal to 500 nm, accounts for absorption by lens pigments. By analyzing transmittance data on lenses of subjects aged 21 to 63 years, a spectrum for light absorption by lens pigment is derived and it is shown to be essentially the same for all of the lenses.

  7. Wave aberrations of the isolated crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, Austin; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure wave aberrations in the isolated crystalline lens is demonstrated. The method employs a laser scanning technique in which the trajectories of narrow refracted laser beams are measured for an array of sample positions incident on the lens. The local slope of the emerging wavefront is calculated for each sample position, and a least squares procedure is used to fit a Zernike polynomial function to define the wave aberration. Measurements of the aberrations of an isolated porcine lens and macaque lens undergoing changes in accommodative state with mechanical stretching are shown. Many aberrations were present, but negative spherical aberration dominated. In the macaque lens, many aberrations underwent systematic changes with accommodation, most notably the 4th order spherical aberration, which became more negative, and the 6th order spherical aberration, which progressed from negative to positive. PMID:15134472

  8. Crystalline lens MTF measurement during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Takeuchi, Gaku; Ziebarth, Noel; Acosta, Ana C.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To design and test an optical system to measure the optical quality of post mortem lenses during simulated accommodation. Methods: An optical bench top system was designed to measure the point spread function and calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of monkey and human ex-vivo crystalline lenses. The system consists of a super luminescent diode emitting at 850nm, collimated into a 3mm beam which is focused by the ex-vivo lens under test. The intensity distribution at the focus (point spread function) is re-imaged and magnified onto a beam profiler CCD camera. The optical quality in terms of spatial frequency response (modulation transfer function) is calculated by Fourier transform of the point spread function. The system was used on ex-vivo lenses with attached zonules, ciliary body and sclera. The sclera was glued to 8 separate PMMA segments and stretched radial by 5mm on an accommodation simulating lens stretching device. The point spread function was measured for each lens in the relaxed and stretched state for 5 human (ages 38-86 years) and 5 cynomolgus monkey (ages 53 - 67 months) fresh post mortem crystalline lenses. Results: Stretching induced measurable changes in the MTF. The cutoff frequency increased from 54.4+/-13.6 lp/mm unstretched to 59.5+/-21.4 lp/mm stretched in the post-presbyopic human and from 51.9+/-24.7 lp/mm unstretched to 57.7+/-18.5 lp/mm stretched cynomolgus monkey lenses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the optical quality of ex-vivo human and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation. Additional experiments are underway to quantify changes in optical quality induced by stretching.

  9. Placement of a crystalline lens and intraocular lens: Retinal image quality.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy; Zajac, Marek

    2006-01-01

    The influence of changes of both crystalline lens and intraocular lens (IOL) misalignment on the retinal image quality was investigated. The optical model of the eye used in investigations was the Liou-Brennan model, which is commonly considered as one of the most anatomically accurate. The original crystalline lens from this model was replaced with an IOL, made of rigid polymethylmethacrylate, in a way that recommend obligatory procedures. The modifications that were made both for crystalline lens and IOL were the longitudinal, the transversal, and the angular displacement.

  10. In Vivo Brillouin Analysis of the Aging Crystalline Lens

    PubMed Central

    Besner, Sebastien; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Pineda, Roberto; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the age dependence of the longitudinal modulus of the crystalline lens in vivo using Brillouin scattering data in healthy subjects. Methods Brillouin scans were performed along the crystalline lens in 56 eyes from 30 healthy subjects aged from 19 to 63 years. Longitudinal elastic modulus was acquired along the sagittal axis of the lens with a transverse and axial resolution of 4 and 60 μm, respectively. The relative lens stiffness was computed, and correlations with age were analyzed. Results Brillouin axial profiles revealed nonuniform longitudinal modulus within the lens, increasing from a softer periphery toward a stiffer central plateau at all ages. The longitudinal modulus at the central plateau showed no age dependence in a range of 19 to 45 years and a slight decrease with age from 45 to 63 years. A significant intersubject variability was observed in an age-matched analysis. Importantly, the extent of the central stiff plateau region increased steadily over age from 19 to 63 years. The slope of change in Brillouin modulus in the peripheral regions were nearly age-invariant. Conclusions The adult human lens showed no measurable age-related increase in the peak longitudinal modulus. The expansion of the stiff central region of the lens is likely to be the major contributing factor to age-related lens stiffening. Brillouin microscopy may be useful in characterizing the crystalline lens for the optimization of surgical or pharmacological treatments aimed at restoring accommodative power. PMID:27699407

  11. The molecular refractive function of lens γ-crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Brown, Patrick H.; Magone, M. Teresa; Schuck, Peter

    2011-01-01

    γ-crystallins constitute the major protein component in the nucleus of the vertebrate eye lens. Present at very high concentrations, they exhibit extreme solubility and thermodynamic stability to prevent scattering of light and the formation of cataracts. However, functions beyond this structural role have remained mostly unclear. Here, we calculate molecular refractive index increments of crystallins. We show that all lens γ-crystallins have evolved a significantly elevated molecular refractive index increment, which is far above those of most proteins, including non-lens members of the βγ-crystallin family from different species. The same trait has evolved in parallel in crystallins of different phyla, including in the S-crystallins of cephalopods. A high refractive index increment can lower the crystallin concentration required to achieve a suitable refractive power of the lens, and thereby reduce their propensity to aggregate and form cataract. To produce a significant increase of the refractive index increment, a substantial global shift in the amino acid composition is required, which can naturally explain the highly unusual amino acid composition of γ-crystallins and their functional homologues. This function provides a new perspective for interpreting their molecular structure. PMID:21684289

  12. Off-axis astigmatism in the isolated chicken crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2016-12-01

    The chicken eye was previously found to have little off-axis astigmatism which is not explained by its special corneal shape but rather by the optical properties of the crystalline lens. To learn more about lens design, we studied off-axis astigmatism in the chicken lens in situ and compared it to a glass lens of similar power but with homogenous refractive index. After euthanasia, enucleated eye balls were cut in the equatorial plane right behind the scleral ossicles. The anterior segment was placed in a water-filled chamber. Several thin laser beams were projected in two perpendicular meridians through the lens under various eccentricities and the focal lengths were determined. Off-axis astigmatism across the horizontal visual field was determined as the differences in power in the two meridians. The same procedure was used for the glass lens. On-axis, the chicken crystalline lens had slightly more power in the vertical than in the horizontal meridian (-2.8±0.7D (SEM)). Astigmatism flipped sign and increased with eccentricity to reach +6.1±2.1D (SEM) at 33.5deg off-axis, as expected from off-axis astigmatism. Even though this value appears high, it was still 2.5 times lower than in the glass lens. A ZEMAX model of a lens with a homogeneous index and with surface profiles taken of the natural chicken lens revealed even higher levels of off-axis astigmatism. Obviously, the natural chicken lens displays much less off-axis astigmatism than a glass lens with similar power. Since its shape does not explain the low off-axis astigmatism, it must be due to a refined internal refractive index structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eye lens crystallins: a component of intraocular pseudoexfoliative material.

    PubMed

    Veromann, Siiri; Sünter, Alar; Juronen, Erkki; Tasa, Gunnar; Panov, Aleksei

    2004-01-01

    Feeding experimental animals (19 pigs) with surplus sucrose and salt (NaCl) caused cataractous changes in lens tissue and triggered the formation of pseudoexfoliative material on the lens capsule. In the control animals (15 pigs) pseudoexfoliative material was absent. The avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method was applied to the pseudoexfoliative material obtained from 15 porcine experimental precataractous lenses and 1 spontaneously cataractous eye and revealed crystallins as a component of the intraocular pseudoexfoliative material. To prevent the development of both intraocular pseudoexfoliative material and crystallin-dependent glaucomatous changes in the trabecular meshwork of the eye, it is important to avoid any cataractogenic insult, including surplus sucrose and salt consumption, causing crystallin leakage from the lens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Crystalline human eye lens' response to stochastic light.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Serkan; Korotkova, Olga

    2011-08-01

    We present the first account (to our knowledge) of interaction between stochastic light and the crystalline human eye lens. In particular, the spectral density and the spectral degree of polarization of light focused by the crystalline lens onto the eye's back wall are examined. We find that the correlation properties of the incident light play the important role in the process of image formation by the eye and in its perception of polarization features of the incoming radiation. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Hyperelastic modelling of the crystalline lens: Accommodation and presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.

  16. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  17. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Veerwal, Vikas; Goyal, Jawahar Lal; Jain, Parul; Arora, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS. PMID:28298869

  18. Current-voltage relationships in the crystalline lens.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, R S; Rae, J L

    1976-01-01

    1. Electrical coupling between the cells of the crystalline lens of the frog eye was studied using two intralenticular micro-electrodes, one to pass current and one to record potential. In most experiments, both electrodes were placed just inside the posterior surface of the lens at a depth of approximately 200 mum from the surface. Step functions of current were applied and the time course of the resulting change in voltage was measured at many different electrode separations. 2. The voltage change has both a fast component, which occurs only locally in the region close to the current passing micro-electrode, and a slow component, which is spatially uniform, independent of distance from the current micro-electrode. 3. This behaviour is predicted by an electrical model of a single large spherical cell, and so that model can be used to analyse our data. 4. The resistivity of the lens 'interior' (both cytoplasm and coupling resistivity) is 625 omega cm; the resistance of the lens 'membrane' is 2751 omega cm2. 5. The data and analysis help to reconcile discrepancies between previous measurements of the electrical properties of the lens and show clearly that there is substantial electrical coupling from cell to cell. The method should allow investigation of the role of electrical coupling in cataract formation in the crystalline lens. PMID:1086902

  19. Preparation of specific antiserum against Rana esculenta pre-alpha lens crystallin.

    PubMed

    Brahma, S K; van Doorenmaalen, W J

    1976-01-01

    Specific antiserum against Rana esculenta lens pre-alpha crystallin was prepared in a rabbit by injecting antigen-antibody precipitate of this crystallin obtained from immunoelectrophoresis of esculenta total soluble lens proteins against homologous antiserum.

  20. Fs-laser induced flexibility increase in the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Fromm, M.; Lakharia, R.; Schaefer, M.; Oberheide, U.; Ripken, T.; Breitenfeld, P.; Gerten, G.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowksi, H.

    2007-02-01

    Presbyopia is one age related effect every human is suffering beginning at the age of about 45 years. Reading glasses are the conventional treatment so far. According to the Helmholtz theory the loss of accommodation in age is due to the hardening and the resulting loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens. However the ciliary muscle and the lens capsule stay active, respectively. Therefore a possible treatment concept is to regain the flexibility by inducing gliding planes in form of microcuts inside the lens. The increase of flexibility in young porcine lenses by different cutting patterns was shown by Ripken et al. 1, 2 who verified the increase in flexibility by the spinning test introduced by Fisher. 3 We will present our first measurements of flexibility increase of human donor lenses. Furthermore the influence of the laser cuts into the lens on the accommodation amplitude will be shown in a three dimensional finite-element simulation.

  1. [Extracapsular extraction of the crystalline lens].

    PubMed

    Stănilă, A

    1996-01-01

    From June 1, 1990 to September 1, 1995 we have operated within our department o Ophthalmology 759 eyes at 714 patients using the method of Extra-Capsular Extraction (EEC). From these 759 eyes, 242 (31.88%) were subjects of an artificial lens implant, 239 eyes were subjects of posterior chamber implant and 4 of anterior chamber. The used technique was the classical EEC one. The patients' age was between 8 and 93 years, with the maximal frequencies at the groups of 60-70 years (43.83%) and 70-80 years (35.57%). Considering the type of cataract we have operated 12 (1.58%) traumatic cataracts, 81 (10.67%) pre-senile cataracts and 621 (81.81%) senile ones. The most frequent complications were: capsule breaking and zonular dialysis, 8 cases (1.05%). vitreous out going, 12 cases (1.57%), post-surgical oedema of cornea, 132 cases (17.5%). increase of intraocular pressure, 158 cases (20.81%), irido-ciliary inflammation. 45 cases (5.9%), endophthalmitis, 3 cases (0.39%), oedematous-bubbling keratopathy, 6 cases (0.79%), macular cystoid oedema, 2 cases (0.26%), posterior capsule opacification, 52 cases (6.8%). The results we have obtained are good: 530 patients (69.8%) have a visual acuity of 0.5 or better. The rest of the patients have a lower visual acuity because of intra- or post-surgical complications as well as exfoliation syndrome, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, pigmentary retinopathy and Fuchs' heterochromia. The artificial lens implant has increased, reaching in 1995 a total of 78.61%.

  2. Optical power of the isolated human crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel; Rosen, Alexandre M; Jain, Rakhi; Amelinckx, Adriana; Arrieta, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-06-01

    To characterize the age dependence of isolated human crystalline lens power and quantify the contributions of the lens surfaces and refractive index gradient. Experiments were performed on 100 eyes of 73 donors (average 2.8 +/- 1.6 days postmortem) with an age range of 6 to 94 years. Lens power was measured with a modified commercial lensmeter or with an optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The radius of curvature and asphericity of the isolated lens surfaces were measured by shadow photography. For each lens, the contributions of the surfaces and the refractive index gradient to the measured lens power were calculated by using optical ray-tracing software. The age dependency of these refractive powers was assessed. The total refractive power and surface refractive power both showed a biphasic age dependency. The total power decreased at a rate of -0.41 D/y between ages 6 and 58.1, and increased at a rate of 0.33D/y between ages 58.1 and 82. The surface contribution decreased at a rate of -0.13 D/y between ages 6 and 55.2 and increased at a rate of 0.04 D/y between ages 55.2 and 94. The relative contribution of the surfaces increased by 0.17% per year. The equivalent refractive index also showed a biphasic age dependency with a decrease at a rate of -3.9 x 10(-4) per year from ages 6 to 60.4 followed by a plateau. The lens power decreases with age, due mainly to a decrease in the contribution of the gradient. The use of a constant equivalent refractive index value to calculate lens power with the lens maker formula will underestimate the power of young lenses and overestimate the power of older lenses.

  3. Optical power of the isolated human crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel; Rosen, Alexandre M.; Jain, Rakhi; Amelinckx, Adriana; Arrieta, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the age-dependence of isolated human crystalline lens power and quantify the contributions of the lens surfaces and refractive index gradient. Methods Experiments were performed on a total of 100 eyes from 73 donors (average post-mortem: 2.8±1.6 days) with an age range of 6 to 94 years. Lens power was measured with a modified commercial lensmeter or with an optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The radius of curvature and asphericity of the isolated lens surfaces were measured by shadowphotography. For each lens the contributions of the surfaces and the refractive index gradient to the measured lens power were calculated using an optical ray tracing software. The age dependency of these refractive powers was assessed. Results The total refractive power and surface refractive power both showed a biphasic age dependency. The total power decreased at a rate of −0.41D/year between age 6 and 58.1, and increased at a rate of 0.33D/year between age 58.1 and 82. The surface contribution decreased at a rate of −0.13D/year between age 6 and 55.2, and increased at a rate of 0.04D/year between age 55.2 and 94. The relative contribution of the surfaces increased by 0.17%/year. The equivalent refractive index also showed a biphasic age dependency with a decrease at a rate of −3.9×10−4/year from age 6 to 60.4 followed by a plateau. Conclusions The lens power decreases with age due mainly to a decrease in the contribution of the gradient. The use of a constant equivalent refractive index value to calculate lens power using the lens maker formula will underestimate the power of young lenses and overestimate the power of older lenses. PMID:18316704

  4. Shape of the isolated ex-vivo human crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Raksha; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Borja, David; Amelinckx, Adriana; Smith, Jared; Jain, Rakhi; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop an age-dependent mathematical model of the isolated ex-vivo human crystalline lens shape to serve as basis for use in computational modeling. Methods Profiles of whole isolated human lenses (n=27) aged 6 to 82, were measured from shadow-photogrammetric images. Two methods were used to analyze the lenses. In the Two-Curves Method (TCM) the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens were fit to 10th-order even polynomials and in the One-Curve Method (OCM) the contour of one half-meridional section of the lens was fit to 10th-order polynomials. The age-dependence of the polynomial coefficients was assessed. The analysis was used to produce an age-dependent polynomial model of the whole lens shape. Results The root mean squared errors for the fits ranged from 11 to 70 μm for the OCM, 9 to 27 μm for the posterior surface of the TCM and 8 to 134 μm for the anterior surface of the TCM. The coefficients of the OCM did not display a significant trend with age. The 2nd, 6th and 10th-order coefficients of the anterior surface of the TCM decreased with age while the 8th-order coefficient increased. For the posterior surface of the TCM, the 8th-order coefficient significantly decreased with age and the 10th-order coefficient increased. The age-dependent equations of both the models provide a reliable model from age 20 to 60. The OCM model can be used for lenses older than 60 as well. Conclusion The shape of the whole human crystalline lens can be accurately modeled with 10th-order polynomial functions. These models can serve to improve computational modeling, such as finite element (FE) modeling of crystalline lenses. PMID:18950656

  5. Optical aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2006-09-01

    The wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye have been measured by a corneal topographic system (Orbscan II) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. We have calculated the aberrations for both the corneal surfaces with the discrete set of corneal elevation data, and with which to acquire the aberrations of the whole cornea. The aberrations of the crystalline lens are calculated by subtracting the aberrations of the cornea from that of the complete eye. The aberration combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface, between the cornea and the crystalline lens is complicated, either compensation or addition. For individual Zernike terms, astigmatism and quatrefoil in the anterior corneal surface are added by the posterior corneal surface, while some other terms show compensation between the two surfacesE And for complete eye, astigmatism and spherical aberrations in the cornea are partially compensated by the crystalline lens, and other terms show addition between the two parts. Individual eye shows different combinations of compensation and addition across different Zernike terms.

  6. Electrical Properties of Structural Components of the Crystalline Lens

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, R. T.; Rae, J. L.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical properties of the crystalline lens of the frog eye are measured with stochastic currents applied with a microelectrode near the center of the preparation and potential recorded just under the surface. The stochastic signals are decomposed by Fourier analysis into sinusoidal components, and the impedance is determined from the ratio of mean cross power to input power. The data are fit by an electrical model that includes two paths for current flow: one through the cytoplasm, gap junctions, and outer membrane; the other through inner membranes and the extracellular space between lens fibers. The electrical properties of the structures of the lens which appear as circuit components in the model are determined by the fit to the data. The resistivity of the extracellular space within the lens is comparable to the resistivity of Ringer. The outer membrane has a normal resistance of 5 kohm · cm2 but large capacitance of 10 μF/cm2, probably because it represents the properties of several layers of fibers. The inner membranes have properties reminiscent of artificial lipid bilayers: they have high membrane resistance, 2.2 megohm · cm2, and low specific capacitance, 0.8 μF/cm2. There is so much membrane within the lens, however, that the sum of the current flow across all the inner membranes is comparable to that across the outer surface. PMID:262384

  7. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth, in accordance with expectations. Moreover, it has been possible to develop an age model for the formation of the eye-lens crystallines. From this model a radiocarbon calibration curve for lens crystallines has been calculated. As a consequence, the time of birth of humans can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by radiocarbon dating.

  8. Intraocular and crystalline lens protection from ultraviolet damage.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H

    2011-07-01

    Although the risks of excess solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the skin are well recognized, the need for eye protection is frequently overlooked, or when sunglasses are also recommended, specific guidance is wrong or is not explained. Guidance from the World Health Organization at its InterSun webpage advises people to wear "wrap-around" sunglasses under many conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the need for UV filtration in prescription lenses, contact lenses, and sunglasses. The geometry of UV exposure of both eyes, solar position, ground reflection, pupil size, and lid opening were studied. Because an accurate determination of cumulative ocular exposure is difficult, the cornea itself can serve as a biologic dosimeter, because photokeratitis is not experienced on a daily basis but does under certain ground-surface and sunlight conditions. From a knowledge of the UV-threshold dose required to produce photokeratitis, we have an upper level of routine ocular exposure to ambient UV. From ambient UV measurements and observed photokeratitis, the upper limits of UV exposure of the crystalline lens or an intraocular lens implant are estimated. The risk of excess UV exposure of the germinative cells of the lens is greatest from the side. Sunglasses can actually increase UV exposure of the germinative region of the crystalline lens and the corneal limbus by disabling the eyes' natural protective mechanisms of lid closure and pupil constriction! The level of UV-A risk is difficult to define. Proper UV-absorbing contact lenses offer the best mode for filtering needless exposure of UV radiation of the lens and limbus.

  9. Preventive role of lens antioxidant defense mechanism against riboflavin-mediated sunlight damaging of lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Anbaraki, Afrooz; Khoshaman, Kazem; Ghasemi, Younes; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The main components of sunlight reaching the eye lens are UVA and visible light exerting their photo-damaging effects indirectly by the aid of endogenous photosensitizer molecules such as riboflavin (RF). In this study, lens proteins solutions were incubated with RF and exposed to the sunlight. Then, gel mobility shift analysis and different spectroscopic assessments were applied to examine the structural damaging effects of solar radiation on these proteins. Exposure of lens proteins to direct sunlight, in the presence of RF, leads to marked structural crosslinking, oligomerization and proteolytic instability. These structural damages were also accompanied with reduction in the emission fluorescence of Trp and Tyr and appearance of a new absorption peak between 300 and 400nm which can be related to formation of new chromophores. Also, photo-oxidation of lens crystallins increases their oligomeric size distribution as examined by dynamic light scattering analysis. The above mentioned structural insults, as potential sources of sunlight-induced senile cataract and blindness, were significantly attenuated in the presence of ascorbic acid and glutathione which are two important components of lens antioxidant defense system. Therefore, the powerful antioxidant defense mechanism of eye lens is an important barrier against molecular photo-damaging effects of solar radiations during the life span.

  10. A conserved role of αA-crystallin in the development of the zebrafish embryonic lens

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ping; Wu, Shu-Yu; Koteiche, Hanane A.; Mishra, Sanjay; Levic, Daniel S.; Knapik, Ela; Chen, Wenbiao; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2015-01-01

    αA- and αB-crystallins are small heat shock proteins that bind thermodynamically destabilized proteins thereby inhibiting their aggregation. Highly expressed in the mammalian lens, the α-crystallins have been postulated to play a critical role in the maintenance of lens optical properties by sequestering age-damaged proteins prone to aggregation as well as through a multitude of roles in lens epithelial cells. Here, we have examined the role of α-crystallins in the development of the vertebrate zebrafish lens. For this purpose, we have carried out morpholino-mediated knockdown of αA-, αBa- and αBb-crystallin and characterized the gross morphology of the lens. We observed lens abnormalities, including increased reflectance intensity, as a consequence of the interference with expression of these proteins. These abnormalities were less frequent in transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing rat αA-crystallin suggesting a specific role of α-crystallins in embryonic lens development. To extend and confirm these findings, we generated an αA-crystallin knockout zebrafish line. A more consistent and severe lens phenotype was evident in maternal/zygotic αA-crystallin mutants compared to those observed by morpholino knockdown. The penetrance of the lens phenotype was reduced by transgenic expression of rat αA-crystallin and its severity was attenuated by maternal αA-crystallin expression. These findings demonstrate that the role of α-crystallins in lens development is conserved from mammals to zebrafish and set the stage for using the embryonic lens as a model system to test mechanistic aspects of α-crystallin chaperone activity and to develop strategies to fine-tune protein-protein interactions in aging and cataracts. PMID:26149094

  11. Comparative analysis of crystallins and lipids from the lens of Antarctic toothfish and cow.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Andor J; Devries, Arthur L; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M

    2010-10-01

    Animal model systems of senile cataract and lens crystallin stability are essential to understand the complex nature of lens transparency. Our aim in this study was to assess the long-lived Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni (Norman) as a model system to understand long-term lens clarity in terms of solubility changes that occur to crystallins. We compared the toothfish with the mammalian model cow lens, dissecting each species' lens into a cortex and nuclear region. In addition to crystallin distribution, we also assayed fatty acid (FA) composition by negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The majority of toothfish lens crystallins from cortex (90.4%) were soluble, whereas only a third (31.8%) from the nucleus was soluble. Crystallin solubility analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed that relative proportions of crystallins in both soluble and urea-soluble fractions were similar within each species examined and in agreement with previous reports for bovine lens. From our data, we found that both toothfish and cow crystallins follow patterns of insolubility that mirror each animals lens composition with more γ crystallin aggregation seen in the toothfish lens nucleus than in cow. Toothfish lens lipids had a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were absent in cow resulting in an unsaturation index (I(U)) four-fold higher than that of cow. We identified a novel FA with a molecular mass of 267 mass units in the lens epithelial layer of the toothfish that accounted for well over 50% of the FA abundance. The unidentified lipid in the toothfish lens epithelia corresponds to either an odd-chain (17 carbons) FA or a furanoid. We conclude that long-lived fishes are likely good animal models of lens crystallin solubility and may model post-translational modifications and solubility changes better than short-lived animal models.

  12. Association of partially folded lens betaB2-crystallins with the alpha-crystallin molecular chaperone.

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul; Slingsby, Christine; Wallace, B A

    2008-02-01

    Age-related cataract is a result of crystallins, the predominant lens proteins, forming light-scattering aggregates. In the low protein turnover environment of the eye lens, the crystallins are susceptible to modifications that can reduce stability, increasing the probability of unfolding and aggregation events occurring. It is hypothesized that the alpha-crystallin molecular chaperone system recognizes and binds these proteins before they can form the light-scattering centres that result in cataract, thus maintaining the long-term transparency of the lens. In the present study, we investigated the unfolding and aggregation of (wild-type) human and calf betaB2-crystallins and the formation of a complex between alpha-crystallin and betaB2-crystallins under destabilizing conditions. Human and calf betaB2-crystallin unfold through a structurally similar pathway, but the increased stability of the C-terminal domain of human betaB2-crystallin relative to calf betaB2-crystallin results in the increased population of a partially folded intermediate during unfolding. This intermediate is aggregation-prone and prevents constructive refolding of human betaB2-crystallin, while calf betaB2-crystallin can refold with high efficiency. alpha-Crystallin can effectively chaperone both human and calf betaB2-crystallins from thermal aggregation, although chaperone-bound betaB2-crystallins are unable to refold once returned to native conditions. Ordered secondary structure is seen to increase in alpha-crystallin with elevated temperatures up to 60 degrees C; structure is rapidly lost at temperatures of 70 degrees C and above. Our experimental results combined with previously reported observations of alpha-crystallin quaternary structure have led us to propose a structural model of how activated alpha-crystallin chaperones unfolded betaB2-crystallin.

  13. Protective Effects of Acetylation on the Pathological Reactions of the Lens Crystallins with Homocysteine Thiolactone

    PubMed Central

    Moafian, Zeinab; Khoshaman, Kazem; Oryan, Ahmad; Kurganov, Boris I.; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Various post-translational lens crystallins modifications result in structural and functional insults, contributing to the development of lens opacity and cataract disorders. Lens crystallins are potential targets of homocysteinylation, particularly under hyperhomocysteinemia which has been indicated in various eye diseases. Since both homocysteinylation and acetylation primarily occur on protein free amino groups, we applied different spectroscopic methods and gel mobility shift analysis to examine the possible preventive role of acetylation against homocysteinylation. Lens crystallins were extensively acetylated in the presence of acetic anhydride and then subjected to homocysteinylation in the presence of homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). Extensive acetylation of the lens crystallins results in partial structural alteration and enhancement of their stability, as well as improvement of α-crystallin chaperone-like activity. In addition, acetylation partially prevents HCTL-induced structural alteration and aggregation of lens crystallins. Also, acetylation protects against HCTL-induced loss of α-crystallin chaperone activity. Additionally, subsequent acetylation and homocysteinylation cause significant proteolytic degradation of crystallins. Therefore, further experimentation is required in order to judge effectively the preventative role of acetylation on the structural and functional insults induced by homocysteinylation of lens crystallins. PMID:27706231

  14. Requirement for the c-Maf transcription factor in crystallin gene regulation and lens development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, James I.; Li, Tiansen; Ho, I.-Cheng; Grusby, Michael J.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    1999-01-01

    The vertebrate lens is a tissue composed of terminally differentiated fiber cells and anterior lens epithelial cells. The abundant, preferential expression of the soluble proteins called crystallins creates a transparent, refractive index gradient in the lens. Several transcription factors such as Pax6, Sox1, and L-Maf have been shown to regulate lens development. Here we show that mice lacking the transcription factor c-Maf are microphthalmic secondary to defective lens formation, specifically from the failure of posterior lens fiber elongation. The marked impairment of crystallin gene expression observed is likely explained by the ability of c-Maf to transactivate the crystallin gene promoter. Thus, c-Maf is required for the differentiation of the vertebrate lens. PMID:10097114

  15. Involvement of the N-terminal region in alpha-crystallin-lens membrane recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that alpha-crystallin binds specifically, in a saturable manner, to lens membrane. To determine the region of the alpha-crystallin molecule that might be involved in this binding, native alpha-crystallin from the bovine lens has been treated by limited digestion with trypsin, to produce alpha-A molecules with an intact C-terminal region, and a nicked N-terminal region. Compared to intact alpha-crystallin, trypsin-treated alpha-crystallin binds less avidly to lens membrane, suggesting that the N-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule may play a key role in the recognition between lens membrane and crystallin.

  16. Pax-6 is essential for lens-specific expression of zeta-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Cvekl, A; Wistow, G

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is essential for normal eye development and has been implicated as a "master gene" for lens formation in embryogenesis. Guinea pig zeta-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme crystallin, achieves high expression specifically in lens through use of an alternative promoter. Here we show that Pax-6 binds a site in this promoter, which is essential for lens-specific expression. Lens and lens-derived cells exhibit a tissue-specific pattern of alternative splicing of Pax-6 transcripts and Pax-6 is expressed in adult lenses and cells that support zeta-crystallin expression. These results suggest that zeta-crystallin is a natural target gene for Pax-6 and that this Pax family member has a direct role in the continuing expression of tissue-specific genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753863

  17. Quantification of the ciliary muscle and crystalline lens interaction during accommodation with synchronous OCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Marco; de Freitas, Carolina; Williams, Siobhan; Hernandez, Victor M; Cabot, Florence; Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Alawa, Karam; Chang, Yu-Cherng; Yoo, Sonia H; Gregori, Giovanni; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Two SD-OCT systems and a dual channel accommodation target were combined and precisely synchronized to simultaneously image the anterior segment and the ciliary muscle during dynamic accommodation. The imaging system simultaneously generates two synchronized OCT image sequences of the anterior segment and ciliary muscle with an imaging speed of 13 frames per second. The system was used to acquire OCT image sequences of a non-presbyopic and a pre-presbyopic subject accommodating in response to step changes in vergence. The image sequences were processed to extract dynamic morphological data from the crystalline lens and the ciliary muscle. The synchronization between the OCT systems allowed the precise correlation of anatomical changes occurring in the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle at identical time points during accommodation. To describe the dynamic interaction between the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle, we introduce accommodation state diagrams that display the relation between anatomical changes occurring in the accommodating crystalline lens and ciliary muscle.

  18. Identification of epsilon-crystallin from swan lens as lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chiou, S H; Chang, W P; Lai, T A

    1989-10-01

    Characterization of lens crystallins from black swan, a rare aquatic bird belonging to the family Anatidae, was carried out to search for epsilon-crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase activity. Biochemical comparison of epsilon-crystallins isolated from the swan and duck lenses plus lactate dehydrogenase of chicken heart has also been made in order to establish the structural/functional relatedness of these proteins. Amino acid analyses showed essentially similar overall compositions for these three proteins. Kinetic analysis revealed differences between avian epsilon-crystallins and the authentic heart-type lactate dehydrogenase. The swan lenses similar to duck lenses appeared to contain a thermostable epsilon-crystallin which possesses very high enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The characterization of epsilon-crystallins from the available species of aquatic birds may provide some insights into the evolution of this unique crystallin in the Aves and their enzymatic roles inside the lens.

  19. Identification of c-crystallin from swan lens as lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chiou, S-H; Chang, W-P; Lai, T-A

    1989-01-01

    Chuacterization of lens crystallins from black swan, a rare aquatic bird belonging to the family Anatidae, was carried out to search for e-crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase activity. Biochemical comparison of E-crystallins isolated from the swan and duck lenses plus lactate dehydrogenase of chicken heart has also been made in order to establish the structural/functional relatedness of these proteins. Amino acid analyses showed essentially similar overall compositions for these three proteins. Kinetic analysis revealed differences between avian E-crystallins and the authentic heart-type lactate dehydrogenase. The swan lenses similar to duck lenses appeared to contain a thermostable E-crystallin which possesses very high enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The characterization of E-crystallins from the available species of aquatic birds may provide some insights into the evolution of this unique crystallin in the Aves and their enzymatic roles inside the lens.

  20. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  1. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the phakic crystalline lens during accommodation.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Amy L; Evans, C John; Singh, Krish D; Wolffsohn, James S; Dunne, Mark C M; Davies, Leon N

    2011-06-01

    To quantify changes in crystalline lens curvature, thickness, equatorial diameter, surface area, and volume during accommodation using a novel two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) paradigm to generate a complete three-dimensional crystalline lens surface model. Nineteen volunteers, aged 19 to 30 years, were recruited. T(2)-weighted MRIs, optimized to show fluid-filled chambers of the eye, were acquired using an eight-channel radio frequency head coil. Twenty-four oblique-axial slices of 0.8 mm thickness, with no interslice gaps, were acquired to visualize the crystalline lens. Three Maltese cross-type accommodative stimuli (at 0.17, 4.0, and 8.0 D) were presented randomly to the subjects in the MRI to examine lenticular changes with accommodation. MRIs were analyzed to generate a three-dimensional surface model. During accommodation, mean crystalline lens thickness increased (F = 33.39, P < 0.001), whereas lens equatorial diameter (F = 24.00, P < 0.001) and surface radii both decreased (anterior surface, F = 21.78, P < 0.001; posterior surface, F = 13.81, P < 0.001). Over the same stimulus range, mean crystalline lens surface area decreased (F = 7.04, P < 0.005) with a corresponding increase in lens volume (F = 6.06, P = 0.005). These biometric changes represent a 1.82% decrease and 2.30% increase in crystalline lens surface area and volume, respectively. CONCLUSIONS; The results indicate that the capsular bag undergoes elastic deformation during accommodation, causing reduced surface area, and the observed volumetric changes oppose the theory that the lens is incompressible.

  2. The role of macromolecular crowding in the evolution of lens crystallins with high molecular refractive index

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Magone, M. Teresa; Schuck, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high concentrations in order to provide transparency and generate a high refractive power of the lens. The crystallin families prevalent in the highest density lens tissues are γ crystallins in vertebrates and S crystallins in cephalopods. In parallel evolution, both have evolved molecular refractive index increments 5 – 10 % above those of most proteins. Although this is a small increase, it is statistically very significant and can be achieved only by very unusual amino acid compositions. In contrast, such a molecular adaptation to aid in the refractive function of the lens did not occur in crystallins that are preferentially located in lower density lens tissues, such as vertebrate α crystallin and taxon specific crystallins. In the current work, we apply a model of non-interacting hard spheres to examine the thermodynamic contributions of volume exclusion at lenticular protein concentrations. We show that the small concentration decrease afforded by the higher molecular refractive index increment of crystallins can amplify nonlinearly to produce order of magnitude differences in chemical activities, and lead to reduced osmotic pressure and the reduced propensity for protein aggregation. Quantitatively, this amplification sets in only at protein concentrations as high as those found in hard lenses or the nucleus of soft lenses, in good correspondence to the observed crystalline properties in different tissues and different species. This suggests that volume exclusion effects provide the evolutionary driving force for the unusual refractive properties and the unusual amino acid compositions of γ crystallins and S crystallins. PMID:21566271

  3. The role of macromolecular crowding in the evolution of lens crystallins with high molecular refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huaying; Magone, M. Teresa; Schuck, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high concentrations in order to provide transparency and generate a high refractive power of the lens. The crystallin families prevalent in the highest density lens tissues are γ-crystallins in vertebrates and S-crystallins in cephalopods. As shown elsewhere, in parallel evolution, both have evolved molecular refractive index increments 5-10% above those of most proteins. Although this is a small increase, it is statistically very significant and can be achieved only by very unusual amino acid compositions. In contrast, such a molecular adaptation to aid in the refractive function of the lens did not occur in crystallins that are preferentially located in lower density lens tissues, such as vertebrate α-crystallin and taxon-specific crystallins. In the current work, we apply a model of non-interacting hard spheres to examine the thermodynamic contributions of volume exclusion at lenticular protein concentrations. We show that the small concentration decrease afforded by the higher molecular refractive index increment of crystallins can amplify nonlinearly to produce order of magnitude differences in chemical activities, and lead to reduced osmotic pressure and the reduced propensity for protein aggregation. Quantitatively, this amplification sets in only at protein concentrations as high as those found in hard lenses or the nucleus of soft lenses, in good correspondence to the observed crystallin properties in different tissues and different species. This suggests that volume exclusion effects provide the evolutionary driving force for the unusual refractive properties and the unusual amino acid compositions of γ-crystallins and S-crystallins.

  4. Effects of alpha-crystallin on lens cell function and cataract pathology.

    PubMed

    Andley, Usha P

    2009-09-01

    The development of cataracts is a debilitating eye condition which is common in elderly patients and afflicts millions worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. Non-syndromic, hereditary human cataract development is linked to point mutations in the CRYAA and CRYAB genes which encode alphaA and alphaB-crystallin. The alpha-crystallins are small heat shock proteins which play central roles in maintaining lens transparency and refractive properties. The discovery in 1992 that these proteins possess chaperone-like activity has led most researchers to focus on the ability of alpha-crystallins to prevent protein aggregation in vitro. While the ability of alpha-crystallins to efficiently trap aggregation-prone denatured proteins in vitro is thought to delay the development of age-related cataracts in vivo, alpha-crystallins have additional functions which may also contribute to cataract pathology. In addition to chaperone activity, alpha-crystallins are known to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis, regulate cell growth, and enhance genomic stability. They also physically and functionally interact with both the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. Functional changes in alpha-crystallin have been shown to modify membrane and cell-cell interactions and lead to lens cell pathology in vivo. This article focuses on the multiple diverse roles of alphaA-crystallin in the maintenance of lens function and cataract development in vivo.

  5. Zeta-crystallin, a novel lens protein from the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q L; Russell, P; Stone, S H; Zigler, J S

    1987-05-01

    Lens proteins from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) were found to be similar to those of other mammals with the exception of the presence of a previously undescribed constituent comprising about 10% of the total soluble lens proteins. This oligomeric protein is composed of polypeptides with apparent molecular weight of 38,000 and elutes from gel exclusion chromatography columns in the beta H-crystallin fraction. Following purification by ion exchange chromatography an antibody was raised against the protein. Using that antibody and antibodies specific for other crystallins we could detect no cross-reactivity between the guinea pig protein and any other reported lens crystallin. This protein, which we have named zeta (zeta)-crystallin, is the first reported mammalian lens crystallin which is not part of the alpha- or beta-gamma families of crystallins. Unlike all other known mammalian crystallins, which have little or no alpha-helical structure, zeta-crystallin is estimated to be approximately 30-40% alpha-helix.

  6. OCT-based full crystalline lens shape change during accommodation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Marcos, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The full shape of the accommodating crystalline lens was estimated using custom three-dimensional (3-D) spectral OCT and image processing algorithms. Automatic segmentation and distortion correction were used to construct 3-D models of the lens region visible through the pupil. The lens peripheral region was estimated with a trained and validated parametric model. Nineteen young eyes were measured at 0-6 D accommodative demands in 1.5 D steps. Lens volume, surface area, diameter, and equatorial plane position were automatically quantified. Lens diameter & surface area correlated negatively and equatorial plane position positively with accommodation response. Lens volume remained constant and surface area decreased with accommodation, indicating that the lens material is incompressible and the capsular bag elastic. PMID:28270993

  7. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  8. Functions of crystallins in and out of lens: Roles in elongated and post-mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Slingsby, Christine; Wistow, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate lens evolved to collect light and focus it onto the retina. In development, the lens grows through massive elongation of epithelial cells possibly recapitulating the evolutionary origins of the lens. The refractive index of the lens is largely dependent on high concentrations of soluble proteins called crystallins. All vertebrate lenses share a common set of crystallins from two superfamilies (although other lineage specific crystallins exist). The α-crystallins are small heat shock proteins while the β- and γ-crystallins belong to a superfamily that contains structural proteins of uncertain function. The crystallins are expressed at very high levels in lens but are also found at lower levels in other cells, particularly in retina and brain. All these proteins have plausible connections to maintenance of cytoplasmic order and chaperoning of the complex molecular machines involved in the architecture and function of cells, particularly elongated and post-mitotic cells. They may represent a suite of proteins that help maintain homeostasis in such cells that are at risk from stress or from the accumulated insults of aging. PMID:24582830

  9. Adjustable internal structure for reconstructing gradient index profile of crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2014-03-01

    Employing advanced technologies in studying the crystalline lens of the eye has improved our understanding of the refractive index gradient of the lens. Reconstructing and studying such a complex structure requires models with adaptable internal geometry that can be altered to simulate geometrical and optical changes of the lens with aging. In this Letter, we introduce an optically well-defined, geometrical structure for modeling the gradient refractive index profile of the crystalline lens with the advantage of an adjustable internal structure that is not available with existing models. The refractive index profile assigned to this rotationally symmetric geometry is calculated numerically, yet it is shown that this does not limit the model. The study provides a basis for developing lens models with sophisticated external and internal structures without the need for analytical solutions to calculate refractive index profiles.

  10. Acetylation of αA-crystallin in the human lens: Effects on structure and chaperone function

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Ram H.; Nahomi, Rooban B.; Shanthakumar, Shilpa; Linetsky, Mikhail; Padmanabha, Smitha; Pasupuleti, Nagarekha; Wang, Benlian; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Panda, Alok Kumar; Biswas, Ashis

    2011-01-01

    α-Crystallin is a major protein in the human lens that is perceived to help to maintain the transparency of the lens through its chaperone function. In this study, we demonstrate that many lens proteins including αA-crystallin are acetylated in vivo. We found that K70 and K99 in αA-crystallin and, K92 and K166 in αB-crystallin are acetylated in the human lens.To determine the effect of acetylation on the chaperone function and structural changes, αA-crystallin was acetylated using acetic anhydride. The resulting protein showed strong immunoreactivity against a Nε-acetyllysine antibody, which was directly related to the degree of acetylation. When compared to the unmodified protein, the chaperone function of the in vitro acetylated αA-crystallin was higher against three of the four different client proteins tested. Because a lysine (residue 70; K70) in αA-crystallin is acetylated in vivo, we generated a protein with an acetylation mimic, replacing Lys70 with glutamine (K70Q). The K70Q mutant protein showed increased chaperone function against three client proteins compared to the Wt protein but decreased chaperone function against γ-crystallin. The acetylated protein displayed higher surface hydrophobicity and tryptophan fluorescence, had altered secondary and tertiary structures and displayed decreased thermodynamic stability. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of αA-crystallin occurs in the human lens and that it could affect the chaperone function of αA-crystallin. PMID:22120592

  11. γ-Crystallins of the chicken lens: remnants of an ancient vertebrate gene family in birds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwei; Sagar, Vatsala; Len, Hoay-Shuen; Peterson, Katherine; Fan, Jianguo; Mishra, Sanghamitra; McMurtry, John; Wilmarth, Phillip A; David, Larry L; Wistow, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    γ-Crystallins, abundant proteins of vertebrate lenses, were thought to be absent from birds. However, bird genomes contain well-conserved genes for γS- and γN-crystallins. Although expressed sequence tag analysis of chicken eye found no transcripts for these genes, RT-PCR detected spliced transcripts for both genes in chicken lens, with lower levels in cornea and retina/retinal pigment epithelium. The level of mRNA for γS in chicken lens was relatively very low even though the chicken crygs gene promoter had lens-preferred activity similar to that of mouse. Chicken γS was detected by a peptide antibody in lens, but not in other ocular tissues. Low levels of γS and γN proteins were detected in chicken lens by shotgun mass spectroscopy. Water-soluble and water-insoluble lens fractions were analyzed and 1934 proteins (< 1% false discovery rate) were detected, increasing the known chicken lens proteome 30-fold. Although chicken γS is well conserved in protein sequence, it has one notable difference in leucine 16, replacing a surface glutamine conserved in other γ-crystallins, possibly affecting solubility. However, L16 and engineered Q16 versions were both highly soluble and had indistinguishable circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and heat stability (melting temperature Tm ~ 65 °C) profiles. L16 has been present in birds for over 100 million years and may have been adopted for a specific protein interaction in the bird lens. However, evolution has clearly reduced or eliminated expression of ancestral γ-crystallins in bird lenses. The conservation of genes for γS- and γN-crystallins suggests they may have been preserved for reasons unrelated to the bulk properties of the lens.

  12. Cold-stable eye lens crystallins of the Antarctic nototheniid toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni Norman.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Andor J; Mirarefi, Amir Y; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Zukoski, Charles F; Devries, Arthur L; Cheng, Chi-Hing C

    2004-12-01

    The eye lenses of the Antarctic nototheniid fishes that inhabit the perennially freezing Antarctic seawater are transparent at -2 degrees C, whereas the cold-sensitive mammalian and tropical fish lenses display cold-induced cataract at 20 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. No cold-cataract occurs in the giant Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni lens when cooled to temperatures as low as -12 degrees C, indicating highly cold-stable lens proteins. To investigate this cold stability, we characterised the lens crystallin proteins of the Antarctic toothfish, in parallel with those of the sub-tropical bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus and the endothermic cow Bos taurus, representing three disparate thermal climes (-2 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively). Sizing chromatography resolved their lens crystallins into three groups, alpha/betaH, beta and gamma, with gamma crystallins being the most abundant (>40%) lens proteins in fish, in contrast to the cow lens where they comprise only 19%. The upper thermal stability of these crystallin components correlated with the body temperature of the species. In vitro chaperone assays showed that fish alpha crystallin can protect same-species gamma crystallins from heat denaturation, as well as lysozyme from DTT-induced unfolding, and therefore are small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) like their mammalian counterparts. Dynamic light scattering measured an increase in size of alphagamma crystallin mixtures upon heating, which supports formation of the alphagamma complex as an integral part of the chaperone process. Surprisingly, in cross-species chaperone assays, tuna alpha crystallins only partly protected toothfish gamma crystallins, while cow alpha crystallins completely failed to protect, indicating partial and no alphagamma interaction, respectively. Toothfish gamma was likely to be the component that failed to interact, as the supernatant from a cow alpha plus toothfish gamma incubation could chaperone cow

  13. A proteome map of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lens reveals similarities between zebrafish and mammalian crystallin expression

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Molly; LaCava, Carrie; Prince, Courtney J.; Bellanco, Nicholas R.; Corbin, Rebecca W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the crystallin content of the zebrafish lens using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). These data will facilitate future investigations of vertebrate lens development, function, and disease. Methods Adult zebrafish lens proteins were separated by 2-DE, and the resulting spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The relative proportion of each crystallin was quantified by image analysis, and phosphospecific staining was used to identify phosphorylated α-crystallins. The proportion of each crystallin in the soluble and insoluble fraction of the lens was also determined by resolving these lens fractions separately by 2-DE. Results α-, β-, and γ-crystallins comprised 7.8, 36.0, and 47.2% of the zebrafish lens, respectively. While the α-crystallin content of the zebrafish lens is less than the amounts found in the human lens, the ratio of αA:αB crystallin is very similar. The phosphorylation pattern of zebrafish αA-crystallins was also similar to that of humans. The most abundant γ-crystallins were the diverse γMs, comprising 30.5% of the lens. Intact zebrafish crystallins were generally more common in the soluble fraction with truncated versions more common in the insoluble fraction. Conclusions While the total α- and γ-crystallin content of the zebrafish lens differs from that of humans, similarities in α-crystallin ratios and modifications and a link between crystallin truncation and insolubility suggest that the zebrafish is a suitable model for the vertebrate lens. The proteome map provided here will be of value to future studies of lens development, function, and disease. PMID:18449354

  14. Hypericin-Mediated Photooxidative Damage of α-crystallin in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2013-01-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a perennial herb native to Europe, is widely used and appears to be effective in treatment of mild to moderate depression. Hypericin, a singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer that absorbs in both the visible and UVA range, is considered to be one of the bioactive ingredients, and commercial preparations are frequently calibrated to contain a standard concentration. Hypericin can accumulate in ocular tissues, including lenses, and can bind in vitro to α-crystallin, a major lens protein. Alpha-crystallin is required for lens transparency and also acts as a chaperone to ensure its own integrity and the integrity of all lens proteins. Because there is no crystallin turnover, damage to α-crystallin is cumulative over the lifetime of the lens, and can lead to cataracts, the principal cause of blindness worldwide. In this work we study hypericin photosensitization of α-crystallin and detect extensive polymerization of bovine α-crystallin exposed in vitro to hypericin and UVA. We use fluorescent confocal microscopy to visualize binding between hypericin and α-crystallin in a human lens epithelial (HLE) cell line. Further, we show that UVA irradiation of hypericin-treated HLE cells results in a dramatic decrease in α-crystallin detection concurrent with a dramatic accumulation of the tryptophan oxidation product N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Examination of actin in HLE cells indicates that this cytoskeleton protein accumulates NFK resulting from hypericin-mediated photosensitization. This work also shows that filtration of wavelengths <400 nm provides incomplete protection against α-crystallin modifications and NFK accumulation, suggesting that even by wearing UV blocking sunglasses, routine users of St. John's wort cannot adequately shield their lenses from hypericin-mediated photosensitized damage. PMID:23453985

  15. Hypericin-mediated photooxidative damage of α-crystallin in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E; Mason, Ronald P

    2013-07-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), a perennial herb native to Europe, is widely used for and seems to be effective in treatment of mild to moderate depression. Hypericin, a singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer that absorbs in both the visible and the UVA range, is considered to be one of the bioactive ingredients of St. John's wort, and commercial preparations are frequently calibrated to contain a standard concentration. Hypericin can accumulate in ocular tissues, including lenses, and can bind in vitro to α-crystallin, a major lens protein. α-crystallin is required for lens transparency and also acts as a chaperone to ensure its own integrity and the integrity of all lens proteins. Because there is no crystallin turnover, damage to α-crystallin is cumulative over the lifetime of the lens and can lead to cataracts, the principal cause of blindness worldwide. In this work we study hypericin photosensitization of α-crystallin and detect extensive polymerization of bovine α-crystallin exposed in vitro to hypericin and UVA. We use fluorescence confocal microscopy to visualize binding between hypericin and α-crystallin in a human lens epithelial (HLE) cell line. Further, we show that UVA irradiation of hypericin-treated HLE cells results in a dramatic decrease in α-crystallin detection concurrent with a dramatic accumulation of the tryptophan oxidation product N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Examination of actin in HLE cells indicates that this cytoskeleton protein accumulates NFK resulting from hypericin-mediated photosensitization. This work also shows that filtration of wavelengths <400nm provides incomplete protection against α-crystallin modification and NFK accumulation, suggesting that even by wearing UV-blocking sunglasses, routine users of St. John's wort cannot adequately shield their lenses from hypericin-mediated photosensitized damage.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-30

    Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14)C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14)C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14)C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14)C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14)C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14)C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA). Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre-senile degradation, as well as other highly specialised structures of the eyes. The precision with

  17. Evolution of crystallins for a role in the vertebrate eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Slingsby, Christine; Wistow, Graeme J; Clark, Alice R

    2013-01-01

    The camera eye lens of vertebrates is a classic example of the re-engineering of existing protein components to fashion a new device. The bulk of the lens is formed from proteins belonging to two superfamilies, the α-crystallins and the βγ-crystallins. Tracing their ancestry may throw light on the origin of the optics of the lens. The α-crystallins belong to the ubiquitous small heat shock proteins family that plays a protective role in cellular homeostasis. They form enormous polydisperse oligomers that challenge modern biophysical methods to uncover the molecular basis of their assembly structure and chaperone-like protein binding function. It is argued that a molecular phenotype of a dynamic assembly suits a chaperone function as well as a structural role in the eye lens where the constraint of preventing protein condensation is paramount. The main cellular partners of α-crystallins, the β- and γ-crystallins, have largely been lost from the animal kingdom but the superfamily is hugely expanded in the vertebrate eye lens. Their structures show how a simple Greek key motif can evolve rapidly to form a complex array of monomers and oligomers. Apart from remaining transparent, a major role of the partnership of α-crystallins with β- and γ-crystallins in the lens is to form a refractive index gradient. Here, we show some of the structural and genetic features of these two protein superfamilies that enable the rapid creation of different assembly states, to match the rapidly changing optical needs among the various vertebrates. PMID:23389822

  18. Crosslinking and photoreaction of ozone-oxidized calf-lens alpha-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, E

    1982-03-01

    Direct-photo-oxidation, singlet oxygen-oxidation, or photosensitized oxidation can modify lens crystallins, causing an increase in blue fluorescence and covalent crosslinking. A relationship between these changes has not been elucidated. We now report results from experiments with ozone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with zone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with ozone, new absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence, which are characteristic of the oxidized product of tryptophan (N-formylkynurenine), appear at 320, 435, and 445 nm, respectively. In addition, in this ozonization of alpha-crystallin, its polypeptides are crosslinked by nondisulfide bonds. Irradiation of ozone-treated alpha-crystallin with near-ultraviolet (365 nm) light increases crosslinking and reduces the 320 nm absorbance with a concomitant appearance of a new absorption at about 420 nm. This photoproduct exhibits an intense fluorescence around 450 nm and a weak phosphorescence at 510 nm, with excitation peaks at 400, 415, and 422 nm. These findings are essentially the same as those observed in photo-oxidized alpha-crystallin, suggesting the involvement of the same tryptophan oxidized product in the modification of the lens protein.

  19. Tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase: one gene encodes both an enzyme and a lens structural protein

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    tau-Crystallin has been a major component of the cellular lenses of species throughout vertebrate evolution, from lamprey to birds. Immunofluorescence analysis of the embryonic turtle lens, using antiserum to lamprey tau-crystallin showed that the protein is expressed throughout embryogenesis and is present at high concentrations in all parts of the lens. Partial peptide sequence for the isolated turtle protein and deduced sequences for several lamprey peptides all revealed a close similarity to the glycolytic enzyme enolase (E.C. 4.2.1.11). A full-sized cDNA for putative duck tau- crystallin was obtained and sequenced, confirming the close relationship with alpha-enolase. Southern blot analysis showed that the duck genome contains a single alpha-enolase gene, while Northern blot analysis showed that the message for tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase is present in embryonic duck lens at 25 times the abundance found in liver. tau-Crystallin possesses enolase activity, but the activity is greatly reduced, probably because of age-related posttranslational modification. It thus appears that a highly conserved, important glycolytic enzyme has been used as a structural component of lens since the start of vertebrate evolution. Apparently the enzyme has not been recruited for its catalytic activity but for some distinct structural property. tau-Crystallin/alpha-enolase is an example of a multifunctional protein playing two very different roles in evolution but encoded by a single gene. PMID:2462567

  20. Combined laser-ray tracing and OCT system for biometry of the crystalline lens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Maceo Heilman, Bianca M.; Yao, Yue; Chang, Yu-Cherng; Gonzalez, Alex; Rowaan, Cornelis; Mohamed, Ashik; Williams, Siobhan; Durkee, Heather A.; Silgado, Juan; Bernal, Andres; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Manns, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    Age-related changes in the crystalline lens shape and refractive index gradient produce changes in dioptric power and high-order aberrations that influence the optics of the whole eye and contribute to a decrease in overall visual quality. Despite their key role, the changes in lens shape and refractive index gradient with age and accommodation and their effects on high-order aberrations are still not well understood. The goal of this project was to develop a combined laser ray tracing (LRT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to measure high-order aberrations, shape and refractive index gradient in non-human primate and human lenses. A miniature motorized lens stretching system was built to enable imaging and aberrometry of the lens during simulated accommodation. A positioning system was also built to enable on- and off-axis OCT imaging and aberrometry for characterization of the peripheral defocus of the lens. We demonstrated the capability of the LRT-OCT system to produce OCT images and aberration measurements of crystalline lens with age and accommodation in vitro. In future work, the information acquired with the LRT-OCT system will be used to develop an accurate age-dependent lens model to predict the role of the lens in the development of refractive error and aberrations of the whole eye.

  1. Involvement of SOX proteins in lens-specific activation of crystallin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kamachi, Y; Sockanathan, S; Liu, Q; Breitman, M; Lovell-Badge, R; Kondoh, H

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of delta 1-crystallin gene activation, which occurs early in lens cell differentiation, and have previously shown that an essential element of the delta 1-crystallin enhancer is bound by a group of nuclear factors, delta EF2, among which delta EF2a is highly enriched in lens cells. In this report we show that the cDNA of delta EF2a codes for the chicken SOX-2 protein (cSOX-2), which is structurally related to the sex-determining factor SRY. Sox-2 is expressed at high levels in the early developing lens in both chicken and mouse embryos. Overexpression of delta EF2a/cSOX-2 increased delta 1-crystallin enhancer activity to a plateau in lens cells, but not in fibroblasts, consistent with the previously drawn conclusion that delta EF2a activates transcription only in concert with another factor present in the lens. This result supports the model that SOX proteins act as architectural components in the activating complex formed on an enhancer, as indicated for another HMG domain protein, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1). We also show that SOX protein binding is essential for lens-specific promoter activity of the mouse gamma F-crystallin gene. This work is the first to show delta- and gamma-crystallin genes as examples of direct regulatory targets of SOX proteins and provides evidence that diversified crystallin genes are regulated, at least partly, by a common mechanism. Images PMID:7628452

  2. Chordate betagamma-crystallins and the evolutionary developmental biology of the vertebrate lens.

    PubMed

    Riyahi, Kumars; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2007-07-01

    Several animal lineages, including the vertebrates, have evolved sophisticated eyes with lenses that refract light to generate an image. The nearest invertebrate relatives of the vertebrates, such as the ascidians (sea squirts) and amphioxus, have only basic light detecting organs, leading to the widely-held view that the vertebrate lens is an innovation that evolved in early vertebrates. From an embryological perspective the lens is different from the rest of the eye, in that the eye is primarily of neural origin while the lens derives from a non-neural ectodermal placode which invaginates into the developing eye. How such an organ could have evolved has attracted much speculation. Recently, however, molecular developmental studies of sea squirts have started to suggest a possible evolutionary origin for the lens. First, studies of the Pax, Six, Eya and other gene families have indicated that sea squirts have areas of non-neural ectoderm homologous to placodes, suggesting an origin for the embryological characteristics of the lens. Second, the evolution and regulation of the betagamma-crystallins has been studied. These form one of the key crystallin gene families responsible for the transparency of the lens, and regulatory conservation between the betagamma-crystallin gene in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis and the vertebrate visual system has been experimentally demonstrated. These data, together with knowledge of the morphological, physiological and gene expression similarities between the C. intestinalis ocellus and vertebrate retina, have led us to propose a hypothesis for the evolution of the vertebrate lens and integrated vertebrate eye via the co-option and combination of ancient gene regulatory networks; one controlling morphogenetic aspects of lens development and one controlling the expression of a gene family responsible for the biophysical properties of the lens, with the components of the retina having evolved from an ancestral photoreceptive organ

  3. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. Methods The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. Results The mean (±SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were −0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Conclusions Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule. PMID:26161985

  4. Birc7: A Late Fiber Gene of the Crystalline Lens

    PubMed Central

    De Maria, Alicia; Bassnett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A distinct subset of genes, so-called “late fiber genes,” is expressed in cells bordering the central, organelle-free zone (OFZ) of the lens. The purpose of this study was to identify additional members of this group. Methods Fiber cells were harvested from various layers of the lens by laser micro-dissection and subjected to microarray, in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis. Results Expression of Livin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family encoded by Birc7, was strongly upregulated in deep cortical fiber cells. The depth-dependent distribution of Livin mRNA was confirmed by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The onset of Livin expression coincided with loss of organelles from primary fiber cells. Livin expression peaked at 1 month but was sustained even in aged lenses. Antibodies raised against mouse Livin labeled multiple bands on immunoblots, reflecting progressive proteolysis of the parent molecule during differentiation. Mice harboring a floxed Birc7 allele were generated and used to conditionally delete Birc7 in lens. Lenses from knockout mice grew normally and retained their transparency, suggesting that Livin does not have an indispensable role in fiber cell differentiation. Conclusions Birc7 is a late fiber gene of the mouse lens. In tumor cells, Livin acts as an antiapoptotic protein, but its function in the lens is enigmatic. Livin is a RING domain protein with putative E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Its expression in cells bordering the OFZ is consistent with a role in organelle degradation, a process in which the ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been implicated previously. PMID:26218911

  5. Pax-6 and lens-specific transcription of the chicken delta 1-crystallin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cvekl, A; Sax, C M; Li, X; McDermott, J B; Piatigorsky, J

    1995-01-01

    The abundance of delta-crystallin in the chicken eye lens provides an advantageous marker for tissue-specific gene expression during cellular differentiation. The lens-specific expression of the delta 1-crystallin gene is governed by an enhancer in the third intron, which binds a positive (delta EF2) and negative (delta EF1) factor in its core region. Here we show by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, and cotransfection experiments with the delta 1-promoter/enhancer fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene that the delta 1-crystallin enhancer has two adjacent functional Pax-6 binding sites. We also demonstrate by DNase I footprinting that the delta EF1 site can bind the transcription factor USF, raising the possibility that USF may cooperate with Pax-6 in activation of the chicken delta 1- and alpha A-crystallin genes. These data, coupled with our recent demonstration that Pax-6 activates the alpha A-crystallin gene, suggest that Pax-6 may have been used extensively throughout evolution to recruit and express crystallin genes in the lens. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:7753864

  6. [Diffusion of fluoroquinolones in the aqueous humor and crystalline lens].

    PubMed

    Lafaix, C; Salvanet, A; Fisch, A; Forestier, F; Montay, G; Meulemans, A

    1987-06-01

    In 53 patients undergoing cataract extraction, the authors measured pefloxacin and ofloxacin penetration in aqueous humour and lens. Cataract removal was performed at varying times after either the end of one-hour infusion of pefloxacin, ofloxacin per os in one time, or pefloxacin per os during 3 days. In the two first schemes, acme concentrations in aqueous humour are 1.45 mg/l for pefloxacin, 1.14 mg/l for ofloxacin. These concentrations reach the MIC90 of most bacteria usually involved in endophthalmia. The steady state concentrations of pefloxacin are between 6 and 7 mg/l during the first 12 h: they reach the MIC of 80% of Streptococci. There is no evidence of accumulation of pefloxacin in lens; lenticular concentrations of ofloxacin are very low and rapidly decrease.

  7. Distortion Correction of OCT Images of the Crystalline Lens: GRIN Approach

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecki, Damian; de Castro, Alberto; Gambra, Enrique; Ortiz, Sergio; Borja, David; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Manns, Fabrice; Marcos, Susana; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To propose a method to correct Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images of posterior surface of the crystalline lens incorporating its gradient index (GRIN) distribution and explore its possibilities for posterior surface shape reconstruction in comparison to existing methods of correction. Methods 2-D images of 9 human lenses were obtained with a time-domain OCT system. The shape of the posterior lens surface was corrected using the proposed iterative correction method. The parameters defining the GRIN distribution used for the correction were taken from a previous publication. The results of correction were evaluated relative to the nominal surface shape (accessible in vitro) and compared to the performance of two other existing methods (simple division, refraction correction: assuming a homogeneous index). Comparisons were made in terms of posterior surface radius, conic constant, root mean square, peak to valley and lens thickness shifts from the nominal data. Results Differences in the retrieved radius and conic constant were not statistically significant across methods. However, GRIN distortion correction with optimal shape GRIN parameters provided more accurate estimates of the posterior lens surface, in terms of RMS and peak values, with errors less than 6μm and 13μm respectively, on average. Thickness was also more accurately estimated with the new method, with a mean discrepancy of 8μm. Conclusions The posterior surface of the crystalline lens and lens thickness can be accurately reconstructed from OCT images, with the accuracy improving with an accurate model of the GRIN distribution. The algorithm can be used to improve quantitative knowledge of the crystalline lens from OCT imaging in vivo. Although the improvements over other methods are modest in 2-D, it is expected that 3-D imaging will fully exploit the potential of the technique. The method will also benefit from increasing experimental data of GRIN distribution in the lens of larger

  8. Alpha-A crystallin: quantitation of C-terminal modification during lens aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is susceptible to age-dependent, posttranslational modification. To quantitate the amount of modification, alpha-A crystallin was purified from total proteins of the aging bovine lens, then digested with lys-C endoproteinase. Reverse phase, high pressure liquid chromatography was used to resolve and quantitate the resulting peptides, to determine the amount of C-terminal peptide relative to peptides from other regions of the protein that have not been reported to undergo modification. The results indicate that relative to alpha-A crystallin from newborn lens, posttranslational modification has occurred in approximately 45-55% of the C-terminal region from mature lens. These results demonstrate extensive modification of the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from the mature lens, indicating that during the aging process, posttranslational modifications in this region may make significant contributions to the aggregated state and/or molecular chaperone properties of the molecule.

  9. Alpha-A crystallin: quantitation of C-terminal modification during lens aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is susceptible to age-dependent, posttranslational modification. To quantitate the amount of modification, alpha-A crystallin was purified from total proteins of the aging bovine lens, then digested with lys-C endoproteinase. Reverse phase, high pressure liquid chromatography was used to resolve and quantitate the resulting peptides, to determine the amount of C-terminal peptide relative to peptides from other regions of the protein that have not been reported to undergo modification. The results indicate that relative to alpha-A crystallin from newborn lens, posttranslational modification has occurred in approximately 45-55% of the C-terminal region from mature lens. These results demonstrate extensive modification of the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from the mature lens, indicating that during the aging process, posttranslational modifications in this region may make significant contributions to the aggregated state and/or molecular chaperone properties of the molecule.

  10. Quantification of the ciliary muscle and crystalline lens interaction during accommodation with synchronous OCT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Marco; de Freitas, Carolina; Williams, Siobhan; Hernandez, Victor M.; Cabot, Florence; Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Alawa, Karam; Chang, Yu-Cherng; Yoo, Sonia H.; Gregori, Giovanni; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Two SD-OCT systems and a dual channel accommodation target were combined and precisely synchronized to simultaneously image the anterior segment and the ciliary muscle during dynamic accommodation. The imaging system simultaneously generates two synchronized OCT image sequences of the anterior segment and ciliary muscle with an imaging speed of 13 frames per second. The system was used to acquire OCT image sequences of a non-presbyopic and a pre-presbyopic subject accommodating in response to step changes in vergence. The image sequences were processed to extract dynamic morphological data from the crystalline lens and the ciliary muscle. The synchronization between the OCT systems allowed the precise correlation of anatomical changes occurring in the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle at identical time points during accommodation. To describe the dynamic interaction between the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle, we introduce accommodation state diagrams that display the relation between anatomical changes occurring in the accommodating crystalline lens and ciliary muscle. PMID:27446660

  11. Suspension and optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gustafsson, Ola S E; Tuminaite, Inga

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the apparatus suspending the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates. Data are presented for Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the actinopterygians Polypteriformes, Polyodontidae (Acipenseriformes), Lepisosteiformes, Amiiformes, and one teleost species, the banded archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix). We also studied the optical properties of the lens in Polypteriformes, Lepisosteiformes, and the archerfish. Together with previously published results, our findings show that there are three basic types of lens suspension in vertebrates. These are i) a rotationally symmetric suspension (Petromyzontida, lampreys; Ceratodontiformes, lungfishes; Tetrapoda), ii) a suspension with a dorso-ventral axis of symmetry and a ventral papilla (all Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes), and iii) an asymmetric suspension with a ventral muscle and a varying number of ligaments (all Actinopterygii except for Acipenseriformes). Large eyes with presumably high spatial resolution have evolved in all groups. Multifocal lenses creating well-focused color images are also present in all groups studied. Stable and exact positioning of the lens, in many cases in combination with accommodative changes in lens position or shape, is achieved by all three types of lens suspension. It is somewhat surprising that lens suspensions are strikingly similar in Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes (Actinopterygii), while the suspension apparatus in Polypteriformes, usually being regarded as an actinopterygian group more basal than Acipenseriformes, are considerably more teleostean-like. This study completes a series of investigations on lens suspensions in nontetrapod vertebrates, covering all major groups except for the rare and highly derived coelacanths. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging of crystalline lens dimensions in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, Rebecca J.; Prashar, Ankush; Singh, Krish D.; Tokarczuk, Pawel F.; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Hocking, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A reduction in the power of the crystalline lens during childhood is thought to be important in the emmetropization of the maturing eye. However, in humans and model organisms, little is known about the factors that determine the dimensions of the crystalline lens and in particular whether these different parameters (axial thickness, surface curvatures, equatorial diameter, and volume) are under a common source of control or regulated independently of other aspects of eye size and shape. Methods Using chickens from a broiler-layer experimental cross as a model system, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained at 115-µm isotropic resolution for one eye of 501 individuals aged 3-weeks old. After fixation with paraformaldehyde, the excised eyes were scanned overnight (16 h) in groups of 16 arranged in a 2×2×4 array. Lens dimensions were calculated from each image by fitting a three-dimensional mesh model to the lens, using the semi-automated analysis program mri3dX. The lens dimensions were compared to measures of eye and body size obtained in vivo using techniques that included keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography. Results A striking finding was that axial lens thickness measured using ex vivo MRI was only weakly correlated with lens thickness measured in vivo by ultrasonography (r=0.19, p<0.001). In addition, the MRI lens thickness estimates had a lower mean value and much higher variance. Indeed, about one-third of crystalline lenses showed a kidney-shaped appearance instead of the typical biconvex shape. Since repeat MRI scans of the same eye showed a high degree of reproducibility for the scanning and mri3dX analysis steps (the correlation in repeat lens thickness measurements was r=0.95, p<0.001) and a recent report has shown that paraformaldehyde fixation induces a loss of water from the human crystalline lens, it is likely that the tissue fixation step caused a variable degree of shrinkage and a change in shape to the

  13. Refractive index measurement of the mouse crystalline lens using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Ranjay; Lacy, Kip D.; Tan, Christopher C.; Park, Han na; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest for using mouse models in refractive development and myopia research. The crystalline lens is a critical optical component of the mouse eye that occupies greater than 50% of the ocular space, and significant increases in thickness with age. However, changes in refractive index of the mouse crystalline lens are less known. In this study, we examined the changes in thickness and refractive index of the mouse crystalline lens for two different strains, wild-type (WT) and a nyx mutant (nob) over the course of normal visual development or after form deprivation. Refractive index and lens thickness measurements were made on ex vivo lens using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Comparison of refractive index measurements on 5 standard ball lenses using the SD-OCT and their known refractive indices (manufacturer provided) indicated good precision (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.998 and Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability, 0.116) of the SD-OCT to calculate mouse lens refractive index ex vivo. During normal visual development, lens thickness increased significantly with age for three different cohorts of mice, aged 4 (average thickness from both eyes; WT: 1.78 ± 0.03, nob: 1.79 ± 0.08 mm), 10 (WT: 2.02 ± 0.05, nob: 2.01 ± 0.04 mm) and 16 weeks (WT: 2.12 ± 0.06, nob: 2.09 ± 0.06 mm, p<0.001). Lens thickness was not significantly different between the two strains at any age (p=0.557). For mice with normal vision, refractive index for isolated crystalline lenses in nob mice was significantly greater than WT mice (mean for all ages; WT: 1.42 ± 0.01, nob: 1.44 ± 0.001, p<0.001). After 4 weeks of form deprivation to the right eye using a skull-mounted goggling apparatus, a thinning of the crystalline lens was observed in both right and left eyes of goggled animals compared to their naïve controls (average from both the right and the left eye) for both strains (p=0.052). In form deprived

  14. Changes in Monkey Crystalline Lens Spherical Aberration During Simulated Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; de Castro, Alberto; Durkee, Heather; Arrieta, Esdras; Marcos, Susana; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify accommodation-induced changes in the spherical aberration of cynomolgus monkey lenses. Methods. Twenty-four lenses from 20 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 4.4–16.0 years of age; postmortem time 13.5 ± 13.0 hours) were mounted in a lens stretcher. Lens spherical aberration was measured in the unstretched (accommodated) and stretched (relaxed) states with a laser ray tracing system that delivered 51 equally spaced parallel rays along 1 meridian of the lens over the central 6-mm optical zone. A camera mounted below the lens was used to measure the ray height at multiple positions along the optical axis. For each entrance ray, the change in ray height with axial position was fitted with a third-order polynomial. The effective paraxial focal length and Zernike spherical aberration coefficients corresponding to a 6-mm pupil diameter were extracted from the fitted values. Results. The unstretched lens power decreased with age from 59.3 ± 4.0 diopters (D) for young lenses to 45.7 ± 3.1 D for older lenses. The unstretched lens shifted toward less negative spherical aberration with age, from −6.3 ± 0.7 μm for young lenses to −5.0 ± 0.5 μm for older lenses. The power and spherical aberration of lenses in the stretched state were independent of age, with values of 33.5 ± 3.4 D and −2.6 ± 0.5 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Spherical aberration is negative in cynomolgus monkey lenses and becomes more negative with accommodation. These results are in good agreement with the predicted values using computational ray tracing in a lens model with a reconstructed gradient refractive index. The spherical aberration of the unstretched lens becomes less negative with age. PMID:25670492

  15. Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E (IVa) lens crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Kilby, G. W.; Sheil, M. M.; Shaw, D.; Harding, J. J.; Truscott, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    When electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS) was used to analyze purified bovine gamma E (gamma IVa)-crystallin, it yielded a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 20.955 +/- 5. This mass is significantly different from that calculated from the published sequence (M(r) 20.894) (White HE et al., 1989, J Mol Biol 207:217-235). Further, ES-MS analysis of the protein after it had been reduced and carboxymethylated indicated the presence of five cysteine residues, whereas the published sequence contains six (Kilby GW et al., 1995, Eur Mass Spectrom 1:203-208). The entire protein sequence of gamma E crystallin has therefore been studied via a combination of ES-MS, ES-MS/MS, and Edman amino acid sequencing. The corrected sequence gives an M(r) of 20.955.3, which matches that obtained by ES-MS analysis of the purified native protein. The corrected sequence is also in agreement with a recent cDNA sequence obtained for a bovine gamma-crystallin by R. Hay (pers. comm.). PMID:9098901

  16. Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E (IVa) lens crystallin.

    PubMed

    Kilby, G W; Sheil, M M; Shaw, D; Harding, J J; Truscott, R J

    1997-04-01

    When electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS) was used to analyze purified bovine gamma E (gamma IVa)-crystallin, it yielded a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 20.955 +/- 5. This mass is significantly different from that calculated from the published sequence (M(r) 20.894) (White HE et al., 1989, J Mol Biol 207:217-235). Further, ES-MS analysis of the protein after it had been reduced and carboxymethylated indicated the presence of five cysteine residues, whereas the published sequence contains six (Kilby GW et al., 1995, Eur Mass Spectrom 1:203-208). The entire protein sequence of gamma E crystallin has therefore been studied via a combination of ES-MS, ES-MS/MS, and Edman amino acid sequencing. The corrected sequence gives an M(r) of 20.955.3, which matches that obtained by ES-MS analysis of the purified native protein. The corrected sequence is also in agreement with a recent cDNA sequence obtained for a bovine gamma-crystallin by R. Hay (pers. comm.).

  17. Deamidation alters the structure and decreases the stability of human lens betaA3-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takumi; Oxford, Julie T; Brandon, Theodore R; Lampi, Kirsten J

    2007-07-31

    According to the World Health Organization, cataracts account for half of the blindness in the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye due to light scattering of precipitated lens proteins or aberrant cellular debris. The major proteins in the lens are crystallins, and they are extensively deamidated during aging and cataracts. Deamidation has been detected at the domain and monomer interfaces of several crystallins during aging. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two potential deamidation sites at the predicted interface of the betaA3-crystallin dimer on its structure and stability. The glutamine residues at the reported in vivo deamidation sites of Q180 in the C-terminal domain and at the homologous site Q85 in the N-terminal domain were substituted with glutamic acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis. Far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that there were subtle differences in the secondary structure and more notable differences in the tertiary structure of the mutant proteins compared to that of the wild type betaA3-crystallin. The Q85E/Q180E mutant also was more susceptible to enzymatic digestion, suggesting increased solvent accessibility. These structural changes in the deamidated mutants led to decreased stability during unfolding in urea and increased precipitation during heat denaturation. When simulating deamidation at both residues, there was a further decrease in stability and loss of cooperativity. However, multiangle-light scattering and quasi-elastic light scattering experiments showed that dimer formation was not disrupted, nor did higher-order oligomers form. These results suggest that introducing charges at the predicted domain interface in the betaA3 homodimer may contribute to the insolubilization of lens crystallins or favor other, more stable, crystallin subunit interactions.

  18. The impact of intraocular pressure on elastic wave velocity estimates in the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Suhyun; Yoon, Heechul; Larin, Kirill V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.

    2017-02-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is believed to influence the mechanical properties of ocular tissues including cornea and sclera. The elastic properties of the crystalline lens have been mainly investigated with regard to presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation power of the eye. However, the relationship between the elastic properties of the lens and IOP remains to be established. The objective of this study is to measure the elastic wave velocity, which represents the mechanical properties of tissue, in the crystalline lens ex vivo in response to changes in IOP. The elastic wave velocities in the cornea and lens from seven enucleated bovine globe samples were estimated using ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging. To generate and then image the elastic wave propagation, an ultrasound imaging system was used to transmit a 600 µs pushing pulse at 4.5 MHz center frequency and to acquire ultrasound tracking frames at 6 kHz frame rate. The pushing beams were separately applied to the cornea and lens. IOP in the eyeballs was varied from 5 to 50 mmHg. The results indicate that while the elastic wave velocity in the cornea increased from 0.96  ±  0.30 m s-1 to 6.27  ±  0.75 m s-1 as IOP was elevated from 5 to 50 mmHg, there were insignificant changes in the elastic wave velocity in the crystalline lens with the minimum and the maximum speeds of 1.44  ±  0.27 m s-1 and 2.03  ±  0.46 m s-1, respectively. This study shows that ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging can be used to assess the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens noninvasively. Also, it was observed that the dependency of the crystalline lens stiffness on the IOP was significantly lower in comparison with that of cornea.

  19. The impact of intraocular pressure on elastic wave velocity estimates in the crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyun; Yoon, Heechul; Larin, Kirill V; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Aglyamov, Salavat R

    2016-12-20

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is believed to influence the mechanical properties of ocular tissues including cornea and sclera. The elastic properties of the crystalline lens have been mainly investigated with regard to presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation power of the eye. However, the relationship between the elastic properties of the lens and IOP remains to be established. The objective of this study is to measure the elastic wave velocity, which represents the mechanical properties of tissue, in the crystalline lens ex vivo in response to changes in IOP. The elastic wave velocities in the cornea and lens from seven enucleated bovine globe samples were estimated using ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging. To generate and then image the elastic wave propagation, an ultrasound imaging system was used to transmit a 600 µs pushing pulse at 4.5 MHz center frequency and to acquire ultrasound tracking frames at 6 kHz frame rate. The pushing beams were separately applied to the cornea and lens. IOP in the eyeballs was varied from 5 to 50 mmHg. The results indicate that while the elastic wave velocity in the cornea increased from 0.96  ±  0.30 m s(-1) to 6.27  ±  0.75 m s(-1) as IOP was elevated from 5 to 50 mmHg, there were insignificant changes in the elastic wave velocity in the crystalline lens with the minimum and the maximum speeds of 1.44  ±  0.27 m s(-1) and 2.03  ±  0.46 m s(-1), respectively. This study shows that ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging can be used to assess the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens noninvasively. Also, it was observed that the dependency of the crystalline lens stiffness on the IOP was significantly lower in comparison with that of cornea.

  20. A medieval fallacy: the crystalline lens in the center of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Hadi, Tamer M; Udupa, Akrithi; Schwartz, Stephen G; Schwartz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether, as most modern historians have written, ancient Greco-Roman authors believed the crystalline lens is positioned in the center of the eye. Background Historians have written that statements about cataract couching by Celsus, or perhaps Galen of Pergamon, suggested a centrally located lens. Celsus specifically wrote that a couching needle placed intermediate between the corneal limbus and the lateral canthus enters an empty space, presumed to represent the posterior chamber. Methods Ancient ophthalmic literature was analyzed to understand where these authors believed the crystalline lens was positioned. In order to estimate where Celsus proposed entering the eye during couching, we prospectively measured the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus in 30 healthy adults. Results Rufus of Ephesus and Galen wrote that the lens is anterior enough to contact the iris. Galen wrote that the lens equator joins other ocular structures at the corneoscleral junction. In 30 subjects, half the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus was a mean of 4.5 mm (range: 3.3–5.3 mm). Descriptions of couching by Celsus and others are consistent with pars plana entry of the couching needle. Anterior angulation of the needle would permit contact of the needle with the lens. Conclusion Ancient descriptions of anatomy and couching do not establish the microanatomic relationships of the ciliary region with any modern degree of accuracy. Nonetheless, ancient authors, such as Galen and Rufus, clearly understood that the lens is located anteriorly. There is little reason to believe that Celsus or other ancient authors held a variant understanding of the anatomy of a healthy eye. The notion of the central location of the lens seems to have arisen with Arabic authors in 9th century Mesopotamia, and lasted for over 7 centuries. PMID:27114699

  1. A medieval fallacy: the crystalline lens in the center of the eye.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Hadi, Tamer M; Udupa, Akrithi; Schwartz, Stephen G; Schwartz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether, as most modern historians have written, ancient Greco-Roman authors believed the crystalline lens is positioned in the center of the eye. Historians have written that statements about cataract couching by Celsus, or perhaps Galen of Pergamon, suggested a centrally located lens. Celsus specifically wrote that a couching needle placed intermediate between the corneal limbus and the lateral canthus enters an empty space, presumed to represent the posterior chamber. Ancient ophthalmic literature was analyzed to understand where these authors believed the crystalline lens was positioned. In order to estimate where Celsus proposed entering the eye during couching, we prospectively measured the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus in 30 healthy adults. Rufus of Ephesus and Galen wrote that the lens is anterior enough to contact the iris. Galen wrote that the lens equator joins other ocular structures at the corneoscleral junction. In 30 subjects, half the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus was a mean of 4.5 mm (range: 3.3-5.3 mm). Descriptions of couching by Celsus and others are consistent with pars plana entry of the couching needle. Anterior angulation of the needle would permit contact of the needle with the lens. Ancient descriptions of anatomy and couching do not establish the microanatomic relationships of the ciliary region with any modern degree of accuracy. Nonetheless, ancient authors, such as Galen and Rufus, clearly understood that the lens is located anteriorly. There is little reason to believe that Celsus or other ancient authors held a variant understanding of the anatomy of a healthy eye. The notion of the central location of the lens seems to have arisen with Arabic authors in 9th century Mesopotamia, and lasted for over 7 centuries.

  2. The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Alpha crystallin was prepared from newborn and aged bovine lenses. SDS-PAGE and tryptic peptide mapping demonstrated that both preparations contained only the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, with no significant contamination of other crystallins. Compared with alpha crystallin from the aged lens, alpha crystallin from the newborn lens was much more effective in the inhibition of beta L crystallin denaturation and precipitation induced in vitro by heat. Together, these results demonstrate that during the aging process, the alpha crystallins lose their ability to protect against protein denaturation, consistent with the hypothesis that the alpha crystallins play an important role in the maintenance of protein native structure in the intact lens.

  3. The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Alpha crystallin was prepared from newborn and aged bovine lenses. SDS-PAGE and tryptic peptide mapping demonstrated that both preparations contained only the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, with no significant contamination of other crystallins. Compared with alpha crystallin from the aged lens, alpha crystallin from the newborn lens was much more effective in the inhibition of beta L crystallin denaturation and precipitation induced in vitro by heat. Together, these results demonstrate that during the aging process, the alpha crystallins lose their ability to protect against protein denaturation, consistent with the hypothesis that the alpha crystallins play an important role in the maintenance of protein native structure in the intact lens.

  4. The nuclear envelope in the crystalline lens fiber cell.

    PubMed

    Harding, C V; Susan, S R

    1976-05-01

    Rabbit lenses which have been fixed, dehydrated, and dried by a critical-point drying method, can be fractured through the cytoplasm of the differentiating lens fibers, exposing the cell nuclei. The fracture, under these conditions, causes a complete separation of the two membranes of the nuclear envelope from one another, thus exposing entire membrane surfaces (those which line the perinuclear space). These surfaces are not seen in their entirety in typical freeze-fracture or freeze-etch preparations, and consequently have not been described previously. The exposed membrane surfaces which line the perinuclear space have numerous convex structures of approximately 1,000 A, and some larger more irregularly shaped structures. These appear to be fragments of the nuclear pore complexes. Differences in these structures between young fibers and those nearing completion of differentiation is suggested.

  5. Impact of Subunit Composition on the Uptake of α-Crystallin by Lens and Retina.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Niklaus H; Fogueri, Uma; Pedler, Michelle G; Montana, Kameron; Petrash, J Mark; Ammar, David A

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded protein aggregation, including cataract, cause a significant amount of blindness worldwide. α-Crystallin is reported to bind misfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation. We hypothesize that supplementing retina and lens with α-crystallin may help to delay disease onset. The purpose of this study was to determine if αB-crystallin subunits containing a cell penetration peptide (gC-tagged αB-crystallin) facilitate the uptake of wild type αA-crystallin (WT-αA) in lens and retina. Recombinant human αB-crystallin was modified by the addition of a novel cell penetration peptide derived from the gC gene product of herpes simplex virus (gC-αB). Recombinant gC-αB and wild-type αA-crystallin (WT-αA) were purified from E. coli over-expression cultures. After Alexa-labeling of WT-αA, these proteins were mixed at ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10, respectively, and incubated at 37°C for 4 hours to allow for subunit exchange. Mixed oligomers were subsequently incubated with tissue culture cells or mouse organ cultures. Similarly, crystallin mixtures were injected into the vitreous of rat eyes. At various times after exposure, tissues were harvested and analyzed for protein uptake by confocal microscopy or flow cytometry. Chaperone-like activity assays were performed on α-crystallins ratios showing optimal uptake using chemically-induced or heat induced substrate aggregation assays. As determined by flow cytometry, a ratio of 1:5 for gC-αB to WT-αA was found to be optimal for uptake into retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Chaperone-like activity assays demonstrated that hetero-oligomeric complex of gC-αB to WT-αA (in 1:5 ratio) retained protein aggregation protection. We observed a significant increase in protein uptake when optimized (gC-αB to WT-αA (1:5 ratio)) hetero-oligomers were used in mouse lens and retinal organ cultures. Increased levels of α-crystallin were found in lens and retina following intravitreal injection of homo- and

  6. Conservation of mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter activity in chicken lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D M; Sax, C M; Klement, J F; Li, X; Chepelinsky, A B; Piatigorsky, J

    1992-10-01

    Previous transfection experiments have shown that 162 base pairs (bp) of the 5' flanking sequence of the chicken alpha A-crystallin gene are required for promoter activity in primary chicken lens epithelial cells (PLE), while only 111 bp of the 5' flanking sequence are needed for activity of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter in transfected chicken PLE cells or in a SV40 T-antigen-transformed transfected mouse lens epithelial cell line (alpha TN4-1). The effect of site-directed mutations covering positions -111 to -34 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was compared in transfected chicken PLE cells and mouse alpha TN4-1 cells; selected mutations were also examined in a nontransformed rabbit lens epithelial cell line (N/N1003A). In general, the same mutations reduced promoter activity in the transfected lens cells from all three species, although differences were noted. The mutations severely affected regions -111/-106 and -69/-40 regions in all the transfected cells examined; by contrast, mutations at positions -105/-99 and -87/-70 had a somewhat greater effect in the chicken PLE than the mouse alpha TN4-1 cells, while mutations of the -93/-88 sequence reduced expression in the alpha TN4-1 but not the PLE cells. A partial cDNA with sequence similarity to alpha A-CRYPB1 of the mouse has been isolated from a chicken lens library; mouse alpha A-CRYBP1 is a putative transcription factor which binds to the -66/-55 sequence of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Predicting crystalline lens fall caused by accommodation from changes in wavefront error

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To illustrate and develop a method for estimating crystalline lens decentration as a function of accommodative response using changes in wavefront error and show the method and limitations using previously published data (2004) from 2 iridectomized monkey eyes so that clinicians understand how spherical aberration can induce coma, in particular in intraocular lens surgery. SETTINGS College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. METHODS Lens decentration was estimated by displacing downward the wavefront error of the lens with respect to the limiting aperture (7.0 mm) and ocular first surface wavefront error for each accommodative response (0.00 to 11.00 diopters) until measured values of vertical coma matched previously published experimental data (2007). Lens decentration was also calculated using an approximation formula that only included spherical aberration and vertical coma. RESULTS The change in calculated vertical coma was consistent with downward lens decentration. Calculated downward lens decentration peaked at approximately 0.48 mm of vertical decentration in the right eye and approximately 0.31 mm of decentration in the left eye using all Zernike modes through the 7th radial order. Calculated lens decentration using only coma and spherical aberration formulas was peaked at approximately 0.45 mm in the right eye and approximately 0.23 mm in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS Lens fall as a function of accommodation was quantified noninvasively using changes in vertical coma driven principally by the accommodation-induced changes in spherical aberration. The newly developed method was valid for a large pupil only. PMID:21700108

  8. Age-dependent Fourier model of the shape of the isolated ex vivo human crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Raksha; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop an age-dependent mathematical model of the zero-order shape of the isolated ex vivo human crystalline lens, using one mathematical function, that can be subsequently used to facilitate the development of other models for specific purposes such as optical modeling and analytical and numerical modeling of the lens. Methods Profiles of whole isolated human lenses (n=30) aged 20 to 69, were measured from shadow-photogrammetric images. The profiles were fit to a 10th-order Fourier series consisting of cosine functions in polar-coordinate system that included terms for tilt and decentration. The profiles were corrected using these terms and processed in two ways. In the first, each lens was fit to a 10th-order Fourier series to obtain thickness and diameter, while in the second, all lenses were simultaneously fit to a Fourier series equation that explicitly include linear terms for age to develop an age-dependent mathematical model for the whole lens shape. Results Thickness and diameter obtained from Fourier series fits exhibited high correlation with manual measurements made from shadow-photogrammetric images. The root-mean-squared-error of the age-dependent fit was 205 μm. The age-dependent equations provide a reliable lens model for ages 20 to 60 years. Conclusion The contour of the whole human crystalline lens can be modeled with a Fourier series. Shape obtained from the age-dependent model described in this paper can be used to facilitate the development of other models for specific purposes such as optical modeling and analytical and numerical modeling of the lens. PMID:20338192

  9. Sturgeons, sharks, and rays have multifocal crystalline lenses and similar lens suspension apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ola S E; Ekström, Peter; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2012-07-01

    Crystalline lenses with multiple focal lengths in monochromatic light (multifocal lenses) are present in many vertebrate groups. These lenses compensate for chromatic aberration and create well-focused color images. Stabilization of the lens within the eye and the ability to adjust focus are further requirements for vision in high detail. We investigated the occurrence of multifocal lenses by photorefractometry and lens suspension structures by light and electron microscopy in sturgeons (Acipenseriformes, Chondrostei) as well as sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). Multifocal lenses were found in two more major vertebrate groups, the Chondrostei represented by Acipenseriformes and Chondrichthyes represented by Elasmobranchii. The lens suspension structures of sturgeons, sharks, and rays are more complex than described previously. The lens is suspended by many delicate suspensory fibers in association with a ventral papilla in all groups studied. The arrangements of the suspensory fibers are most similar between sturgeons and sharks. In rays, the lens is suspended by a smaller ventral papilla and the suspensory fibers are arranged more concentrically to the lens.

  10. Oxidation of the N-terminal methionine of lens alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum against the N-terminal peptide of bovine alpha-A crystallin has been used to monitor purification of two different seropositive peptides (i.e. T1a and T1b) from a tryptic digest of bovine lens proteins. Both these peptides have similar amino acid compositions, but peptide T1b has a molecular weight 16 atomic mass units larger than T1a, suggesting posttranslational modification. Analysis of ionization fragments of the T1b peptide by mass spectrometry demonstrates that this difference in molecular weight is due to the in vivo oxidation of the N-terminal met residue of the alpha-A crystallin molecule.

  11. Effects of the cornea and the crystalline lens on the aberrations of the complete eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2005-12-01

    In order to understand the relative contribution of the wave-front aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens to the retinal image quality in the human eye, we have measured the wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye with a corneal topographic system (Orbscan) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. The 20 subjects selected to participate in the study are all no eye diseases, covering a range of age from 18 to 25. All the subjects have refractive errors of defocus varying from 0.5 D to 5 D and astigmatism varying from 0.1 D to 1.5D. Using the Orbscan, we obtained the discrete set of corneal elevation data in radial distribution over the pupil plane for the anterior and the posterior corneal surfaces directly, and the data are then transformed into wave-front aberrations of both the corneal surfaces. The wave-front aberrations of the two surfaces are then used to acquire the aberrations in whole cornea. The aberration contribution of the crystalline lens is obtained by subtracting the aberrations in the cornea from that in the complete eye. It is shown that the combination of the aberrations between the crystalline lens and the cornea could be either a compensatory or an additive process. The effect of the combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface is also complicated, and the aberration compensation, as well as aberration addition can be observed. It is shown from statistics point of view that the anterior corneal surface contributes more lower-order aberrations (astigmatism) to the complete eye, while the posterior corneal surface and the crystalline lens play a more important role in contributing higher-order aberrations.

  12. Spermidine delays eye lens opacification in vitro by suppressing transglutaminase-catalyzed crystallin cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Alessandro; Tabolacci, Claudio; Mattioli, Palma; Provenzano, Bruno; Beninati, Simone

    2011-02-01

    A Ca(2+)-dependent TG activity, identified in the eye lens of several mammalian species, has long been implicated in cataract formation. The precise mechanism of the involvement of this enzyme in this process remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the modulatory effect of polyamines on TG activity during rabbit eye lens in vitro opacification. We observed, in an in vitro Ca(2+)-induced cataract model, a rapid decrease of the endogenous levels of SPD with the progression of opacification, paralleled by an increase of crystallin cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD. This pattern was reversed adding exogenous SPD to the incubation medium. Indeed, endogenous SPD levels were restored and cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD were drastically reduced. Surprisingly, under this experimental condition, the loss of transparency of lens was delayed. We found that exogenous SPD incubation led to a remarkable increase of mono(γ-glutamyl)SPD, likely responsible of the inhibition of cross-linking of lens crystallins and of the transparency persistence.

  13. Molecular basis for the polymerization of octopus lens S-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H C; Lin, T L; Chang, G G

    2000-01-01

    S-Crystallin from octopus lens has a tertiary structure similar to sigma-class glutathione transferase (GST). However, after isolation from the lenses, S-crystallin was found to aggregate more easily than sigma-GST. In vitro experiments showed that the lens S-crystallin can be polymerized and finally denatured at increasing concentration of urea or guanidinium chloride (GdmCl). In the intermediate concentrations of urea or GdmCl, the polymerized form of S-crystallin is aggregated, as manifested by the increase in light scattering and precipitation of the protein. There is a delay time for the initiation of polymerization. Both the delay time and rate of polymerization depend on the protein concentration. The native protein showed a maximum fluorescence emission spectrum at 341 nm. The GdmCl-denatured protein exhibited two fluorescence maxima at 310 nm and 358 nm, respectively, whereas the urea-denatured protein showed a fluorescence peak at 358 nm with a small peak at 310 nm. The fluorescence intensity was quenched. Monomers, dimers, trimers, and polymers of the native protein were observed by negative-stain electron microscopic analysis. The aggregated form, however, showed irregular structure. The aggregate was solubilized in high concentrations of urea or GdmCl. The redissolved denatured protein showed an identical fluorescence spectrum to the protein solution that was directly denatured with high concentrations of urea or GdmCl. The denatured protein was readily refolded to its native state by diluting with buffer solution. The fluorescence spectrum of the renatured protein solution was similar to that of the native form. The phase diagrams for the S-crystallin in urea and GdmCl were constructed. Both salt concentration and pH value of the solution affect the polymerization rate, suggesting the participation of ionic interactions in the polymerization. Comparison of the molecular models of the S-crystallin and sigma-GST suggests that an extra ion-pair between

  14. Assessing the changes in the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens induced by cold cataract with air-pulse OCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Singh, M.; Liu, C.-H.; Han, Z.; Li, J.; Raghunathan, R.; Larin, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A cataract is the increase in opacity of the crystalline lens that can pathologically degrade visual acuity. In this study, we utilized a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to study the effects of a cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of the porcine crystalline lens in vitro. The cold cataract was induced by placing the whole lens in a low temperature environment until the lens was obviously clouded. Air-pulse OCE measurements were conducted on 6 lenses before and after cold cataract induction. A low amplitude displacement (≤ 10 µm) was induced by a focused air-pulse and the temporal deformation profiles from the surface and within the lenses were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the stiffness of the porcine lens increased after induction of the cold cataract, and it demonstrated the feasibility of OCE to assess the biomechanical changes in the lens due to cataract.

  15. Regulatory effect of Bcl-2 in ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis of the mouse crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YUCHEN; ZHENG, YAJUAN; XIAO, JUN; ZHU, CHAO; ZHAO, MEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of Bcl-2 during the process of apoptosis in the mouse crystalline lens. In total, 12 normal mice served as the control group and 12 Bcl-2 knockout (K.O) mice served as the experimental group. The mouse crystalline lens was sampled for the detection of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine Bcl-2 expression in the groups of normal mice receiving UV radiation or not receiving UV radiation. Samples of the murine crystalline lens were microscopically harvested and analyzed using western blotting. Apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Furthermore, caspase 3 activity was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and RT-qPCR was used to analyze caspase-3 expression levels. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in the level of Bcl-2 gene transcription between the two groups. In addition, UV radiation did not change the macrostructure of the crystalline lens in the group of normal mice or the group of Bcl-2 K.O mice. The results of the TUNEL assay indicated that the normal-UV group exhibited a more significant apoptosis level compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 in the normal-UV group was significantly higher compared with the normal-nonUV group (P<0.05), while the levels in the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group were significantly higher compared with the Bcl-2 K.O and normal-nonUV groups (P<0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 was significantly higher in the normal-UV, as compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group (P<0.05), and the variation trends in caspase-3 activity were consistent. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Bcl-2 may have an important role in the

  16. Docking studies of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Damnacanthal and Scopoletin with human lens gamma D-crystalline

    PubMed Central

    Rentala, Satyanarayana; Konada, Sudhakar; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Upadhyayula, Suryanarayana Murthy; Dhurjeti, Sarva Mangala

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C, Vitamin E, scopoletin and damnacanthal are the major constituents of Noni (Morinda citrifolia). These compounds are known to have good medicinal properties and they are known to act as antioxidants. Loss of vision in elderly is due to opaqueness of the lens proteins such as gamma-D-crystallin during oxidative stress conditions. Therefore, it is of importance to find the potential interaction of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Scopoletin and Damnacanthal with the lens protein gamma-D-crystallin. Hence, their physical binding to gamma-D crystallin (PDB ID: 2G98) was evaluated using molecular and structural docking procedures. Results show the potential binding of all the above anti-oxidants to gamma-D-crystalline with equal affinity. Thus, the role of cumulative anti-oxidant effect in Noni fruit juice through their potential yet predicted interaction with the lens protein gamma-D-crystallin is implied for cataract treatment. PMID:23976828

  17. Spectral and thermal properties of novel eye lens ζ-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Albogami, Shurog; Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M; Aldbass, Abeer M; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Khan, Shams Tabrez

    2017-09-01

    Eye lenses are exposed to thermal, solar radiations, dryness that enhances cataractogenesis. Some animal lenses contain novel proteins in bulk quantities. ζ-crystallin occurred in three ecologically divergent species, but it's physiological role not known. The truncated variant of ζ-crystallin causes hereditary cataract. Guinea pig ζ-crystallin is temperature-sensitive and rapidly aggregates at 41°C. Camels adopted to survive above 50°C, which raises an interesting question about how it retains lens proteins in the soluble state? Here, we have optimized expression and purification of recombinant camel ζ-crystallin. We have studied thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties using orthogonal techniques. Dynamic multimode spectroscopy results showed that camel ζ-crystallin unfolds via single transition with Tm value of 60.8±0.1°C and van't Hoff enthalpy of 714.7±7.1kJ/mol. Thermal-shift assay calculates Tm value of 62°C at pH 7. Additionally, the conformational stability of ζ-crystallin increases with ionic-strength. The influence of pH on ζ-crystallin was evaluated where the protein was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-9, but its stability drastically decreases below pH 6. Our results also showed that quaternary structure of ζ-crystallin drastically changed as a result of lowering pH. This study provides significant understandings onto the conformational, thermodynamic and unfolding pathway of camel ζ-crystallin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomechanical properties of crystalline lens as a function of intraocular pressure assessed noninvasively by optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Liu, Chih-Hao; Han, Zhaolong; Singh, Manmohan; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Many ocular diseases such as glaucoma and uveitis can lead to the elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Previous research implies a link between elevated IOP and lens disease. However, the relationship between IOP elevation and biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens has not been directly studied yet. In this work, we investigated the biomechanical properties of porcine lens as a function of IOP by acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography.

  19. Spontaneous dislocation of a crystalline lens to the anterior chamber with pupillary block glaucoma in Noonan Syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyaya, Udayaditya; Chakraborti, Chandana; Mondal, Anindita; Pattyanayak, Ujjal; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Partha

    2014-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old child with Noonan Syndrome who developed spontaneous dislocation of the crystalline lens in anterior chamber leading to pupillary block glaucoma in the left eye and subluxation of lens in right eye. Intracapsular extraction of the dislocated lens was done in the left eye. Prompt diagnosis and management is needed in such cases to avoid glaucoma and corneal endothelial cell damage. We could not find any such case after thorough Medline search. PMID:25374640

  20. Role of αA-crystallin-derived αA66-80 peptide in guinea pig lens crystallin aggregation and insolubilization

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Murugesan; Mooney, Brian P.; Thakkar, Kavi M.; Giblin, Frank J.; Schey, Kevin L.; Sharma, K. Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we reported that low molecular weight (LMW) peptides accumulate in aging human lens tissue and that among the LMW peptides, the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80, derived from α-crystallin protein, is one of the predominant peptides. We showed that in vitro αA66-80 induces protein aggregation. The current study was undertaken to determine whether LMW peptides are also present in guinea pig lens tissue subjected to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in vivo. The nuclear opacity induced by HBO in guinea pig lens is the closest animal model for studying age-related cataract formation in humans. A LMW peptide profile by mass spectrometry showed the presence of an increased amount of LMW peptides in HBO-treated guinea pig lenses compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, the mass spectrometric data also showed that the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 accumulates in HBO-treated guinea pig lens. Following incubation of synthetic chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 with α-crystallin from guinea pig lens extracts, we observed a decreased ability of α-crystallin to inhibit the amorphous aggregation of the target protein alcohol dehydrogenase and the formation of large light scattering aggregates, similar to those we have observed with human α-crystallin and αA66-80 peptide. Further, time-lapse recordings showed that a preformed complex of α-crystallin and αA66-80 attracted additional crystallin molecules to form even larger aggregates. These results demonstrate that LMW peptide–mediated cataract development in aged human lens and in HBO-induced lens opacity in the guinea pig may have common molecular pathways. PMID:25639202

  1. Chemical mechanism of the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck lens delta2-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C Y; Lee, H J; Wu, S H; Chen, S T; Chiou, S H; Chang, G G

    1998-01-01

    The endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck delta2-crystallin was specifically inactivated by the histidine-specific reagent, diethyl pyrocarbonate. The protein was protected by l-citrulline or l-arginine from the diethyl pyrocarbonate inactivation. To characterize further the chemical mechanism of the delta2-crystallin-catalysed reaction, deuterium-labelled argininosuccinate was enzymically synthesized from fumarate and l-arginine with delta2-crystallin in 2H2O. The argininosuccinate synthesized contained about 19% of the anhydride form; however, the deuterium was clearly demonstrated to be incorporated enantioselectively. Only the pro-HR atom at C-9 of the succinate moiety was labelled in the [2H]argininosuccinate-9-d synthesized, which indicates an anti-elimination mechanism for the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of delta2-crystallin. The enzymic activity of duck lens delta2-crystallin in the pH range 5.5-8.5 was investigated using both protium- and deuterium-labelled argininosuccinate as the substrate. From the logkcat versus pH plot, two molecular pKa values of 6.18+/-0.02 and 8.75+/-0.03 were detected in the delta2-crystallin-argininosuccinate binary complex. The former must be dehydronated and the latter hydronated to achieve an optimum reaction rate. The logkcat/Km versus pH plot suggested two molecular pKa values of 5.96+/-0.09 and 8.29+/-0.10 for the free delta2-crystallin to be involved in the substrate binding. Small kinetic isotope effects of 1.17+/-0.02 and 1.05+/-0.09 were found for kcat and kcat/Km respectively. Combining results from labelling and kinetic analysis indicates that the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck delta2-crystallin is compatible with a stepwise E1cB mechanism, the rate-limiting step probably at the C-N bond-cleavage step. PMID:9657972

  2. The effects of actomyosin disruptors on the mechanical integrity of the avian crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Won, Gah-Jone; Fudge, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Actin and myosin within the crystalline lens maintain the structural integrity of lens fiber cells and form a hexagonal lattice cradling the posterior surface of the lens. The actomyosin network was pharmacologically disrupted to examine the effects on lenticular biomechanics and optical quality. Methods: One lens of 7-day-old White Leghorn chickens was treated with 10 µM of a disruptor and the other with 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle). Actin, myosin, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) disruptors were used. The stiffness and the optical quality of the control and treated lenses were measured. Western blotting and confocal imaging were used to confirm that treatment led to a disruption of the actomyosin network. The times for the lenses to recover stiffness to match the control values were also measured. Results: Disruptor-treated lenses were significantly less stiff than their controls (p≤0.0274 for all disruptors). The disruptors led to changes in the relative protein amounts as well as the distributions of proteins within the lattice. However, the disruptors did not affect the clarity of the lenses (p≥0.4696 for all disruptors), nor did they affect spherical aberration (p = 0.02245). The effects of all three disruptors were reversible, with lenses recovering from treatment with actin, myosin, and MLCK disruptors after 4 h, 1 h, and 8 min, respectively. Conclusions: Cytoskeletal protein disruptors led to a decreased stiffness of the lens, and the effects were reversible. Optical quality was mostly unaffected, but the long-term consequences remain unclear. Our results raise the possibility that the mechanical properties of the avian lens may be actively regulated in vivo via adjustments to the actomyosin lattice. PMID:25684975

  3. Hard sphere-like glass transition in eye lens α-crystallin solutions

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Gabriela; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Thurston, George M.; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the equilibrium liquid structure and dynamics of dilute and concentrated bovine eye lens α-crystallin solutions, using small-angle X-ray scattering, static and dynamic light scattering, viscometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and mode-coupling theory. We find that a polydisperse Percus–Yevick hard-sphere liquid-structure model accurately reproduces both static light scattering data and small-angle X-ray scattering liquid structure data from α-crystallin solutions over an extended range of protein concentrations up to 290 mg/mL or 49% vol fraction and up to ca. 330 mg/mL for static light scattering. The measured dynamic light scattering and viscosity properties are also consistent with those of hard-sphere colloids and show power laws characteristic of an approach toward a glass transition at α-crystallin volume fractions near 58%. Dynamic light scattering at a volume fraction beyond the glass transition indicates formation of an arrested state. We further perform event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of polydisperse hard-sphere systems and use mode-coupling theory to compare the measured dynamic power laws with those of hard-sphere models. The static and dynamic data, simulations, and analysis show that aqueous eye lens α-crystallin solutions exhibit a glass transition at high concentrations that is similar to those found in hard-sphere colloidal systems. The α-crystallin glass transition could have implications for the molecular basis of presbyopia and the kinetics of molecular change during cataractogenesis. PMID:25385638

  4. Refractive Index Measurement of the Isolated Crystalline Lens Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhorn, Stephen R.; Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    An optical coherence tomography system has been developed that was designed specifically for imaging the isolated crystalline lens. Cross-sectional OCT images were recorded on 40 lenses from 32 human donors with an age range of 6 – 82 years. A method has been developed to measure the axial thickness and average refractive index of the lens from a single recorded image. The measured average group refractive index at the measurement wavelength of 825 nm was converted to the average phase refractive index at 589 nm using lens dispersion data from the literature. The average refractive index for all lenses measured was 1.408 ± 0.005 which agrees well with recent MRI measurements of the lens index gradient. A linear regression of the data resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the average refractive index with age, but a simple linear model was insufficient to explain the age dependence. The results presented here suggest that the peak refractive index in the nucleus is closer to 1.420, rather than the previously accepted value of 1.406. PMID:18824191

  5. Validation of OCT-based Crystalline Lens Thickness Measurements in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Bret M.; Berntsen, David A.; Bailey, Melissa D.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity and repeatability of crystalline lens thickness measurements obtained by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Methods Forty-seven normal children (mean age, 11.06 ± 2.30 years) had their crystalline lens thickness measured with the Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and with conventional corneal touch A-scan ultransonography (ultrasound) (Humphrey 820). The subjects’ right corneas were anesthetized, and their right eyes were cyclopleged. Five ultrasound measurements were recorded per eye, and three Visante OCT measurements were recorded per eye. Thirty-eight subjects had measurements at a second visit where three additional Visante OCT measurements were recorded. Results The mean of the differences between the Visante OCT and ultrasound was −0.045 mm (p = 0.017) with 95% limits of agreement from −0.29 to 0.20 mm indicating that the measurement of crystalline lens thickness was slightly thinner with the Visante OCT. When validity was assessed using only Visante OCT images that contained the corneal reflex, the mean of the differences was 0.019 mm (p = 0.11) with 95% limits of agreement from −0.091 to 0.13 mm. For the repeatability of the Visante OCT, the mean of the differences between visit one and visit two was −0.008 mm (p = 0.25) with 95% limits of agreement from −0.088 to 0.072 mm. Repeatability improved when reassessed using only images that contain the corneal reflex; the mean of the differences was −0.0001 mm (p = 0.97) with 95% limits of agreement from −0.030 to 0.030 mm. Conclusion The Visante OCT is a non-contact instrument that is simple to use, and it provides valid crystalline lens thickness measurements with excellent repeatability. Validity and repeatability are optimized when the Visante OCT images contain the corneal reflex and a consistent corneal index refraction is applied to the entire image. PMID:19182701

  6. Unusual domain pairing in a mutant of bovine lens gammaB-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Palme, S; Jaenicke, R; Slingsby, C

    1998-06-26

    beta gamma-Crystallins from the eye lens are proteins consisting of two domains joined by a short linker. All 3D structures solved so far reveal a similar pseudo-2-fold pairing of the domains, reflecting their presumed ancient origin from a single-domain homodimer. Here we report the 2.2 A X-ray structure of the N-terminal domain of gammaB-crystallin, bearing a mutation of a residue involved in domain contacts in the native molecule (Phe56Ala). It forms a crystallographic homodimer, yet the domain orientation is different from native beta gamma-crystallins. It is considered that the new orientation derives from two structural features. (1) The replacement of the bulky phenylalanine 56 by an alanine results in a different optimal hydrophobic packing of interface residues between identical domains. (2) The paired domains have extensions derived from the domain linker, each containing a proline conserved in gamma-crystallins, and the resulting steric constraints preclude a native-like pairing but support the new arrangement. These data highlight the pivotal role of interface residues and sequence extensions in overall domain assembly.

  7. Identification of a lens-specific regulatory region (LSR) of the murine alpha B-crystallin gene.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1994-04-11

    Previous studies have shown that the -661/+44 sequence of the murine alpha B-crystallin gene contains a muscle-preferred enhancer (-426/-257) and can drive the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in the lens, skeletal muscle and heart of transgenic mice. Here we show that transgenic mice carrying a truncated -164/+44 fragment of the alpha B-crystallin gene fused to the CAT gene expressed exclusively in the lens; by contrast mice carrying a -426/+44 fragment of the alpha B gene fused to CAT expressed highly in the lens, skeletal muscle and heart, and slightly in the lung, brain, kidney, spleen and liver. DNase I protection experiments indicated that the -147/-118 sequence is protected by nuclear proteins from alpha TN4-1 lens cell line, but not by nuclear proteins from myotubes of the C2C12 cell line. Site directed mutagenesis of this sequence decreased promoter activity in transiently-transfected lens cells, consistent with this sequence being a lens-specific regulatory region (LSR). We conclude that the -426/-257 enhancer is required for expression in skeletal muscle, heart and possibly other tissues, and that the -164/+44 sequence of the alpha B-crystallin gene is sufficient for expression in the lens of transgenic mice.

  8. Phase separation in aqueous solutions of lens gamma-crystallins: special role of gamma s.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Asherie, N; Lomakin, A; Pande, J; Ogun, O; Benedek, G B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied liquid-liquid phase separation in aqueous ternary solutions of calf lens gamma-crystallin proteins. Specifically, we have examined two ternary systems containing gamma s--namely, gamma IVa with gamma s in water and gamma II with gamma s in water. For each system, the phase-separation temperatures (Tph (phi)) alpha as a function of the overall protein volume fraction phi at various fixed compositions alpha (the "cloud-point curves") were measured. For the gamma IVa, gamma s, and water ternary solution, a binodal curve composed of pairs of coexisting points, (phi I, alpha 1) and (phi II, alpha II), at a fixed temperature (20 degrees C) was also determined. We observe that on the cloud-point curve the critical point is at a higher volume fraction than the maximum phase-separation temperature point. We also find that typically the difference in composition between the coexisting phases is at least as significant as the difference in volume fraction. We show that the asymmetric shape of the cloud-point curve is a consequence of this significant composition difference. Our observation that the phase-separation temperature of the mixtures in the high volume fraction region is strongly suppressed suggests that gamma s-crystallin may play an important role in maintaining the transparency of the lens. PMID:8552642

  9. Effect of Asp 96 isomerization on the properties of a lens αB-crystallin-derived short peptide.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takumi; Fujii, Noriko

    2015-12-10

    One of the major reasons for age-related cataract formation is an accumulation of insoluble lens proteins. In particular, higher-order α-crystallin aggregates, comprising αA and αB subunits, are insolubilized by the build up of various post-translational modifications over time. Although we previously found an exceptional amount of Asp96 isomerization in αB-crystallin from aged human lens, the biological effect remains unknown. To approximate the effect of Asp 96 isomerization in αB-crystallin, here residues 93-103 of αB-crystallin were chemically synthesized as peptides in which l-α-Asp was replaced with l-β-Asp, D-α-Asp, or D-β-Asp. The resulting peptides were then compared in a biological assay. The results showed that isomerization of Asp 96 altered both the local structure of peptide and its stability against enzymatic digestion. In addition, the synthesized peptides decreased the insoluble fraction of heated α-crystallin. The D-β-Asp-containing peptide further decreased heat-induced precipitation of α-crystallin, and a chaperone assay based on heated alcohol dehydrogenase implied differential interaction of the peptides with substrate depending on the Asp isomer present in each. Our results suggest that the formation of Asp isomers is likely to affect the higher-order oligomer structure of α-crystallin and thereby its chaperone functions in aged lens.

  10. Lens-Specific Gene Recruitment of ζ-Crystallin through Pax6, Nrl-Maf, and Brain Suppressor Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sharon-Friling, Ronit; Richardson, Jill; Sperbeck, Sally; Lee, Douglas; Rauchman, Michael; Maas, Richard; Swaroop, Anand; Wistow, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    ζ-Crystallin is a taxon-specific crystallin, an enzyme which has undergone direct gene recruitment as a structural component of the guinea pig lens through a Pax6-dependent mechanism. Tissue specificity arises through a combination of effects involving three sites in the lens promoter. The Pax6 site (ZPE) itself shows specificity for an isoform of Pax6 preferentially expressed in lens cells. High-level expression of the promoter requires a second site, identical to an αCE2 site or half Maf response element (MARE), adjacent to the Pax6 site. A promoter fragment containing Pax6 and MARE sites gives lens-preferred induction of a heterologous promoter. Complexes binding the MARE in lens nuclear extracts are antigenically related to Nrl, and cotransfection with Nrl elevates ζ-crystallin promoter activity in lens cells. A truncated ζ promoter containing Nrl-MARE and Pax6 sites has a high level of expression in lens cells in transgenic mice but is also active in the brain. Suppression of the promoter in the brain requires sequences between −498 and −385, and a site in this region forms specific complexes in brain extract. A three-level model for lens-specific Pax6-dependent expression and gene recruitment is suggested: (i) binding of a specific isoform of Pax6; (ii) augmentation of expression through binding of Nrl or a related factor; and (iii) suppression of promoter activity in the central nervous system by an upstream negative element in the brain but not in the lens. PMID:9528779

  11. Regulation of c-Maf and αA-Crystallin in Ocular Lens by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qing; McGreal, Rebecca; Harris, Raven; Gao, Chun Y.; Liu, Wei; Reneker, Lixing W.; Musil, Linda S.; Cvekl, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates a multitude of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. In the vertebrate lens, FGF signaling regulates fiber cell differentiation characterized by high expression of crystallin proteins. However, a direct link between FGF signaling and crystallin gene transcriptional machinery remains to be established. Previously, we have shown that the bZIP proto-oncogene c-Maf regulates expression of αA-crystallin (Cryaa) through binding to its promoter and distal enhancer, DCR1, both activated by FGF2 in cell culture. Herein, we identified and characterized a novel FGF2-responsive region in the c-Maf promoter (−272/−70, FRE). Both c-Maf and Cryaa regulatory regions contain arrays of AP-1 and Ets-binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays established binding of c-Jun (an AP-1 factor) and Etv5/ERM (an Ets factor) to these regions in lens chromatin. Analysis of temporal and spatial expression of c-Jun, phospho-c-Jun, and Etv5/ERM in wild type and ERK1/2 deficient lenses supports their roles as nuclear effectors of FGF signaling in mouse embryonic lens. Collectively, these studies show that FGF signaling up-regulates expression of αA-crystallin both directly and indirectly via up-regulation of c-Maf. These molecular mechanisms are applicable for other crystallins and genes highly expressed in terminally differentiated lens fibers. PMID:26719333

  12. Localization of low molecular weight crystallin peptides in the aging human lens using a MALDI mass spectrometry imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Ping; McArthur, Jason D; Andrew Aquilina, J

    2010-07-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) peptides, derived from the breakdown of the major eye lens proteins, the crystallins, accumulate in the human lens with age. These LMW peptides are associated with age-related lens opacity and cataract, with some shown to inhibit the chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin. However, the mechanism(s) giving rise to the production of these peptides, as well as their distribution within the lens, are not well understood. In this study, we have mapped the distribution of these crystallin-derived peptides present in human lenses of different ages using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). Our data showed that most of these LMW peptides emerge in the lens at early middle-age, with peptides greater than 1778 Da in mass being confined to the water insoluble fractions, and to a lesser extent the water soluble fractions of older lenses. MALDI-IMS analyses showed that four peptides, derived from alphaA-, alphaB- and gammaS-crystallins, were confined to the lens nuclear fibre cells upon emergence during early middle-age, but were present in both the cortex and nucleus of old lenses. In contrast, another major peptide, derived from the C-terminal breakdown of betaA3-crystallin, was present in the cortical and nuclear regions of both young and old lenses. A comparison between age-matched cataractous and non-cataractous lenses showed no distinct differences in LMW peptide profiles, indicating that although cataract may be a potential consequence caused by the emergence of these peptides, it does not contribute directly to the peptide-generating process. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stretch-dependent changes in surface profiles of the human crystalline lens during accommodation: A finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Pour, Hooman Mohammad; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Zarrabi, Khosrow; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Background A nonlinear isotropic finite element (FE) model of a 29 year old human crystalline lens was constructed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on lens accommodation. Methods The model simulates dis-accommodation by stretching of the lens and predicts the change in the lens capsule, cortex and nucleus surface profiles at select states of stretching/accommodation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is used to develop a stretch-dependent mathematical model relating the lens sagittal height to the radial position of the lens surface as a function of dis-accommodative stretch. A load analysis is performed to compare the FE results to empirical results from lens stretcher studies. Using the predicted geometrical changes, the optical response of the whole eye during accommodation was analysed by ray-tracing. Results Aspects of lens shape change relative to stretch were evaluated including change in diameter (d), central thickness (T) and accommodation (A). Maximum accommodation achieved was 10.29 D. From the MRA, the stretch-dependent mathematical model of the lens shape related lens curvatures as a function of lens ciliary stretch well (maximum mean-square residual error 2.5×10−3 µm, p<0.001). The results are compared with those from in vitro studies. Conclusions The FE and ray-tracing predictions are consistent with EVAS studies in terms of load and power change versus change in thickness. The mathematical stretch-dependent model of accommodation presented may have utility in investigating lens behaviour at states other than the relaxed or fully-accommodated states. PMID:25727940

  14. Stretch-dependent changes in surface profiles of the human crystalline lens during accommodation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pour, Hooman Mohammad; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Zarrabi, Khosrow; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    A non-linear isotropic finite element (FE) model of a 29-year-old human crystalline lens was constructed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on lens accommodation. The model simulates dis-accommodation by stretching of the lens and predicts the change in surface profiles of the lens capsule, cortex and nucleus at select states of stretching/accommodation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is used to develop a stretch-dependent mathematical model relating the lens sagittal height to the radial position of the lens surface as a function of dis-accommodative stretch. A load analysis is performed to compare the finite element results to empirical results from lens stretcher studies. Using the predicted geometrical changes, the optical response of the whole eye during accommodation was analysed by ray-tracing. Aspects of lens shape change relative to stretch were evaluated, including change in diameter, central thickness and accommodation. Maximum accommodation achieved was 10.29 D. From the multiple regression analysis, the stretch-dependent mathematical model of the lens shape related lens curvatures as a function of lens ciliary stretch well (maximum mean-square residual error 2.5 × 10(-3 ) μm, p < 0.001). The results are compared with those from in vitro studies. The finite element and ray-tracing predictions are consistent with Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) studies in terms of load and power change versus change in thickness. The mathematical stretch-dependent model of accommodation presented may have utility in investigating lens behaviour at states other than the relaxed or fully accommodated states. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  15. The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium: Importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZM, Sara Zafaranchi; Khoshaman, Kazem; Masoudi, Raheleh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The imbalance of the calcium homeostasis in the lenticular tissues of diabetic patients is an important risk factor for development of cataract diseases. In the current study, the impact of elevated levels of calcium ions were investigated on structure and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins using gel electrophoresis and spectroscopic assessments. The glycated proteins indicated significant resistance against calcium-induced structural insults and aggregation. While, glycated crystallins revealed an increased conformational stability; a slight instability was observed for these proteins upon interaction with calcium ions. Also, in the presence of calcium, the proteolytic pattern of native crystallins was altered and that of glycated protein counterparts remained almost unchanged. According to results of this study it is suggested that the structural alteration of lens crystallins upon glycation may significantly reduce their calcium buffering capacity in eye lenses. Therefore, under chronic hyperglycemia accumulation of this cataractogenic metal ion in the lenticular tissues may subsequently culminate in activation of different pathogenic pathways, leading to development of lens opacity and cataract diseases.

  16. The Relationship between Crystalline Lens Power and Refractive Error in Older Chinese Adults: The Shanghai Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xian; Du, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Huijuan; Sha, Jida; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report calculated crystalline lens power and describe the distribution of ocular biometry and its association with refractive error in older Chinese adults. Methods Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged 50 years and above in Xuhui and Baoshan districts of Shanghai. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected vision based on monocular measurement. Ocular biometry was measured by IOL Master. The crystalline lens power of right eyes was calculated using modified Bennett-Rabbetts formula. Results We analyzed 6099 normal phakic right eyes. The mean crystalline lens power was 20.34 ± 2.24D (range: 13.40–36.08). Lens power, spherical equivalent, and anterior chamber depth changed linearly with age; however, axial length, corneal power and AL/CR ratio did not vary with age. The overall prevalence of hyperopia, myopia, and high myopia was 48.48% (95% CI: 47.23%–49.74%), 22.82% (95% CI: 21.77%–23.88%), and 4.57% (95% CI: 4.05–5.10), respectively. The prevalence of hyperopia increased linearly with age while lens power decreased with age. In multivariate models, refractive error was strongly correlated with axial length, lens power, corneal power, and anterior chamber depth; refractive error was slightly correlated with best corrected visual acuity, age and sex. Conclusion Lens power, hyperopia, and spherical equivalent changed linearly with age; Moreover, the continuous loss of lens power produced hyperopic shifts in refraction in subjects aged more than 50 years. PMID:28114313

  17. Combination of confocal principle and aperture stop separation improves suppression of crystalline lens fluorescence in an eye model.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Matthias; Blum, Johannes; Link, Dietmar; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique to detect changes in the human retina. The autofluorescence decay over time, generated by endogenous fluorophores, is measured in vivo. The strong autofluorescence of the crystalline lens, however, superimposes the intensity decay of the retina fluorescence, as the confocal principle is not able to suppress it sufficiently. Thus, the crystalline lens autofluorescence causes artifacts in the retinal fluorescence lifetimes determined from the intensity decays. Here, we present a new technique to suppress the autofluorescence of the crystalline lens by introducing an annular stop into the detection light path, which we call Schweitzer's principle. The efficacy of annular stops with an outer diameter of 7 mm and inner diameters of 1 to 5 mm are analyzed in an experimental setup using a model eye based on fluorescent dyes. Compared to the confocal principle, Schweitzer's principle with an inner diameter of 3 mm is able to reduce the simulated crystalline lens fluorescence to 4%, while 42% of the simulated retina fluorescence is preserved. Thus, we recommend the implementation of Schweitzer's principle in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes used for fundus autofluorescence measurements, especially the FLIO device, for improved image quality.

  18. Combination of confocal principle and aperture stop separation improves suppression of crystalline lens fluorescence in an eye model

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Matthias; Blum, Johannes; Link, Dietmar; Hammer, Martin; Haueisen, Jens; Schweitzer, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) is a new technique to detect changes in the human retina. The autofluorescence decay over time, generated by endogenous fluorophores, is measured in vivo. The strong autofluorescence of the crystalline lens, however, superimposes the intensity decay of the retina fluorescence, as the confocal principle is not able to suppress it sufficiently. Thus, the crystalline lens autofluorescence causes artifacts in the retinal fluorescence lifetimes determined from the intensity decays. Here, we present a new technique to suppress the autofluorescence of the crystalline lens by introducing an annular stop into the detection light path, which we call Schweitzer’s principle. The efficacy of annular stops with an outer diameter of 7 mm and inner diameters of 1 to 5 mm are analyzed in an experimental setup using a model eye based on fluorescent dyes. Compared to the confocal principle, Schweitzer’s principle with an inner diameter of 3 mm is able to reduce the simulated crystalline lens fluorescence to 4%, while 42% of the simulated retina fluorescence is preserved. Thus, we recommend the implementation of Schweitzer’s principle in scanning laser ophthalmoscopes used for fundus autofluorescence measurements, especially the FLIO device, for improved image quality. PMID:27699092

  19. Alpha-crystallin-mediated protection of lens cells against heat and oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Karen L; Pedler, Michelle G; Shieh, Biehuoy; Ammar, David A; Petrash, J Mark; Mueller, Niklaus H

    2014-02-01

    In addition to their key role as structural lens proteins, α-crystallins also appear to confer protection against many eye diseases, including cataract, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration. Exogenous recombinant α-crystallin proteins were examined for their ability to prevent cell death induced by heat or oxidative stress in a human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3). Wild type αA- or αB-crystallin (WT-αA and WT-αB) and αA- or αB-crystallins, modified by the addition of a cell penetration peptide (CPP) designed to enhance the uptake of proteins into cells (gC-αB, TAT-αB, gC-αA), were produced by recombinant methods. In vitro chaperone-like assays were used to assay the ability of α-crystallins to protect client proteins from chemical or heat induced aggregation. In vivo viability assays were performed in HLE-B3 to determine whether pre-treatment with α-crystallins reduced death after exposure to oxidative or heat stress. Most of the five recombinant α-crystallin proteins tested conferred some in vitro protection from protein aggregation, with the greatest effect seen with WT-αB and gC-αB. All α-crystallins displayed significant protection to oxidative stress induced cell death, while only the αB-crystallins reduced cell death induced by thermal stress. Our findings indicate that the addition of the gC tag enhanced the protective effect of αB-crystallin against oxidative but not thermally-induced cell death. In conclusion, modifications that increase the uptake of α-crystallin proteins into cells, without destroying their chaperone-like activity and anti-apoptotic functions, create the potential to use these proteins therapeutically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. J1-crystallins of the cubomedusan jellyfish lens constitute a novel family encoded in at least three intronless genes.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, J; Horwitz, J; Norman, B L

    1993-06-05

    The transparent cellular eye lens of the jellyfish (Tripedalia cystophora) contains three major proteins called J1-, J2-, and J3-crystallins. Here we have isolated cDNAs encoding three novel 37-kDa J1-crystallin polypeptides (J1A, J1B, and J1C) sharing 84-98% identity in amino acid sequence among themselves. Each polypeptide is encoded in a separate gene lacking introns. In contrast to the striking similarity of the coding regions, the 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequences of the three J1-crystallin mRNAs are completely different, consistent with an ancient duplication of their genes. Thermostability experiments showed that J1-crystallins remain soluble at 50 degrees C, but precipitate at 60 degrees C, suggesting that these major lens proteins are neither heat shock proteins nor unusually heat-resistant as are many vertebrate crystallins. Although J1 mRNAs appear polyadenylated, no typical polyadenylation signal was detected in the cDNAs. Surprisingly, the only obvious similarities among the 5'-flanking regions of the three J1-crystallin genes are putative TATA boxes and several CAAT sequences, consistent with fewer evolutionary constraints on the regulatory sequences than on the coding sequences of these crystallin genes.

  1. Dual Roles for Pax-6: a Transcriptional Repressor of Lens Fiber Cell-Specific β-Crystallin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Melinda K.; Haynes, John I.; Cvekl, Ales; Piatigorsky, Joram

    1998-01-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that Pax-6, a paired domain (PD)/homeodomain (HD) transcription factor critical for eye development, contributes to the activation of the αB-, αA-, δ1-, and ζ-crystallin genes in the lens. Here we have examined the possibility that the inverse relationship between the expression of Pax-6 and β-crystallin genes within the developing chicken lens reflects a negative regulatory role of Pax-6. Cotransfection of a plasmid containing the βB1-crystallin promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and a plasmid containing the full-length mouse Pax-6 coding sequences into primary embryonic chicken lens epithelial cells or fibroblasts repressed the activity of this promoter by as much as 90%. Pax-6 constructs lacking the C-terminal activation domain repressed βB1-crystallin promoter activity as effectively as the full-length protein, but the PD alone or Pax-6 (5a), a splice variant with an altered PD affecting its DNA binding specificity, did not. DNase footprinting analysis revealed that truncated Pax-6 (PD+HD) binds to three regions (−183 to −152, −120 to −48, and −30 to +1) of the βB1-crystallin promoter. Earlier experiments showed that the βB1-crystallin promoter sequence from −120 to −48 contains a cis element (PL2 at −90 to −76) that stimulates the activity of a heterologous promoter in lens cells but not in fibroblasts. In the present study, we show by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cotransfection that Pax-6 binds to PL2 and represses its ability to activate promoter activity; moreover, mutation of PL2 eliminated binding by Pax-6. Taken together, our data indicate that Pax-6 (via its PD and HD) represses the βB1-crystallin promoter by direct interaction with the PL2 element. We thus suggest that the relatively high concentration of Pax-6 contributes to the absence of βB1-crystallin gene expression in lens epithelial cells and that diminishing amounts of Pax-6 in lens

  2. [Planar charged clusters--structural invariants of the gamma-crystallin family of the crystalline lens: functional role and evolutionary conservatism].

    PubMed

    Chigadze, Iu N

    1992-01-01

    Plane charge clusters from the calf eye lens protein gamma-crystallin are considered. The clusters consist of four to six side chain charged groups with interatomic distances in ionic pairs from 4 to 7 A. The charge clusters appear to decrease the hydrophilic potential of the molecular surface which maintains the transparent refracting lens medium of vertebrates with a very high protein concentration. It is shown that the charge pattern for different gene products of one species is conservative as well as for whole set of 25 sequences of vertebrates, including carp, frog, mouse, rat, calf and human. Taking into account "neutral mutations", Asp-Glu and Arg-Lys the homology of those charge positions is equal to 95-100%. Functionally important charge clusters are absent in the ancient structural motifs of gamma-crystallin.

  3. Spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens in adult and elderly persons: color and total transmission of visible light.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Jose M; Felipe, Adelina; Navea, Amparo; Fandiño, Adriana; Artigas, Cristina

    2012-06-26

    To experimentally measure the spectral transmission of human crystalline lenses belonging to adult and elderly persons, and to determine the color and total transmission of visible light of such crystalline lenses. The spectral transmission curve of 32 human crystalline lenses was measured using a PerkinElmer 800UV/VIS spectrometer. Total transmission of visible light and the chromatic coordinates of these crystalline lenses were determined from these curves for solar illumination. The crystalline lens that filters UV and its transmission in the visible spectrum decreases with age; such a decrease is greater for short wavelengths. The total transmission of visible light decreases, especially after the age of 70 years, and the crystalline color becomes yellower and saturated. The great variability existing in the spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens is lesser between the ages of 40 and 59 years, but greater from the age of 60 and older. The decrement in transmittance between these two age groups varies from 40% for 420 nm to 18% for 580 nm. Nevertheless, it is proven that age is not the only parameter affecting crystalline transmission. In the range of 40 to 59 years, age does not bear an influence on total transmission of light, but from 60 years and older it does. Moreover, the light transmitted decreases with age. This total transmission of light is similar to or lower than the amount that the different intraocular lenses transmit, even with a yellow or orange filter. The color of the human lens becomes yellowish and saturated with age.

  4. The influence of crystalline lens accommodation on post-saccadic oscillations in pupil-based eye trackers.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard; Magnusson, Måns; Pansell, Tony; Hooge, Ignace

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that the crystalline lens (henceforth lens) can oscillate (or 'wobble') relative to the eyeball at the end of saccades. Recent research has proposed that such wobbling of the lens is a source of post-saccadic oscillations (PSOs) seen in data recorded by eye trackers that estimate gaze direction from the location of the pupil. Since the size of the lens wobbles increases with accommodative effort, one would predict a similar increase of PSO-amplitude in data recorded with a pupil based eye tracker. In four experiments, we investigated the role of lens accommodation on PSOs in a video-based eye tracker. In Experiment 1, we replicated previous results showing that PSO-amplitudes increase at near viewing distances (large vergence angles), when the lens is highly accommodated. In Experiment 2a, we manipulated the accommodative state of the lens pharmacologically using eye drops at a fixed viewing distance and found, in contrast to Experiment 1, no significant difference in PSO-amplitude related to the accommodative state of the lens. Finally, in Experiment 2b, the effect of vergence angle was investigated by comparing PSO-amplitudes at near and far while maintaining a fixed lens accommodation. Despite the pharmacologically fixed degree of accommodation, PSO-amplitudes were systematically larger in the near condition. In summary, PSOs cannot exhaustively be explained by lens wobbles. Possible confounds related to pupil size and eye-camera angle are investigated in Experiments 3 and 4, and alternative mechanisms behind PSOs are probed in the discussion.

  5. Loss of the small heat shock protein αA-crystallin does not lead to detectable defects in early zebrafish lens development.

    PubMed

    Posner, Mason; Skiba, Jackie; Brown, Mary; Liang, Jennifer O; Nussbaum, Justin; Prior, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Alpha crystallins are small heat shock proteins essential to normal ocular lens function. They also help maintain homeostasis in many non-ocular vertebrate tissues and their expression levels change in multiple diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular system and during cancer. The specific roles that α-crystallins may play in eye development are unclear. Studies with knockout mice suggested that only one of the two mammalian α-crystallins is required for normal early lens development. However, studies in two fish species suggested that reduction of αA-crystallin alone could inhibit normal fiber cell differentiation, cause cataract and contribute to lens degeneration. In this study we used synthetic antisense morpholino oligomers to suppress the expression of zebrafish αA-crystallin to directly test the hypothesis that, unlike mammals, the zebrafish requires αA-crystallin for normal early lens development. Despite the reduction of zebrafish αA-crystallin protein to undetectable levels by western analysis through 4 days of development we found no changes in fiber cell differentiation, lens morphology or transparency. In contrast, suppression of AQP0a expression, previously shown to cause lens cataract, produced irregularly shaped lenses, delay in fiber cell differentiation and lens opacities detectable by confocal microscopy. The normal development observed in αA-crystallin deficient zebrafish embryos may reflect similarly non-essential roles for this protein in the early stages of both zebrafish and mammalian lens development. This finding has ramifications for a growing number of researchers taking advantage of the zebrafish's transparent external embryos to study vertebrate eye development. Our demonstration that lens cataracts can be visualized in three-dimensions by confocal microscopy in a living zebrafish provides a new tool for studying the causes, development and prevention of lens opacities.

  6. Identification of the in vivo truncation sites at the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from aged bovine and human lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-A crystallin was purified from young versus old lens, followed by digestion with cyanogen bromide. Laser desorption mass spectrometry of the C-terminal fragment demonstrated age-dependent loss of one and five amino acids from the C-terminus of alpha-A crystallin from both bovine and human lens. These results demonstrate specific peptide bonds of alpha-A crystallin are cleaved during the aging process of the normal lens. The C-terminal region is cleaved in two places between the two hydroxyl-containing amino acids present in the sequence -P-S(T)-S-.

  7. Calculation of crystalline lens power using a modification of the Bennett method.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Victor M; Cabot, Florence; Ruggeri, Marco; de Freitas, Carolina; Ho, Arthur; Yoo, Sonia; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice

    2015-11-01

    We present a method for measuring lens power from extended depth OCT biometry, corneal topography, and refraction using an improvement on the Bennett method. A reduced eye model was used to derive a formula for lens power in terms of ocular distances, corneal power, and objective spherical equivalent refraction. An error analysis shows that the formula predicts relaxed lens power with a theoretical accuracy of ± 0.5 D for refractive error ranging from -10 D to + 10 D. The formula was used to calculate lens power in 16 eyes of 8 human subjects. Mean lens power was 24.3 D ± 1.7 D.

  8. [Heat-induced structural transition of alpha-crystallin in the eye lens tissue observed by small-angle X-ray scattering].

    PubMed

    Krivandin, A V

    2009-01-01

    Heat-induced structural transitions of crystallins in the eye lens tissue have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. It was shown that a short-time (approximately 1 min) incubation of the bovine eye lens tissue at a temperature of about 60 degrees C leads to a pronounced shift of the small-angle X-ray diffraction maximum due to the short-range order of alpha-crystallin oligomers. This shift indicates an increase in the molecular mass of alpha-crystallin oligomers. The results are evidence that, in the native surrounding and at the native concentration of alpha-crystallin, heat-induced transition of alpha-crystallin quaternary structure takes place. Earlier, this transition of alpha-crystallin has been observed only in solutions and gels of this protein. The results confirm the identity of alpha-crystallin properties in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Structure of a Highly Active Cephalopod S-crystallin Mutant: New Molecular Evidence for Evolution from an Active Enzyme into Lens-Refractive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tung; Wu, Cheng-Guo; Lin, Min-Han; Chen, Chiao-Che; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex. The 2.35-Å crystal structure of a S-crystallin mutant from Octopus vulgaris reveals an active-site architecture that is different from that of GST. S-crystallin has a preference for glutathione binding, although almost lost its GST enzymatic activity. We’ve also identified four historical mutations that are able to produce a “GST-like” S-crystallin that has regained activity. This protein recapitulates the evolution of S-crystallin from GST. Protein stability studies suggest that S-crystallin is stabilized by glutathione binding to prevent its aggregation; this contrasts with GST-σ, which do not possess this protection. We suggest that a tradeoff between enzyme activity and the stability of the lens protein might have been one of the major driving force behind lens evolution. PMID:27499004

  10. Structure of a Highly Active Cephalopod S-crystallin Mutant: New Molecular Evidence for Evolution from an Active Enzyme into Lens-Refractive Protein.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tung; Wu, Cheng-Guo; Lin, Min-Han; Chen, Chiao-Che; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2016-08-08

    Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex. The 2.35-Å crystal structure of a S-crystallin mutant from Octopus vulgaris reveals an active-site architecture that is different from that of GST. S-crystallin has a preference for glutathione binding, although almost lost its GST enzymatic activity. We've also identified four historical mutations that are able to produce a "GST-like" S-crystallin that has regained activity. This protein recapitulates the evolution of S-crystallin from GST. Protein stability studies suggest that S-crystallin is stabilized by glutathione binding to prevent its aggregation; this contrasts with GST-σ, which do not possess this protection. We suggest that a tradeoff between enzyme activity and the stability of the lens protein might have been one of the major driving force behind lens evolution.

  11. Ultrashort-Pulse Lasers Treating the Crystalline Lens: Will They Cause Vision-Threatening Cataract? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Uy, Harvey; McDonald, Jared; Edwards, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that ultrashort-pulse laser treatment in the crystalline lens does not form a focal, progressive, or vision-threatening cataract. Methods: An Nd:vanadate picosecond laser (10 ps) with prototype delivery system was used. Primates: 11 rhesus monkey eyes were prospectively treated at the University of Wisconsin (energy 25–45 μJ/pulse and 2.0–11.3M pulses per lens). Analysis of lens clarity and fundus imaging was assessed postoperatively for up to 4½ years (5 eyes). Humans: 80 presbyopic patients were prospectively treated in one eye at the Asian Eye Institute in the Philippines (energy 10 μJ/pulse and 0.45–1.45M pulses per lens). Analysis of lens clarity, best-corrected visual acuity, and subjective symptoms was performed at 1 month, prior to elective lens extraction. Results: Bubbles were immediately seen, with resolution within the first 24 to 48 hours. Afterwards, the laser pattern could be seen with faint, noncoalescing, pinpoint micro-opacities in both primate and human eyes. In primates, long-term follow-up at 4½ years showed no focal or progressive cataract, except in 2 eyes with preexisting cataract. In humans, <25% of patients with central sparing (0.75 and 1.0 mm radius) lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 1 month, and >70% reported acceptable or better distance vision and no or mild symptoms. Meanwhile, >70% without sparing (0 and 0.5 mm radius) lost 2 or more lines, and most reported poor or severe vision and symptoms. Conclusions: Focal, progressive, and vision-threatening cataracts can be avoided by lowering the laser energy, avoiding prior cataract, and sparing the center of the lens. PMID:23818739

  12. Crystal Structure of Chicken γS-Crystallin Reveals Lattice Contacts with Implications for Function in the Lens and the Evolution of the βγ-Crystallins.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vatsala; Chaturvedi, Sumit K; Schuck, Peter; Wistow, Graeme

    2017-07-05

    Previous attempts to crystallize mammalian γS-crystallin were unsuccessful. Native L16 chicken γS crystallized avidly while the Q16 mutant did not. The X-ray structure for chicken γS at 2.3 Å resolution shows the canonical structure of the superfamily plus a well-ordered N arm aligned with a β sheet of a neighboring N domain. L16 is also in a lattice contact, partially shielded from solvent. Unexpectedly, the major lattice contact matches a conserved interface (QR) in the multimeric β-crystallins. QR shows little conservation of residue contacts, except for one between symmetry-related tyrosines, but molecular dipoles for the proteins with QR show striking similarities while other γ-crystallins differ. In γS, QR has few hydrophobic contacts and features a thin layer of tightly bound water. The free energy of QR is slightly repulsive and analytical ultracentrifugation confirms no dimerization in solution. The lattice contacts suggest how γ-crystallins allow close packing without aggregation in the crowded environment of the lens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Calculation of crystalline lens power in chickens with a customized version of Bennett's equation.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Rafael; Rozema, Jos J; Schaeffel, Frank; Morgan, Ian G

    2014-03-01

    This paper customizes Bennett's equation for calculating lens power in chicken eyes from refraction, keratometry and biometry. Previously published data on refraction, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens radii of curvature, axial length and eye power in chickens aged 10-90 days were used to estimate Gullstrand's lens power and Bennett's lens power for chicken eyes, and to calculate the lens equivalent refractive index. Bennett's A and B constants for the front and back surface powers of the lens were calculated for data measured from day 10 to 90 at 10 day intervals, and mean customized constants were calculated. The mean customized constants for Bennett's equation for chicks were A=0.574±0.023 and B=0.379±0.021. As found previously, lens power decreases with age in chicks, while corneal power decreases and axial length increases. The lens equivalent refractive index decreases with age from 10 to 90 days after hatching. Bennett's equation can be used to calculate lens power in chicken eyes for studies on animal myopia, using standard biometry.

  14. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens

    PubMed Central

    Sheil, Conor J.; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  15. Scanning laser measure of optical quality of the cultured crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Weerheim, J A; Sivak, J G

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus has been designed to automate the laser measuring technique and make it possible to monitor lens refractive function (spherical aberration) as well as change in lens transmittance during lens culture. A scanning laser beam (helium-neon) is used so that a number of beams pass through different spots on the lens to determine lens spherical aberration compared over time. Each refracted beam, received by two video cameras (X and Y directions), is digitized. The system first locates the optical centre of the lens by determining the beam position providing the least deflection for both the X and Y directions. The beam is then moved in predetermined steps on either side of the centre, and focal lengths are determined relative to the optic axis for each position. A measure of beam scatter is noted from post-refraction pixel excitation for each beam position. Improvements to the scanning laser system have led to greater accuracy and speed as well as to improved culture cells. Accuracy was increased by using high resolution (1 micron) stepping motors to move the scanning helium-neon laser. A new alignment process involving the superposition of the incident beam reflected on itself ensures that the incident beam is perpendicular to the lens equatorial axis. Scanning speed has been improved through a variety of hardware and software changes. Scanning time for a lens, including locating the optical centre and measuring focal length for 20 lens positions along the X and Y directions, takes about 60 seconds. Long-term studies on the degradation of lens optical performance frequency yield diffuse beams of very low intensity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Refractive power and biometric properties of the nonhuman primate isolated crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel M; Acosta, Ana Carolina; Arrieta-Quintera, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To characterize the age dependence of shape, refractive power, and refractive index of isolated lenses from nonhuman primates. Methods. Measurements were performed on ex vivo lenses from cynomolgus monkeys (cyno: n = 120; age, 2.7-14.3 years), rhesus monkeys (n = 61; age, 0.7-13.3 years), and hamadryas baboons (baboon: n = 16; age, 1.7-27.3 years). Lens thickness, diameter, and surface curvatures were measured with an optical comparator. Lens refractive power was measured with a custom optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The refractive contributions of the gradient, the surfaces, and the equivalent refractive index were calculated with optical ray-tracing software. The age dependence of the optical and biometric parameters was assessed. Results. Over the measured age range isolated lens thickness decreased (baboon: -0.04, cyno: -0.05, and rhesus: -0.06 mm/y) and equatorial diameter increased (logarithmically for the baboon and rhesus, and linearly for cyno: 0.07 mm/y). The isolated lens surfaces flattened and the corresponding refractive power from the surfaces decreased with age (-0.33, -0.48, and -0.68 D/y). The isolated lens equivalent refractive index decreased (only significant for the baboon, -0.001 D/y), and as a result the total isolated lens refractive power decreased with age (baboon: -1.26, cyno: -0.97, and rhesus: -1.76 D/y). Conclusions. The age-dependent trends in the optical and biometric properties, growth, and aging, of nonhuman primate lenses are similar to those of the pre-presbyopic human lens. As the lens ages, the decrease in refractive contributions from the gradient refractive index causes a rapid age-dependent decrease in maximally accommodated lens refractive power.

  17. Refractive Power and Biometric Properties of the Nonhuman Primate Isolated Crystalline Lens

    PubMed Central

    Borja, David; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel M.; Acosta, Ana Carolina; Arrieta-Quintera, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the age dependence of shape, refractive power, and refractive index of isolated lenses from nonhuman primates. Methods. Measurements were performed on ex vivo lenses from cynomolgus monkeys (cyno: n = 120; age, 2.7–14.3 years), rhesus monkeys (n = 61; age, 0.7–13.3 years), and hamadryas baboons (baboon: n = 16; age, 1.7–27.3 years). Lens thickness, diameter, and surface curvatures were measured with an optical comparator. Lens refractive power was measured with a custom optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The refractive contributions of the gradient, the surfaces, and the equivalent refractive index were calculated with optical ray-tracing software. The age dependence of the optical and biometric parameters was assessed. Results. Over the measured age range isolated lens thickness decreased (baboon: −0.04, cyno: −0.05, and rhesus: −0.06 mm/y) and equatorial diameter increased (logarithmically for the baboon and rhesus, and linearly for cyno: 0.07 mm/y). The isolated lens surfaces flattened and the corresponding refractive power from the surfaces decreased with age (−0.33, −0.48, and −0.68 D/y). The isolated lens equivalent refractive index decreased (only significant for the baboon, −0.001 D/y), and as a result the total isolated lens refractive power decreased with age (baboon: −1.26, cyno: −0.97, and rhesus: −1.76 D/y). Conclusions. The age-dependent trends in the optical and biometric properties, growth, and aging, of nonhuman primate lenses are similar to those of the pre-presbyopic human lens. As the lens ages, the decrease in refractive contributions from the gradient refractive index causes a rapid age-dependent decrease in maximally accommodated lens refractive power. PMID:20107174

  18. The Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2009: Crystalline lens research and serendipity in science.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Jacob Gershon

    2010-09-01

    Whether it is called serendipity or creativity, the process of scientific discovery is not one that lends itself to advance planning or programming, nor does it lend itself to an emphasis solely on applied research, research with industrial partners, or large teams of researchers because researchers must rely on intuition and the capacity to move quickly in new directions. Studies in my laboratory began with efforts to relate lens embryonic development to lens optical performance in a variety of vertebrate species. The initial direction concerned the optics of the fish eye, a system in which a spherical lens is essentially the only refractive component of the eye and one in which accommodation takes place by means of lens movement. This in turn led to an interest in how amphibious animals cope with the refractive transition that takes place when moving from air to water and vice versa. The development of a super accommodative ability in some diving birds is one adaptation that was explored. These curiosity-driven efforts led in turn to the development of a scanning laser system that provided a tool that can be used to evaluate the process of cataract development, either on the basis of in vivo exposure to chemicals or electromagnetic radiation and subsequent analysis of the excised lens or to the in vitro study of the lens in long-term whole lens culture experiments. The same approach has also been used as an in vitro ocular toxicology assay to develop sensitive in vitro methods to reduce regulatory dependence on the use of live animals. Finally, these applied directions in turn created new basic knowledge concerning the morphology and physiology of eye tissue organelles, particularly the morphology, distribution, and dynamic properties of the mitochondria found in the lens and in the retinal pigment epithelium.

  19. Elasticity of the eye's crystalline lens: A Brillouin light scattering study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Gump, J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Jayaprakash, C.; Venkiteshwar, M. S.; Bullimore, M.; Twa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Focusing the eye on a near object results in an increase in its optical power brought about by contraction of the ciliary muscles and an increase in the lens surface curvature. Distant vision occurs when the muscular force flattens the lens. Central to the ability of the lens to alter shape are its mechanical properties. Thus, given that hardening of the lens would impede deformation and reduce its ability to undergo the changes required for accommodation, a noninvasive approach to measure the elastic properties of the lens is valuable. We present results of Brillouin scattering from bovine and human lenses (from the organ donor program at The Ohio State University) that measure their high frequency acoustic response. These measurements are conducted with a few milli-watts of laser power and, in the case of bovine lenses, from entire intact eye globes, allow the stiffness of the lens to be mapped across its cross-section. The results will be compared to values of the shear- and bulk-moduli determined from other techniques and the implications of differences in these moduli discussed.

  20. Effect of exposure to balanced salt solution upon the hardness of the crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, H; Karim, A; Thompson, G M

    1998-12-01

    The nucleus confers most of the hardness upon the lens, water content decreases towards the centre of the nucleus and a relative dehydration accompanies increased hardness in some cataractous lenses. It is a possibility that exposure and incubation of the inner layers of the nucleus to balanced salt solution (BSS) can result in the softening of the nucleus. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BSS upon the lens hardness. Nuclear colour element of cataract was graded biomicroscopically. Following extracapsular cataract surgery the lens nucleocortex was divided into two equal parts and each half was allocated randomly to incubation in BSS or air for 5 min before the hardness of each section was assessed by an automated guillotine. Following incubation with BSS the mean force necessary to bisect the lens was 0.50 N and in the control air group the mean force was 0.64 N. The lenses in the BSS-treated group were consistently softer than those in the control group, with a mean softening of 18.3% (P=0.001). The amount of softening was not related to the nuclear colour (P=0.6) or age (P=0.1). Softening of the lens through physical disruption has previously been reported. This study describes the phenomenon of nuclear softening following exposure to BSS, indicating that lens softening can occur through biochemical means.

  1. The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Cox, M J; Calver, R; Garner, L F

    2001-01-15

    The in vivo spherical aberration of the lenses of 26 subjects was estimated from the measured total aberration of the eye and that predicted from the measured shape of the anterior corneal surface. Since it was only possible to estimate the aberration contribution from the posterior corneal surface, its value led to an uncertainty in the final aberration level of the lens. For all the subjects and for a wide range of possible aberration levels at the posterior corneal surface, the spherical aberration of the relaxed lens was found to be negative.

  2. A role for γS-crystallin in the organization of actin and fiber cell maturation in the mouse lens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianguo; Dong, Lijin; Mishra, Sanghamitra; Chen, Yingwei; FitzGerald, Paul; Wistow, Graeme

    2012-08-01

    γS-crystallin (γS) is a highly conserved component of the eye lens. To gain insights into the functional role(s) of this protein, the mouse gene (Crygs) was deleted. Although mutations in γS can cause severe cataracts, loss of function of γS in knockout (KO) mice produced no obvious lens opacity, but was associated with focusing defects. Electron microscopy showed no major differences in lens cell organization, suggesting that the optical defects are primarily cytoplasmic in origin. KO lenses were also grossly normal by light microscopy but showed evidence of incomplete clearance of cellular organelles in maturing fiber cells. Phalloidin labeling showed an unusual distribution of F-actin in a band of mature fiber cells in KO lenses, suggesting a defect in the organization or processing of the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, in wild-type lenses, γS and F-actin colocalize along the fiber cell plasma membrane. Relative levels of F-actin and G-actin in wild-type and KO lenses were estimated from fluorescent staining profiles and from isolation of actin fractions from whole lenses. Both methods showed a two-fold reduction in the F-actin/G-actin ratio in KO lenses, whereas no difference in tubulin organization was detected. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant mouse γS can directly stabilize F-actin. This suggests that γS may have a functional role related to actin, perhaps in 'shepherding' filaments to maintain the optical properties of the lens cytoplasm and normal fiber cell maturation.

  3. Presence of melanopsin in human crystalline lens epithelial cells and its role in melatonin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Wang, Xiaoyu; Perez de Lara, Maria J; Pintor, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Melanopsin is a non-image forming photoreceptor known to be present in the retina and it is considered to have light regulated tasks among other functions. In the present work, melanopsin presence in human lens epithelial cells as well as in human lens tissue is described for the first time. Moreover, studying the concentration of melatonin and its synthesising enzyme AANAT proved a clear link between melanopsin activation and the suppression of melatonin synthesis. Melanopsin sensitivity to specific wavelength (465-480 nm, blue) was confirmed after making temporal studies incubating lens epithelial cells under light, red, green, blue and total darkness for 2, 4, 8, 12 h and analysing the concentration of both melatonin and its synthesising enzyme AANAT, discovering that melatonin levels after submitting cells to total darkness are significantly higher to ones submitted to white or specifically blue light (***p < 0.001, n = 6). The involvement of melanopsin in the regulation of melatonin was also determined by using a specific inhibitor AA92593 and by inhibiting melanopsin-induced phospholipase C activation. Under this situation neither AANAT nor melatonin levels changed under light conditions (n = 4, ***p < 0.001). The discovery of melanopsin in the lens opens the possibility of regulating melatonin synthesis with the corresponding implication as an antioxidant substance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Site specific oxidation of amino acid residues in rat lens γ-crystallin induced by low-dose γ-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Noriko

    2015-10-30

    Although cataracts are a well-known age-related disease, the mechanism of their formation is not well understood. It is currently thought that eye lens proteins become abnormally aggregated, initially causing clumping that scatters the light and interferes with focusing on the retina, and ultimately resulting in a cataract. The abnormal aggregation of lens proteins is considered to be triggered by various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, that occur during the aging process. Such modifications, which are also generated by free radical and reactive oxygen species derived from γ-irradiation, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of a cataract. In this study, we irradiated young rat lenses with low-dose γ-rays and extracted the water-soluble and insoluble protein fractions. The water-soluble and water-insoluble lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS. Specific oxidation sites of methionine, cysteine and tryptophan in rat water-soluble and -insoluble γE and γF-crystallin were determined by one-shot analysis. The oxidation sites in rat γE and γF-crystallin resemble those previously identified in γC and γD-crystallin from human age-related cataracts. Our study on modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to human senile cataract formation. - Highlights: • Low-dose γ-rays induced oxidation at specific residues in γE- and γF-crystallin. • The number of oxidation sites was higher in insoluble than soluble crystallins. • γ-Irradiation closely mimics the oxidation that occur in senile human cataracts.

  5. Crystal structure of eta-crystallin: adaptation of a class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase for a new role in the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Bateman, O A; Purkiss, A G; van Montfort, R; Slingsby, C; Graham, C; Wistow, G

    2003-04-22

    Eta-crystallin is a retinal dehydrogenase that has acquired a role as a structural protein in the eye lens of elephant shrews, members of an ancient order of mammals. While it retains some activity toward retinal, which is oxidized to retinoic acid, the protein has acquired a number of specific sequence changes that have presumably been selected to enhance the lens role. The crystal structure of eta-crystallin, in common with class 1 and 2 ALDHs, is a dimer of dimers. It has a better-defined NAD binding site than those of related mammalian ALDH1 enzymes with the cofactor bound in the "hydride transfer" position in all four monomers with small differences about the dimer dyads. Although the active site is well conserved, the substrate-binding site is larger in eta-crystallin, and there are some mutations to the substrate access tunnel that might affect binding or release of substrate and product. It is possible that eta-crystallin has lost flexibility to improve its role in the lens. Enhanced binding of cofactor could enable it to act as a UV/blue light filter in the lens, improving visual acuity. The structure not only gives a view of a "natural mutant" of ALDH1 illustrating the adaptive conflict that can arise in multifunctional proteins, but also provides a well-ordered NAD binding site structure for this class of enzymes with important roles in development and health.

  6. Homology modeling of cephalopod lens S-crystallin: a natural mutant of sigma-class glutathione transferase with diminished endogenous activity.

    PubMed

    Chuang, C C; Wu, S H; Chiou, S H; Chang, G G

    1999-02-01

    The soluble S-crystallin constitutes the major lens protein in cephalopods. The primary amino acid sequence of S-crystallin shows an overall 41% identity with the digestive gland sigma-class glutathione transferase (GST) of cephalopod. However, the lens S-crystallin fails to bind to the S-hexylglutathione affinity column and shows very little GST activity in the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between GSH and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. When compared with other classes of GST, the S-crystallin has an 11-amino acid residues insertion between the conserved alpha4 and alpha5 helices. Based on the crystal structure of squid sigma-class GST, a tertiary structure model for the octopus lens S-crystallin is constructed. The modeled S-crystallin structure has an overall topology similar to the squid sigma-class GST, albeit with longer alpha4 and alpha5 helical chains, corresponding to the long insertion. This insertion, however, makes the active center region of S-crystallin to be in a more closed conformation than the sigma-class GST. The active center region of S-crystallin is even more shielded and buried after dimerization, which may explain for the failure of S-crystallin to bind to the immobilized-glutathione in affinity chromatography. In the active site region, the electrostatic potential surface calculated from the modeled structure is quite different from that of squid GST. The positively charged environment, which contributes to stabilize the negatively charged Meisenheimer complex, is altered in S-crystallin probably because of mutation of Asn99 in GST to Asp101 in S-crystallin. Furthermore, the important Phe106 in authentic GST is changed to His108 in S-crystallin. Combining the topological differences as revealed by computer graphics and sequence variation at these structurally relevant residues provide strong structural evidences to account for the much decreased GST activity of S-crystallin as compared with the authentic GST of the digestive

  7. UV-A-induced structural and functional changes in human lens deamidated αB-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Mafia, Kerri; Gupta, Ratna; Kirk, Marion; Wilson, L.; Barnes, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine comparative effects of ultraviolet (UV)-A irradiation on structural and functional properties of wild type (WT) αB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant proteins (αB-Asn78Asp, αB-Asn146Asp, and αB-Asn78/146Asp). Methods Three deamidated mutants previously generated from recombinant WT αB-crystallin, using a site-specific mutagenesis procedure as previously described [32], were used. The WT αB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320–400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/cm2. The UV-A-unexposed and UV-A-exposed preparations were examined for their chaperone activity, and their activities were correlated with the UV-A-induced structural changes. The structural properties studied included dimerization and degradation, intrinsic tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfate)-binding, far ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectral analysis, molecular sizes by dynamic light scattering, and oxidation of Trp and methionine (Met) residues. Results The WT αB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant proteins showed enhanced dimerization to 40 kDa species and partial degradation with increasing doses during UV-A-exposure. Compared to the deamidation of asparagines (Asn) 78 residue to aspartic acid (Asp) or both Asn78 and Asn146 residues to Asp, the deamidation of Asn146 residue to Asp resulted in a greater loss of chaperone activity. The UV-A-induced loss of chaperone activity due to structural changes was studied. The ANS-binding data suggested that the αB-Asn146Asp mutant protein had a relatively compact structure and an increase in surface hydrophobic patches compared to WT and two other deamidated proteins. Similarly, UV-A-exposure altered the Trp microenvironment in the deamidated mutant proteins compared to the WT αB-crystallin. Far-UV CD spectral analyses showed almost no changes among WT and deamidated species on UV-A-exposure except that the αB-Asn146Asp mutant protein

  8. UV-A-induced structural and functional changes in human lens deamidated alphaB-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Mafia, Kerri; Gupta, Ratna; Kirk, Marion; Wilson, L; Srivastava, O P; Barnes, Stephen

    2008-02-01

    To determine comparative effects of ultraviolet (UV)-A irradiation on structural and functional properties of wild type (WT) alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant proteins (alphaB-Asn78Asp, alphaB-Asn146Asp, and alphaB-Asn78/146Asp). Three deamidated mutants previously generated from recombinant WT alphaB-crystallin, using a site-specific mutagenesis procedure as previously described [32], were used. The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated species were exposed to UV-A light (320-400 nm) at intensities of 20 or 50 J/cm(2). The UV-A-unexposed and UV-A-exposed preparations were examined for their chaperone activity, and their activities were correlated with the UV-A-induced structural changes. The structural properties studied included dimerization and degradation, intrinsic tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfate)-binding, far ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectral analysis, molecular sizes by dynamic light scattering, and oxidation of Trp and methionine (Met) residues. The WT alphaB-crystallin and its three deamidated mutant proteins showed enhanced dimerization to 40 kDa species and partial degradation with increasing doses during UV-A-exposure. Compared to the deamidation of asparagines (Asn) 78 residue to aspartic acid (Asp) or both Asn78 and Asn146 residues to Asp, the deamidation of Asn146 residue to Asp resulted in a greater loss of chaperone activity. The UV-A-induced loss of chaperone activity due to structural changes was studied. The ANS-binding data suggested that the alphaB-Asn146Asp mutant protein had a relatively compact structure and an increase in surface hydrophobic patches compared to WT and two other deamidated proteins. Similarly, UV-A-exposure altered the Trp microenvironment in the deamidated mutant proteins compared to the WT alphaB-crystallin. Far-UV CD spectral analyses showed almost no changes among WT and deamidated species on UV-A-exposure except that the alphaB-Asn146Asp mutant

  9. Gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens of the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger): comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laser ray-trace methods.

    PubMed

    Garner, L F; Smith, G; Yao, S; Augusteyn, R C

    2001-04-01

    The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens in the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger) was determined using two methods; an optimisation program based on finite ray-tracing and the path of laser beams through the lens, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the linear relationship between refractive index and nuclear transverse relaxation rates. The methods showed good agreement in the cortical zone of the lens, but the lack of free water in the core of the lens made MRI measurement impossible in this region. The laser-optimisation method gave mean values of 1.368 and 1.543 for the surface and core refractive indices respectively, with a radial distribution for the gradient refractive index given by n(r)=1.543-0.121r2-0.033r4-0.021r6.

  10. Fluorophors and chromophors from rat lens crystallins in UV with hydroxykynurenine

    SciTech Connect

    Bando, M.; Yu, N.T.; Kuck, J.F.

    1984-05-01

    Isolated alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins from young rat lenses were incubated in solution for 16 hr with 3-hydroxykynurenine under ultraviolet (366 nm) light. Controls included: incubation without light, without kynurenine, and with 2-mercaptoethanol. These procedures generated several chromophors (with absorption maxima or shoulders at 340, 370, and 470 nm) and fluorophors (with excitation/emission at 407/515, 458/550, 515/555, 647/664, and 647/740 nm). The formation of these pigments was inhibited by 2-mercaptoethanol. The findings are discussed in relation to the chromophors and fluorophors found in aged and brunescent human lenses.

  11. Aggregation of Lens Crystallins in an In Vivo Hyperbaric Oxygen Guinea Pig Model of Nuclear Cataract: Dynamic Light-Scattering and HPLC Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simpanya, M. Francis; Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The role of oxygen in the formation of lens high-molecular-weight (HMW) protein aggregates during the development of human nuclear cataract is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate lens crystallin aggregate formation in hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)–treated guinea pigs by using in vivo and in vitro methods. Methods Guinea pigs were treated three times weekly for 7 months with HBO, and lens crystallin aggregation was investigated in vivo with the use of dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and in vitro by HPLC analysis of water-insoluble (WI) proteins. DLS measurements were made every 0.1 mm across the 4.5- to 5.0-mm optical axis of the guinea pig lens. Results The average apparent diameter of proteins in the nucleus (the central region) of lenses of HBO-treated animals was nearly twice that of the control animals (P < 0.001). Size distribution analysis conducted at one selected point in the nucleus and cortex (the outer periphery of the lens) after dividing the proteins into small-diameter and large-diameter groups, showed in the O2-treated nucleus a threefold increase in intensity (P < 0.001) and a doubling in apparent size (P = 0.03) of large-diameter aggregate proteins, compared with the same control group. No significant changes in apparent protein diameter were detected in the O2-treated cortex, compared with the control. The average diameter of protein aggregates at the single selected location in the O2-treated nucleus was estimated to be 150 nm, a size capable of scattering light and similar to the size of aggregates found in human nuclear cataracts. HPLC analysis indicated that one half of the experimental nuclear WI protein fraction (that had been dissolved in guanidine) consisted of disulfide cross-linked 150- to 1000-kDa aggregates, not present in the control. HPLC-isolated aggregates contained αA-, β-, γ-, and ζ-crystallins, but not αB-crystallin, which is devoid of −SH groups and thus does not participate in disulfide

  12. [A 35-kDa polypeptide of the crystalline lens in the common frog: its biochemical properties, tissue specificity and appearance in the developmental process].

    PubMed

    Simirskiĭ, V N; Aleĭnikova, K S; Mikhaĭlov, A T

    1990-01-01

    The vertebrate lens contains so-called taxon-specific water-soluble proteins. One of them is p-crystallin with a molecular weight of 35 kDa characteristic of Ranidae family. We have identified a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 35 kDa in the eye lens of Rana temporaria which: (1) can be extracted from the lens by aqueous salt solutions, (2) has a molecular mass of 36.1 +/- 0.4 kDa (by SDS-electrophoresis) and 37 kDa (by gel filtration), (3) is heterogeneous in terms of isoelectric point (pI 6.5-8.0), (4) binds to heparin-agarose, (5) denatures in response to freezing-thawing, lyophilization and in solutions with low ionic strength. Thus, major biochemical parameters of this polypeptide differ from that of amphibian alpha, beta- and gamma-crystallins. In addition to lens, 35 kDa polypeptide was detected by immunoelectroblotting in retina, testes, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, intestine and lungs. Its level (as percentage of water-soluble protein) is 1.1 +/- 1.4% in the lens, 1.6 +/- 0.7% in retina. 0.05% in testes and liver and 0.01% or less in other organs. Thus, despite its wide tissue distribution, 53 kDa polypeptide is expressed predominantly in lens and retina. We studied the time-course of appearance and accumulation of this polypeptide in tissues where it is expressed at high or low levels. 35 kDa polypeptide was detected for the first time during larval development: (1) in the lens (some time after the mouth opening; stages 33-34 according to Dabagian and Sleptsova, 1975), (2) in the retina (by the time of anus opening; stages 36-37), (3) in the liver (at the stage of elongated hind limb bud; stages 40-41). Definitive expression level of this protein was achieved in the lens by the beginning of metamorphosis and in the retina and liver during first months of development. Hence, during the whole period of larval development 35 kDa polypeptide content of the lens exceeds that of retina or liver. A more substantial evidence is required to confirm the

  13. Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia.

    PubMed

    Glasser, A; Campbell, M C

    1999-06-01

    The biometric, optical and physical properties of 19 pairs of isolated human eye-bank lenses ranging in age from 5 to 96 years were compared. Lens focal length and spherical aberration were measured using a scanning laser apparatus, lens thickness and the lens surface curvatures were measured by digitizing the lens profiles and equivalent refractive indices were calculated for each lens using this data. The second lens from each donor was used to measure resistance to physical deformation by providing a compressive force to the lens. The lens capsule was then removed from each lens and each measurement was repeated to ascertain what role the capsule plays in determining these optical and physical characteristics. Age dependent changes in lens focal length, lens surface curvatures and lens resistance to physical deformation are described. Isolated lens focal length was found to be significantly linearly correlated with both the anterior and posterior surface curvatures. No age dependent change in equivalent refractive index of the isolated lens was found. Although decapsulating human lenses causes similar changes in focal length to that which we have shown to occur when human lenses are mechanically stretched into an unaccommodated state, the effects are due to nonsystematic changes in lens curvatures. These studies reinforce the conclusion that lens hardening must be considered as an important factor in the development of presbyopia, that age changes in the human lens are not limited to the loss of accommodation that characterizes presbyopia but that the lens optical and physical properties change substantially with age in a complex manner.

  14. αB-crystallin is essential for the TGF-β2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Pantcheva, Mina B.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-mediated pathways play a major role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) during secondary cataract formation, which is also known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although αB-crystallin is a major protein in LEC, its role in the EMT remains unknown. In a human LEC line (FHL124), TGF-β2 treatment resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was associated with nuclear localization of αB-crystallin, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) (S245/250/255), pSmad3 (S423/425), Smad4 and Snail and the binding of αB-crystallin to these transcription factors, all of which were reduced by the down-regulation of αB-crystallin. Expression of the functionally defective R120G mutant of αB-crystallin reduced TGF-β2-induced EMT in LECs of αB-crystallin knockout (KO) mice. Treatment of bovine lens epithelial explants and mouse LEC with TGF-β2 resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (T202/Y204), p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), protein kinase B (Akt) (S473) and Smad2 when compared with untreated cells. These changes were significantly reduced in αB-crystallin depleted or knocked out LEC. The removal of the fibre cell mass from the lens of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in the up-regulation of EMT-associated genes in the capsule-adherent epithelial cells, which was reduced in the αB-crystallin KO mice. Together, our data show that αB-crystallin plays a central role in the TGF-β2-induced EMT of LEC. αB-Crystallin could be targeted to prevent PCO and pathological fibrosis in other tissues. PMID:26987815

  15. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  16. Gradient-index crystalline lens model: A new method for determining the paraxial properties by the axial and field rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, María. Angeles; Pérez, María. Victoria; Bao, Carmen; Flores-Arias, María. Teresa; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Gradient-index (GRIN) models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering the effect of inhomogeneity of the refractive index on the optical properties of the lens. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine analytically cardinal elements, magnifications and refractive power of the lens by the axial and field rays in order to study the paraxial light propagation through the human lens from its GRIN nature.

  17. Structural Integrity of the Greek Key Motif in βγ-Crystallins Is Vital for Central Eye Lens Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Vendra, Venkata Pulla Rao; Agarwal, Garima; Chandani, Sushil; Talla, Venu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan

    2013-01-01

    Background We highlight an unrecognized physiological role for the Greek key motif, an evolutionarily conserved super-secondary structural topology of the βγ-crystallins. These proteins constitute the bulk of the human eye lens, packed at very high concentrations in a compact, globular, short-range order, generating transparency. Congenital cataract (affecting 400,000 newborns yearly worldwide), associated with 54 mutations in βγ-crystallins, occurs in two major phenotypes nuclear cataract, which blocks the central visual axis, hampering the development of the growing eye and demanding earliest intervention, and the milder peripheral progressive cataract where surgery can wait. In order to understand this phenotypic dichotomy at the molecular level, we have studied the structural and aggregation features of representative mutations. Methods Wild type and several representative mutant proteins were cloned, expressed and purified and their secondary and tertiary structural details, as well as structural stability, were compared in solution, using spectroscopy. Their tendencies to aggregate in vitro and in cellulo were also compared. In addition, we analyzed their structural differences by molecular modeling in silico. Results Based on their properties, mutants are seen to fall into two classes. Mutants A36P, L45PL54P, R140X, and G165fs display lowered solubility and structural stability, expose several buried residues to the surface, aggregate in vitro and in cellulo, and disturb/distort the Greek key motif. And they are associated with nuclear cataract. In contrast, mutants P24T and R77S, associated with peripheral cataract, behave quite similar to the wild type molecule, and do not affect the Greek key topology. Conclusion When a mutation distorts even one of the four Greek key motifs, the protein readily self-aggregates and precipitates, consistent with the phenotype of nuclear cataract, while mutations not affecting the motif display ‘native state

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of a Major Lens Protein, Human γC-Crystallin: Role of the Dipole Moment in Protein Solubility.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Karuna; Pande, Ajay; Pande, Jayanti; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2016-06-07

    A hallmark of the crystallin proteins is their exceptionally high solubility, which is vital for maintaining the high refractive index of the eye lens. Human γC-crystallin is a major γ-crystallin whose mutant forms are associated with congenital cataracts but whose three-dimensional structure is not known. An earlier study of a homology model concluded that human γC-crystallin has low intrinsic solubility, mainly because of the atypical magnitude and fluctuations of its dipole moment. On the contrary, the high-resolution tertiary structure of human γC-crystallin determined here shows unequivocally that it is a highly soluble, monomeric molecule in solution. Notable differences between the orientations and interactions of several side chains are observed upon comparison to those in the model. No evidence of the pivotal role ascribed to the effect of dipole moment on protein solubility was found. The nuclear magnetic resonance structure should facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the deleterious effects of cataract-associated mutations in human γC-crystallin.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Crocin(s) on Lens α-Crystallin Glycation and Aggregation, Results in the Decrease of the Risk of Diabetic Cataract.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Aldavood, Seyed Javid; Ghahghaei, Arezou

    2016-01-26

    The current study investigates the inhibitory effect of crocin(s), also known as saffron apocarotenoids, on protein glycation and aggregation in diabetic rats, and α-crystallin glycation. Thus, crocin(s) were administered by intraperitoneal injection to normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The cataract progression was recorded regularly every two weeks and was classified into four stages. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the parameters involved in the cataract formation were measured in the animal lenses. Some parameters were also determined in the serum and blood of the rats. In addition, the effect of crocin(s) on the structure and chaperone activity of α-crystallin in the presence of glucose was studied by different methods. Crocin(s) lowered serum glucose levels of diabetic rats and effectively maintained plasma total antioxidants, glutathione levels and catalase activity in the lens of the animals. In the in vitro study, crocin(s) inhibited α-crystallin glycation and aggregation. Advanced glycation end products fluorescence, hydrophobicity and protein cross-links were also decreased in the presence of crocin(s). In addition, the decreased chaperone activity of α-crystallin in the presence of glucose changed and became close to the native value by the addition of crocin(s) in the medium. Crocin(s) thus showed a powerful inhibitory effect on α-crystallin glycation and preserved the structure-function of this protein. Crocin(s) also showed the beneficial effects on prevention of diabetic cataract.

  20. Acute toxicity of betagamma-CAT, a naturally existing non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin-Qiao; Liu, Shu-Bai; He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2008-07-01

    In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. betagamma-CAT is the first example of a naturally existing multifunctional protein complex of a non-lens betagamma-crystallin and a trefoil factor from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Here we report the investigation of its in vivo toxic effects on mice and rabbits. The LD(50) values of betagamma-CAT on mice were determined to be 0.4 mg/kg and 20 microg/kg under intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection, respectively. The mice subcutaneously injected with betagamma-CAT (6 microg/g body weight) showed strong hyperaemia of subcutaneous capillary vessel, but no hemorrhagic spots were observed. Intravenous injection of betagamma-CAT in rabbits (8-22 microg/kg body weight) caused a rapidly hypotensive effect and followed with cardiovascular collapse. Injection with betagamma-CAT (22 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased hematocrit (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05) of the rabbits in 5 min. At the same time, the counts of platelets and white blood cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the blood levels of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Furthermore, serials of tissues edema and damages were also observed. These results indicate that betagamma-CAT rapidly caused several in vivo toxic effects on mammals and its lethal toxic potency was mainly contributed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, providing new clues for the understanding of the patho-physiological roles of non-lens betagamma-crystallins and trefoil factors.

  1. Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: In vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Maceo, Bianca M.; Manns, Fabrice; Borja, David; Nankivil, Derek; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert C.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the gradient refractive index to the change in lens power in hamadryas baboon and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher. Thirty-six monkey lenses (1.4–14.1 years) and twenty-five baboon lenses (1.8–28.0 years) were stretched in discrete steps. At each stretching step, the lens back vertex power was measured and the lens cross-section was imaged with optical coherence tomography. The radii of curvature for the lens anterior and posterior surfaces were calculated for each step. The power of each lens surface was determined using refractive indices of 1.365 for the outer cortex and 1.336 for the aqueous. The gradient contribution was calculated by subtracting the power of the surfaces from the measured lens power. In all lenses, the contribution of the surfaces and gradient increased linearly with the amplitude of accommodation. The gradient contributes on average 65 ± 3% for monkeys and 66 ± 3% for baboons to the total power change during accommodation. When expressed in percent of the total power change, the relative contribution of the gradient remains constant with accommodation and age in both species. These findings are consistent with Gullstrand’s intracapsular theory of accommodation. PMID:22131444

  2. The human crystallin gene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Crystallins are the abundant, long-lived proteins of the eye lens. The major human crystallins belong to two different superfamilies: the small heat-shock proteins (α-crystallins) and the βγ-crystallins. During evolution, other proteins have sometimes been recruited as crystallins to modify the properties of the lens. In the developing human lens, the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase serves such a role. Evolutionary modification has also resulted in loss of expression of some human crystallin genes or of specific splice forms. Crystallin organization is essential for lens transparency and mutations; even minor changes to surface residues can cause cataract and loss of vision. PMID:23199295

  3. [Search for chaperon-like anticataract drugs, the antiaggregants of lens crystallins. Communication. 1. Chaperon-like activity of N-acetyl carnosine dipeptide: in vitro study on a model of ultraviolet-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin].

    PubMed

    Muranov, K O; Dizhevskaia, A K; Boldyrev, A A; Karpova, O E; Sheremet, N L; Polunin, G S; Avetisov, S E; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation ofcrystallins, the lens proteins, is one of the basic stages of cataract formation. Among the protein aggregation models used to study the molecular mechanisms of the initial stages of lenticular opacity, UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin is most close to the in vivo conditions. The carnosine derivative N-acetyl carnosine has been shown to be effective in inhibiting the UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin. Examination of the accumulation kinetics of carbonyl groups in betaL-crystallin under UV irradiation has indicated that neither carnosine nor N-acetyl carnosine fails to affect this parameter--an indicator of oxidative protein damage. By taking into account also the fact that N-acetyl carnosine is not an antioxidant, it can be believed that the molecular mechanism of action of this compound on UV-induced aggregation of betaL is unassociated with its antioxidative properties. The authors hypothesize that the molecular chaperon-like properties similar to those of alpha-crystallin underlie the mechanism of action of the acetyl derivative carnosine. The prospects for searching anticataract agents of a new chaperon-like class are discussed.

  4. Gradients of refractive index in the crystalline lens and transient changes in refraction among patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Charman, W. Neil; Adnan; Atchison, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Transient hyperopic refractive shifts occur on a timescale of weeks in some patients after initiation of therapy for hyperglycemia, and are usually followed by recovery to the original refraction. Possible lenticular origin of these changes is considered in terms of a paraxial gradient index model. Assuming that the lens thickness and curvatures remain unchanged, as observed in practice, it appears possible to account for initial hyperopic refractive shifts of up to a few diopters by reduction in refractive index near the lens center and alteration in the rate of change between center and surface, so that most of the index change occurs closer to the lens surface. Restoration of the original refraction depends on further change in the refractive index distribution with more gradual changes in refractive index from the lens center to its surface. Modeling limitations are discussed. PMID:23243557

  5. Detection of protein-protein interactions among lens crystallins in a mammalian two-hybrid system assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling; Liang, Jack J-N

    2002-02-08

    alpha-Crystallin consists of two subunits, alphaA and alphaB, and each can form an oligomer by itself or with the other. The aggregation arises from interdomain interactions. However, it is not known whether such interactions also exist among alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins. This heterogeneous crystallin interaction is far weaker than the homogeneous crystallin interaction and is difficult to detect by conventional spectroscopic measurements. We used a mammalian two-hybrid system in this study. The major crystallin components, alphaA-, alphaB-, betaB2-, and gammaC-crystallin genes, were subcloned into the DNA binding domain and transcription activation domain vectors of the two-hybrid system, and they were cotransfected along with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter vector into HeLa cells. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity indicated that there were interactions between alphaA- (or alphaB-) and betaB2- or gammaC-crystallins but with an intensity of one-third that of alphaA-alphaB interactions. Hsp27, a member of the family of the small heat-shock proteins, showed a similar interaction property with alphaB-crystallin. Using the N- and C-terminal domain-truncated mutants, we demonstrated that both domains were important in the alphaA-crystallin self-interaction, but that only the C-terminal domain was important in the alphaB-crystallin self-interaction. These results show that the two-hybrid system can detect interactions among various crystallins and may be used in mapping interaction domains.

  6. Assessing the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms at different depths as an approach to measure biomechanical gradient of crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav; Manns, Fabrice; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using the dominant frequency of the sample surface response to a mechanical stimulation as an effective indicator for sensing the depthwise distribution of elastic properties in transparent layered phantom samples simulating the cortex and nucleus of the crystalline lens. Focused ultrasound waves are used to noninvasively interrogate the sample surface. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system is utilized to capture the surface dynamics over time with nanometer scale sensitivity. Spectral analysis is performed on the sample surface response to ultrasound stimulation and the dominant frequency is calculated under particular loading parameters. Pilot experiments were conducted on homogeneous and layered tissue-mimicking phantoms. Results indicate that the mechanical layers located at different depths introduce different frequencies to the sample surface response, which are correlated with the depth-dependent elasticity of the sample. The duration and the frequency of the ultrasound excitation are also investigated for their influences on this spectrum-based detection. This noninvasive method may be potentially applied for localized and rapid assessment of the depth dependence of the mechanical properties of the crystalline lens. PMID:24409379

  7. A Novel Non-Lens βγ−Crystallin and Trefoil Factor Complex from Amphibian Skin and Its Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Lee, Wen-Hui; Qian, Jin-Qiao; Lai, Ren; Jin, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, non-lens βγ-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. Principal Findings A naturally existing 72-kDa complex of non-lens βγ-crystallin (α-subunit) and trefoil factor (β-subunit), named βγ-CAT, was identified from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Its α-subunit and β-subunit (containing three trefoil factor domains), with a non-covalently linked form of αβ2, show significant sequence homology to ep37 proteins, a group of non-lens βγ-crystallins identified in newt Cynops pyrrhogaster and mammalian trefoil factors, respectively. βγ-CAT showed potent hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. The specific antiserum against each subunit was able to neutralize its hemolytic activity, indicating that the two subunits are functionally associated. βγ-CAT formed membrane pores with a functional diameter about 2.0 nm, leading to K+ efflux and colloid-osmotic hemolysis. High molecular weight SDS-stable oligomers (>240-kDa) were detected by antibodies against the α-subunit with Western blotting. Furthermore, βγ-CAT showed multiple cellular effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Low dosages of βγ-CAT (25–50 pM) were able to stimulate cell migration and wound healing. At high concentrations, it induced cell detachment (EC50 10 nM) and apoptosis. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed via intracellular vacuole formation. Under confocal microscope, some of the vacuoles were translocated to nucleus and partially fused with nuclear membrane. Bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar-type ATPase) and nocodazole (an agent of microtuble depolymerizing), while inhibited βγ-CAT induced vacuole formation, significantly inhibited βγ-CAT induced cell detachment, suggesting that βγ-CAT endocytosis is important for its activities

  8. Leonardo da Vinci, visual perspective and the crystalline sphere (lens): if only Leonardo had had a freezer.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2004-06-01

    This study confirms Leonardo's claim to have experimented on the bovine eye to determine the internal anatomy of the eye. The experiment, as described by Leonardo, was repeated in our laboratory. The study further discusses Leonardo's primary interest in the study of the eye (especially the lens), to determine how the image of an object which enters the eye in an inverted form is righted. The study shows the evolution of Leonardo's understanding of the anatomy and the physiology of vision. Initially, in keeping with his reading of the literature, the lens was placed in the centre but he made it globular. Later he promulgated two theories, reflection from the uvea and refraction within the lens to explain reversal of the image in the eye. Subsequently he rejected the first theory and, putting credence in the second theory, experimented (1509) to show that the lens is globular and is centrally placed. The fact that the present knowledge about the lens is at variance from his findings is not because he did not carry out the experiment, as suggested by some modern authors, but because of the limitation of the techniques available to him at the time.

  9. Study of molecular mechanisms of UV-induced aggregation of crystallins and possibility of maintaining eye lens transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soustov, L. V.; Chelnokov, E. V.; Bityurin, N. M.; Kiselev, A. L.; Nemov, V. V.; Sergeev, Yu. V.; Ostrovsky, M. A.

    2006-03-01

    The effect of D-pantethine and L-carnosine on the rate of UV-induced (XeC1 laser λ = 308 nm) aggregation of a mixture of βL-crystallin and α-crystallin is studied. We also demonstrate that the suggested by us combination of short-chain peptides shows better protective properties with respect to UV-induced aggregation than known anti-cataract agents.

  10. Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient.

    PubMed

    Borja, David; Siedlecki, Damian; de Castro, Alberto; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Ortiz, Sergio; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie; Marcos, Susana; Manns, Fabrice

    2010-11-08

    We quantify the posterior surface distortions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of isolated crystalline lenses. The posterior radius of curvature and asphericity obtained from OCT images acquired with the beam incident first on the anterior, and then the posterior, surface were compared. The results were compared with predictions of a ray-tracing model which includes the index gradient. The results show that the error in the radius of curvature is within the measurement reproducibility and that it can be corrected by assuming a uniform refractive index. However, accurate asphericity values require a correction algorithm that takes into account the gradient.

  11. Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient

    PubMed Central

    Borja, David; Siedlecki, Damian; de Castro, Alberto; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Ortiz, Sergio; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie; Marcos, Susana; Manns, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the posterior surface distortions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of isolated crystalline lenses. The posterior radius of curvature and asphericity obtained from OCT images acquired with the beam incident first on the anterior, and then the posterior, surface were compared. The results were compared with predictions of a ray-tracing model which includes the index gradient. The results show that the error in the radius of curvature is within the measurement reproducibility and that it can be corrected by assuming a uniform refractive index. However, accurate asphericity values require a correction algorithm that takes into account the gradient. PMID:21258553

  12. One-shot LC-MS/MS analysis of post-translational modifications including oxidation and deamidation of rat lens α- and β-crystallins induced by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Fujii, Noriko

    2016-12-01

    The eye lens is a transparent organ that functions to focus light and images on the retina. The transparency and high refraction of the lens are maintained by the function of α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. These long-lived proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, which occur gradually during the aging process. Such modifications, which are generated by UV light and oxidative stress, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of age-related cataracts. Here, we irradiated young rat lenses with γ-rays (5-500 Gy) and extracted the water-soluble (WS) and water-insoluble (WI) protein fractions. The WS and WI lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by one-shot LC-MS/MS to determine the specific sites of oxidation of methionine and tryptophan, deamidation sites of asparagine and glutamine, and isomerization of aspartyl in rat α- and β-crystallins in the WS and WI fractions. Oxidation and deamidation occurred in several crystallins after irradiation at more than, respectively, 50 and 5 Gy; however, isomerization did not occur in any crystallin even after exposure to 500 Gy of irradiation. The number of oxidation and deamidation sites was much higher in the WI than in the WS fraction. Furthermore, the oxidation and deamidation sites in rat crystallins resemble those reported in crystallins from human age-related cataracts. Thus, this study on post-translational modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to the formation of human age-related cataracts.

  13. Unneeded Surgical Removal Of the Crystalline Lens Shuts Down Feedback-control To the Extrinsic Muscles Of Each Eye, Impairing self-correcting Mechanisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Blinking induces minor oscillations of a few tenths of a diopter in the crystalline lens. RDM has maintained that these serve as the origin of the self-regulating and correcting effect of the feedback control system that drives the operation of the major extrinsic eye muscles. The oscillations are a necessary part of the healthy eyes ability to cope with any highly dynamic environment of a fit animal. As an example, maintained inward convergence of a right eye under conditions required for extensive reading under too-bright illumination, must gradually induce extension of the elastic outer lateral muscle beyond its self-repair limit, while simultaneously allowing the inner lateral muscle to become contracted beyond its ordinary self-regulating length. External eye muscles above and below the eye would be relatively unaffected. Consequently, an unnatural inequality of curvature develops horizontally and vertically for that eye, resulting in differences of magnification in the vertical and horizontal planes. Artificial lenses cannot oscillate.

  14. Creation of a new eye lens crystallin (Gambeta) through structure-guided mutagenic grafting of the surface of betaB2 crystallin onto the hydrophobic core of gammaB crystallin.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Divya; Singh, Balvinder; Subramanian, Karthikeyan; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2009-06-01

    The degree of conservation of three-dimensional folds in protein superfamilies is greater than that of amino acid sequences. Therefore, very different groups of residues (and schemes of residue packing) can be found displayed upon similar structural scaffolds. We have previously demonstrated the workability of a protein engineering-based method for rational mixing of the interior features of an all-beta enzyme with the substrate-binding and catalytic (surface) features of another enzyme whose sequence is not similar but which is structurally homologous to the first enzyme. Here, we extend this method to whole-protein surfaces and interiors. We show how two all-beta Greek key proteins, betaB2 crystallin and gammaB crystallin, can be recombined to produce a new protein through rational transplantation of the entire surface of betaB2 crystallin upon the structure of gammaB crystallin, without altering the latter's interior. This new protein, Gambeta, consists of 61 residues possessing the same identity at structurally equivalent positions in betaB2- and gammaB crystallin, 91 surface residues unique to betaB2 crystallin, and 27 interior residues unique to gammaB crystallin. Gambeta displays a mixture of the structural/biochemical characteristics, surface features and colligative properties of its progenitor crystallins. It also displays optical properties common to both progenitor crystallins (i.e. retention of transparency at high concentrations, as well as high refractivity). The folding of a protein with such a 'patchwork' residue ancestry suggests that interior/surface transplants involving all-beta proteins are a feasible engineering strategy.

  15. Oligomerization and conformation change in solutions of calf lens gamma II-crystallin. Results from 1/T1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, S H; Beaulieu, C F; Brown, R D; Spiller, M

    1990-01-01

    From analyses of the magnetic field dependence of 1/T1 (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion [NMRD] profiles) of water protons in solutions of highly purified calf lens gamma II-crystallin, we find that monomers form oligomers at relatively low concentrations, which increase in size with increasing concentration and decreasing temperature. At approximately 16% by volume and -4 degrees C, the mean oligomeric molecular weight is approximately 120-fold greater than the monomeric value of 20 kD. Below this concentration, there is no indication of any substantive change in conformation of the monomeric subunits. At higher concentrations, the tertiary structure of the monomer appears to reconfigure rather abruptly, but reversibly, as evidenced by the appearance of spectra-like 14N peaks in the NMRD profiles. The magnitudes of these peaks, known to arise from cross-relaxation of water protons through access to amide (NH) moieties of the protein backbone, indicate that the high concentration conformation is not compact, but open and extended in a manner that allows enhanced interaction with solvent. The data are analogous to those found for homogenates of calf and chicken lens (Beaulieu, C. F., J. I. Clark, R. D. Brown III, M. Spiller, and S. H. Koenig. 1988. Magn. Reson. Med. 8:47-57; Beaulieu, C. F., R. D. Brown III, J. I. Clark, M. Spiller, and S. H. Koenig. 1989. Magn. Reson. Med. 10:62-72). This unusually large dependence of oligomeric size and conformation on concentration in the physiological range is suggested as the mechanism by which osmotic equilibrium is maintained, at minimal metabolic expense, in the presence of large gradients of protein concentration in the lens in vivo (cf Vérétout and Tardieu, 1989. Eur. Biophys. J. 17:61-68). Finally, the results of the NMRD data provide a ready explanation of the low temperature phase transition, and "cold-cataract" separation of phases, observed in gamma II-crystallin solutions; we suggest that the phases that

  16. The use of a syncytium model of the crystalline lens of the eye as a new tool to study the light flashes phenomenon seen by astronauts.

    PubMed

    Nurzia, Giampietro; Scrimaglio, Renato; Spataro, Bruno; Zirilli, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    A syncytium model to study some electrical properties of the eye is proposed to study the phenomenon of anomalous light flashes (LF) perceived by astronauts in orbit. The crystalline lens is modelled as an ellipsoidal syncytium with a variable relative dielectric constant. The corresponding mathematical model is a boundary value problem for a system of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations in the two unknown syncytial electrical potentials. A numerical method to compute an approximate solution of this mathematical model is used, and some numerical results are shown. The model can be regarded as a new tool to study the LF phenomenon. In particular, the energy lost in the syncytium by a transversing cosmic charged particle is calculated and the results obtained with the syncytium model are compared with those obtained using the previously available Geant 3.21 simulation program. In addition, the interaction of antimatter-syncytium is studied, and the Creme96 computer program is used to evaluate the cosmic ray fluxes encountered by the International Space Station in its standard mission.

  17. Morphologic Patterns Formed by the Anomalous Fibers Occurring Along the Anterior Capsule of the Crystalline Lens in People With the Long Anterior Zonule Trait.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel K; Yang, Yongyi; Morettin, Christina E; Newman, Tricia L; Roberts, Mary F; Wilensky, Jacob T

    2017-07-01

    People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. To further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL. There were 59 African-Americans (54 female; median age = 70 years, 53-91 years) included in the analysis. After initial review of the zonule tracings, we identified three basic LAZ patterns. We called one pattern (47% of right eyes) a "non-segmental LAZ pattern," which was predominated by fibers that could be visually traced to the dilated pupil border where they became obscured by the iris. Another pattern (35% of right eyes), the "segmental LAZ pattern," was predominated by fibers that appeared to terminate abruptly without detectable extension to the pupil border. The third pattern (18% of right eyes), the "mixed LAZ pattern," had a more equivalent mixture of the other two fiber morphologies. Compared to the "non-segmental" group, the "segmental" LAZ eyes had smaller central zonule-free zones (P < 0.0001), and they tended to exhibit fewer LAZ fibers (P = 0.07). These data improve understanding of LAZ clinical anatomy and may be helpful to future investigation. Anat Rec, 300:1336-1347, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mapping of four mouse genes encoding eye lens-specific structural, gap junction, and integral membrane proteins: Cryba1 (crystallin{beta}A3/A1), Crybb2 (crystallin{beta}B2), Gja8 (MP70), and Lim2 (MP19)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, S.; Boyd, Y.; Lyon, M.F.

    1995-09-20

    Four genes encoding eye lens-specific proteins, potential candidate genes for congenital cataract (CC) mutations, were mapped in the mouse genome using a panel of somatic cell hybrids and DNAs from the EUCIB (European Collaborative Interspecific Backcross). Two of them are lens fiber cell structural proteins: the Cryba1 locus encoding crystallin{beta}A3/A1 maps to chromosome 11, 2.5 {+-} 2.5 cM distal to D11Mit31, and the Crybb2 locus encoding crystallin{beta}B2 maps to chromosome 5, 9.1 {+-} 4.3 cM distal to D5Mit88. The other two genes encode lens-specific gap junction and integral membrane proteins, respectively: the Gja8 locus encoding gap junction membrane channel protein {alpha}8, also called connexin50 or MP70, maps to chromosome 3, 11.9 {+-} 5.0 cM distal to D3Mit22, and the Lim2 locus encoding lens intrinsic membrane protein 2, also call MP19, maps to chromosome 7, 2.5 {+-} 2.5 cM proximal to Ngfg. All four map positions, when compared with the corresponding positions in human, lie within known regions of conserved synteny between mouse and human chromosomes. 43 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Nanouk G M; Dubbelman, Michiel; Kostense, Piet J; Ringens, Peter J; Polak, Bettine C P

    2008-10-01

    To study the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) types 1 and 2 on the thickness, radius of curvature, equivalent refractive index, and power of the lens. Observational cross-sectional study. One hundred fourteen patients with DM type 1, 112 patients with DM type 2, and 75 control subjects. Lens thickness and the anterior and posterior radius of the lens were measured by means of corrected Scheimpflug imaging. Ocular refraction was determined with Hartmann-Shack aberrometry. The equivalent refractive index and the power of the lens were calculated from these parameters. Several systemic parameters (e.g., duration of DM, glycated hemoglobin, and type of medication) and ocular comorbidity (e.g., level of diabetic retinopathy) were recorded. The thickness, anterior and posterior radii, equivalent refractive index, and power of the lens. The lenses of the patients with DM type 1 were significantly thicker and more convex, compared with those of the control group (P<0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the equivalent refractive index of their lenses compared with the control group. No difference in lens parameters was found between the patients with DM type 2 and the control group. In the DM type 1 group, the duration of DM was an important determinant of lens biometry; the independent effects of the duration of DM per year on lens thickness, anterior radius, posterior radius, and equivalent refractive index were respectively 95%, 88%, 207%, and 45% of the effect of age per year. Lens power and ocular refraction were not affected by DM types 1 or 2. The results of the present study show that DM type 1 has a major impact on lens biometry. Furthermore, the difference in effect of DM types 1 and 2 on lens biometry may indicate a fundamental difference in pathogenesis. The decrease in equivalent refractive index of the lens seemed to compensate for the profound increase in lens convexity in patients with DM type 1, resulting in no significant change in

  20. [Like anticataract agents, the antiaggregants of lens crystallin. Communication 2. Study of the impact of chaperon-like (protective) activity of short-chain peptides on the rate of UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallins by eximer laser].

    PubMed

    Soustov, L V; Chelnokov, E V; Sapogova, N V; Bitiurin, N M; Nemov, V V; Karpova, O E; Sheremet, N L; Polunin, G S; Avetisov, S E; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin, one of the major lens proteins, was studied under its pulse radiation with XeCl laser at a wavelength of 308 nm. Unlike the in vitro tested dipeptides L-carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, D-panthetine, and particularly their combination, the so-called new chaperon was demonstrated to slow down the rate of photoaggregatin of beta-crystallin. The new chaperon, a mixture of D-pathethine and N-acetyl carnosine was ascertained to protect a mixture of betaL- and alpha-crystallins from UV-induced aggregation to a greater extent than D-pathethine or N-acetyl carnosine used alone. An effective drug based on the new chaperon may be designed for the prevention of cataract in sight.

  1. [Lens platform].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  2. [The comparative characteristics of crystalline lens and limb regeneration in newts operated on before and after the completion of an orbital space flight].

    PubMed

    Tuchkova, S Ia; Brushlinskaia, N V; Grigorian, E N; Mitashov, V I

    1994-01-01

    It has been already established that a tendency towards synchronization and acceleration of the forelimb and lens regeneration is observed in Pleurodeles waltlii under the effect of space flight factors. Here we present the results obtained after 16-day space flight of two groups of newts. In animals of group I forelimbs were amputated and lenses were removed 14 and 7 days before the space flight, respectively. Intact animals of group II were operated on the day of the sputnik landing. Regenerates of the flight and corresponding control animals were fixed at the same time after the operation. For evaluation of the regeneration rate morphological criteria were used: morphological stages of regeneration were compared in the experiment and the control. For quantitative assay of the regeneration rate we determined the index of nuclei labelled with 3H-thymidine in the blastema and lens rudiment cells and used morphometry of the lens regenerates. Acceleration of forelimb and lens regeneration was observed in both groups of animals. In group II more than two-fold increase of the index of labelled nuclei was found in the blastema cells at the comparable stages of development. The size of lens regenerates in flight groups I and II exceeded reliably those in the control animals. The results obtained suggest a prolonged effect of the space flight factors on forelimb and lens regeneration. Under the conditions of space flight the lens regenerates reached more advanced stages of regeneration, as compared with the control animals operated after the space flight. These results also suggest acceleration of regeneration in lower vertebrates.

  3. [Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of para-aminobenzoic acid and emoxipin in the cornea and crystalline lens (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Musaev Galbinur, P I; Stroeva, O G; Magomedov, N M; Babaev, N F; Galbinur, A P

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant effect of paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the retina upon different routes of its administration has been revealed previously. In this study we investigated the antioxidant effect of PABA in the cornea and lens of rats after its parabulbar injection. Antioxidant activity of PABA was compared to that of emoxipin. One hour after hypoxic hypoxia the animals were parabulbarly injected with PABA solutions (0.007-0.08%) and 1% emoxipin. The eyes of intact animals and rats exposed to hypoxia alone served as the control. The levels of lipid peroxidation products (hydroperoxide, malonic dialdehyde) and catalase activity in the cornea and lens were measured 1, 3, 6, and 11 h after injections. PABA in all studied concentrations essentially decreased the elevated levels of hydroperoxides and malonic dialdehyde and normalized catalase activity. The level of lipid peroxidation products and catalase activity normalized 24-28 h after hypoxia, while after PABA it normalized within 2-11 h. Antioxidant activity of emoxipin in the lens and cornea was the same as that of optimal antioxidant concentrations of PABA (0.02% for the cornea and 0.06% for the lens). Hence, PABA in a wide range of concentrations (0.007-0.06%) is characterized by sufficiently high antioxidant activity in tissues of the anterior segment of the eye (cornea and lens) upon local administration.

  4. Crystal structures of truncated alphaA and alphaB crystallins reveal structural mechanisms of polydispersity important for eye lens function

    SciTech Connect

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Benesch, Justin L.P.; Landau, Meytal; Ding, Linlin; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Huang, Qingling; Robinson, Carol V.; Horwitz, Joseph; Eisenberg, David

    2010-08-23

    Small heat shock proteins alphaA and alphaB crystallin form highly polydisperse oligomers that frustrate protein aggregation, crystallization, and amyloid formation. Here, we present the crystal structures of truncated forms of bovine alphaA crystallin (AAC{sub 59-163}) and human alphaB crystallin (ABC{sub 68-162}), both containing the C-terminal extension that functions in chaperone action and oligomeric assembly. In both structures, the C-terminal extensions swap into neighboring molecules, creating runaway domain swaps. This interface, termed DS, enables crystallin polydispersity because the C-terminal extension is palindromic and thereby allows the formation of equivalent residue interactions in both directions. That is, we observe that the extension binds in opposite directions at the DS interfaces of AAC{sub 59-163} and ABC{sub 68-162}. A second dimeric interface, termed AP, also enables polydispersity by forming an antiparallel beta sheet with three distinct registration shifts. These two polymorphic interfaces enforce polydispersity of alpha crystallin. This evolved polydispersity suggests molecular mechanisms for chaperone action and for prevention of crystallization, both necessary for transparency of eye lenses.

  5. Differential use of the regulatory elements of the alpha B-crystallin enhancer in cultured murine lung (MLg), lens (alpha TN4-1) and muscle (C2C12) cells.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J I; Gopal-Srivastava, R; Frederikse, P H; Piatigorsky, J

    1995-04-03

    The mouse alpha B-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha B-cry) is highly expressed in the lens and expressed to lesser extents in other tissues. Here, we investigated alpha B-cry expression in mouse-lung-derived MLg cells. Two sizes of MLg alpha B-cry transcripts comigrated with alpha B-cry transcripts contained in total and poly(A)+RNA from mouse lung, with preference for the larger species in the MLg cells. Expression of both alpha B-cry promoter/cat reporter gene constructs and alpha B-cry enhancer (nt -427/-259)/herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase promoter (ptk)/human growth hormone reporter gene (hGH) constructs was studied in transfected MLg cells and the results compared with those obtained from alpha TN4-1 lens and C2C12 muscle cells. The alpha B-cry enhancer increased activity of the endogenous and tk promoters approx. 2-fold in the MLg cells, in contrast to its 3-7-fold effect in alpha TN4-1 cells and 17-20-fold effect in C2C12 myotubes. Site-specific mutagenesis of the previously identified enhancer control elements, alpha B-E-1 (nt -407 to -397), alpha BE-2 (-360 to -327) and MRF (-300 to -288), decreased enhancer strength in transfected MLg cells. DNase I footprinting showed that MLg nuclear proteins occupy only alpha BE-1 and alpha BE-2. Previous data have shown that lens cells use alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2 and alpha BE-3, while muscle cells use, in addition, the muscle regulatory factor-binding site (MRF). Thus, the present experiments correlate tissue-specific enhancer strength and the number of control elements utilized.

  6. Fabry lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michlovic, J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the properties, operation, and applications of the Fabry lens. As used in stellar photometry, a Fabry lens is nothing more than a simple converging lens inserted into the optical train of a photometer to construct an image of the objective on the photomultiplier cathode. The thereby derived advantages are reviewed, and some techniques designed to maximize these advantages are outlined.

  7. Ostrich crystallins. Structural characterization of delta-crystallin with enzymic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, S H; Lo, C H; Chang, C Y; Itoh, T; Kaji, H; Samejima, T

    1991-01-01

    Lens crystallins from the African ostrich (Struthio camelus) were isolated and characterized. Four crystallin fractions corresponding to alpha-, delta/beta- and beta-crystallins similar to those of duck crystallins were isolated, but epsilon-crystallin was found to be absent. The native molecular masses and subunit structures of the purified fractions were analysed by gel filtration. SDS/PAGE and isoelectric focusing, revealing various extents of heterogeneity in each orthologous crystallin class. An ion-exchange chromatographic method was used for the large-scale preparation of delta-crystallin suitable for structural and enzymic studies. It was unexpectedly found that the purified native delta-crystallin of ostrich lens possessed high argininosuccinate lyase activity, in contrast with chicken delta-crystallin. The c.d. spectra indicated a predominant beta-sheet structure in alpha- and beta-crystallins, and a significant contribution of alpha-helical structure in the delta-crystallin fraction. The estimate of secondary structures from c.d. spectroscopy for each crystallin class bears a resemblance to that of duck crystallins, except that ostrich delta-crystallin possesses much less helical content than duck delta-crystallin. Comparison of crystallin compositions and structures from aquatic and terrestrial birds revealed distinct differences. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1991029

  8. Management of the subluxated crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Snyder, Michael E; Devgan, Uday; Allen, Quentin B; Yeoh, Ronald; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2013-12-01

    The surgical management of ectopia lentis presents the ophthalmic surgeon with numerous challenges and options. From the clinical evaluation to the surgical approach, ectopia lentis patients require additional methodologies, techniques, and devices to ensure the best possible outcome. The continued refinement of surgical techniques and adjunctive prosthetic devices has led to incremental improvements in the ability to achieve successful in-the-bag placement and centration of intraocular lenses while reducing complications. A thorough understanding of the challenges inherent in ectopia lentis cases and the management of intraoperative complications will ensure that surgeons approaching the correction of these eyes will achieve the best possible surgical results.

  9. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  10. Advances in lens implant technology

    PubMed Central

    Kampik, Anselm; Dexl, Alois K.; Zimmermann, Nicole; Glasser, Adrian; Baumeister, Martin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of implants customized for each patient’s individual requirements. This review discusses the major advances in this field and focuses on the main challenge remaining – the treatment of presbyopia. The demand for correction of presbyopia is increasing, reflecting the global growth of the ageing population. Pearls and pitfalls of currently applied methods to correct presbyopia and different approaches under investigation, both in lens implant technology and in surgical technology, are discussed. PMID:23413369

  11. Fresnel Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Scott, Steve; Lamb, David; Zimmerman, Joe E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fresnel lenses span the full range of sizes from lens a few micrometers in diameter to lens several meters in diameter. These lenses are utilized in various fields including optical communication, theatrical lighting, office equipment, video entertainment systems, solar concentrators, and scientific research instruments. These lenses function either as diffractive or refractive optical elements depending on the geometrical feature size of the lens. The basic functions of these lenses is described followed by an overview of fabrication methods. A summary of applications is then provided illustrating the rich variety of applications for which fresnel lenses may be designed to fulfill.

  12. Comparative study of lens proteins of gray squirrel and human.

    PubMed

    Zigman, S; Paxhia, T; Lou, M; Yu, N T

    1990-01-01

    1. The four crystallins of the gray squirrel lens have been characterized using gel filtration chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. Alpha, beta-heavy, beta-light, and gamma crystallins of squirrel lenses have been identified immunologically, and they cross-react strongly with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The gamma-24 crystallin of the squirrel lens also reacts strongly with monoclonal anti-human lens gamma-24, as shown by its inhibition of the ELISA reaction by 85%. 2. The water-insoluble urea soluble proteins represent non-covalently associated species of soluble crystallins and the lens cytoskeletal proteins. The membrane intrinsic protein in the urea insoluble pellet has a mol. wt of 27,000 but other lower and higher mol. wt components are also present, which were removed by washing with 0.1 NaOH. The N-terminal 30 amino acid of squirrel lens gamma crystallin was found to be identical to that of the bovine (and human) lens. 3. Measurements of the distribution and state of SH and SS compounds in the squirrel lens have shown greater similarities to those of primates than those of rodents. The findings show that on the basis of both protein and sulfur chemistry the squirrel lens is a representative model for studies of oxidative lens changes in diurnal animals, including man.

  13. Compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Brixner, B.B.; Klein, M.M.; Winkler, M.A.

    1980-05-21

    The disclosure relates to at least one calcium fluoride optical element used in combination with at least two ordinary crown glass lens elements to greatly reduce secondary spectrum in optical systems.

  14. Compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Brixner, Berlyn B.; Klein, Morris M.; Winkler, Max A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to at least one calcium fluoride optical element used in combination with at least two ordinary crown glass lens elements to greatly reduce secondary spectrum in optical systems.

  15. Barlow Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An additional lens that increases the effective focal length and magnification of a telescope. It is a negative diverging lens (either concave on both sides or, more usually, `plano-concave'—flat on one side and concave on the other) that is placed in the converging cone of light a short distance in front of the focal plane of the objective or primary mirror. By decreasing the angle at which the ...

  16. Sunglass Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Foster Grant's Space Technology Lens, manufactured under license from NASA, combines NASA technology with Foster Grant's own technology. The NASA contribution was a highly abrasion-resistant coating developed at Ames Research Center as a means of protecting plastic surfaces of aerospace equipment from the sometimes harsh environments to which they are subjected. The Space Tech Lens, now manufactured by Fosta-Tek, surpasses glass in abrasion resistant properties and has five times better scratch resistance than the most popular corrective lenses.

  17. Assessing the elasticity change of cataract lens with OCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Cataract is one of the most common degenerative diseases that causes blindness. Careful quantification of lens biomechanical properties can greatly assist in early detection of the disease as well as personalization of treatment procedures. In this study, we utilize a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to assess the effects of the cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of porcine crystalline lens in vitro. Relaxation rates of air puff induced elastic waves were measured on the same crystalline lens with and without cold cataract. Results demonstrate that the relaxation rate and, thus, associated elasticity of the porcine lens, increased due to the presence of cold cataract.

  18. Introduction to the development of intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan; Peng, Runling; Hu, Shuilan; Wei, Maowei; Chen, Jiabi

    2013-08-01

    In order to cure the cataract disease or injuries in eyes, intraocular lens(IOL) has been studied all the time to replace the crystalline lens in human eyes. Researches on IOL are started early from 19th century, and it develops greatly in the hundreds years after. This article introduces several main kinds of IOLs that appear in the development history of IOL, and raises the double-liquid zoom IOL based on electrowetting, which will be the trend of IOL study.

  19. Lens Biodiversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...

  20. gammaN-crystallin and the evolution of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wistow, Graeme; Wyatt, Keith; David, Larry; Gao, Chun; Bateman, Orval; Bernstein, Steven; Tomarev, Stanislav; Segovia, Lorenzo; Slingsby, Christine; Vihtelic, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The beta and gamma crystallins are evolutionarily related families of proteins that make up a large part of the refractive structure of the vertebrate eye lens. Each family has a distinctive gene structure that reflects a history of successive gene duplications. A survey of gamma-crystallins expressed in mammal, reptile, bird and fish species (particularly in the zebrafish, Danio rerio) has led to the discovery of gammaN-crystallin, an evolutionary bridge between the beta and gamma families. In all species examined, gammaN-crystallins have a hybrid gene structure, half beta and half gamma, and thus appear to be the 'missing link' between the beta and gamma crystallin lineages. Overall, there are four major classes of gamma-crystallin: the terrestrial group (including mammalian gammaA-F); the aquatic group (the fish gammaM-crystallins); the gammaS group; and the novel gammaN group. Like the evolutionarily ancient beta-crystallins (but unlike the terrestrial gammaA-F and aquatic gammaM groups), both the gammaS and gammaN crystallins form distinct clades with members in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. In rodents, gammaN is expressed in nuclear fibers of the lens and, perhaps hinting at an ancestral role for the gamma-crystallins, also in the retina. Although well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, gammaN in primates has apparently undergone major changes and possible loss of functional expression.

  1. CRYSTALLINE DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1950-01-01

    A crystalline enzyme capable of digesting thymus nucleic acid (desoxyribonucleic acid) has been isolated from fresh beef pancreas. The enzyme called "desoxyribonuclease" is a protein of the albumin type. Its molecular weight is about 60,000 and its isoelectric point is near pH 5.0. It contains about 8 per cent tyrosine and 2 per cent tryptophane. It is readily denatured by heat. The denaturation is reversible if heated in dilute acid at pH about 3.0. The digestion of thymus nucleic acid by crystalline desoxyribonuclease is accompanied by a gradual increase in the specific absorption of ultraviolet light by the acid. The spectrophotometric measurement of the rate of increase in the light absorption can be conveniently used as a general method for estimating desoxyribonuclease activity. Details are given of the method for isolation of crystalline desoxyribonuclease and of the spectrophotometric procedure for the measurement of desoxyribonuclease activity. PMID:15406373

  2. Fluidic adaptive lens of transformable lens type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Ying; Justis, Nicole; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2004-05-01

    Fluidic adaptive lenses with a transformable lens type were demonstrated. By adjusting the fluidic pressure, not only can the lens properties, such as the focal distance and numerical aperture, be tuned dynamically but also different lens types, such as planoconvex, planoconcave, biconvex, biconcave, positive meniscus, and negative meniscus lenses, can be formed. The shortest focal length for a 20 mm aperture adaptive lens is 14.3 mm when the device is transformed into a positive lens, and -6.3 mm when transformed into a negative lens. The maximum resolution of the fluidic lens is better than 40 line pairs/mm.

  3. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  4. [Chaperon-like anticataract agents, the antiaggregants of lens crystallin. Communication 4. Study of the effect of a mixture of di- and tetrapeptides on a prolonged rat model of UV-induced cataract].

    PubMed

    Avetisov, S E; Polunin, G S; Sheremet, N L; Makarov, I A; Fedorov, A A; Karpova, O E; Muranov, K O; Dizhevskaia, A K; Soustov, L V; Chelnokov, E V; Bitiurin, N M; Sapogova, N V; Nemov, V V; Bodyrev, A A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    There is a potential of therapeutic action on certain stages of caractogenesis, in particular on the aggregation of water-soluble proteins of cytoplasmic lens fiber cells, giving rise to insoluble protein complexes. The effect of a combined preparation (N-acetyl carnosine and D-patethine), acting by the chaperon-like mechanism, was studied in vivo on a prolonged rat model of UV-induced cataract. The use of the combined preparation consisting of a mixture of peptides of N-acetyl carnosine and D-patethine in a ratio of 1:1 as ocular instillations and intraperitoneal injections could slow down the development of UV-induced cataract in vivo. Pathomorphological studies suggest that the combined preparation has a protective effect on lens tissue when the rat model of UV-induced cataract is employed.

  5. The role of Pax-6 in lens regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Mayur; Haynes, Tracy L.; Frisch, Nicholas C.; Call, Mindy K.; Minich, Craig M.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2006-01-01

    Pax-6 is a master regulator of eye development and is expressed in the dorsal and ventral iris during newt lens regeneration. We show that expression of Pax-6 during newt lens regeneration coincides with cell proliferation. By knocking down expression of Pax-6 via treatment with morpholinos, we found that proliferation of iris pigment epithelial cells was dramatically reduced both in vitro and in vivo, and, as a result, lens regeneration was significantly retarded. However, induction of dedifferentiation in the dorsal iris was not inhibited. Pax-6 knockdown early in lens regeneration resulted in inhibition of crystallin expression and retardation of lens fiber induction. Once crystallin expression and differentiation of lens fibers has ensued, however, loss of function of Pax-6 did not affect crystallin expression and lens fiber maintenance, even though the effects on proliferation persisted. These results conclusively show that Pax-6 is associated with distinct early events during lens regeneration, namely control of cell proliferation and subsequent lens fiber differentiation. PMID:17003134

  6. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  7. Conditional deletion of beta1-integrin from the developing lens leads to loss of the lens epithelial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Simirskii, Vladimir N; Wang, Yan; Duncan, Melinda K

    2007-06-15

    Beta1-integrins are cell surface receptors that participate in sensing the cell's external environment. We used the Cre-lox system to delete beta1-integrin in all lens cells as the lens vesicle transitions into the lens. Adult mice lacking beta1-integrin in the lens are microphthalmic due to apoptosis of the lens epithelium and neonatal disintegration of the lens fibers. The first morphological alterations in beta1-integrin null lenses are seen at 16.5 dpc when the epithelium becomes disorganized and begins to upregulate the fiber cell markers beta- and gamma-crystallins, the transcription factors cMaf and Prox1 and downregulate Pax6 levels demonstrating that beta1-integrin is essential to maintain the lens epithelial phenotype. Furthermore, beta1-integrin null lens epithelial cells upregulate the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and nuclear Smad4 and downregulate Smad6 suggesting that beta1-integrin may brake TGFbeta family signaling leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in the lens. In contrast, beta1-integrin null lens epithelial cells show increased E-cadherin immunoreactivity which supports the proposed role of beta1-integrins in mediating complete EMT in response to TGFbeta family members. Thus, beta1-integrin is required to maintain the lens epithelial phenotype and block inappropriate activation of some aspects of the lens fiber cell differentiation program.

  8. Lens growth and protein changes in the eastern grey kangaroo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother’s pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Methods Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS–PAGE. Results Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15

  9. Lens growth and protein changes in the eastern grey kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Augusteyn, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Development in marsupials takes place predominantly ex utero while the young is attached to a nipple in the mother's pouch, very different from that in other species. This study was undertaken to examine whether this affects lens growth and the production of lens proteins in kangaroos. Fresh lenses were obtained at official culls from eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Wet weights were recorded for all and protein contents were determined for one lens from each animal. Dry weights, after fixation were obtained for 20 lenses. Ages were determined using both molar progression and total lens protein content. Lenses were divided into concentric layers by controlled dissolution using phosphate buffered saline. Samples were taken for determination of protein contents and dry weights, which were then used to determine the age of the layer removed. Soluble crystallin distributions were determined by fractionation of the centrifuged extracts using HPLC-GPC and the polypeptide contents of both soluble and insoluble proteins were assessed by SDS-PAGE. Lens growth is continuous from birth throughout adulthood and the increases in wet weight and fixed dry weight can be described with a single logistic growth functions for the whole life span. Three major crystallin classes, α-, β-, and γ-crystallins, were identified in the immature pouch-young animals aged around 60 days after birth. Adult lenses contain, in addition, the taxon-specific μ-crystallin. The proportions of these vary with the age of the lens tissue due to age related insolubilization as well as changes in the synthesis patterns. During early lactation (birth to 190 days), the α-, β-, and γ-crystallins represent 25, 53, and 20% of the total protein, respectively. After the pouch-young first releases the nipple (190 days), there is a rapid decrease in the production of γ-crystallins to around 5% of the total and a corresponding increase in μ-crystallin, from 0.5% to 15%. These changes were complete

  10. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  13. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  14. Isomerization of Asp residues plays an important role in αA-crystallin dissociation.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takumi; Fujii, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Aged cataract formation is caused by the accumulative precipitation of lens proteins incorporating diverse post-translational modifications. α-Crystallin, a major structural and functional lens protein, consists of a large polymeric structure that is dissociated and insolubilized with accumulative post-translational modifications. One such modification, isomerization of Asp, was recently identified in αB-crystallin monomers derived from aged lens. However, the distributions of Asp isomers in each lens fraction remain unknown. Here, α-crystallin fractions from aged lens were separated into heteropolymeric and monomeric forms to determine the Asp isomerization ratios in each fraction. Lens of four different ages were homogenized and centrifuged, and the soluble fraction was applied to size-exclusion chromatography. The heteropolymeric α-crystallin and monomeric crystallin fractions were obtained and concentrated. After trypsin digestion, each fraction was independently applied to liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry to extract α-crystallin-derived peptides containing Asp isomers. The results showed that Asp58, Asp84 and Asp151 of αA-crystallin were highly isomerized in the monomeric fraction, but not isomerized to the same level in the heteropolymeric fraction. Each type of Asp isomerization increased in an age-dependent manner, was site-specific and was similar to previous results from lens water-insoluble fractions. These results imply that isomerization of Asp residues leads to dissociation of αA-crystallin from the heteropolymeric state and induces insolubilization in aged lens. Taken together, our findings suggest that isomerization of Asp might disrupt the higher order polymeric state of α-crystallin, resulting in decreased solubility and function, ultimately contributing to lens protein impairment and cataract formation with aging.

  15. Signaling and Gene Regulatory Networks in Mammalian Lens Development.

    PubMed

    Cvekl, Ales; Zhang, Xin

    2017-10-01

    Ocular lens development represents an advantageous system in which to study regulatory mechanisms governing cell fate decisions, extracellular signaling, cell and tissue organization, and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Spatiotemporally regulated domains of BMP, FGF, and other signaling molecules in late gastrula-early neurula stage embryos generate the border region between the neural plate and non-neural ectoderm from which multiple cell types, including lens progenitor cells, emerge and undergo initial tissue formation. Extracellular signaling and DNA-binding transcription factors govern lens and optic cup morphogenesis. Pax6, c-Maf, Hsf4, Prox1, Sox1, and a few additional factors regulate the expression of the lens structural proteins, the crystallins. Extensive crosstalk between a diverse array of signaling pathways controls the complexity and order of lens morphogenetic processes and lens transparency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution properties of γ-crystallins: Hydration of fish and mammal γ-crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Chen, Yingwei; Rezabkova, Lenka; Wu, Zhengrong; Wistow, Graeme; Schuck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lens γ crystallins are found at the highest protein concentration of any tissue, ranging from 300 mg/mL in some mammals to over 1000 mg/mL in fish. Such high concentrations are necessary for the refraction of light, but impose extreme requirements for protein stability and solubility. γ-crystallins, small stable monomeric proteins, are particularly associated with the lowest hydration regions of the lens. Here, we examine the solvation of selected γ-crystallins from mammals (human γD and mouse γS) and fish (zebrafish γM2b and γM7). The thermodynamic water binding coefficient B1 could be probed by sucrose expulsion, and the hydrodynamic hydration shell of tightly bound water was probed by translational diffusion and structure-based hydrodynamic boundary element modeling. While the amount of tightly bound water of human γD was consistent with that of average proteins, the water binding of mouse γS was found to be relatively low. γM2b and γM7 crystallins were found to exhibit extremely low degrees hydration, consistent with their role in the fish lens. γM crystallins have a very high methionine content, in some species up to 15%. Structure-based modeling of hydration in γM7 crystallin suggests low hydration is associated with the large number of surface methionine residues, likely in adaptation to the extremely high concentration and low hydration environment in fish lenses. Overall, the degree of hydration appears to balance stability and tissue density requirements required to produce and maintain the optical properties of the lens in different vertebrate species. PMID:24282025

  17. Clinical Detection of Pre-Cataractous Lens Protein Changes using Dynamic Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Datiles, Manuel B.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Vitale, Susan; Reed, George F.; Zigler, J. Samuel; Ferris., Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To use Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to clinically assess early pre-cataractous lens protein changes. Methods We performed a cross sectional study in 380 eyes of 235 subjects aged 7–86 years with AREDS clinical lens nuclear grades ranging from 0–3.8. A DLS device was used to assess α-crystallin, a molecular chaperone protein shown to bind other damaged lens proteins, preventing their aggregation. The outcome measure was the α-crystallin index (ACI), a measure of unbound α-crystallin in each lens. The association of ACI with increasing nuclear opacity and aging was determined. Results There was a significant decrease in ACI associated with increasing grades of lens nuclear opacity (p<0.0001). There are significant losses of α-crystallin even in clinically clear lenses associated with aging (p<0.0001). The standard error of measurement was 3%. Conclusions DLS clinically detects loss of α-crystallin proteins even in clinically clear lenses. ACI measurements may be useful in identifying patients at high risk for developing cataract, and as an outcome variable in clinical lens studies. Clinical Relevance Our studies suggest that the ACI may be a useful measure of the protective α-crystallin molecular chaperone reserve present in a lens, analogous to creatinine clearance in estimating renal function reserve. PMID:19064850

  18. Human eye lens spectroscopy and modeling of its transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Yaroslavskaya, Anna N.; Semenova, Tatjana N.; Tatarintsev, Sergey N.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Isotova, Vera F.

    1994-06-01

    Optical models of crystalline lens were analyzed, to increase understanding of high transparency and loss of it with aging and for pathology tissue. Experimental and calculated human crystalline lens spectra in a wide range of wavelengths are presented. Calculations were made for the model of short-term- order scatterers, taking into account interference effects of scatterers and specific features of absorbing species, such as protein-bound tryptophan, kynurenine, and age-related chromophores leading to generalized yellowing of the lens proteins. Satisfactory qualitative coincidence of calculated spectra with spectrophotometric data for isolated human lens is shown. Measured angular dependencies of scattering matrix elements are sensitive to modification related to aging and cataract appearance.

  19. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  20. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  1. Fast X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy measurements from the diffusion of concentrated Alpha Crystallin suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, Vidanage Nuwan; Debartolo, Janae; Berry, Justin; Lurio, Laurence; Thurston, George; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Weizeorick, John

    2011-03-01

    Alpha Crystallin constitute up to half of the total protein found in the mammalian eye lens. It has chaperone like behavior and may play a key role in maintaining lens transparency by preventing condensation of other lens proteins. We report here Fast X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements of protein diffusion within concentrated suspensions of Alpha Crystallin. Bovine calf eye lens cortices were homogenized, centrifuged and ultra-filtered to obtain concentrated Alpha Crystallin suspensions. Diffusion of proteins within these suspensions was measured as a function of temperature. The overall observed diffusion rates imply that the proteins exist in a glassy or gel phase, even at concentrations where equivalent hard sphere system would still be liquid. We interpret these results within the context of strongly interacting proteins, with protein-protein interactions possibly mediated by subunit exchange among Alpha Crystallin oligormers. NSF Grant DMR-0706369, ANL/NIU Joint Fellowship.

  2. Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2012-05-01

    A new class of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens is introduced and analyzed. The interior iso-indicial contours mimic the external shape of the lens, which leads to an invariant geometry of the GRIN structure. The lens model employs a conventional surface representation using a coincoid of revolution with a higher-order aspheric term. This model has a unique feature, namely, it allows analytical paraxial ray tracing. The height and the angle of an arbitrary incident ray can be found inside the lens in a closed-form expression, which is used to calculate the main optical characteristics of the lens, including the optical power and third-order monochromatic aberration coefficients. Moreover, due to strong coupling of the external surface shape to the GRIN structure, the proposed GRIN lens is well suited for studying accommodation mechanism in the eye. To show the power of the model, several examples are given emphasizing the usefulness of the analytical solution. The presented geometry-invariant GRIN lens can be used for modeling and reconstructing the crystalline lens of the human eye and other types of eyes featuring a GRIN lens.

  3. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  4. LENS: Prototyping Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer (LENS) prototyping program is broken into two phases. The first of these is μLENS, a small prototype to study the light transmission in the as built LENS scintillation lattice--- a novel detector method of high segmentation in a large liquid scintillation detector. The μLENS prototype is currently deployed and taking data at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) near Virginia Tech. I will discuss the Scintillation Lattice construction methods and schemes of the μLENS program for running with minimal channels instrumented to date ˜41 compared to full coverage 216). The second phase of prototyping is the miniLENS detector for which construction is under way. I will discuss the overall design from the miniLENS Scintillation Lattice to the shielding.

  5. The cause and consequence of fiber cell compaction in the vertebrate lens

    PubMed Central

    Bassnett, Steven; Costello, M. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Fiber cells of the ocular lens are arranged in a series of concentric shells. New growth shells are added continuously to the lens surface and, as a consequence, the preexisting shells are buried. To focus light, the refractive index of the lens cytoplasm must exceed that of the surrounding aqueous and vitreous humors, and to that end, lens cells synthesize high concentrations of soluble proteins, the crystallins. To correct for spherical aberration, it is necessary that the crystallin concentration varies from shell-to-shell, such that cellular protein content is greatest in the center of the lens. The radial variation in protein content underlies the critical gradient index (GRIN) structure of the lens. Only the outermost shells of lens fibers contain the cellular machinery necessary for protein synthesis. It is likely, therefore, that the GRIN (which spans the synthetically inactive, organelle-free zone of the lens) does not result from increased levels of protein synthesis in the core of the lens but is instead generated through loss of volume by inner fiber cells. Because volume is lost primarily in the form of cell water, the residual proteins in the central lens fibers can be concentrated to levels of >500 mg/ml. In this short review, we describe the process of fiber cell compaction, its relationship to lens growth and GRIN formation, and offer some thoughts on the likely nature of the underlying mechanism. PMID:26992780

  6. Simulation of Blast Loading on an Ultrastructurally-based Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Outcomes 11 5 Conclusion 11 A Master of Science Thesis ii 1 Introduction In the life of a combat soldier, traumatic cataract in ocular lenses may...crystallins lens f ber cells) is stressed by the passing shock wave. Traumatic cataract can result in a partially or fully clouded lens, complete dislo...mechanisms of traumatic cataract forma- tion that may require cataract surgery (implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL)) are not well understood in

  7. Simulation of Blast Loading on an Ultrastructurally-based Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    soldier, traumatic cataract in ocular lenses may result from blast load- ing, whereby (i) the lens capsule (Fig.1) is perforated by intraocular foreign...1), and/or (iii) the lens internal substance (crystallins lens fiber cells) is stressed by the passing shock wave. Traumatic cataract can result in a...that partial or full vision loss may occur. The mechanisms of traumatic cataract forma- tion that may require cataract surgery (implantation of an

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  9. Interaction of βA3-Crystallin with Deamidated Mutants of αA- and αB-Crystallins.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Ekta; Hegde, Shylaja; Purushotham, Sangeetha; Deivanayagam, Champion; Srivastava, Om

    2015-01-01

    Interaction among crystallins is required for the maintenance of lens transparency. Deamidation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in crystallins, which results in incorrect interaction and leads to aggregate formation. Various studies have established interaction among the α- and β-crystallins. Here, we investigated the effects of the deamidation of αA- and αB-crystallins on their interaction with βA3-crystallin using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) methods. SPR analysis confirmed adherence of WT αA- and WT αB-crystallins and their deamidated mutants with βA3-crystallin. The deamidated mutants of αA-crystallin (αA N101D and αA N123D) displayed lower adherence propensity for βA3-crystallin relative to the binding affinity shown by WT αA-crystallin. Among αB-crystallin mutants, αB N78D displayed higher adherence propensity whereas αB N146D mutant showed slightly lower binding affinity for βA3-crystallin relative to that shown by WT αB-crystallin. Under the in vivo condition (FLIM-FRET), both αA-deamidated mutants (αA N101D and αA N123D) exhibited strong interaction with βA3-crystallin (32±4% and 36±4% FRET efficiencies, respectively) compared to WT αA-crystallin (18±4%). Similarly, the αB N78D and αB N146D mutants showed strong interaction (36±4% and 22±4% FRET efficiencies, respectively) with βA3-crystallin compared to 18±4% FRET efficiency of WT αB-crystallin. Further, FLIM-FRET analysis of the C-terminal domain (CTE), N-terminal domain (NTD), and core domain (CD) of αA- and αB-crystallins with βA3-crystallin suggested that interaction sites most likely reside in the αA CTE and αB NTD regions, respectively, as these domains showed the highest FRET efficiencies. Overall, results suggest that similar to WT αA- and WTαB-crystallins, the deamidated mutants showed strong interactionfor βA3-crystallin. Variable

  10. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  11. Structure/function studies of dogfish alpha-crystallin, comparison with bovine alpha-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Ghahghaei, A; Rekas, A; Carver, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    2009-11-20

    alpha-Crystallin is the major protein of the mammalian lens where it contributes to the refractive properties needed for vision and possibly to the stability of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of alpha-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution. Dogfish alpha-crystallin, which appeared over 420 million years ago, has been contrasted with bovine alpha-crystallin, which emerged around 160 million years later, by comparing their sizes, the microenvironments of their cysteine and tryptophan residues, their chaperone-like activities and the flexibility of their COOH-terminal extensions. Dogfish alpha-crystallin consists of alphaA- and alphaB-polypeptides, in a 1:5 ratio, and has a molecular mass of around 400 kDa. By contrast, the bovine protein is around 600-800 kDa in mass and has a 3:1 subunit ratio. Cysteine residues in the proteins were equally accessible to reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Quenching of fluorescence with acrylamide indicated tryptophan residues in the two proteins were in similar environments. The chaperone activity of dogfish alpha-crystallin was comparable to that of bovine alpha-crystallin in preventing the heat-induced precipitation of beta(L)-crystallin but the dogfish protein was three times more effective at preventing insulin precipitation after reduction at 37 C. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed that the last 17 amino acids of the dogfish alphaB polypeptide (V162-K178) have great conformational flexibility, are highly exposed to solvent and adopt little ordered conformation. This is comparable to, but slightly longer in length, than the COOH-terminal extension observed in mammalian alpha-crystallins. The structure and properties of alpha-crystallin have changed relatively little during the evolutionary period from the emergence of sharks and mammals.

  12. Structure/function studies of dogfish α-crystallin, comparison with bovine α-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Ghahghaei, A.; Rekas, A.; Carver, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose α-Crystallin is the major protein of the mammalian lens where it contributes to the refractive properties needed for vision and possibly to the stability of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of α-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution. Methods Dogfish α-crystallin, which appeared over 420 million years ago, has been contrasted with bovine α-crystallin, which emerged around 160 million years later, by comparing their sizes, the microenvironments of their cysteine and tryptophan residues, their chaperone-like activities and the flexibility of their COOH-terminal extensions. Results Dogfish α-crystallin consists of αA- and αB-polypeptides, in a 1:5 ratio, and has a molecular mass of around 400 kDa. By contrast, the bovine protein is around 600-800 kDa in mass and has a 3:1 subunit ratio. Cysteine residues in the proteins were equally accessible to reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Quenching of fluorescence with acrylamide indicated tryptophan residues in the two proteins were in similar environments. The chaperone activity of dogfish α-crystallin was comparable to that of bovine α-crystallin in preventing the heat-induced precipitation of βL-crystallin but the dogfish protein was three times more effective at preventing insulin precipitation after reduction at 37 ˚C. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed that the last 17 amino acids of the dogfish αB polypeptide (V162-K178) have great conformational flexibility, are highly exposed to solvent and adopt little ordered conformation. This is comparable to, but slightly longer in length, than the COOH-terminal extension observed in mammalian α-crystallins. Conclusions The structure and properties of α-crystallin have changed relatively little during the evolutionary period from the emergence of sharks and mammals. PMID:19956560

  13. Precrystalline posterior chamber intraocular lens for surgical correction of severe myopia.

    PubMed

    Barraquer, J

    1999-08-01

    To report early experience with a posterior chamber precrystalline intraocular lens designed for correction of severe myopia from -10 to -30 diopters. This intraocular lens respects the transparent crystalline lens and does not interfere with accommodation. The concave-convex methylmethacrylate lens, with flexible haptics that are supported in the sulcus, is placed behind the iris, in front of the lens, and centered with the pupil. From July 1995 to November 1998, 149 precrystalline lenses have been inserted with few, generally reversible complications, which are now largely prevented by adequate modification of the intraocular lens. Correction has been satisfactory and stable. Although follow-up is relatively short, precrystalline lens placement may be considered an important contribution to the surgical management of severe myopia to improve the patient's vision and, consequently, quality of life.

  14. An assay for intermolecular exchange of alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    An affinity column of alpha crystallin linked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose was developed to study the exchange of alpha subunits. Alpha crystallin bound to the Sepharose-alpha complex was dissociated with 8 mol/l urea, followed by quantitation using high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The time course of binding at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic binding pattern reaching equilibrium between 6-18 hr. Under these conditions, binding of beta and gamma crystallins to the same matrix was less than 10% of the alpha values, as was binding of alpha to glycine-coupled Sepharose. This assay was used to demonstrate changes in the subunit exchange of alpha crystallins present in high molecular weight versus lower molecular weight aggregates of the human lens. These results show that this binding procedure was a specific reproducible assay that might be used to study intermolecular interactions of the alpha crystallins.

  15. An assay for intermolecular exchange of alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    An affinity column of alpha crystallin linked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose was developed to study the exchange of alpha subunits. Alpha crystallin bound to the Sepharose-alpha complex was dissociated with 8 mol/l urea, followed by quantitation using high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The time course of binding at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic binding pattern reaching equilibrium between 6-18 hr. Under these conditions, binding of beta and gamma crystallins to the same matrix was less than 10% of the alpha values, as was binding of alpha to glycine-coupled Sepharose. This assay was used to demonstrate changes in the subunit exchange of alpha crystallins present in high molecular weight versus lower molecular weight aggregates of the human lens. These results show that this binding procedure was a specific reproducible assay that might be used to study intermolecular interactions of the alpha crystallins.

  16. Xenobiotic induction of quinone oxidoreductase activity in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tumminia, S J; Rao, P V; Zigler, J S; Russell, P

    1993-12-08

    Xenobiotic regulatory elements have been identified for enzymes which ameliorate oxidative damage in cells. Zeta (zeta)-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme/crystallin shown to be a novel NADPH-dependent quinone reductase, is found in a number of tissues and cell types. This study shows that zeta-crystallin is present in mouse lens epithelium, as well as in the alpha TN4 mouse lens epithelial cell line. To determine whether zeta-crystallin is an inducible quinone reductase, cell cultures were exposed to the xenobiotics, 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone. Assays of cellular homogenates showed that quinone reductase activity was stimulated greater than 70% and 90%, respectively, over the control cells. This observed activity was sensitive to dicumarol, a potent inhibitor of quinone reductase activity. 1,2-Naphthoquinone- and beta-naphthoflavone-exposed cells were found to exhibit 1.47- and 1.68-fold increases, respectively, in zeta-crystallin protein concentration. A comparable increase in zeta-crystallin mRNA was indicative of an induction in zeta-crystallin expression in response to naphthalene challenge. Lens epithelial cells were also checked for DT-diaphorase, a well-known cellular protective enzyme which can catalyze the two-electron reduction of quinones. Slot blot analyses indicated that alpha TN4 cells exposed to 1,2-naphthoquinone and beta-naphthoflavone exhibited 2.71- and 6.81-fold increases in DT-diaphorase concentration when compared to the control cells. The data suggest that while DT-diaphorase is most likely responsible for the majority of the observed increase in quinone reductase activity, the zeta-crystallin gene also undergoes activation which is apparently mediated by a xenobiotic-responsive element.

  17. Delay of diabetic cataract in rats by the antiglycating potential of cumin through modulation of alpha-crystallin chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pasupulati Anil; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Srinivas, P N B S; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2009-07-01

    alpha-Crystallin, a molecular chaperone of the eye lens, plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the lens by preventing the aggregation/inactivation of several proteins and enzymes in addition to its structural role. alpha-Crystallin is a long-lived protein and is susceptible to several posttranslational modifications during aging, more so in certain clinical conditions such as diabetes. Nonenzymatic glycation of lens proteins and decline in the chaperone-like function of alpha-crystallin have been reported in diabetic conditions. Therefore, inhibitors of nonenzymatic protein glycation appear to be a potential target to preserve the chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin and to combat cataract under hyperglycemic conditions. In this study, we investigated the antiglycating potential of cumin in vitro and its ability to modulate the chaperone-like activity of alpha-crystallin vis-à-vis the progression of diabetic cataract in vivo. Aqueous extract of cumin was tested for its antiglycating ability against fructose-induced glycation of goat lens total soluble protein (TSP), alpha-crystallin from goat lens and a nonlenticular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antiglycating potential of cumin was also investigated by feeding streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with diet containing 0.5% cumin powder. The aqueous extract of cumin prevented in vitro glycation of TSP, alpha-crystallin and BSA. Slit lamp examination revealed that supplementation of cumin delayed progression and maturation of STZ-induced cataract in rats. Cumin was effective in preventing glycation of TSP and alpha-crystallin in diabetic lens. Interestingly, feeding of cumin to diabetic rats not only prevented loss of chaperone activity but also attenuated the structural changes of alpha-crystallin in lens. These results indicated that cumin has antiglycating properties that may be attributed to the modulation of chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin, thus delaying cataract in

  18. Improved optical lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, L. F.

    1970-01-01

    Objective lens produces a backwardly curving image of a star field that matches the similarly curved surface of the photocathode of an image dissector tube. Lens eliminates the need for a fiber-optics translation between the flat plane image and curved photocathode.

  19. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the major cyanogen bromide fragment of alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha crystallin from the bovine lens has been digested with cyanogen bromide, and the major fragment (CB-1) has been purified using reverse phase HPLC. Characterization of this fragment by Edman degradation and antisera to synthetic peptides indicates that it originates from alpha-A crystallin, but lacks the N-terminal methionine and the last 35 amino acids from the C-terminus of the molecule. The purified CB-1 fragment binds as well as native alpha crystallin to lens membrane, but is unable to self-assemble into the correct size of high molecular weight oligomeric complexes characteristic of the intact alpha-A chain. Together, these results demonstrate that the alpha-A chain is comprised of at least two functional domains, one of which is involved in binding of alpha-A crystallin to lens membrane, and another which is necessary for correct self-assembly of the molecule into high molecular weight oligomers.

  1. [Late onset lens particle glaucoma in Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arranz-Marquez, E; Fatela-Cantillo, B; Figueroa, M; Teus, M Á

    2015-01-01

    A case is presented of an acute onset lens particle glaucoma originating from a crystalline lens spontaneously dislocated into the vitreous for more than 20 years in a patient diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by fibrillin gene mutation. Ectopia lentis is the predominant ocular abnormality and a major diagnostic criterion. An association between Marfan syndrome and glaucoma has also been demonstrated. The reported case is unusual in that a complete spontaneous lens dislocation to vitreous was present and progressed to secondary lens particle open angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The oblique electron lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    An oblique electron lens is described that is especially applicable to image converters and camera tubes employing flat opaque photocathodes. The use of optical lenses, corrector plates, and/or mirrors (often employed in other electron lenses designed for use with opaque photocathodes) are eliminated. The oblique electron lens is well suited to ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet image converters, and to image converters employing opaque negative electron affinity photocathodes. It is also possible to use this oblique electron lens for electronography. Measurements on an experimental tube show that a limiting resolution of 50 line pairs/mm is possible, but the intrinsic lens quality is believed to approach that of a conventional electromagnetic lens having uniform and colinear electric and magnetic fields.

  3. Anterior Chamber Iris Claw Lens for the Treatment of Aphakia in a Patient with Megalocornea

    PubMed Central

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Masini, Robert; Rosenthal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Megalocornea in isolation is a rare congenital enlargement of the cornea greater than 13 mm in diameter. Patients with megalocornea are prone to cataract formation, crystalline lens subluxation, zonular deficiencies and dislocation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) within the capsular bag. A 55-year-old male with megalocornea in isolation developed subluxation of the capsular bag and PCIOL. The PCIOL and capsular bag were explanted, and the patient was subsequently implanted with an anterior chamber iris claw lens. An anterior chamber iris claw lens is an effective option for the correction of aphakia in patients with megalocornea. PMID:26120314

  4. Rethinking contact lens aftercare.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of contact lens technology and clinical practice over the past three decades has been remarkable, with dramatic improvements in material biocompatibility, better lens designs and care systems, and more flexible and convenient modalities of wear. However, our approach to the aftercare examination has remained conservative, with the general modus operandi having not fully evolved from the difficult, early years of fitting non-regular replacement rigid and low water content hydrogel lenses. In this paper, we review current aftercare practice and in particular, the preferred frequency that lens wearers should return for routine visits and the appropriateness of regulations governing contact lens prescription expiry. Four key clinical reasons for conducting a routine aftercare visit are identified: preserving ocular health, maintaining good vision, optimising comfort and ensuring satisfactory lens fitting performance. Commercial reasons for conducting aftercare visits are also considered. A decision matrix is presented to help practitioners decide on an appropriate time interval between routine aftercare visits. The first aftercare visit should always take place within one to two weeks of lens dispensing. After this, the following time intervals between routine aftercare visits are advised as a general guideline: soft daily disposable, 24 months; soft daily reusable and rigid daily wear, 12 months; soft and rigid extended wear, six months. These aftercare visit frequencies may need to be adjusted when rapid rates of refractive change are anticipated, such as every six months during child/teenager myopic progression and every 12 months during the advancement of presbyopia. Numerous clinical caveats for varying these recommended aftercare frequencies are also discussed. Those new to lens wear should be seen within the first two months of lens dispensing. Regulatory authorities charged with the responsibility of stipulating the validity of a contact

  5. Characterization of the alpha-gamma and alpha-beta complex: evidence for an in vivo functional role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that in vitro, alpha-crystallin can protect other lens proteins against extensive denaturation and aggregation. The mechanism of this protection involves preferential binding of the partially denatured protein to a central region of the native alpha-crystallin complex. To test whether a similar phenomenon might occur in vivo, a high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the aged bovine lens. Negative staining of this preparation revealed the presence of particles of 13-14 nm diameter, characteristic of alpha-crystallin. Immunolocalization of the same particles using antiserum specific for gamma- and beta-crystallins demonstrated preferential binding of these crystallins to the central region of the alpha-crystallin complex. Together, these results provide evidence that in the intact lens, the alpha-crystallins are functionally important molecular chaperones.

  6. Homology models of human gamma-crystallins: structural study of the extensive charge network in gamma-crystallins.

    PubMed

    Salim, Asmat; Zaidi, Zafar H

    2003-01-17

    The lens is composed of highly stable and long-lived proteins, the crystallins which are divided into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins. Human gamma-crystallins belong to the betagamma superfamily. A large number of gamma-crystallins have been sequenced and have been found to share remarkable sequence homology with each other. Some of the gamma-crystallins from various sources have also been elucidated structurally by X-ray crystallographic or NMR spectroscopic experiments. Their three-dimensional structures are also similar having consisted of two domains each possessing two Greek key motifs. In this study we have constructed the comparative or homology models of the four major human gamma-crystallins, gammaA-,gammaB-, gammaC-, and gammaD-crystallins and studied the charge network in these crystallins. Despite an overall structural similarity between these crystallins, differences in the ion pair formation do exist which is partly due to the differences in their primary sequence and partly due to the structural orientation of the neighboring amino acids. In this study, we present an elaborate analysis of these charged interactions and their formation or loss with respect to the structural changes.

  7. [Intraocular lenses for the correction of refraction errors. Part II. Phakic posterior chamber lenses and refractive lens exchange with posterior chamber lens implantation].

    PubMed

    Kohnen, T; Kasper, T; Terzi, E

    2005-11-01

    In this overview, the current status of intraocular lens surgery to correct refractive error is reviewed. The interventions are divided into additive surgery with intraocular lens implantation without extraction of the crystalline lens (phakic intraocular lens, PIOL) or removal of the crystalline lens with implantation of an IOL (refractive lens exchange, RLE). Phakic IOLs are constructed as angle-supported or iris-fixated anterior chamber lenses and posterior chamber lenses which are fixated in the ciliary sulcus. The implantation of phakic IOLs has been demonstrated to be an effective, safe, predictable and stable procedure to correct higher refractive errors. Complications are rare and differ for the three types of PIOL; for posterior chamber lenses these are mainly cataract formation and pigment dispersion. RLE is preferable in cases of high ametropia in which the natural lens has lost its accommodative effect. The main complications for myopic RLA include retinal detachment, while hyperopic refractive lens exchange may be associated with surgical problems in the narrower anterior eye segment.

  8. Measurements of Diffusion within Concentrated Bovine α-Crystallin Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, Nuwan; Berry, Justin; Lurio, Larence; Thurston, George; Debartolo, Janae; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Weizeorick, John

    2012-02-01

    α-Crystallin is a major protein component of the vertebrate eye lens. The chaperone-like behavior of these water soluble proteins play a key role in maintaining lens transparency by preventing condensation of other lens proteins. We report photon correlation spectroscopy measurements, both X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), indicating protein diffusion within suspensions of α-Crystallin. Measurements were carried out at 2^oC, 10^oC and 35^oC, over a wide range of concentrations from the diluted limit to the regime close to the physiological lens concentration. In the diluted regime, DLS measurements can be modeled by a single exponential fit indicating a single relaxation mode and at higher concentrations two relaxation modes can be identified by fitting the data to a double exponential decay function, a clear indication of the ploydispersed nature of the concentrated samples. XPCS measurements show dynamics at the highest concentration but cannot resolve the faster dynamics (below 20ms) at lower concentration. We also provide estimates for the viscosity of α-Crystallin suspensions as a function of temperature and protein volume fraction using the falling ball method.

  9. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  10. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, Mike A.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  11. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  12. The lens circulation.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Richard T; Kistler, Joerg; Donaldson, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The lens is the largest organ in the body that lacks a vasculature. The reason is simple: blood vessels scatter and absorb light while the physiological role of the lens is to be transparent so it can assist the cornea in focusing light on the retina. We hypothesize this lack of blood supply has led the lens to evolve an internal circulation of ions that is coupled to fluid movement, thus creating an internal micro-circulatory system, which makes up for the lack of vasculature. This review covers the membrane transport systems that are believed to generate and direct this internal circulatory system.

  13. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  14. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  15. Normal and diseased personal eye modeling using age-appropriate lens parameters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Shi, L.; Lewis, J. W. L.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized eye modeling of normal and diseased eye conditions is attractive due to the recent availability of detailed ocular measurements in clinic environments and the promise of its medical and industrial applications. In the customized modeling, the optical properties of the crystalline lens including the gradient refractive index, the lens bio-geometry and orientation are typically assigned with average lens parameters from literature since typically they are not clinically available. Although, through the optical optimization by assigning lens parameters as variables, the clinical measured wavefront aberration can be achieved, the optimized lens biometry and orientation often end up at edges of the statistical distribution. Without an effective validation of these models today, the fidelity of the final lens (and therefore the model) remains questionable. To develop a more reliable customized model without detailed lens information, we incorporate age-appropriate lens parameters as the initial condition of optical optimization. A biconic lens optimization was first performed to provide a correct lens profile for accurate lower order aberration and then followed by the wavefront optimization. Clinical subjects were selected from all ages with both normal and diseased corneal and refractive conditions. 19 ammetropic eyes ( + 4D to −11D), and 16 keratoconus eyes (mild to moderate with cylinder 0.25 to 6D) were modeled. Age- and gender-corrected refractive index was evaluated. Final models attained the lens shapes comparable to the statistical distribution in their age. PMID:22714237

  16. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear λ-crystallin

  17. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  18. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  19. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact lenses to any water: tap, bottled, distilled, lake or ocean water. Never use non-sterile water ( ... from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage ...

  20. Plasmonic achromatic doublet lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-09

    An achromatic doublet lens (ADL) for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is designed. Similar to the conventional ADL, the proposed plasmonic ADL is composed of two lens layers with different dispersion relations. Considering these layers as effective media, their refractive indices with respect to the free-space wavelength are calculated. Geometric parameters of the lens are initially set according to the geometrical optic theory, and then optimized by reduced dimensional calculations. The performance of proposed device is verified by using full-wave simulations and compared with a double-convex plasmonic lens to verify its achromatic characteristics. It is shown that the standard deviation of the focal length shift is reduced from 668 nm to 168 nm, after introducing the ADL.

  1. Spectral analysis and comparison of mineral deposits forming in opacified intraocular lens and senile cataractous lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Chen, Ko-Hwa; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Ting; Li, Mei-Jane

    2010-10-01

    This preliminary report was attempted to compare the chemical components of mineral deposits on the surfaces of an opacified intraocular lens (IOL) and a calcified senile cataractous lens (SCL) by vibrational spectral diagnosis. An opacified intraocular lens (IOL) was obtained from a 65-year-old male patient who had a significant decrease in visual acuity 2-years after an ocular IOL implantation. Another SCL with grayish white calcified plaque on the subcapsular cortex was isolated from a 79-year-old male patient with complicated cataract after cataract surgery. Optical light microscope was used to observe both samples and gross pictures were taken. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman microspectroscopic techniques were employed to analyze the calcified deposits. The curve-fitting algorithm using the Gaussian function was also used to quantitatively estimate the chemical components in each deposit. The preliminary results of spectral diagnosis indicate that the opacified IOL mainly consisted of the poorly crystalline, immature non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) with higher content of type B carbonated apatites. However, the calcified plaque deposited on the SCL was comprised of a mature crystalline stoichiometric HA having higher contents of type A and type B carbonate apatites. More case studies should be examined in future.

  2. Tunable Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    Sylgard® 184). Poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) was provided by Atofina Chemicals, Inc. (Plexiglas V920). The SEBS copolymer and PMMA resins...convex poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) lens, R=25.8 mm, with a tunable elastomeric lens membrane, R=38.6 mm. The PMMA is rigid; the variable focal...using a combination of deformable and rigid polymeric materials. An elastomeric styrene- ethylene /butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer was

  3. Lens auto-centering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève; Tremblay, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    In a typical optical system, optical elements usually need to be precisely positioned and aligned to perform the correct optical function. This positioning and alignment involves securing the optical element in a holder or mount. Proper centering of an optical element with respect to the holder is a delicate operation that generally requires tight manufacturing tolerances or active alignment, resulting in costly optical assemblies. To optimize optical performance and minimize manufacturing cost, there is a need for a lens mounting method that could relax manufacturing tolerance, reduce assembly time and provide high centering accuracy. This paper presents a patent pending lens mounting method developed at INO that can be compared to the drop-in technique for its simplicity while providing the level of accuracy close to that achievable with techniques using a centering machine (usually < 5 μm). This innovative auto-centering method is based on the use of geometrical relationship between the lens diameter, the lens radius of curvature and the thread angle of the retaining ring. The autocentering principle and centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are presented. In addition to the low assembly time, high centering accuracy, and environmental robustness, the INO auto-centering method has the advantage of relaxing lens and barrel bore diameter tolerances as well as lens wedge tolerances. The use of this novel lens mounting method significantly reduces manufacturing and assembly costs for high performance optical systems. Large volume productions would especially benefit from this advancement in precision lens mounting, potentially providing a drastic cost reduction.

  4. Refined flicker photometry technique to measure ocular lens density.

    PubMed

    Teikari, Petteri; Najjar, Raymond P; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Dumortier, Dominique; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Denis, Philippe; Cooper, Howard M; Gronfier, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Many physiological and pathological conditions are associated with a change in the crystalline lens transmittance. Estimates of lens opacification, however, generally rely on subjective rather than objective measures in clinical practice. The goal of our study was to develop an improved psychophysical heterochromatic flicker photometry technique combined with existing mathematical models to evaluate the spectral transmittance of the human ocular media noninvasively. Our results show that it is possible to accurately estimate ocular media density in vivo in humans. Potential applications of our approach include basic research and clinical settings on visual and nonimage-forming visual systems.

  5. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  6. The molecular basis of defective lens development in the Iberian mole

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Fossorial mammals face natural selection pressures that differ from those acting on surface dwelling animals, and these may lead to reduced visual system development. We have studied eye development in a species of true mole, the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, and present the molecular basis of abnormal lens development. This is the first embryological developmental study of the eyes of any fossorial mammal at the molecular level. Results Lens fibre differentiation is not completed in the Iberian mole. Although eye development starts normally (similar to other model species), defects are seen after closure of the lens vesicle. PAX6 is not down-regulated in developing lens fibre nuclei, as it is in other species, and there is ectopic expression of FOXE3, a putative downstream effector of PAX6, in some, but not all lens fibres. FOXE3-positive lens fibres continue to proliferate within the posterior compartment of the embryonic lens, but unlike in the mouse, no proliferation was detected anywhere in the postnatal mole lens. The undifferentiated status of the anterior epithelial cells was compromised, and most of them undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, β-crystallin and PROX1 expression patterns are abnormal and our data suggest that genes encoding β-crystallins are not directly regulated by PAX6, c-MAF and PROX1 in the Iberian mole, as they are in other model vertebrates. Conclusion In other model vertebrates, genetic pathways controlling lens development robustly compartmentalise the lens into a simple, undifferentiated, proliferative anterior epithelium, and quiescent, anuclear, terminally differentiated posterior lens fibres. These pathways are not as robust in the mole, and lead to loss of the anterior epithelial phenotype and only partial differentiation of the lens fibres, which continue to express 'epithelial' genes. Paradigms of genetic regulatory networks developed in other vertebrates appear not to hold true for the Iberian mole. PMID:18939978

  7. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  8. Expression of Cataract-linked γ-Crystallin Variants in Zebrafish Reveals a Proteostasis Network That Senses Protein Stability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Yu; Zou, Ping; Fuller, Alexandra W; Mishra, Sanjay; Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2016-12-02

    The refractivity and transparency of the ocular lens is dependent on the stability and solubility of the crystallins in the fiber cells. A number of mutations of lens crystallins have been associated with dominant cataracts in humans and mice. Of particular interest were γB- and γD-crystallin mutants linked to dominant cataracts in mouse models. Although thermodynamically destabilized and aggregation-prone, these mutants were found to have weak affinity to the resident chaperone α-crystallin in vitro To better understand the mechanism of the cataract phenotype, we transgenically expressed different γD-crystallin mutants in the zebrafish lens and observed a range of lens defects that arise primarily from the aggregation of the mutant proteins. Unlike mouse models, a strong correlation was observed between the severity and penetrance of the phenotype and the level of destabilization of the mutant. We interpret this result to reflect the presence of a proteostasis network that can "sense" protein stability. In the more destabilized mutants, the capacity of this network is overwhelmed, leading to the observed increase in phenotypic penetrance. Overexpression of αA-crystallin had no significant effects on the penetrance of lens defects, suggesting that its chaperone capacity is not limiting. Although consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that a chaperone network is required for lens transparency, our results suggest that αA-crystallin may not be efficient to inhibit aggregation of lens γ-crystallin. Furthermore, our work implicates additional inputs/factors in this underlying proteostasis network and demonstrates the utility of zebrafish as a platform to delineate mechanisms of cataract.

  9. Ultrasound biomicroscopy of anterior segment accommodative changes with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens in high myopia.

    PubMed

    Du, Chixin; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Dong, Ying; Gu, Yangshun; Shen, Ye

    2012-01-01

    To investigate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and the distance between the Visian implantable Collamer lens (ICL) and the crystalline lens during pharmacologic accommodation in high myopia. Prospective, comparative case series. Thirty-three phakic eyes of 18 high myopic patients (range, -8.63 to -23.86 diopters) with a mean age of 29 years (range, 20-44 years) were examined at least 1 year after ICL implantation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to measure distance changes between the corneal endothelium, the ICL, and the crystalline lens after inducing pharmacologic accommodation with topical pilocarpine in 1 eye. The contralateral eye served as the control. Mean changes of ACD measured from the posterior corneal surface to the crystalline lens (ACD-L), from the posterior corneal surface to the anterior surface of the ICL (ACD-ICL), and the distance between the ICL and the crystalline lens (ICL-L) at the central and peripheral regions of the eye. For each eye, the ICL was in contact with the iris, but it was never in contact with the crystalline lens. At baseline, the mean distance between the ICL and the crystalline lens was 0.609 ± 0.165 mm at the central horizontal meridian, 0.588 ± 0.157 mm at the central vertical meridian, 0.281 ± 0.106 mm at the peripheral temporal sulcus, and 0.290 ± 0.098 mm at the peripheral nasal sulcus. After instillation of pilocarpine, a significant decrease in ICL-L was accompanied by a significant reduction in ACD-L and an increase in ACD-ICL (P<0.01). There were no significant changes in the control eyes (P>0.05). The central ICL-L reduction in the study group was significantly larger than that in the control group (P<0.01), but the peripheral ICL-L changes in the study group were not significantly different from those in the controls (P>0.05). During pharmacologic accommodation, the ICL and the crystalline lens came closer as the ICL was pushed backward by the iris as a result of pupillary constriction

  10. Chromatofocusing for separation of human cataractous lens low molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabasawa, I; Watanabe, M; Kimura, M

    1983-01-01

    Four low molecular weight proteins (i.e. beta s, gamma H, gamma L1 & gamma L2 crystallins) were separated from the human cataractous lens cortex using gel filtration and chromatofocusing. Each of these four crystallins possessed its own subfractions in the pH gradient between 7.4 and 4.0 by chromatofocusing procedures. Analyses of the chromatofocusing patterns have further characterized the four crystallins. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these crystallin subfractions showed the possible separation of the heterogeneous protein bands.

  11. Pitx3 directly regulates Foxe3 during early lens development.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nafees; Aslam, Muhammad; Muenster, Doris; Horsch, Marion; Khan, Muhammad A; Carlsson, Peter; Beckers, Johannes; Graw, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Pitx3 is a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor critical for the development of the ocular lens, mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and skeletal muscle. In humans, mutations in PITX3 are responsible for cataracts and anterior segment abnormalities of varying degree; polymorphisms are associated with Parkinson’s disease. In aphakia (ak) mice, two deletions in the promoter region of Pitx3 cause abnormal lens development. Here, we investigated systematically the role of Pitx3 in lens development including its molecular targets responsible for the ak phenotype. We have shown that ak lenses exhibit reduced proliferation and aberrant fiber cell differentiation. This was associated with loss of Foxe3 expression, complete absence of Prox1 expression, reduced expression of epsilon-tubulin and earlier expression of gamma-crystallin during lens development. Using EMSA and ChIP assays, we demonstrated that Pitx3 binds to an evolutionary conserved bicoid-binding site on the 5'-upstream region of Foxe3. Finally, Pitx3 binding to 5'-upstream region of Foxe3 increased transcriptional activity significantly in a cell-based reporter assay. Identification of Foxe3 as a transcriptional target of Pitx3 explains at least in part some of the phenotypic similarities of the ak and dyl mice (dysgenic lens, a Foxe3 allele). These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular cascades which subserve lens development.

  12. Bio-inspired fluidic lens surgical camera for MIS.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Frank S; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We report a new type of surgical camera that will greatly improve minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The key enabling technology for this camera is a unique type of lens-bio-inspired fluidic lens, which is a bio-mimetic lens that can change its curvature, just like the way human crystalline lens can accommodate. Because of its curvature changing capability, it is now possible to design a new regime of optical systems where auto-focusing and optical zoom can be performed without moving the lens positions, as is done in typical cameras. Hence, miniaturized imaging system with high functionality can be achieved with such technology. MIS is a surgical technique where small incisions are made on the abdominal wall as opposed to a large cut in open surgery. This type of surgery ensures faster patient recovery. The key tool for MIS is its surgical camera, or laparoscope. Traditional laparoscope is long and rigid and limits the field of view. To further advance MIS technology, we utilized bio-inspired fluidic lens to design a highly versatile imager that is small, can change its field of view or zoom optically, works in low light conditions, and varies the viewing angles. The surgical camera prototype is small (total track<17 mm), possesses 3X optical zoom, operates with light emitting diode (LED) lighting, among many other unique features.

  13. Photochemical effects in the lens from near infrared radiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Al-Saqry, Riyadh; Schulmeister, Karl; Gallichanin, Konstantin; Kronschläger, Martin; Yu, Zhaohua

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: The current data are consistent with a potential photochemical effect of in vivo exposure of the crystalline lens to near infrared radiation since the onset of cataract after in just above threshold dose was at least 18 hrs delayed after the exposure. Materials and methods: The eyes of 6 weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed unilaterally in vivo to 1090 nm, 6.2 W quasi-top hat spatial distribution with a 3 mm spot on the anterior lens surface within the dilated pupil. First, four exposure time groups of rats were exposed to increasing exposure times. At 24 hrs after exposure, the difference of light scattering between the lenses from the same animal was measured. Then, based on the first experiment, four post-exposure time groups were exposed unilaterally in vivo to 8 s of 1090 nm, 6.2 W quasi-top hat spatial distribution with a 3 mm spot on the anterior lens surface within the dilated pupil. After, the intended post-exposure time, the difference of light scattering between the lenses from the same animal was measured. Results: A 3 mm spot of 6.2 W induces light scattering in the lens with exposures of at least 8 s. Further, after 8 s of 6.2 W within a 3 mm spot on the lens surface, the light scattering increase in the lens was delayed at least 18 hrs after the exposure.

  14. Bionic optical imaging system with aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Liang, Dan

    2016-02-01

    A bionic optical imaging system with an aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens was designed and fabricated. The entire system mainly consisted of a doublet lens, a solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, a connecting part, and a CCD imaging device. To mimic the structure of the crystalline lens, the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens, a polymethyl methacrylate lens, and the liquid of ethyl silicone oil. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity using a microinjector, the curvatures of the front and rear surfaces of the PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change of focal length. The overall structure of the system was presented, as well as a detailed description of the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, material, and fabrication process. Under different injection volumes, the deformation of the PDMS lens was measured and simulated, pictures were captured, and the optical performance was analyzed in simulations and experiments. The focal length of the system ranged from 25.05 to 14.61 mm, and the variation of the diopter was 28.5D, which was larger than that of the human eye.

  15. Elevated insulin signaling disrupts the growth and differentiation pattern of the mouse lens

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Leike; Chen, Huiyi; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are putative regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation during lens development. Transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 in the lens have been previously described. To further understand the ocular functions of this growth factor family, the in vivo effects of insulin expression on lens development were investigated using transgenic mice. Methods Expression of insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in mouse lens was examined by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Transgenic mice that overexpress insulin in the lens were generated using two different promoters: a fiber-cell specific αA-crystallin (αA) promoter and a modified αA-promoter linked to the chicken δ1-crystallin enhancer (called the δenαA promoter). The δenαA promoter is active in both lens epithelial and fiber cells. The lens phenotypes were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Protein expression was examined by western blotting. Results Normal mouse lenses express both the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and their expression is highest at the lens periphery where the germinative and transitional zones are located. In transgenic mice, insulin expression in the lens induced cataract formation. The severity of the cataracts reflected the level of transgene expression, independent of the type of promoter used. In severely affected families, the spherical shape of the lens was altered and the lenses were smaller than normal. Histological analysis showed no evidence of premature differentiation of the anterior epithelial cells. In contrast to the IGF-1 mice, insulin transgenic mice exhibited an anterior shift in the location of the germinative and transitional zones, leading to a reduction of the lens epithelial compartment. Additional alterations included expansion of the lens transitional zone, variable nuclear positioning in the lens bow region

  16. Topological crystalline insulator nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Cha, Judy J

    2014-11-06

    Topological crystalline insulators are topological insulators whose surface states are protected by the crystalline symmetry, instead of the time reversal symmetry. Similar to the first generation of three-dimensional topological insulators such as Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃, topological crystalline insulators also possess surface states with exotic electronic properties such as spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. Experimentally verified topological crystalline insulators to date are SnTe, Pb₁-xSnxSe, and Pb₁-xSnxTe. Because topological protection comes from the crystal symmetry, magnetic impurities or in-plane magnetic fields are not expected to open a gap in the surface states in topological crystalline insulators. Additionally, because they have a cubic structure instead of a layered structure, branched structures or strong coupling with other materials for large proximity effects are possible, which are difficult with layered Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃. Thus, additional fundamental phenomena inaccessible in three-dimensional topological insulators can be pursued. In this review, topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanostructures will be discussed. For comparison, experimental results based on SnTe thin films will be covered. Surface state properties of topological crystalline insulators will be discussed briefly.

  17. 51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder installation, drawing # 3101, sheet 2 of 2. Approved April 6, 1928. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  18. 50. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, drawing # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, drawing # 3101, sheet 1 of 2. Approved April 6, 1928. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  19. Fresnel lens study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Thick film sol-gel technology was evaluated to determine the feasibility of utilizing sol-gels to produce embossable materials ultimately for the production of all-glass Fresnel optics. The feasibility study has utilized the relatively undeveloped branch of organically modified sol-gels. The results of this work shown that organically modified sol-gels posses properties which allow the formation of thick, patternable and adherent coatings. The study resulted in the fabrication of over 600 samples based on over 100 sol-gel formulations. Samples were evaluated for clarity, transmittance and other optical properties. Environmental tests were performed on selected groups. Although moderate success was obtained on producing a Fresnel lens layer bonded to glass, a fully densified lens was not achieved. The process and chemistries indicate that improvements based on these materials and techniques may lead to an acceptable all-glass Fresnel lens.

  20. Fresnel lens study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-05-01

    Thick film sol-gel technology was evaluated to determine the feasibility of utilizing sol-gels to produce embossable materials ultimately for the production of all-glass Fresnel optics. The feasibility study has utilized the relatively undeveloped branch of organically modified sol-gels. The results of this work show that organically modified sol-gels possess properties which allow the formation of thick, patternable and adherent coatings. The study resulted in the fabrication of over 600 samples based on over 100 sol-gel formulations. Samples were evaluated for clarity, transmittance and other optical properties. Environmental tests were performed on selected groups. Although moderate success was obtained on producing a Fresnel lens layer bonded to glass, a fully densified lens was not achieved. The process and chemistries indicate that improvements based on these materials and techniques may lead to an acceptable all-glass Fresnel lens.

  1. Simulation of Blast Loading on an Ultrastructurally-based Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    loss may occur. The mechanisms of traumatic cataract forma- tion that may require cataract surgery (implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL)) are not...1 3 Key Research Accomplishments 2 4 Reportable Outcomes 3 5 Conclusion 4 ii 1 Introduction In the life of a combat soldier, traumatic cataract in...internal substance (crystallins lens fiber cells) is stressed by the passing shock wave. Traumatic cataract can result in a partially or fully clouded

  2. Broadband Wide Angle Lens Implemented with Dielectric Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, John; Kundtz, Nathan; Landy, Nathan; Nguyen, Vinh; Perram, Tim; Starr, Anthony; Smith, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Luneburg lens is a powerful imaging device, exhibiting aberration free focusing for parallel rays incident from any direction. However, its advantages are offset by a focal surface that is spherical and thus difficult to integrate with standard planar detector and emitter arrays. Using the recently developed technique of transformation optics, it is possible to transform the curved focal surface to a flat plane while maintaining the perfect focusing behavior of the Luneburg over a wide field of view. Here we apply these techniques to a lesser-known refractive Luneburg lens and implement the design with a metamaterial composed of a semi-crystalline distribution of holes drilled in a dielectric. In addition, we investigate the aberrations introduced by various approximations made in the implementation of the lens. The resulting design approach has improved mechanical strength with small aberrations and is ideally suited to implementation at infrared and visible wavelengths. PMID:22164056

  3. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  4. Epithelial infectious crystalline keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M S; Sharma, S; Garg, P; Rao, G N

    2001-02-01

    To report 2 cases of epithelial infectious crystalline keratopathy. Two patients (2 eyes) with significant meibomitis presented with minimal inflammation and plaque-like lesions on the corneal surface made of fine crystalline structures. Corneal scrapings of these lesions were performed for microbiological evaluation. The patients were treated with topical ciprofloxacin and artificial tears. Smear examination of the corneal scrapings revealed numerous bacteria and keratinized epithelial cells with no inflammatory cells. Culture showed a significant growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium species in the first case and Pseudomonas aeroginosa in the second case. The response to treatment was poor, with recurrence of the crystalline lesion. Infectious crystalline keratopathy lesions may involve the epithelium and occur on the corneal surface.

  5. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  6. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  7. Retinal images in the human eye with implanted intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Marek; Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    A typical proceeding in cataract is based on the removal of opaque crystalline lens and inserting in its place the artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The quality of retinal image after such procedure depends, among others, on the parameters of the IOL, so the design of the implanted lens is of great importance. An appropriate choice of the IOL material, especially in relation to its biocompatibility, is often considered. However the parameter, which is often omitted during the IOL design is its chromatic aberration. In particular lack of its adequacy to the chromatic aberration of a crystalline lens may cause problems. In order to fit better chromatic aberration of the eye with implanted IOL to that of the healthy eye we propose a hybrid - refractive-diffractive IOL. It can be designed in such way that the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of an eye with implanted IOL equals the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of a healthy eye. In this study we compare the retinal image quality calculated numerically on the basis of the well known Liou-Brennan eye model with typical IOL implanted with that obtained if the IOL is done as hybrid (refractive-diffractive) design.

  8. Broadband Achromatic Telecentric Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2007-01-01

    A new type of lens design features broadband achromatic performance as well as telecentricity, using a minimum number of spherical elements. With appropriate modifications, the lens design form can be tailored to cover the range of response of the focal-plane array, from Si (400-1,000 nm) to InGaAs (400-1,700 or 2,100 nm) or InSb/HgCdTe reaching to 2,500 nm. For reference, lenses typically are achromatized over the visible wavelength range of 480-650 nm. In remote sensing applications, there is a need for broadband achromatic telescopes, normally satisfied with mirror-based systems. However, mirror systems are not always feasible due to size or geometry restrictions. They also require expensive aspheric surfaces. Non-obscured mirror systems can be difficult to align and have a limited (essentially one-dimensional) field of view. Centrally obscured types have a two-dimensional but very limited field in addition to the obscuration. Telecentricity is a highly desirable property for matching typical spectrometer types, as well as for reducing the variation of the angle of incidence and cross-talk on the detector for simple camera types. This rotationally symmetric telescope with no obscuration and using spherical surfaces and selected glass types fills a need in the range of short focal lengths. It can be used as a compact front unit for a matched spectrometer, as an ultra-broadband camera objective lens, or as the optics of an integrated camera/spectrometer in which the wavelength information is obtained by the use of strip or linear variable filters on the focal plane array. This kind of camera and spectrometer system can find applications in remote sensing, as well as in-situ applications for geological mapping and characterization of minerals, ecological studies, and target detection and identification through spectral signatures. Commercially, the lens can be used in quality-control applications via spectral analysis. The lens design is based on the rear landscape

  9. Differential analysis of D-{beta}-Asp-containing proteins found in normal and infrared irradiated rabbit lens

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, Takumi; Shimo-Oka, Tadashi; Kojima, Masami; Miki, Kunio; Fujii, Noriko . E-mail: nfujii@HL.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-05-26

    Although proteins are generally composed of L-{alpha}-amino acids, D-{beta}-aspartic acid (Asp)-containing proteins have been reported in various elderly tissues. Our previous study detected several D-{beta}-Asp-containing proteins in a rabbit lens derived from epithelial cell line by Western blot analysis of a 2D-gel using a polyclonal antibody that is highly specific for D-{beta}-Asp-containing proteins. The identity of each spot was subsequently determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the Ms-Fit online database searching algorithm. In this study, we discovered novel D-{beta}-Asp-containing proteins from rabbit lens. The results indicate that {beta}-crystallin A3, {beta}-crystallin A4, {beta}-crystallin B1, {beta}-crystallin B2, {beta}-crystallin B3, {gamma}-crystallin C, {gamma}-crystallin D, and {lambda}-crystallin in rabbit lens contain D-{beta}-Asp residues. Furthermore, the occurrence of D-{beta}-Asp residues increases with infrared ray (IR) irradiation. Additionally, some D-{beta}-Asp-containing proteins only appear after IR irradiation. One such protein is the {alpha}-enolase, which shows homology to {tau}-crystallin.

  10. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  11. A Tribute to Len Barton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This article constitutes a short personal tribute to Len Barton in honour of his work and our collegial relationship going back over 30 years. It covers how Len saw his intellectual project of providing critical sociological and political perspectives on special education, disability and inclusion, and his own radical political perspectives. Len's…

  12. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  13. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  14. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  15. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  16. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  17. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  18. Eye evolution: lens and cornea as an upgrade of animal visual system.

    PubMed

    Jonasova, Kristyna; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2008-04-01

    Lens-containing eyes are a feature of surprisingly broad spectrum of organisms across the animal kingdom that represent a significant improvement of simple eye composed of just photoreceptor cells and pigment cells. It is apparent that such an upgrade of animal visual system has originated numerous times during evolution since many distinct strategies to enhance light refraction through the use of lens and cornea have been utilized. In addition to having an ancient role in prototypical eye formation Pax transcription factors were convergently recruited for regulation of structurally diverse crystallins and genes affecting morphogenesis of various lens-containing eyes.

  19. Modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration for severely subluxated lenses.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, S; Aron, N; Yadav, N; Pillay, G; Agarwal, E

    2017-08-11

    PurposeSeverely subluxated crystalline lenses pose a difficult situation to anterior segment surgeons and can only be managed surgically by removal of the lens as well as the capsular bag. Several techniques have been described in literature for the management of such cases. We describe a modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration by the limbal route for lens extraction through small incisions on the cornea.Patients and methodsThirty-two eyes of 16 consecutive patients with severely subluxated crystalline lenses were recruited in the study. All eyes underwent a modified technique of lens aspiration within the capsular bag using a single instrument, vitrectomy cutter, and irrigation cannula, followed by sacrificing of the capsular bag. The patients were either left aphakic or implanted with an open loop anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL Kelman Multiflex) and prospectively followed up for a period of 3 months.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 9 years 3 months±3 years (range 5-15 yrs). All eyes underwent complete lens aspiration within the capsular bag with no dislocation of the lens matter. ACIOL was inserted in 22 eyes (68.7%) and 10 eyes (31.2%) were left aphakic. All the surgeries were uneventful. The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 3 months post surgery was 0.47±0.11 logMAR which was significantly better than pre-operative BCVA (P=0.001). The percentage endothelial cell loss at 3 months was 7.1%. There was no evidence of glaucoma, corneal decompensation, or retinal detachment. The astigmatism which increased from 1.45D±086 preoperatively to 3.76D±2.02 1 week post-operatively due to sutures reduced to 1.97D±0.81 post suture removal at 3 months.ConclusionThe modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration proves to be a simple and effective method of removal of the lens-capsular bag complex in severely subluxated lenses.Eye advance online publication, 11 August 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.160.

  20. The ageing lens and cataract: a model of normal and pathological ageing.

    PubMed

    Michael, R; Bron, A J

    2011-04-27

    Cataract is a visible opacity in the lens substance, which, when located on the visual axis, leads to visual loss. Age-related cataract is a cause of blindness on a global scale involving genetic and environmental influences. With ageing, lens proteins undergo non-enzymatic, post-translational modification and the accumulation of fluorescent chromophores, increasing susceptibility to oxidation and cross-linking and increased light-scatter. Because the human lens grows throughout life, the lens core is exposed for a longer period to such influences and the risk of oxidative damage increases in the fourth decade when a barrier to the transport of glutathione forms around the lens nucleus. Consequently, as the lens ages, its transparency falls and the nucleus becomes more rigid, resisting the change in shape necessary for accommodation. This is the basis of presbyopia. In some individuals, the steady accumulation of chromophores and complex, insoluble crystallin aggregates in the lens nucleus leads to the formation of a brown nuclear cataract. The process is homogeneous and the affected lens fibres retain their gross morphology. Cortical opacities are due to changes in membrane permeability and enzyme function and shear-stress damage to lens fibres with continued accommodative effort. Unlike nuclear cataract, progression is intermittent, stepwise and non-uniform.

  1. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  2. βB1-Crystallin: Thermodynamic Profiles of Molecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dolinska, Monika B.; Wingfield, Paul T.; Sergeev, Yuri V.

    2012-01-01

    Background β-Crystallins are structural proteins maintaining eye lens transparency and opacification. Previous work demonstrated that dimerization of both βA3 and βB2 crystallins (βA3 and βB2) involves endothermic enthalpy of association (∼8 kcal/mol) mediated by hydrophobic interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings Thermodynamic profiles of the associations of dimeric βA3 and βB1 and tetrameric βB1/βA3 were measured using sedimentation equilibrium. The homo- and heteromolecular associations of βB1 crystallin are dominated by exothermic enthalpy (−13.3 and −24.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Global thermodynamics of βB1 interactions suggest a role in the formation of stable protein complexes in the lens via specific van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges whereas those β-crystallins which associate by predominately hydrophobic forces participate in a weaker protein associations. PMID:22238594

  3. Understanding the accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Rana, Azhar; Miller, David; Magnante, Peter

    2003-12-01

    To review current accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) designs and introduce a new design consisting of a plus lens and a minus lens. Cornea Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Computer simulation studies of a model eye calculated the pseudoaccommodation range with different powers of 1 IOL or of 2 IOLs acting as a doublet. The doublet consisting of a convex (plus) lens and a concave (minus) lens gave a greater range of power change than a single convex lens or a doublet consisting of 2 convex lenses. The greater range of power results from the plus lens moving forward. The results show that an IOL design consisting of positive and negative lenses that move closer or farther from each other offers a greater range of pseudoaccommodation than other designs.

  4. Search for conserved amino acid residues of the α-crystallin proteins of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Shiliaev, Nikita G; Selivanova, Olga M; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2016-04-01

    [Formula: see text]-crystallin is the major eye lens protein and a member of the small heat-shock protein (sHsp) family. [Formula: see text]-crystallins have been shown to support lens clarity by preventing the aggregation of lens proteins. We performed the bioinformatics analysis of [Formula: see text]-crystallin sequences from vertebrates to find conserved amino acid residues as the three-dimensional (3D) structure of [Formula: see text]-crystallin is not identified yet. We are the first who demonstrated that the N-terminal region is conservative along with the central domain for vertebrate organisms. We have found that there is correlation between the conserved and structured regions. Moreover, amyloidogenic regions also correspond to the structured regions. We analyzed the amino acid composition of [Formula: see text]-crystallin A and B chains. Analyzing the occurrence of each individual amino acid residue, we have found that such amino acid residues as leucine, serine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, histidine, isoleucine, glutamic acid, and valine change their content simultaneously in A and B chains in different classes of vertebrates. Aromatic amino acids occur more often in [Formula: see text]-crystallins from vertebrates than on the average in proteins among 17 animal proteomes. We obtained that the identity between A and B chains in the mammalian group is 0.35, which is lower than the published 0.60.

  5. Simultaneous stereoinversion and isomerization at the Asp-4 residue in βB2-crystallin from the aged human eye lenses.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Norihiko; Kawaguchi, Takehiro; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2011-10-11

    The lens proteins are composed of α-, β-, and γ-crystallins that interact with each other to maintain the transparency and refractive power of the lens. Because the lens crystallins are long-lived proteins, they undergo various post-translational modifications including racemization, isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, glycation, and truncation. In βB2-crystallin, which is the most abundant β-crystallin, the deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues has been reported. Here, we found that the aspartyl (Asp) residue at position 4 of βB2-crystallin in the lenses of elderly human individuals undergoes a significant degree of inversion and isomerization to the biologically uncommon residue D-β-Asp. Surprisingly, the D/L ratio of β-Asp at position 4 in βB2-crystallin from elderly donors (67-77 year old) was 0.88-3.21. A D/L ratio of amino acids greater than 1.0 is defined as an inversion of configuration from the L- to D-form, rather than a racemization. These extremely high D/L ratios are equivalent to those of Asp-58 and Asp-151 (D/L ratio: 3.1 for Asp-58 and 5.7 for Asp-151) in αA-crystallin from elderly donors (~80 year old) as reported previously. Initially, we identified specific Asp residues in the β-crystallin family of proteins that undergo a high degree of inversion. These results show that the isomerization and inversion of Asp residues occurs both in the α- and β-crystallins of the lens. Inversion of these Asp residues directly affects the higher order structure of the protein. Hence, this modification may change crystallin-crystallin interactions and disrupt the function of crystallins in the lens.

  6. Spectral transmission of the pig lens: effect of ultraviolet A+B radiation.

    PubMed

    Artigas, C; Navea, A; López-Murcia, M-M; Felipe, A; Desco, C; Artigas, J-M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the spectral transmission curve of the crystalline lens of the pig. To analyse how this curve changes when the crystalline lens is irradiated with ultraviolet A+B radiation similar to that of the sun. To compare these results with literature data from the human crystalline lens. We used crystalline lenses of the common pig from a slaughterhouse, i.e. genetically similar pigs, fed with the same diet, and slaughtered at six months old. Spectral transmission was measured with a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 35 UV/VIS spectrometer. The lenses were irradiated using an Asahi Spectra Lax-C100 ultraviolet source, which made it possible to select the spectral emission band as well as the intensity and exposure time. The pig lens transmits all the visible spectrum (95%) and lets part of the ultraviolet A through (15%). Exposure to acute UV (A+B) irradiation causes a decrease in its transmission as the intensity or exposure time increases: this decrease is considerable in the UV region. We were able to determine the mean spectral transmission curve of the pig lens. It appears to be similar to that of the human lens in the visible spectrum, but different in the ultraviolet. Pig lens transmission is reduced by UV (A+B) irradiation and its transmission in the UV region can even disappear as the intensity or exposure time increases. An adequate exposure intensity and time of UV (A+B) radiation always causes an anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Light scattering studies of human crystallin proteins and loss of transparency in cataracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2012-02-01

    The human lens derives its transparency and refractive index from the interactions between crystallin proteins (α-, β-, γ-crystallin). When the ordering of these crystallins is perturbed, insoluble macromolecular aggregates of crystalline proteins can occur resulting in cataracts. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), we have conducted a detailed study of the formation of these aggregates. Our DLS results on γ-crystallin solutions exhibit the occurrence of slow and fast modes demonstrating the spontaneous formation of aggregates (hydrodynamic radius, Rh ˜ 200 nm) in equilibrium with monomeric proteins (Rh ˜ 3 nm). On the other hand, DLS results on α-crystallin solutions clearly demonstrate that α-crystallin molecules exist as a single population (Rh ˜ 18 nm). Our results on mixtures of α- and γ-crystallin solutions show that the α-crystallin tends to demolish the clumps of γ-crystallin. Our exploration of environmental effecs (temperature, pH, salt concentration) has revealed the macromolecular mechanism of dissolution of crystallin aggregates, providing a strategy for cataract prevention and insight into protein-protein interactions.

  8. Topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Topological superconductors possess a nodeless superconducting gap in the bulk and gapless zero energy modes, known as "Majorana zero modes," at the boundary of a finite system. In this work, we introduce a new class of topological superconductors, which are protected by nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry and thus dubbed "topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors." We construct an explicit Bogoliubov-de Gennes type of model for this superconducting phase in the D class and show how Majorana zero modes in this model are protected by glide plane symmetry. Furthermore, we generalize the classification of topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors to the classes with time reversal symmetry, including the DIII and BDI classes, in two dimensions. Our theory provides guidance to search for new topological superconducting materials with nonsymmorphic crystal structures.

  9. Topological Nonsymmorphic Crystalline Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Chao-Xing

    Topological superconductors possess a nodeless superconducting gap in the bulk and gapless zero energy modes, known as ``Majorana zero modes'', at the boundary of a finite system. In this work, we introduce a new class of topological superconductors, which are protected by nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry and thus dubbed ``topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors''. We construct an explicit Bogoliubov-de Gennes type of model for this superconducting phase in the D class and show how Majorana zero modes in this model are protected by glide symmetry. Furthermore, we generalize the classification of topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors to the classes with time reversal symmetry, including the DIII and BDI classes, in two dimensions. Our theory provides a guidance to search for new topological superconducting materials with nonsymmorphic crystal structures.

  10. Crystalline molecular flasks.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Yasuhide; Kawano, Masaki; Fujita, Makoto

    2011-05-01

    A variety of host compounds have been used as molecular-scale reaction vessels, protecting guests from their environment or restricting the space available around them, thus favouring particular reactions. Such molecular 'flasks' can endow guest molecules with reactivities that differ from those in bulk solvents. Here, we extend this concept to crystalline molecular flasks, solid-state crystalline networks with pores within which pseudo-solution-state reactions can take place. As the guest molecules can spontaneously align along the walls and channels of the hosts, structural changes in the substrates can be directly observed by in situ X-ray crystallography during reaction. Recently, this has enabled observation of the molecular structures of transient intermediates and other labile species, in the form of sequential structural snapshots of the chemical transformation. Here, we describe the principles, development and applications of crystalline molecular flasks.

  11. Topological crystalline insulators.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang

    2011-03-11

    The recent discovery of topological insulators has revived interest in the band topology of insulators. In this Letter, we extend the topological classification of band structures to include certain crystal point group symmetry. We find a class of three-dimensional "topological crystalline insulators" which have metallic surface states with quadratic band degeneracy on high symmetry crystal surfaces. These topological crystalline insulators are the counterpart of topological insulators in materials without spin-orbit coupling. Their band structures are characterized by new topological invariants. We hope this work will enlarge the family of topological phases in band insulators and stimulate the search for them in real materials.

  12. Foveated endoscopic lens

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We present a foveated miniature endoscopic lens implemented by amplifying the optical distortion of the lens. The resulting system provides a high-resolution region in the central field of view and low resolution in the outer fields, such that a standard imaging fiber bundle can provide both the high resolution needed to determine tissue health and the wide field of view needed to determine the location within the inspected organ. Our proof of concept device achieves 7∼8  μm resolution in the fovea and an overall field of view of 4.6 mm. Example images and videos show the foveated lens’ capabilities. PMID:22463022

  13. Differentiation and angiogenic growth factor message in two mammalian lens epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G L; Reddan, J R; Russell, P

    1994-04-01

    Lens epithelial cells in culture can sometimes be induced to form spheroid aggregates termed lentoid bodies, composed of cells exhibiting various characteristics of the more highly differentiated lens fiber cells. However, lentoid bodies are often slow to form, and the ability to produce them declines with serial subculture. It was therefore of interest to establish and/or characterize lens epithelial cell lines capable of forming lentoid bodies. The differentiation state was assessed in lentoid bodies formed by each of two lens epithelial cell lines, the transformed alpha TN4 cell line from mouse and the nontransformed N/N1135A cell line from rabbit. Lentoid and monolayer cultures of each cell line were examined for transcripts of the lens-specific alpha A-crystallin ("alpha A"), gamma D-crystallin ("gamma D"; formerly gamma 1-crystallin) and MP26 genes. alpha TN4 lentoid bodies contained 2.5 times the alpha A RNA found in monolayer cells, but lacked detectable gamma D and MP26 RNA. None of the three markers were detected in either lentoid or monolayer N/N1135A cultures grown under the conditions described. Lentoid body formation alone, therefore, does not indicate the extent of differentiation occurring. At least some of the changes in cell adhesion occurring during lentoid body formation involve laminin-like and fibronectin-like interactions, and are reminiscent of those observed during embryonic lens formation. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was absent from the lens but present in alpha TN4 cells, suggesting a mechanism whereby the lens tumors of the founder mouse became vascularized.

  14. Changes in gravitational force cause changes in gene expression in the lens of developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Naoko; Moorman, Stephen J

    2006-10-01

    Gravity has been a constant physical factor during the evolution and development of life on Earth. We have been studying effects of simulated microgravity on gene expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing gfp under the influence of gene-specific promoters. In this study, we assessed the effect of microgravity on the expression of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene in lens during development using transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing gfp under the control of hsp70 promoter/enhancer. Hsp70:gfp expression was up-regulated (45%) compared with controls during the developmental period that included the lens differentiation stage. This increase was lens specific, because the entire embryo showed only a 4% increase in gfp expression. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the hsp70:gfp expression recapitulated endogenous hsp70 mRNA expression. Hypergravity exposure also increased hsp70 expression during the same period. In situ hybridization analysis for two lens-specific crystallin genes revealed that neither micro- nor hypergravity affected the expression level of betaB1-crystallin, a non-hsp gene used as a marker for lens differentiation. However, hypergravity changed the expression level of alphaA-crystallin, a member of the small hsp gene family. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay analysis showed that altered-gravity (Deltag) decreased apoptosis in lens during the same period and the decrease correlated with the up-regulation of hsp70 expression, suggesting that elimination of nuclei from differentiating lens fiber cells was suppressed probably through hsp70 up-regulation. These results support the idea that Deltag influences hsp70 expression and differentiation in lens-specific and developmental period specific manners and that hsp family genes play a specific role in the response to Deltag.

  15. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  16. HoloLens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-20

    ISS046e043637 (02/20/2016) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted out this image to his followers Feb 20, 2016 with the tag: "This #Saturday morning checked out the @Microsoft #HoloLens aboard @Space_Station! Wow! #YearInSpace ". The device is part of NASA’s project Sidekick which is exploring the use of augmented reality to reduce crew training requirements and increase the efficiency at which astronauts can work in space.

  17. Light-adjustable lens.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: First, to determine whether a silicone light-adjustable intraocular lens (IOL) can be fabricated and adjusted precisely with a light delivery device (LDD). Second, to determine the biocompatibility of an adjustable IOL and whether the lens can be adjusted precisely in vivo. METHODS: After fabrication of a light-adjustable silicone formulation, IOLs were made and tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, leaching, precision of adjustment, optical quality after adjustment, and mechanical properties. Light-adjustable IOLs were then tested in vivo for biocompatibility and precision of adjustment in a rabbit model. In collaboration with Zeiss-Meditec, a digital LDD was developed and tested to correct for higher-order aberrations in light-adjustable IOLs. RESULTS: The results establish that a biocompatible silicone IOL can be fabricated and adjusted using safe levels of light. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity or leaching. Testing of mechanical properties revealed no significant differences from commercial controls. Implantation of light-adjustable lenses in rabbits demonstrated- excellent biocompatibility after 6 months, comparable to a commercially available IOL. In vivo spherical (hyperopic and myopic) adjustment in rabbits was achieved using an analog light delivery system. The digital light delivery system was tested and achieved correction of higher-order aberrations. CONCLUSION: A silicone light-adjustable IOL and LDD have been developed to enable postoperative, noninvasive adjustment of lens power. The ability to correct higher-order aberrations in these materials has broad potential applicability for optimization of vision in patients undergoing cataract and refractive surgery. PMID:14971588

  18. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  19. Circular permutation of betaB2-crystallin changes the hierarchy of domain assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, G.; Basak, A. K.; Wieligmann, K.; Mayr, E. M.; Slingsby, C.

    1998-01-01

    The betagamma-crystallins form a superfamily of eye lens proteins comprised of multiple Greek motifs that are symmetrically organized into domains and higher assemblies. In the betaB2-crystallin dimer each polypeptide folds into two similar domains that are related to monomeric gamma-crystallin by domain swapping. The crystal structure of the circularly permuted two-domain betaB2 polypeptide shows that permutation converts intermolecular domain pairing into intramolecular pairing. However, the dimeric permuted protein is, in fact, half a native tetramer. This result shows how the sequential order of domains in multi-domain proteins can affect quaternary domain assembly. PMID:9655330

  20. Influence of Gravity on Ocular Lens Position.

    PubMed

    Lister, Lucas J; Suheimat, Marwan; Verkicharla, Pavan K; Mallen, Edward A H; Atchison, David A

    2016-04-01

    We determined whether human ocular lens position is influenced by gravity. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were determined with a Haag-Streit Lenstar LS900 for right eyes of participants in two age groups, with a young group of 13 participants aged 18 to 21 years (mean, 21 years; SD, 1 year) and an older group of 10 participants aged 50 to 63 years (mean, 58 years; SD, 4 years). There were two sessions for each participant separated by at least 48 hours, with one session for the usual upright head position and one session for a downwards head position. In a session, testing was done for minimum accommodation followed by testing at maximum accommodation. A drop of 2% pilocarpine nitrate was instilled, and testing was repeated after 30 minutes under minimum and maximum accommodation conditions. Gravity, manipulated through head posture, affected ACD for young adult and older adult groups but mean effects were only small, ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 mm, and for the older group required the instillation of an accommodation-stimulating drug. Gravity had a weakly significant effect on LT for the young group without accommodation or a drug, but the effect was small at 0.04 ± 0.06 mm (mean ± SD, P = 0.04). There is a small but real effect of gravity on crystalline lens position, manifested as reduction in ACD at high levels of accommodative effort with the head in a downwards position. This provides evidence of the ability of zonules to slacken during strong accommodation.

  1. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  2. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, Jr., David N.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  3. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  4. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  5. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  6. Amorphous and Ultradisperse Crystalline Materials,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book sums up experimental and theoretical findings on amorphous and ultradisperse crystalline materials , massive and film types. Present-day... crystalline materials of metallic systems are presented. Emphasis is placed on inorganic film materials.

  7. Mutation screening and genotype phenotype correlation of α-crystallin, γ-crystallin and GJA8 gene in congenital cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Tushar; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Kumar, Manoj; Kaur, Punit; Roy, Tara Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To screen α-crystallin (CRYAB), γ-crystallin (CRYGC and CRYGD), and Connexin 50 (Cx-50 or GJA8) genes in congenital cataract patients and controls. Methods Thirty clinically diagnosed congenital cataract cases below 3 years of age from northern India, presenting at Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi, India) were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, all coding and exon/intron regions were amplified using PCR and direct sequencing was performed to detect any nucleotide variation. ProtScale and Discovery Studio programs were used for insilico and structural analysis of non-synonymous mutations. Results DNA sequencing analysis of CRYAB, CRYGC, CRYGD, and GJA8 showed a total of six variations of which two were novel (CRYGC:p.R48H and GJA8:p.L281C) and four have been previously reported (CRYAB: rs11603779T>G, GJA8: p.L268L, CRYGD: p.R95R, and c.T564C). Both the novel changes, in CRYGC and GJA8 were found in 16.6% of the patients. Previously reported nucleotide alterations (CRYGD:p.R95R and c.T564C) were found in 90% of the patients. Insilico and structural analysis data suggested that two novel non-synonymous mutations altered the stability and solvent accessibility of γC-crystallin and Cx-50 proteins which may lead to lens opacification. Conclusions We observed two novel nonsynonymous variations and four reported variations in CRYAB, CRYGC, CRYGD, and GJA8. The p.R48H variation in γC-crystallin may disrupt the normal structure of lens and can cause cataract. Cx50 is responsible for joining the lens cells into a functional syncytium and a mutation (p.L281C) in GJA8 may lead to lens opacification resulting in cataract formation. This study further expands the mutation spectrum of congenital cataract and help understanding how mutant proteins lead to opacification of lens. PMID:21423869

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko; David J.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  10. Diffractive Alvarez lens

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Ian M.; Dixit, Sham N.; Summers, Leslie J.; Thompson, Charles A.; Avicola, Kenneth; Wilhelmsen, Julia

    2000-01-01

    A diffractive Alvarez lens is demonstrated that consists of two separate phase plates, each having complementary 16-level surface-relief profiles that contain cubic phase delays. Translation of these two components in the plane of the phase plates is shown to produce a variable astigmatic focus. Both spherical and cylindrical phase profiles are demonstrated with good accuracy, and the discrete surface-relief features are shown to cause less than {lambda}/10 wave-front aberration in the transmitted wave front over a 40 mmx80 mm region. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  11. Crystalline oxides on silicon.

    PubMed

    Reiner, James W; Kolpak, Alexie M; Segal, Yaron; Garrity, Kevin F; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Ahn, Charles H; Walker, Fred J

    2010-07-20

    This review outlines developments in the growth of crystalline oxides on the ubiquitous silicon semiconductor platform. The overall goal of this endeavor is the integration of multifunctional complex oxides with advanced semiconductor technology. Oxide epitaxy in materials systems achieved through conventional deposition techniques is described first, followed by a description of the science and technology of using atomic layer-by-layer deposition with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to systematically construct the oxide-silicon interface. An interdisciplinary approach involving MBE, advanced real-space structural characterization, and first-principles theory has led to a detailed understanding of the process by which the interface between crystalline oxides and silicon forms, the resulting structure of the interface, and the link between structure and functionality. Potential applications in electronics and photonics are also discussed.

  12. Layered Topological Crystalline Insulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkuk; Kane, C L; Mele, E J; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-08-21

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are insulating materials whose topological property relies on generic crystalline symmetries. Based on first-principles calculations, we study a three-dimensional (3D) crystal constructed by stacking two-dimensional TCI layers. Depending on the interlayer interaction, the layered crystal can realize diverse 3D topological phases characterized by two mirror Chern numbers (MCNs) (μ1,μ2) defined on inequivalent mirror-invariant planes in the Brillouin zone. As an example, we demonstrate that new TCI phases can be realized in layered materials such as a PbSe (001) monolayer/h-BN heterostructure and can be tuned by mechanical strain. Our results shed light on the role of the MCNs on inequivalent mirror-symmetric planes in reciprocal space and open new possibilities for finding new topological materials.

  13. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  14. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  15. Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-28

    Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs); fibers ; thermotropic; lyotropic; processing; rheology; nonlinear optical (4L-" properties* blends* Q2 P- USTRACT...CowMnue on reverse if , cevwy and identify by block number) The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid...control of orientation falls short of allowing manipula- tion of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers ). This report

  16. Colliding crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. The authors study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. They initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, they find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  17. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  18. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  19. Intraocular lens implantation for patients with coloboma of the iris

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUANJUAN; LI, YAN; HU, ZHULIN; KONG, LEI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the techniques for intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with coloboma of the iris. A retrospective cohort study was used to analyze the degree of iris coloboma and the characteristics of the crystalline lens in 56 patients with iris coloboma. The patients with a lesser degree of coloboma of the iris and an intact lens capsule were treated by iris suture and IOL implantation into the posterior chamber. Patients with an iris coloboma confined to one quadrant, severe iris atrophy and significant lens capsule coloboma were treated with an annular suture at the edge of the pupil and IOL implantation into the anterior chamber. Patients with a greater degree of iris coloboma and an intact lens capsule were treated with an artificial iris and IOL implantation. The patients were followed up for between five months and five years after surgery. Data relating to vision, photophobia, IOL location, postoperative complications and treatment were also obtained at follow-up. The vision of the patients was improved to varying degrees following the surgery, with the exception of those with amblyopia or serious corneal scars. The photophobia of the patients had also improved. The patients’ levels of satisfaction and comfort were deemed to be satisfactory. Early postoperative complications included hyphema, increased intraocular pressure and uveitis. However, serious complications such as corneal decompensation and IOL dislocation were not observed. Various techniques for IOL implantation were selected based on the degree of iris and lens capsule coloboma; these techniques were capable of improving the vision and photophobia of the patients. PMID:24926350

  20. Deletion of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) and Pik3c3 genes in the lens causes cataract independent of programmed organelle degradation.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Hideaki; Eguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Junko; Sakamaki, Yuriko; Robinson, Michael L; Sasaki, Takehiko; Mizushima, Noboru

    2013-04-19

    The lens of the eye is composed of fiber cells, which differentiate from epithelial cells and undergo programmed organelle degradation during terminal differentiation. Although autophagy, a major intracellular degradation system, is constitutively active in these cells, its physiological role has remained unclear. We have previously shown that Atg5-dependent macroautophagy is not necessary for lens organelle degradation, at least during the embryonic period. Here, we generated lens-specific Atg5 knock-out mice and showed that Atg5 is not required for lens organelle degradation at any period of life. However, deletion of Atg5 in the lens results in age-related cataract, which is accompanied by accumulation of polyubiquitinated and oxidized proteins, p62, and insoluble crystallins, suggesting a defect in intracellular quality control. We also produced lens-specific Pik3c3 knock-out mice to elucidate the possible involvement of Atg5-independent alternative autophagy, which is proposed to be dependent on Pik3c3 (also known as Vps34), in lens organelle degradation. Deletion of Pik3c3 in the lens does not affect lens organelle degradation, but it leads to congenital cataract and a defect in lens development after birth likely due to an impairment of the endocytic pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that clearance of lens organelles is independent of macroautophagy. These findings also clarify the physiological role of Atg5 and Pik3c3 in quality control and development of the lens, respectively.

  1. Identification of Sequence Similarities among Isomerization Hotspots in Crystallin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The eye lens crystallins represent an ideal target for studying the effects of aging on protein structure. Herein we examine separately the water-soluble (WS) and water-insoluble (WI) crystallin fractions and identify sites of isomerization and epimerization. Both collision-induced dissociation and radical-directed dissociation are needed for detection of these non-mass-shifting post-translational modifications. Isomerization levels differ significantly between the WS and the WI fractions from sheep, pig, and cow eye lenses. Residues that are most susceptible to isomerization are identified site-specifically and are found to reside in structurally disordered regions. However, isomerization in structured domains, although less common, often yields more dramatic effects on solubility. Numerous isomerization hotspots were also identified and occur in regions with aspartic acid and serine repeats. For example, 128KMEIVDDDVPSLW140 in βB3 crystallin contains three sequential aspartic acid residues and is isomerized heavily in the WI fractions, while it is not modified at all in the WS fractions. Potential causes for enhanced isomerization at sites with acidic residue repeats are presented. The importance of acidic residue repeats extends beyond the lens, as they are found in many other long-lived proteins associated with disease. PMID:28234481

  2. Pharmacological Chaperone for Alpha-Crystallin Partially Restores Transparency in Cataract Models

    PubMed Central

    Makley, Leah N.; McMenimen, Kathryn A.; DeVree, Brian T.; Goldman, Joshua W.; McGlasson, Brittney N.; Rajagopal, Ponni; Dunyak, Bryan M.; McQuade, Thomas J.; Thompson, Andrea D.; Sunahara, Roger; Klevit, Rachel E.; Andley, Usha P.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Cataracts reduce vision in 50% of individuals over 70 years of age and are a common form of blindness worldwide. Cataracts are caused when damage to the major lens crystallin proteins causes their misfolding and aggregation into insoluble amyloids. Using a thermal stability assay, we identified a class of molecules that bind α-crystallins (cryAA and cryAB) and reversed their aggregation in vitro. The most promising compound improved lens transparency in the R49C cryAA and R120G cryAB mouse models of hereditary cataract. It also partially restored solubility in aged mouse and human lenses. These findings suggest an approach to treating cataracts by stabilizing α-crystallins. PMID:26542570

  3. Spectral and Lensing Characteristics of Gel-Derived Strontium Tartrate Single Crystals Using Dual-Beam Thermal Lens Technique.

    PubMed

    Rejeena, I; Thomas, V; Mathew, S; Lillibai, B; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-09-01

    The Dual Beam mode-matched thermal lens spectrometry is a sensible technique for direct measurements of the thermal properties of tartrate crystalline materials. Here we report the measurement of thermal diffusivity of Strontium Tartrate single crystals incorporated with Rhodamine 6G using the thermal lens experiment. The respective crystals were prepared by solution-gel method at room temperature. The absorption characteristics of three different Strontium Tartrate crystals viz. pure, electric field applied and magnetic field applied were also carried out.

  4. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  5. A Reconfigurable Plasmofluidic Lens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chenglong; Liu, Yongmin; Zhao, Yanhui; Fang, Nicholas; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics provides an unparalleled method for manipulating light beyond the diffraction limit, making it a promising technology for the development of ultra-small, ultra-fast, power-efficient optical devices. To date, the majority of plasmonic devices are in the solid state and have limited tunability or configurability. Moreover, individual solid-state plasmonic devices lack the ability to deliver multiple functionalities. Here we utilize laser-induced surface bubbles on a metal film to demonstrate, for the first time, a plasmonic lens in a microfluidic environment. Our “plasmofluidic lens” device is dynamically tunable and reconfigurable. We record divergence, collimation, and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons using this device. The plasmofluidic lens requires no sophisticated nanofabrication and utilizes only a single low-cost diode laser. Our results show that the integration of plasmonics and microfluidics allows for new opportunities in developing complex plasmonic elements with multiple functionalities, high-sensitivity and high-throughput biomedical detection systems, as well as on-chip, all-optical information processing techniques. PMID:23929463

  6. Thermal stress induced aggregation of aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and protection by α-crystallin via its chaperone function.

    PubMed

    Swamy-Mruthinti, Satyanarayana; Srinivas, Volety; Hansen, John E; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) formerly known as membrane intrinsic protein (MIP), is expressed exclusively in the lens during terminal differentiation of fiber cells. AQP0 plays an important role not only in the regulation of water content but also in cell-to-cell adhesion of the lens fiber cells. We have investigated the thermal stress-induced structural alterations of detergent (octyl glucoside)-solubilized calf lens AQP0. The results show an increase in the amount of AQP0 that aggregated as the temperature increased from 40°C to 65°C. α-Crystallin, molecular chaperone abundantly present in the eye lens, completely prevented the AQP0 aggregation at a 1∶1 (weight/weight) ratio. Since α-crystallin consists of two gene products namely αA- and αB-crystallins, we have tested the recombinant proteins on their ability to prevent thermal-stress induced AQP0 aggregation. In contrast to the general observation made with other target proteins, αA-crystallin exhibited better chaperone-like activity towards AQP0 compared to αB-crystallin. Neither post-translational modifications (glycation) nor C-terminus truncation of AQP0 have any appreciable effect on its thermal aggregation properties. α-Crystallin offers similar protection against thermal aggregation as in the case of the unmodified AQP0, suggesting that αcrystallin may bind to either intracellular loops or other residues of AQP0 that become exposed during thermal stress. Far-UV circular dichroism studies indicated a loss of αhelical structures when AQP0 was subjected to temperatures above 45°C, and the presence of α-crystallin stabilized these secondary structures. We report here, for the first time, that α-crystallin protects AQP0 from thermal aggregation. Since stress-induced structural perturbations of AQP0 may affect the integrity of the lens, presence of the molecular chaperone, α-crystallin (particularly αA-crystallin) in close proximity to the lens membrane is physiologically relevant.

  7. Characteristics of corneal lens chitin in dragonfly compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Sargin, Idris; Al-Jaf, Ivan; Erdogan, Sevil; Arslan, Gulsin

    2016-08-01

    Chitin in the compound eyes of arthropods serves as a part of the visual system. The quality of chitin in such highly specialised body parts deserves more detailed examination. Chitin in the corneal (ommatidial) lenses of dragonfly (Sympetrum fonscolombii) compound eyes was isolated by using the classical chemical method. The chitin content of the corneal lenses was determined to be quite high (20.3±0.85%). The FT-IR analysis showed that corneal lens chitin was in the α-form as found in all arthropod species where mechanical strength is required. The surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the outer part of corneal lenses consisted of long chitin fibrils with regular arrays of papillary structures while the smoother inner part had concentric lamellated chitin formation with shorter chitin nanofibrils. Chitinase enzymatic digestion studies, elemental analysis results and the degree of acetylation value showed the purity of chitin samples from corneal lens. The maximum degradation temperature value of the corneal lens chitin was observed at 369.2°C. X-ray analysis revealed that corneal lens chitin has high crystallinity index; 96.4%. Identification of chitin found in ommaditia of insect compound eyes can provide insights into insect vision and chitin-based optical material design studies.

  8. Intraocular camera for retinal prostheses: Refractive and diffractive lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauer, Michelle Christine

    The focus of this thesis is on the design and analysis of refractive, diffractive, and hybrid refractive/diffractive lens systems for a miniaturized camera that can be surgically implanted in the crystalline lens sac and is designed to work in conjunction with current and future generation retinal prostheses. The development of such an intraocular camera (IOC) would eliminate the need for an external head-mounted or eyeglass-mounted camera. Placing the camera inside the eye would allow subjects to use their natural eye movements for foveation (attention) instead of more cumbersome head tracking, would notably aid in personal navigation and mobility, and would also be significantly more psychologically appealing from the standpoint of personal appearances. The capability for accommodation with no moving parts or feedback control is incorporated by employing camera designs that exhibit nearly infinite depth of field. Such an ultracompact optical imaging system requires a unique combination of refractive and diffractive optical elements and relaxed system constraints derived from human psychophysics. This configuration necessitates an extremely compact, short focal-length lens system with an f-number close to unity. Initially, these constraints appear highly aggressive from an optical design perspective. However, after careful analysis of the unique imaging requirements of a camera intended to work in conjunction with the relatively low pixellation levels of a retinal microstimulator array, it becomes clear that such a design is not only feasible, but could possibly be implemented with a single lens system.

  9. Evaluation of intraocular lens implant location in the eyeball basing on the Purkinje images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwik, A.; Siedlecki, D.; Zajac, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) is an artificial implant substituting natural crystalline lens which is non-transparent due to cataract. Incorrect location of the IOL in the eyeball (e.g. its shift or tilt) causes significant deterioration of patient's vision. The analysis of Purkinje images (i.e. reflections from successive refracting surfaces in the eye) enables to determine the real IOL location and thus helps in evaluating the retinal image quality. The experimental setup for Purkinje images recording consists of illuminator, composed of a number of infrared LEDs, telecentric lens and detector (CCD camera). Analysis of mutual position of particular reflections enables to evaluate the lens location in respect to the corneal axis. The actual measurements are realized on artificial eye model, what allows to estimate the precision of the algorithm applied in the calculations. In the future the experimental set-up will be adapted to measure the eyes of real patients.

  10. Bovine and human alpha-crystallins as molecular chaperones: prevention of the inactivation of glutathione reductase by fructation.

    PubMed

    Blakytny, R; Harding, J J

    1997-06-01

    With no measurable protein synthesis occurring in the centre of the lens, structural proteins and enzymes there will need to be stable for many years, if not decades, in order to maintain lens integrity and function. Recent work has indicated that alpha-crystallin, which is sequentially related to heat shock proteins, has chaperone-like properties in that it is capable of preventing heat-induced aggregation of various proteins, including other crystallins. Thus this universal vertebrate lens protein may contribute to maintenance of lens integrity by protecting other lens proteins from non-enzymic insults or the consequences thereof. We previously showed that the enzyme glutathione reductase was inactivated in a time-dependent manner when incubated with various sugars, suggesting glycation was responsible for this effect. In this paper we confirmed that this was the case. Using this enzyme model system, the inclusion of either bovine or human alpha-crystallin protected against the inactivation of glutathione reductase by fructation. This action was specific, with control proteins displaying no such protection. Use of high performance liquid chromatography supported the fact that alpha-crystallin did not act simply by mopping up free sugar but rather maintained the activity of the modified enzyme. Dose-dependent experiments indicated that human alpha-crystallin was more effective than its bovine counterpart, which might be expected considering the much longer lifespan of humans. The stoichiometry of the protection by both alpha-crystallins indicated that alpha-crystallin with glutathione reductase was not acting like GroEL as a large complex with a hydrophobic pore, but rather that individual subunits may be capable of acting as chaperones.

  11. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  12. Novel roles for α-crystallins in retinal function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Ram; Sreekumar, Parameswaran G.; Hinton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    α-Crystallins are key members of the superfamily of small heat shock proteins that have been studied in detail in the ocular lens. Recently, novel functions for α-crystallins have been identified in the retina and in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). αB-Crystallin has been localized to multiple compartments and organelles including mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. α-Crystallins are regulated by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inhibit apoptosis-induced cell death. α-Crystallins interact with a large number of proteins that include other crystallins, and apoptotic, cytoskeletal, inflammatory, signaling, angiogenic, and growth factor molecules. Studies with RPE from αB-crystallin deficient mice have shown that αB-crystallin supports retinal and choroidal angiogenesis through its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor. αB-Crystallin has also been shown to have novel functions in the extracellular space. In RPE, αB-crystallin is released from the apical surface in exosomes where it accumulates in the interphotoreceptor matrix and may function to protect neighboring cells. In other systems administration of exogenous recombinant αB-crystallin has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. Another newly described function of αB-crystallin is its ability to inhibit β-amyloid fibril formation. α-Crystallin mini-chaperone peptides have been identified that elicit anti-apoptotic function in addition to being efficient chaperones. Generation of liposomal particles and other modes of nanoencapsulation of these minipeptides could offer great therapeutic advantage in ocular delivery for a wide variety of retinal degenerative, inflammatory and vascular diseases including age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22721717

  13. Molecular Mechanism of the Chaperone Function of Mini-α-Crystallin, a 19-Residue Peptide of Human α-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    α-Crystallin is the archetypical chaperone of the small heat-shock protein family, all members of which contain the so-called “α-crystallin domain” (ACD). This domain and the N- and C-terminal extensions are considered the main functional units in its chaperone function. Previous studies have shown that a 19-residue fragment of the ACD of human αA-crystallin called mini-αA-crystallin (MAC) shows chaperone properties similar to those of the parent protein. Subsequent studies have confirmed the function of this peptide, but no studies have addressed the mechanistic basis for the chaperone function of MAC. Using human γD-crystallin (HGD), a key substrate protein for parent α-crystallin in the ocular lens, we show here that MAC not only protects HGD from aggregation during thermal and chemical unfolding but also binds weakly and reversibly to HGD (Kd ≈ 200–700 μM) even when HGD is in the native state. However, at temperatures favoring the unfolding of HGD, MAC forms a stable complex with HGD similar to parent α-crystallin. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify the residues in HGD that are involved in these two modes of binding and show that MAC protects HGD from aggregation by binding to Phe 56 and Val 132 at the domain interface of the target protein, and residues Val 164 to Leu 167 in the core of the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, we suggest that the low-affinity, reversible binding of MAC on the surface of HGD in the native state is involved in facilitating its binding to both the domain interface and core regions during the early stages of the unfolding of HGD. This work highlights some structural features of MAC and MAC-like peptides that affect their chaperone activity and can potentially be manipulated for translational studies. PMID:25478825

  14. Wedged multilayer Laue Lens.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Macrander, A. T.; Yan, H.; Kang, H. C.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2008-05-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.

  15. Feasibility study of using high-frequency ultrasonic Nakagami imaging for characterizing the cataract lens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-11-07

    A cataract is a clouding of the crystalline lens that reduces the amount of incoming light and impairs visual perception. Phacoemulsification is the most common surgical method for treating advanced cataracts, and determining the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the feasibility of using an ultrasonic parametric image based on the Nakagami distribution to quantify the lens hardness. Young's modulus was measured in porcine lenses in which cataracts had been artificially induced. High-frequency ultrasound at 35 MHz was used to obtain the B-mode and Nakagami images of the cataract lenses. The averaged integrated backscatter and Nakagami parameters were also estimated in the region of interest. The experimental results show that the conventional B-scan and integrated backscatter are inadequate for quantifying the lens hardness, whereas Nakagami imaging allows different degrees of lens hardening to be distinguished both globally and locally based on the concentration of fiber coemption therein.

  16. Feasibility study of using high-frequency ultrasonic Nakagami imaging for characterizing the cataract lens in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, K. Kirk

    2007-11-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the crystalline lens that reduces the amount of incoming light and impairs visual perception. Phacoemulsification is the most common surgical method for treating advanced cataracts, and determining the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the feasibility of using an ultrasonic parametric image based on the Nakagami distribution to quantify the lens hardness. Young's modulus was measured in porcine lenses in which cataracts had been artificially induced. High-frequency ultrasound at 35 MHz was used to obtain the B-mode and Nakagami images of the cataract lenses. The averaged integrated backscatter and Nakagami parameters were also estimated in the region of interest. The experimental results show that the conventional B-scan and integrated backscatter are inadequate for quantifying the lens hardness, whereas Nakagami imaging allows different degrees of lens hardening to be distinguished both globally and locally based on the concentration of fiber coemption therein.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haotian; Yang, Tianyu; Madakashira, Bhavani P; Thiels, Cornelius A; Bechtle, Chad A; Garcia, Claudia M; Zhang, Huiming; Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M; Beebe, David C; Robinson, Michael L

    2008-06-15

    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens development, while mice possessing only a single Fgfr1 allele developed cataracts and microphthalmia. Profound defects were observed in lenses lacking all three Fgfrs. These included lack of fiber cell elongation, abnormal proliferation in prospective lens fiber cells, reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p27(kip1) and p57(kip2), increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins. Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly.

  18. Identification of a major continuous epitope of human alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Human lens proteins were digested with trypsin or V8 protease, and the resulting peptides resolved on a C18 reverse phase column. Fractions from this column were probed with polyclonal antiserum made against the whole alpha crystallin molecule. Peptides in the seropositive fraction were purified to homogeneity, then characterized by mass spectral analysis and partial Edman degradation. The tryptic and V8 digests contained only one seropositive peptide that was derived from the C-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule. To determine the exact boundaries of the epitope, various size analogues of this region were synthesized and probed with anti-alpha serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that the major continuous epitope of the alpha-A chain includes the sequence KPTSAPS, corresponding to residues 166-172 of the human alpha-A crystallin chain.

  19. Identification of a major continuous epitope of human alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Human lens proteins were digested with trypsin or V8 protease, and the resulting peptides resolved on a C18 reverse phase column. Fractions from this column were probed with polyclonal antiserum made against the whole alpha crystallin molecule. Peptides in the seropositive fraction were purified to homogeneity, then characterized by mass spectral analysis and partial Edman degradation. The tryptic and V8 digests contained only one seropositive peptide that was derived from the C-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule. To determine the exact boundaries of the epitope, various size analogues of this region were synthesized and probed with anti-alpha serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that the major continuous epitope of the alpha-A chain includes the sequence KPTSAPS, corresponding to residues 166-172 of the human alpha-A crystallin chain.

  20. A liquid crystal adaptive lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Cleverly, D.

    1981-01-01

    Creation of an electronically controlled liquid crystal lens for use as a focusing mechanism in a multi-element lens system or as an adaptive optical element is analyzed. Varying the index of refraction is shown to be equivalent to the shaping of a solid refracting material. Basic characteristics of liquid crystals, essential for the creation of a lens, are reviewed. The required variation of index of refraction is provided by choosing appropriate electrode voltages. The configuration required for any incoming polarization is given and its theoretical performance in terms of modulation transfer function derived.

  1. Lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation is associated with a robust increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai; Vasantha Rao, Ponugoti

    2007-10-01

    Myosin II, a molecular motor, plays a critical role in cell migration, cell shape changes, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. To understand the role of myosin II in lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation, we determined the distribution pattern of nonmuscle myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated regulatory myosin light chain-2 (phospho-MLC) in frozen sections of the developing mouse lens by immunofluorescence analysis. While myosin IIA was distributed uniformly throughout the differentiating lens, including the epithelium and fibers, myosin IIB was localized predominantly to the epithelium and the posterior tips of the lens fibers. In contrast, immunostaining with a di-phospho-MLC antibody localized intensely and precisely to the elongating and differentiating primary and secondary lens fibers, co-localizing with actin filaments. An in situ analysis of Rho GTPase activation revealed that Rho-GTP was distributed uniformly throughout the embryonic lens, including epithelium and fibers. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity by ML-7 in organ cultured mouse lenses led to development of nuclear lens opacity in association with abnormal fiber cell organization. Taken together, these data reveal a distinct spatial distribution pattern of myosin II isoforms in the developing lens and a robust activation of MLC phosphorylation in the differentiating lens fibers. Moreover, the regulation of MLC phosphorylation by MLCK appears to be critical for crystallin organization and for maintenance of lens transparency and lens membrane function.

  2. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  3. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  4. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  6. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  7. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  8. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... symptoms 6 steps to avoid contact lens infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones ...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not...

  10. Lens design based on lens form parameters using Gaussian brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyu; Cheng, Xuemin

    2014-11-01

    The optical power distribution and the symmetry of the lens components are two important attributes that decide the ultimate lens performance and characteristics. Lens form parameters W and S are the key criteria describing the two attributes mentioned above. Lens components with smaller W and S will have a good nature of aberration balance and perform well in providing good image quality. Applying the Gaussian brackets, the two lens form parameters and the Seidel Aberration Coefficients are reconstructed. An initial lens structure can be analytically described by simultaneous equations of Seidel Aberration Coefficients and third-order aberration theory. Adding the constraints of parameters W and S in the solving process, a solution with a proper image quality and aberration distribution is achieved. The optical properties and image quality of the system based on the parameters W and S are also analyzed in this article. In the method, the aberration distribution can be controlled to some extent in the beginning of design, so that we can reduce some workload of optimization later.

  11. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Tadasu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Kataoka, Keiko; Suzumura, Ayana; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open

  12. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... solution) because it can be a source of microorganisms that may cause serious eye infections. (Contact lens ... means it is free from living germs or microorganisms.) Never put your lenses in your mouth or ...

  13. Investigation of the Zoom Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open-ended investigation in which students have to look into a feature of lens performance that is not commonly found in textbook materials on optics. Presents explanations and sample results. (WRM)

  14. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    PubMed

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  15. Single crystalline magnetite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuqin; Zhang, Daihua; Han, Song; Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye; Zhou, Chongwu

    2005-01-12

    We descried a method to synthesize single crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes by wet-etching the MgO inner cores of MgO/Fe3O4 core-shell nanowires. Homogeneous Fe3O4 nanotubes with controllable length, diameter, and wall thickness have been obtained. Resistivity of the Fe3O4 nanotubes was estimated to be approximately 4 x 10-2 Omega cm at room temperature. Magnetoresistance of approximately 1% was observed at T = 77 K when a magnetic field of B = 0.7 T was applied. The synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to a variety of materials such as YBCO, PZT, and LCMO which should provide ideal candidates for fundamental studies of superconductivity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in nanoscale structures.

  16. Liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs could permit the incorporation of these polymers into other than uniaxial designs and extend their utility into new areas such as nonlinear optical devices. However, the unique feature of LCPs (intrinsic orientation order) is itself problematic, and current understanding of processing with control of orientation falls short of allowing manipulation of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers). The current and desirable characteristics of LCPs are reviewed and specific problems are identified along with issues that must be addressed so that advances in the use of these unique polymers can be expedited.

  17. Coherent X-ray and laser spectroscopy measurements of diffusion in concentrated alpha-crystallin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, V. N. C.

    The mammalian eye lens is composed of a concentrated solution of water soluble proteins called crystallins. Alpha-crystallin, the most abundant protein found in the lens, plays a crucial role in maintaining lens transparency and lens accommodation. However, alpha-crystallins along with other ocular proteins suffer from irreversible processes such as oxidation. One cause of oxidation is radiation-induced radical formation which alters the inter-molecular interactions, thereby degrading the normal function of ocular proteins. The main goal of this thesis is to quantify molecular scale dynamics of concentrated solutions of alpha-crystallins using coherent X-rays and visible laser light. I believe a detailed analysis of the dynamics pertaining to alpha-crystallin will provide the foundation to understand molecular scale mechanisms that lead to conditions like cataract and presbyopia. I explore the dynamics of concentrated alpha-crystallin solutions by measuring diffusive motion over a range of length scales using Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). To a certain extent, the dynamical properties of crystallins obtained in this manner are consistent with established theories in colloidal physics. However, there are some deviations, which I will address in this thesis. In terms of X-ray data, I employed a new, efficient photon correlation technique to obtain the best possible signal, furthermore this technique is embedded in a stand-alone software program that has the ability to provide real time results, quickly and efficiently with the help of high performance computing resources available at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The technique has potential to be used by the coherent X-ray spectroscopy community in the future. In addition, by using X-ray scattering data, I probe potential modifications and or damage effects on alpha-crystallins due to radiation exposure. The damage analysis methodology described in this thesis

  18. Electronically Reconfigurable Microwave Lens Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-13

    d: diameter of holes in the holey dielectric material and the holey metal plate; f: frequency; k: propagation constant in parallel plate region in...Control ) A planar Luneburg Lens whose permittivity distribution is controlled by two types of hole density methodology in the central region and by...dielectric thickness control in the edge region is reported. The lens was designed to operate at 24 GHz in TEM mode. Experimental radiation patterns

  19. Single lens laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  20. Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Yun; Park, Raehee; Kim, Jin Young; Hughes, Lucinda; Lu, Li; Kim, Seonhee; Johnson, Randy L; Cho, Seo-Hee

    2014-02-15

    Hippo-Yap signaling has been implicated in organ size determination via its regulation of cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis (Pan, 2007). The vertebrate lens comprises only two major cell types, lens progenitors and differentiated fiber cells, thereby providing a relatively simple system for studying size-controlling mechanisms. In order to investigate the role of Hippo-Yap signaling in lens size regulation, we conditionally ablated Yap in the developing mouse lens. Lens progenitor-specific deletion of Yap led to near obliteration of the lens primarily due to hypocellularity in the lens epithelium (LE) and accompanying lens fiber (LF) defects. A significantly reduced LE progenitor pool resulted mainly from failed self-renewal and increased apoptosis. Additionally, Yap-deficient lens progenitor cells precociously exited the cell cycle and expressed the LF marker, β-Crystallin. The mutant progenitor cells also exhibited multiple cellular and subcellular alterations including cell and nuclear shape change, organellar polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1. Yap-deficient LF cells failed to anchor to the overlying LE layer, impairing their normal elongation and packaging. Furthermore, our localization study results suggest that, in the developing LE, Yap participates in the cell context-dependent transition from the proliferative to differentiation-competent state by integrating cell density information. Taken together, our results shed new light on Yap's indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity.

  1. Locus for a human hereditary cataract is closely linked to the. gamma. -crystallin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Lubsen, N.H.; Renwick, J.H.; Tsui, L.C.; Breitman, M.L.; Schoenmakers, J.G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Within the human ..gamma..-crystallin gene cluster polymorphic Taq I sites are present. These give rise to three sets of allelic fragments from the ..gamma..-crystallin genes. Together these restriction fragment length polymorphisms define eight possible haplotypes, three of which (Q, R, and S) were found in the Dutch and English population. A fourth haplotype (P) was detected within a family in which a hereditary Coppock-like cataract of the embryonic lens nucleus occurs in heterozygotes. Haplotype P was found only in family members who suffered from cataract, and all family members who suffered from cataract had haplotype P. The absolute correlation between the presence of haplotype P and cataract within this family shows that the ..gamma..-crystallin gene cluster and the locus for the Coppock-like cataract are closely linked. This linkage provides genetic evidence that the primary cause of a cataract in humans could possibly be a lesion in a crystallin gene.

  2. COLD DRAWING IN CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    alcohols, phenol) in Nylon 6 produced changes in the crystalline structure as well as plasticizer action; these two effects must therefore be carefully...distinguished. Changes in the crystalline structure were followed by changes in the infrared spectrum. Dynamic mechanical and thermogravimetric analysis

  3. Multiple methods of surgical treatment combined with primary IOL implantation on traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Bi, Chun-Chao; Lei, Chun-Ling; Sun, Wen-Tao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Dong, Xiao-Juan

    2014-01-01

    AIM To describe clinical findings and complications from cases of traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma, and discuss the multiple treating methods of operation combined with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. METHODS Non-comparative retrospective observational case series. Participants: 30 cases (30 eyes) of lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma were investigated which accepted the surgical treatment by author in the Ophthalmology of Xi'an No.4 Hospital from 2007 to 2011. According to the different situations of lens subluxation/dislocation, various surgical procedures were performed such as crystalline lens phacoemulsification, crystalline lens phacoemulsification combined anterior vitrectomy, intracapsular cataract extraction combined anterior vitrectomy, lensectomy combined anterior vitrectomy though peripheral transparent cornea incision, pars plana lensectomy combined pars plana vitrectomy, and intravitreal cavity crystalline lens phacofragmentation combined pars plana vitrectomy. And whether to implement trabeculectomy depended on the different situations of secondary glaucoma. The posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC-IOLs) were implanted in the capsular-bag or trassclerally sutured in the sulus decided by whether the capsular were present. Main outcome measures: visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the situation of intraocular lens and complications after the operations. RESULTS The follow-up time was 11-36mo (21.4±7.13). Postoperative visual acuity of all eyes were improved; 28 cases maintained IOP below 21 mm Hg; 2 cases had slightly IOL subluxation, 4 cases had slightly tilted lens optical area; 1 case had postoperative choroidal detachment; 4 cases had postoperative corneal edema more than 1wk, but eventually recovered transparent; 2 cases had mild postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, and absorbed 4wk later. There was no postoperative retinal detachment, IOL dislocation, and

  4. Micro lens actuator and polymer objective lens for optical pickup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Pan, Longfa; Zappe, Hans

    Lens actuator is one of the most important components in an optical pickup system, which decides the performance of the disc readout system. A significant advance in technical capability has recently been achieved in the fabrication of integrated micro lens actuators of optical pickup by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. A comb-drive tracking and focusing integrated lens actuator fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer has been reported. Twodimensional tuning of the objective lens is generated by the integrated comb structures. Large displacements of about ±24.6μm in tracking direction and 5.7μm in focusing direction are demonstrated. The device has a high sensitivity and an ignorable coupling between the two dimensional driving movements. The small-form-factor device provides an excellent performance and size reduction. Furthermore, high quality polymer micro-lenses with high numerical aperture (NA) are fabricated on a pre-patterned hydrophobic glass substrate by liquid dispensing. The surface profiles are adjusted by the patterned diameter and the volume of the dispensed polymer, which is controlled by the dispensing time. This extremely low cost, high NA and easily fabricated lens represents an important step for further integration of the pickup system, thus expands the application area of optical storage.

  5. Formation of Amyloid Fibrils In Vitro from Partially Unfolded Intermediates of Human γC-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongting; Petty, Sarah; Trojanowski, Amy; Knee, Kelly; Goulet, Daniel; Mukerji, Ishita; King, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Mature-onset cataract results from the formation of light-scattering aggregates of lens crystallins. Although oxidative or mutational damage may be a prerequisite, little is known of the initiation or nucleation of these aggregated states. In mice carrying mutations in γ-crystallin genes, a truncated form of γ-crystallin formed intranuclear filamentous inclusions within lens fiber cells. Previous studies have shown that bovine crystallins and human γD-crystallin form amyloid fibrils under denaturing conditions in vitro. The amyloid fibril formation of human γC-crystallin (HγC-Crys) induced by low pH, together with characterization of a partially unfolded intermediate in the process were investigated. Methods. HγC-Crys was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Partially unfolded intermediates were detected by tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. The aggregation into amyloid fibrils was monitored by solution turbidity and fluorescence assay. The morphology of aggregates was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Secondary structure of the peptides in their fibrillar state was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results. The structure of HγC-Crys was perturbed at low pH. Partially unfolded intermediates were detected when solution pH was lowered to pH 3. At pH 3, HγC-Crys aggregated into amyloid fibrils. The kinetics and extent of the reaction was dependent on protein concentration, pH, and temperature. TEM images of aggregates revealed aggregation stages from short to long fibrils and from long fibrils to light-scattering fibril networks. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the cross-β character of the secondary structure of these fibrils. Conclusions. HγC-Crys formed amyloid fibrils on incubation at low pH via a partially unfolded intermediate. This process could contribute to the early stages of the formation of light-scattering species in the eye lens. PMID

  6. A smiling lens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    In the centre of this image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is the galaxy cluster SDSS J1038+4849 — and it seems to be smiling. You can make out its two orange eyes and white button nose. In the case of this “happy face”, the two eyes are very bright galaxies and the misleading smile lines are actually arcs caused by an effect known as strong gravitational lensing. Galaxy clusters are the most massive structures in the Universe and exert such a powerful gravitational pull that they warp the spacetime around them and act as cosmic lenses which can magnify, distort and bend the light behind them. This phenomenon, crucial to many of Hubble’s discoveries, can be explained by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. In this special case of gravitational lensing, a ring  — known as an Einstein Ring  — is produced from this bending of light, a consequence of the exact and symmetrical alignment of the source, lens and observer and resulting in the ring-like structure we see here. Hubble has provided astronomers with the tools to probe these massive galaxies and model their lensing effects, allowing us to peer further into the early Universe than ever before. This object was studied by Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as part of a survey of strong lenses. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

  7. Optical performance of a PDMS tunable lens with automatically controlled applied stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Felix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Hernández-Méndez, Arturo; Reyes-Pérez, Emilio R.; Tepichín-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    The advances in the field of adaptive optics and in the fabrication of tunable optical components capable to automatically modify their physical features are of great interest in areas like machine vision, imaging systems, ophthalmology, etc. Such components like tunable lenses are used to reduce the overall size of optical setups like in small camera systems and even to imitate some biological functions made by the human eye. In this direction, in the last years we have been working in the development and fabrication of PDMS-made tunable lenses and in the design of special mechanical mounting systems to manipulate them. A PDMS-made tunable lens was previously designed by us, following the scheme reported by Navarro et al. in 1985, in order to mimic the accommodation process made by the crystalline lens of the human eye. The design included a simulation of the application of radial stress onto the lens and it was shown that the effective focal length was indeed changed. In this work we show the fabrication process of this particular tunable lens and an optimized mechanism that is able to automatically change the curvature of both surfaces of the lens by the application of controlled stress. We also show results of a study and analysis of aberrations performed to the Solid Elastic Lens (SEL).

  8. Symmetrical optical imaging system with bionic variable-focus lens for off-axis aberration correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    A bionic variable-focus lens with symmetrical layered structure was designed to mimic the crystalline lens. An optical imaging system based on this lens and with a symmetrical structure that mimics the human eye structure was proposed. The refractive index of the bionic variable-focus lens increases from outside to inside. The two PDMS lenses with a certain thickness were designed to improve the optical performance of the optical imaging system and minimise the gravity effect of liquid. The paper presents the overall structure of the optical imaging system and the detailed description of the bionic variable-focus lens. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity, the surface curvatures of the rear PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change in the focal length. The focal length range of the optical imaging system was 20.71-24.87 mm. The optical performance of the optical imaging system was evaluated by imaging experiments and analysed by ray tracing simulations. On the basis of test and simulation results, the optical performance of the system was quite satisfactory. Off-axis aberrations were well corrected, and the image quality was greatly improved.

  9. An analytical method for predicting the geometrical and optical properties of the human lens under accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Sheil, Conor J.; Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method to describe the accommodative changes in the human crystalline lens. The method is based on the geometry-invariant lens model, in which the gradient-index (GRIN) iso-indicial contours are coupled to the external shape. This feature ensures that any given number of iso-indicial contours does not change with accommodation, which preserves the optical integrity of the GRIN structure. The coupling also enables us to define the GRIN structure if the radii and asphericities of the external lens surfaces are known. As an example, the accommodative changes in lenticular radii and central thickness were taken from the literature, while the asphericities of the external surfaces were derived analytically by adhering to the basic physical conditions of constant lens volume and its axial position. The resulting changes in lens geometry are consistent with experimental data, and the optical properties are in line with expected values for optical power and spherical aberration. The aim of the paper is to provide an anatomically and optically accurate lens model that is valid for 3 mm pupils and can be used as a new tool for better understanding of accommodation. PMID:24877022

  10. Identification of proteins that modify cataract of mouse eye lens.

    PubMed

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Tang, Yajun; Ackermann, Renate; Pleissner, Klaus-Peter; Schmid, Monika; Stein, Robert; Zimny-Arndt, Ursula; Kumar, Nalin M; Jungblut, Peter R

    2008-12-01

    The occurrence of a nuclear cataract in the eye lens due to disruption of the alpha3Cx46 connexin gene, Gja3, is dependent on strain background in a mouse model, implicating factors that modify the pathology. The differences upon cataractogenesis in the urea soluble proteins of the lens of two mouse strains, C57BL/6J and 129/SvJ, were analyzed by a comparative proteomics approach. Determination of the complete proteome of an organ offers the opportunity to characterize at a molecular level, differences in gene expression and PTMs occurring during pathology and between individuals. The abundance of 63 protein species was altered between the strains. A unique aspect of this study is the identification of chaperonin subunit 6A, mortalin, ERp29, and syntaxin-binding protein 6 in the eye lens. DNA polymorphisms resulting in nonconservative amino acid changes that led to altered physicochemical properties of the proteins were detected for mortalin, chaperonin subunit 6A, annexin A1, and possibly gamma-N crystallin. The results show HSP27/25 and/or ERp29 are the likely major modifying factors for cataractogenesis. Extension of the results suggests that small heat-shock proteins have a major role for influencing cataract formation in humans.

  11. Inhibition of Lens Photodamage by UV-Absorbing Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Malone, James P.; Townsend, R. Reid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether class 1 UV-blocking contact lenses protect against UVB radiation–induced damage in a human lens epithelial cell line (HLE B-3) and postmortem human lenses using a proteomics approach. Methods. HLE B-3 cells were exposed to 6.4 mW/cm2 UVB radiation at 302 nm for 2 minutes (768 mJ/cm2) with or without covering by senofilcon A class 1 UV-blocking contact lenses or lotrafilcon A non–UV-blocking (lotrafilcon A has some UV-blocking ability, albeit minimal) contact lenses. Control cells were not exposed to UVB radiation. Four hours after treatment, cells were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, and changes in protein abundance were quantified. F-actin and microtubule cytoskeletons were examined by fluorescence staining. In addition, human donor lenses were exposed to UVB radiation at 302 nm for 4 minutes (1536 mJ/cm2). Cortical and epithelial cell proteins were scraped from lens surfaces and subjected to the same protein analyses. Results. Senofilcon A lenses were beneficial for protecting HLE B-3 cells against UVB radiation–induced changes in caldesmon 1 isoform, lamin A/C transcript variant 1, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide, β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), annexin A2, triose phosphate isomerase, and ubiquitin B precursor. These contact lenses also prevented actin and microtubule cytoskeleton changes typically induced by UVB radiation. Conversely, non–UV-blocking contact lenses were not protective. UVB-irradiated human lenses showed marked reductions in αA-crystallin, αB-crystallin, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, βS-crystallin, βB2-crystallin, and G3PDH, and UV-absorbing contact lenses significantly prevented these alterations. Conclusions. Senofilcon A class 1 UV-blocking contact lenses largely prevented UVB-induced changes in protein abundance in lens epithelial cells and in human lenses. PMID:21873653

  12. Pinhole Zone Plate Lens for Ultrasound Focusing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Constanza; Fuster, José Miguel; Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Sergio; Uris, Antonio; Belmar, Francisco; Candelas, Pilar

    2017-07-22

    The focusing capabilities of a pinhole zone plate lens are presented and compared with those of a conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The focusing properties are examined both experimentally and numerically. The results confirm that a pinhole zone plate lens can be an alternative to a Fresnel lens. A smooth filtering effect is created in pinhole zone plate lenses, giving rise to a reduction of the side lobes around the principal focus associated with the conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The manufacturing technique of the pinhole zone plate lens allows the designing and constructing of lenses for different focal lengths quickly and economically and without the need to drill new plates.

  13. Pinhole Zone Plate Lens for Ultrasound Focusing

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, José Miguel; Castiñeira-Ibáñez, Sergio; Uris, Antonio; Belmar, Francisco; Candelas, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The focusing capabilities of a pinhole zone plate lens are presented and compared with those of a conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The focusing properties are examined both experimentally and numerically. The results confirm that a pinhole zone plate lens can be an alternative to a Fresnel lens. A smooth filtering effect is created in pinhole zone plate lenses, giving rise to a reduction of the side lobes around the principal focus associated with the conventional Fresnel zone plate lens. The manufacturing technique of the pinhole zone plate lens allows the designing and constructing of lenses for different focal lengths quickly and economically and without the need to drill new plates. PMID:28737674

  14. Intraocular lens short wavelength light filtering.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Keith H; Gibson, G Anthony

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing interest in the effects of reactive oxygen species ('free radicals') in ageing, both in the body overall and specifically in the eye. Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two major causes of blindness, with cataract accounting for 48 per cent of world blindness and AMD accounting for 8.7 per cent. Both cataract and AMD affect an older population (over 50 years of age) and while cataract is largely treatable provided resources are available, AMD is a common cause of untreatable, progressive visual loss. There is evidence that AMD is linked to exposure to short wavelength electromagnetic radiation, which includes ultraviolet, blue and violet wavelengths. The ageing crystalline lens provides some protection to the posterior pole because, as it yellows with age, its spectral absorption increasingly blocks the shorter wavelengths of light. Ultraviolet blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been the standard of care for many years but a more recent trend is to include blue-blocking filters based on theoretical benefits. As these filters absorb part of the visible spectrum, they may affect visual function. This review looks at the risks and the benefits of filtering out short wavelength light in pseudophakic patients.

  15. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    PubMed

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components.

  16. Sensitivity studies of crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    The equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and rf electric fields in storage rings. These equations have been employed in the molecular dynamics simulations for sensitivity studies of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. Effects of lattice shear and AG focusing, magnetic field imperfection, and ion neutralization on crystalline beam heating is presented.

  17. γS-Crystallin Proteins from the Antarctic Nototheniid Toothfish: A Model System for Investigating Differential Resistance to Chemical and Thermal Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The γS1- and γS2-crystallins, structural eye lens proteins from the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), are homologues of the human lens protein γS-crystallin. Although γS1 has the higher thermal stability of the two, it is more susceptible to chemical denaturation by urea. The lower thermodynamic stability of both toothfish crystallins relative to human γS-crystallin is consistent with the current picture of how proteins from organisms endemic to perennially cold environments have achieved low-temperature functionality via greater structural flexibility. In some respects, the sequences of γS1- and γS2-crystallin are typical of psychrophilic proteins; however, their amino acid compositions also reflect their selection for a high refractive index increment. Like their counterparts in the human lens and those of mesophilic fish, both toothfish crystallins are relatively enriched in aromatic residues and methionine and exiguous in aliphatic residues. The sometimes contradictory requirements of selection for cold tolerance and high refractive index make the toothfish crystallins an excellent model system for further investigation of the biophysical properties of structural proteins. PMID:25372016

  18. [Contact lens-related keratitis].

    PubMed

    Steiber, Zita; Berta, András; Módis, László

    2013-11-10

    Nowadays, keratitis, corneal infection due to wearing contact lens means an increasingly serious problem. Neglected cases may lead to corneal damage that can cause blindness in cases of otherwise healthy eyes. Early diagnosis based on the clinical picture and the typical patient history is an important way of prevention. Prophylaxis is substantial to avoid bacterial and viral infection that is highly essential in this group of diseases. Teaching contact lens wearers the proper contact lens care, storage, sterility, and hygiene regulations is of great importance. In case of corneal inflammation early accurate diagnosis supported by microbiological culture from contact lenses, storage boxes or cornea is very useful. Thereafter, targeted drug therapy or in therapy-resistant cases surgical treatment may even be necessary in order to sustain suitable visual acuity.

  19. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  20. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutation of αA-Crystallin Gene Induces Congenital Cataracts in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Yao, Haobin; Xu, Yuxin; Chen, Mao; Deng, Jichao; Song, Yuning; Sui, Tingting; Wang, Yong; Huang, Yongye; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of the αA-crystallin gene in inducing congenital cataracts in rabbits and to construct a novel animal model for characterization and pathologic analysis of congenital cataracts for future research. We generated αA-crystallin gene knockout rabbits with congenital cataracts by coinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA into zygotes. Cataract phenotypes were investigated in a repeated study of 19 F0-generation and 11 F1-generation rabbits with αA-crystallin gene mutations. Heritability was analyzed by PCR, sequencing, slim lamp, hematoxylin eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. We found αA-crystallin gene mutations in all 19 F0-generation pups (100%) with indel mutations in the αA-crystallin gene ranging from 3 to 52 bp. Off-target assay revealed that none of the potential off-target sites exhibited mutations, demonstrating that off-target mutagenesis was not induced by cytoplasmic microinjection of in vitro-transcribed Cas9 mRNA. Slim lamp assay revealed that 15 of 19 live pups (78.9%) exhibited typical phenotypes, including congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, obscurity, and early atrophy of the lens, and failed differentiation of lens fibers. Histologic hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that αA-crystallin gene knockout rabbits exhibited smaller lenses. Production of the αA-crystallin protein was determined to be dramatically reduced in αA-crystallin gene knockout rabbits. We induced αA-crystallin gene mutations and phenotypes in F1-generation rabbits. Our data suggest that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation of the αA-crystallin gene in rabbits recapitulates phenotypes of congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, obscurity, and early atrophy of the lens, and failed differentiation of lens fibers. These findings suggest the possibility of a new animal model of congenital cataracts, which should be used to further investigate the association between mutations in αA-crystallin gene and congenital

  2. A novel interdomain interface in crystallins: structural characterization of the βγ-crystallin from Geodia cydonium at 0.99 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alessandro; Grassi, Marco; Sica, Filomena; Pizzo, Elio; D'Alessio, Giuseppe; Mazzarella, Lelio; Merlino, Antonello

    2013-06-01

    The βγ-crystallin superfamily includes highly diverse proteins belonging to all of the kingdoms of life. Based on structural topology, these proteins are considered to be evolutionarily related to the long-lived βγ-crystallins that constitute the vertebrate eye lens. This study reports the crystallographic structure at 0.99 Å resolution of the two-domain βγ-crystallin (geodin) from the sponge Geodia cydonium. This is the most ancient member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily in metazoans. The X-ray structure shows that the geodin domains adopt the typical βγ-crystallin fold with a paired Greek-key motif, thus confirming the hypothesis that the crystallin-type scaffold used in the evolution of bacteria and moulds was recruited very early in metazoans. As a significant new structural feature, the sponge protein possesses a unique interdomain interface made up by pairing between the second motif of the first domain and the first motif of the second domain. The atomic resolution also allowed a detailed analysis of the calcium-binding site of the protein.

  3. Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A.; Siedlecki, D.; Borja, David; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice; Marcos, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To reconstruct the gradient index (GRIN) profile of human crystalline lenses ex-vivo using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging with an optimization technique and to study the dependence of the GRIN profile with age. Methods Cross-sectional images of nine isolated human crystalline lenses with ages ranging from 6 to 72 (post mortem time 1 to 4 days) were obtained using a custom-made OCT system. Lenses were extracted from whole cadaver globes and placed in a measurement chamber filled with preservation medium (DMEM). Lenses were imaged with the anterior surface up and then flipped over and imaged again, to obtain posterior lens surface profiles both undistorted and distorted by the refraction through the anterior crystalline lens and GRIN. The GRIN distribution of the lens was described with three variables by means of power function, with variables being the nucleus and surface index, and a power coefficient that describes the decay of the refractive index from the nucleus to the surface. An optimization method was used to search for the parameters that produced the best match of the distorted posterior surface. Results The distorted surface was simulated with accuracy around the resolution of the OCT system (under 15 µm). The reconstructed refractive index values ranged from 1.356 to 1.388 for the surface, and from 1.396 to 1.434 for the nucleus. The power coefficient ranged between 3 and 18. The power coefficient increased significantly with age, at a rate of 0.24 per year. Conclusion Optical Coherence Tomography allowed optical, non-invasive measurement of the 2-D gradient index profile of the isolated human crystalline lens ex vivo. The age-dependent variation of the changes is consistent with previous data using magnetic resonance imaging, and the progressive formation of a refractive index plateau. PMID:22865954

  4. Age-dependent variation of the gradient index profile in human crystalline lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Alberto; Siedlecki, Damian; Borja, David; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice; Marcos, Susana

    2011-11-01

    An investigation was carried out with the aim of reconstructing the gradient index (GRIN) profile of human crystalline lenses ex-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with an optimization technique and to study the dependence of the GRIN profile with age. Cross-sectional images of nine isolated human crystalline lenses with ages ranging from 6 to 72 (post-mortem time 1 to 4 days) were obtained using a custom-made OCT system. Lenses were extracted from whole cadaver globes and placed in a measurement chamber filled with preservation medium (DMEM). Lenses were imaged with the anterior surface up and then flipped over and imaged again, to obtain posterior lens surface profiles both undistorted and distorted by the refraction through the anterior crystalline lens and GRIN. The GRIN distribution of the lens was described with three variables by means of power function, with variables being the nucleus and surface index, and a power coefficient that describes the decay of the refractive index from the nucleus to the surface. An optimization method was used to search for the parameters that produced the best match of the distorted posterior surface. The distorted surface was simulated with accuracy around the resolution of the OCT system (under 15 µm). The reconstructed refractive index values ranged from 1.356 to 1.388 for the surface, and from 1.396 to 1.434 for the nucleus. The power coefficient ranged between 3 and 18. The power coefficient increased significantly with age, at a rate of 0.24 per year. Optical coherence tomography allowed optical, non-invasive measurement of the 2D gradient index profile of the isolated human crystalline lens ex vivo. The age-dependent variation of the changes is consistent with previous data using magnetic resonance imaging, and the progressive formation of a refractive index plateau.

  5. Optical Properties of a Bio-Inspired Gradient Refractive Index Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-21

    crystalline lens. GRIN lenses found in nature typically consist of approximately 22,000 nonplanar layers of proteins with different refractive...indices [5]. Systematic variation in protein and water concentration in different layers provides the index gradient [6]. The refractive index range (Δn...typically composed of tens of thousands of protein layers. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) can confirm

  6. Newborn Mouse Lens Proteome and Its Alteration by Lysine 6 Mutant Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a tag that often initiates degradation of proteins by the proteasome in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Targeted expression of K6W mutant ubiquitin (K6W-Ub) in the lens results in defects in lens development and cataract formation, suggesting critical functions for ubiquitin in lens. To study the developmental processes that require intact ubiquitin, we executed the most extensive characterization of the lens proteome to date. We quantified lens protein expression changes in multiple replicate pools of P1 wild-type and K6W-Ub-expressing mouse lenses. Lens proteins were digested with trypsin, peptides were separated using strong cation exchange and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra were collected with a linear ion trap. Transgenic mice that expressed low levels of K6W-Ub (low expressers) had normal, clear lenses at birth, whereas the lenses that expressed high levels of K6W-Ub (higher expressers) had abnormal lenses and cataracts at birth. A total of 2052 proteins were identified, of which 996 were reliably quantified and compared between wild-type and K6W-Ub transgenic mice. Consistent with a delayed developmental program, fiber-cell-specific proteins, such as γ-crystallins (γA, γB, γC, and γE), were down-regulated in K6W-Ub higher expressers. Up-regulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and proteolysis. The K6W-Ub low expressers exhibited delayed onset and milder cataract consistent with smaller changes in protein expression. Because lens protein expression changes occurred prior to lens morphological abnormalities and cataract formation in K6W-Ub low expressers, it appears that expression of K6W-Ub sets in motion a process of altered protein expression that results in developmental defects and cataract. PMID:24450463

  7. Current contact lens care systems.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Phyllis L

    2003-09-01

    Contact lens care has been revolutionized and simplified with the development of multipurpose solutions, less sensitizing preservatives and disinfectants, better protein removers, and reaction-free, one-bottle care systems for patients who have had adverse responses to existing care products. As the complexity of lens care has decreased, compliance has increased. Nevertheless, good compliance is dependent on technician training and a thorough understanding of the chemistry and mechanism of action of each care system. Care products are constantly evolving, and the practitioner should become familiar with each new solution as it is introduced to ensure that patients are also kept up-to-date.

  8. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  9. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  10. Improved flight-simulator viewing lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahlbaum, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Triplet lens system uses two acrylic plastic double convex lenses and one polystyrene plastic single convex lens to reduce chromatic distortion and lateral aberation, especially at large field angles within in-line systems of flight simulators.

  11. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joan E. Wielgus, Albert R. Boyes, William K. Andley, Usha Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

  12. The gradient index lens of the eye: an opto-biological synchrony.

    PubMed

    Pierscionek, Barbara K; Regini, Justyn W

    2012-07-01

    The refractive power of a lens is determined largely by its surface curvatures and the refractive index of its medium. These properties can also be used to control the sharpness of focus and hence the image quality. One of the most effective ways of doing this is with a gradient index. Eye lenses of all species, thus far, measured, are gradient index (GRIN) structures. The index gradation is one that increases from the periphery of the lens to its centre but the steepness of the gradient and the magnitudes of the refractive index vary so that the optics of the lens accords with visual demands. The structural proteins, the crystallins, which create the index gradient, also vary from species to species, in type and relative distribution across the tissue. The crystallin classes do not contribute equally to the refractive index, and this may be related to their structure and amino acid content. This article compares GRIN forms in eye lenses of varying species, the relevance of these forms to visual requirements, and the relationship between refractive index and the structural proteins. Consideration is given to the dynamics of a living lens, potential variations in the GRIN form with physiological changes and the possible link between discontinuities in the gradient and growth. Finally, the property of birefringence and the characteristic polarisation patterns seen in highly ordered crystals that have also been observed in specially prepared eye lenses are described and discussed.

  13. Tunable-focus lens for adaptive eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nazmul; Banerjee, Aishwaryadev; Kim, Hanseup; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2017-01-23

    We demonstrate the implementation of a compact tunable-focus liquid lens suitable for adaptive eyeglass application. The lens has an aperture diameter of 32 mm, optical power range of 5.6 diopter, and electrical power consumption less than 20 mW. The lens inclusive of its piezoelectric actuation mechanism is 8.4 mm thick and weighs 14.4 gm. The measured lens RMS wavefront aberration error was between 0.73 µm and 0.956 µm.

  14. Panoramic lens designed with transformation optics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Deng, Yangyang; Zheng, Bin; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The panoramic lens is a special kind of lens, which is applied to observe full view. In this letter, we theoretically present a panoramic lens (PL) using transformation optics method. The lens is designed with inhomogeneous and anisotropic constitutive parameters, which has the ability to gather light from all directions and confine light within the visual angle of observer. Simulation results validate our theoretical design. PMID:28059142

  15. Panoramic lens designed with transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Deng, Yangyang; Zheng, Bin; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The panoramic lens is a special kind of lens, which is applied to observe full view. In this letter, we theoretically present a panoramic lens (PL) using transformation optics method. The lens is designed with inhomogeneous and anisotropic constitutive parameters, which has the ability to gather light from all directions and confine light within the visual angle of observer. Simulation results validate our theoretical design.

  16. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-12-14

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are the densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.

  17. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are the densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.

  18. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-12-14

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are the densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.

  19. Visual outcomes after lensectomy and iris claw artisan intraocular lens implantation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Hossein Mohammad; Malekifar, Parviz; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Roshandel, Danial; Esfandiari, Hamed

    2017-08-01

    To review our experience with crystalline lens extraction and iris claw Artisan IOL implantation in patients with lens subluxation secondary to Marfan syndrome. A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes of 9 patients with lens subluxation due to Marfan syndrome who underwent crystalline lens removal and Artisan IOL (Ophtec, Groningen, Netherlands) implantation. A questionnaire of pre- and post-operative data, including demographics, pre- and postoperative comorbidities and complications was completed. Patients were evaluated for visual outcome and occurrence of complications. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and spherical equivalents (SE) were compared before and after lens extraction and IOL insertion. The mean age of the participants was 30.03 ± 15.02 years, and mean post-operative follow-up time was 44.5 ± 16.4 months. Mean BCVA also showed a significant improvement from 0.5 ± 0.3 at the baseline to 0.2 ± 0.2 post-operatively (P = 0.006). SE changed significantly from -11.38 ± 1.99 preoperatively to -0.45 ± 1.65 post-operatively (P = 0.003). All eyes had the IOL implanted at desired position. Post-operative complications were retinal detachment in one case and IOL dislocation in another patient. No other complication such as ocular hypertension, angle abnormalities, clinical cystoids macular edema, and corneal decompensation was observed during the follow-up period. Artisan IOL implantation after lens extraction appears to be an attractive alternative for optical correction in cases of Marfan syndrome with ectopia lentis. It confers a significant improvement in visual acuity with reasonable risk profile.

  20. Circumstellar Crystalline Silicates: Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartar, Josh; Speck, A. K.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most exciting developments in astronomy in the last 15 years was the discovery of crystalline silicate stardust by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board of ISO; discovery of the crystalline grains was indeed one of the biggest surprises of the ISO mission. Initially discovered around AGB stars (evolved stars in the range of 0.8 > M/M¤>8) at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths, crystalline silicates have since been seen in many astrophysical environments including young stellar objects (T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be), comets and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) comprise 95% of the contributors to the ISM, so study of the formation of crystalline silicates is critical to our understanding of the ISM, which is thought to be primarily amorphous (one would expect an almost exact match between the composition of AGB dust shells and the dust in the ISM). Whether the crystalline dust is merely undetectable or amorphized remains a mystery. The FORCAST instrument on SOFIA as well as the PACS instrument on Herschel will provide exciting observing opportunities for the further study of crystalline silicates.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of bovine γB-crystallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, George; Mills, Jeffrey; Michel, Lea; Mathews, Kaylee; Zanet, John; Payan, Angel; van Nostrand, Keith; Kotlarchyk, Michael; Ross, David; Wahle, Christopher; Hamilton, John

    Anisotropy of shape and/or interactions play an important role in determining the properties of concentrated solutions of the eye lens protein, γB-crystallin, including its liquid-liquid phase transition. We are studying γB anisotropic interactions with use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) concentration- and temperature-dependent chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). We analyze two-dimensional heteronuclear spin quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra on backbone nitrogen and attached hydrogen nuclei for CSPs, up to 3 percent volume fraction. Cumulative distribution functions of the CSPs show a concentration and temperature-dependent spread. Many peaks that are highly shifted with either concentration or temperature are close (i) crystal intermolecular contacts (ii) locations of cataractogenic point mutations of a homologous human protein, human γD-crystallin, and (iii) charged amino-acid residues. We also discuss the concentration- and temperature-dependence of NMR and quasielastic light scattering measurements of rotational and translational diffusion of γB crystallin in solution, affected by interprotein attractions. Supported by NIH EY018249.

  2. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  5. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  6. Contact Lens-related Complications: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years. PMID:28540012

  7. Luneburg modified lens for surface water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichard, Helene; Maurel, Agnes; Petitjeans, Phillipe; Martin, Paul; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that when the waves pass across an elevated bathymetry, refraction often results in amplification of waves behind it. In this sense, focusing of liquid surface waves can be used to enhance the harvest efficiency of ocean power. An ocean wave focusing lens concentrates waves on a certain focal point by transforming straight crest lens of incident waves into circular ones just like an optical lens. These devices have attracted ocean engineers and are promising because they enable the effective utilization of wave energy, the remaining challenge being to increase the harvest efficiency of the lens. In this work, in order to improve well known focusing of surface liquid waves by lens, the propagation of liquid surface waves through a Luneburg modified lens is investigated. The traditional Luneburg lens is a rotationally symmetric lens with a spatially varying refractive-index profile that focuses an incident plane wave on the rim of the lens. The modified Luneburg lens allows to choose the position of the focal point, which can lie inside or outside the lens. This new degree of freedom leads to enhanced focusing and tunable focusing. The focusing of linear surface waves through this lens is investigated and is shown to be more efficient than classical profile lenses.

  8. A broadband transformation-optics metasurface lens

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Xiang; Xiang Jiang, Wei; Feng Ma, Hui; Jun Cui, Tie

    2014-04-14

    We present a transformational metasurface Luneburg lens based on the quasi-conformal mapping method, which has weakly anisotropic constitutive parameters. We design the metasurface lens using inhomogeneous artificial structures to realize the required surface refractive indexes. The transformational metasurface Luneburg lens is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate very good performance in controlling the radiated surface waves.

  9. 21 CFR 886.1400 - Maddox lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maddox lens. 886.1400 Section 886.1400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1400 Maddox lens. (a) Identification. A Maddox lens is a...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to...

  11. The Fyodorov Sputnik intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kwitko, M L

    1979-04-01

    The author has implanted 197 Fyodorov intraocular lenses. With careful selection of patients, good surgical judgment, and meticulous surgery, a degree of success can be obtained with this lens, which will equal that of conventional cataract surgery. The surgical technique of implantation will be described.

  12. Tevatron electron lens magnetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Shiltsev et al.

    2001-07-12

    In the framework of collaboration between IHEP and FNAL, a magnetic system of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) has been designed and built. The TEL is currently installed in the superconducting ring of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider and used for experimental studies of beam-beam compensation [1].

  13. A Lens to the Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This essay is based on a series of roundtables convened through the Knight Collaborative National Medical Education Roundtable. It reports that the challenges and transformations experienced in recent years by community-based medical schools and clinical campuses offer a lens to the whole higher education enterprise, and asks the fundamental…

  14. Multifocal contact lens myopia control.

    PubMed

    Walline, Jeffrey J; Greiner, Katie L; McVey, M Elizabeth; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies on soft multifocal contact lens myopia control published in the peer-reviewed literature reported findings of noncommercial contact lenses worn for 1 year or less. This study sought to determine the progression of myopia and axial elongation of children fitted with commercially available distance center soft multifocal contact lenses for 2 years. Eight- to eleven-year-old children with -1.00 D to -6.00 D spherical component and less than 1.00 D astigmatism were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses with a +2.00 D add (Proclear Multifocal "D"; CooperVision, Fairport, NY). They were age- and gender-matched to participants from a previous study who were fitted with single-vision contact lenses (1 Day Acuvue; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). A-scan ultrasound and cycloplegic autorefraction were performed at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years. Multilevel modeling was used to compare the rate of change of myopia and axial length between single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers. Forty participants were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses, and 13 did not contribute complete data (5 contributed 1 year of data). The adjusted mean ± standard error spherical equivalent progression of myopia at 2 years was -1.03 ± 0.06 D for the single-vision contact lens wearers and -0.51 ± 0.06 for the soft multifocal contact lens wearers (p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean axial elongation was 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.03 for the single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers, respectively (p < 0.0016). Soft multifocal contact lens wear resulted in a 50% reduction in the progression of myopia and a 29% reduction in axial elongation during the 2-year treatment period compared to a historical control group. Results from this and other investigations indicate a need for a long-term randomized clinical trial to investigate the potential for soft multifocal contact lens myopia control.

  15. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Remington, Susann G; Meyer, Rita A

    2007-06-08

    In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors.Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  16. Multiple roles of Equarin during lens development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaohong; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2014-04-01

    Since the days of Hans Spemann, the ocular lens has served as one of the most important developmental systems for elucidating the fundamental processes of induction and differentiation. Lens is an important source of signals that influence the eye development and a variety of genes expressed by the lens have been identified. The identification of additional molecule(s), especially secreted ones that might mediate signals, will extend our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of eye and lens development. Here, we will introduce a soluble molecule, Equarin, and discuss its vital role in multiple aspects of lens development. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Micro-optic lens for data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Trusty, R. M.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Erwin, J. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    A new type of microlens for data storage applications that has improved off-axis performance is described. The lens consists of a micro Fresnel pattern on a curved substrate. The radius of the substrate is equal to the focal length of the lens. If the pattern and substrate are thin, the combination satisfies the Abbe sine condition. Therefore, the lens is free of coma. We analyze a 0.5 numerical aperture, 0.50 mm focal length lens in detail. A 0.16 numerical aperture lens was fabricated holographically, and results are presented.

  18. The Three-Dimensional Distribution of αA-Crystalline in Rat Lenses and Its Possible Relation to Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Zampighi, Guido A.; Zampighi, Lorenzo; Lanzavecchia, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Lens transparency depends on the accumulation of massive quantities (600–800 mg/ml) of twelve primary crystallines and two truncated crystallines in highly elongated “fiber” cells. Despite numerous studies, major unanswered questions are how this heterogeneous group of proteins becomes organized to bestow the lens with its unique optical properties and how it changes during cataract formation. Using novel methods based on conical tomography and labeling with antibody/gold conjugates, we have profiled the 3D-distribution of the αA-crystalline in rat lenses at ∼2 nm resolutions and three-dimensions. Analysis of tomograms calculated from lenses labeled with anti-αA-crystalline and gold particles (∼3 nm and ∼7 nm diameter) revealed geometric patterns shaped as lines, isosceles triangles and polyhedrons. A Gaussian distribution centered at ∼7.5 nm fitted the distances between the ∼3 nm diameter gold conjugates. A Gaussian distribution centered at ∼14 nm fitted the Euclidian distances between the smaller and the larger gold particles and another Gaussian at 21–24 nm the distances between the larger particles. Independent of their diameters, tethers of 14–17 nm in length connected files of gold particles to thin filaments or clusters to ∼15 nm diameter “beads.” We used the information gathered from tomograms of labeled lenses to determine the distribution of the αA-crystalline in unlabeled lenses. We found that αA-crystalline monomers spaced ∼7 nm or αA-crystalline dimers spaced ∼15 nm center-to-center apart decorated thin filaments of the lens cytoskeleton. It thus seems likely that lost or gain of long-range order determines the 3D-structure of the fiber cell and possible also cataract formation. PMID:21909355

  19. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  20. Molecular composites from liquid crystalline polymers and liquid crystalline thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    We propose a new approach to molecular composites. This approach uses a mixture of a liquid crystalline polymer and a liquid crystalline thermoset to enhance the miscibility. Preliminary neutron scattering data is presented on a system of short and long rod aromatic amides. The data is interpreted using the interpenetrating phase model of Debye and Bueche. The analysis indicates that the scattering is consistent with this model and shows a characteristic length scale in the range of 70 to 80 A. The intensity of the scattering is lower than calculated for the strong segregation limit, suggesting that there is some intermixing of the components.

  1. Functional redundancy of the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sites of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter.

    PubMed

    Sax, C M; Ilagan, J G; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-06-11

    Previous studies have implicated the DE-1 (-111/-106) and alpha A-CRYBP1 (-66/-57) sites for activity of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter in transiently transfected lens cells. Here we have used the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene to test the functional importance of the putative DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory elements by site-specific and deletion mutagenesis in stably transformed alpha TN4-1 lens cells and in transgenic mice. FVB/N and C57BL/6 x SJL F2 hybrid transgenic mice were assayed for CAT activity in the lens, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, liver, cerebrum, and muscle. F0, F1, and F2 mice from multiple lines carrying single mutations of the DE-1 or alpha A-CRYBP1 sites showed high levels of CAT activity in the lens, but not in any of the non-lens tissues. By contrast, despite activity of the wild-type promoter, none of the mutant promoter/CAT constructs were active in the transiently transfected and stably transformed lens cells. The mice carrying transgenes with either site-specific mutations in both the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 sites or a deletion of the entire DE-1 and part of the alpha A-CRYBP1 site (-60/+46) fused to the CAT gene did not exhibit CAT activity above background in any of the tissues examined, including the lens. Our results thus indicate that the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 sites are functionally redundant in transgenic mice. Moreover, the present data coupled with previous transfection and transgenic mouse experiments suggest that this functional redundancy is confined to lens expression within the mouse and is not evident in transiently transfected and stably transformed lens cells, making the cultured lens cells sensitive indicators of functional elements of crystallin genes.

  2. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-11-27

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ``crystal balls`` bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions.

  3. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  4. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  5. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Stevenson, Paige; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers advantages of low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semi-rigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers.

  6. A stochastic model of eye lens growth.

    PubMed

    Šikić, Hrvoje; Shi, Yanrong; Lubura, Snježana; Bassnett, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The size and shape of the ocular lens must be controlled with precision if light is to be focused sharply on the retina. The lifelong growth of the lens depends on the production of cells in the anterior epithelium. At the lens equator, epithelial cells differentiate into fiber cells, which are added to the surface of the existing fiber cell mass, increasing its volume and area. We developed a stochastic model relating the rates of cell proliferation and death in various regions of the lens epithelium to deposition of fiber cells and radial lens growth. Epithelial population dynamics were modeled as a branching process with emigration and immigration between proliferative zones. Numerical simulations were in agreement with empirical measurements and demonstrated that, operating within the strict confines of lens geometry, a stochastic growth engine can produce the smooth and precise growth necessary for lens function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Stochastic Model of Eye Lens Growth

    PubMed Central

    Šikić, Hrvoje; Shi, Yanrong; Lubura, Snježana; Bassnett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The size and shape of the ocular lens must be controlled with precision if light is to be focused sharply on the retina. The lifelong growth of the lens depends on the production of cells in the anterior epithelium. At the lens equator, epithelial cells differentiate into fiber cells, which are added to the surface of the existing fiber cell mass, increasing its volume and area. We developed a stochastic model relating the rates of cell proliferation and death in various regions of the lens epithelium to deposition of fiber cells and lens growth. Epithelial population dynamics were modeled as a branching process with emigration and immigration between various proliferative zones. Numerical simulations were in agreement with empirical measurements and demonstrated that, operating within the strict confines of lens geometry, a stochastic growth engine can produce the smooth and precise growth necessary for lens function. PMID:25816743

  8. Proposal for a Laue lens relying on hybrid quasi-mosaic curved crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    A promising method of concentrating X- and soft γ-rays from celestial sources is a Laue lens. A new scheme for this lens, relying on diffraction in curved Si and Ge crystals, is introduced here. The proposed Laue lens is based on high-efficiency diffraction of curved (111) or (22overline{4}) crystalline planes, which are bent through quasi-mosaic effect. While diffraction in curved (111) quasi-mosaic crystals is well known and has recently been proposed for a Laue lens, diffraction by quasi-mosaic (22overline{4}) planes is suggested and demonstrated here through experimental work carried out at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) at DIGRA, a facility specifically built for characterizing instrumentation in Astrophysics. Results show that the diffraction efficiency in the (22overline{4}) quasi-mosaic sample is amplified by more than one order of magnitude with respect to an equivalent crystal without quasi-mosaic effect. The lens has been designed in such a way as to maximize and smoothen its sensitivity, thanks to a custom-made code based on a genetic algorithm.

  9. Evaluation of the toric implantable collamer lens for simultaneous treatment of myopia and astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Price, Marianne O; Price, Francis W

    2015-01-01

    Myopic astigmatism is a prevalent condition that can be treated with spectacles, contact lenses, or laser refractive surgery. However, these treatment options have functional limitations at higher levels of refractive error. The toric implantable collamer lens is designed to treat a broad range of refractive error, generally up to -18 diopters with +1 to +6 diopters of astigmatism. Approval for a more limited treatment range of up to 15 diopters of myopia with +1 to +4 diopters of astigmatism is being sought in the US, where this device has not yet received marketing approval. Surgical correction of high-myopic astigmatism can be life-altering and allow people to participate in activities that were not previously feasible because of visual limitations. The toric implantable collamer lens is implanted behind the iris and in front of the natural crystalline lens. With earlier lens designs, it was necessary to create an iridectomy or iridotomy to prevent pupillary block. The newest toric implantable collamer lens model has a small central hole that is not visually noticeable. This eliminates the need to create a hole in the iris, thereby enhancing the safety of the procedure.

  10. The murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, alpha BE-3, and MRF control elements.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-11-01

    The murine alpha B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an alpha B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we performed DNase I footprinting, transfection, mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments using the murine C2C12 muscle and alpha TN4-1 lens cell lines and the rabbit N/N1003A lens cell line to identify sequences responsible for activity of this enhancer. Enhancer activity in both the muscle and lens cells was dependent on novel elements called alpha BE-1 (-407 to -397), alpha BE-2 (-360 to -327), and alpha BE-3 (-317 to -306). These elements were also weakly occupied by nuclear proteins in L929 cells, which appear to express the alpha B-crystallin gene at a very low level (detectable only by the polymerase chain reaction). A fourth element containing a consensus muscle regulatory factor-binding site called MRF (-300 to -288) was occupied and used only by the C2C12 muscle cells. Cotransfection in NIH 3T3 cells and antibody-gel shift experiments using C2C12 nuclear extracts indicated that MyoD, myogen, or a similar member of this family can activate the alpha B-crystallin enhancer by interaction with the MRF site. Taken together, we conclude that the alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, and alpha BE-3 elements are shared by both lens and muscle cells, but the MRF element is used only in muscle cells, providing the first example of a muscle-specific control element in a crystallin gene.

  11. Theory of liquid crystalline micelles.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2013-01-21

    A theory is introduced to describe self-assembly of liquid crystalline AB diblock copolymers, consisting of a homopolymer (A) and a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (B). We derive the free energy of the liquid crystalline micellar solutions and examine the equilibrium solution properties: critical micelle concentration (CMC), nematic-isotropic phase transition (NIT) of the rigid side-chains inside the micelle core, and phase separations. It is shown that there is a critical micelle size below which the NIT becomes continuous due to a packing effect. We also find re-entrant micellizations near the NIT temperature. The phase diagrams, including binodal, spinodal, CMC, and NIT curves are also examined on the temperature-concentration plane.

  12. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  13. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  14. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Gargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-10-01

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  15. CRYSTALLINE BEAMS AT HIGH ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; OKAMOTO, H.; YURI, Y.; SESSLER, A.; MACHIDA, S.

    2006-06-23

    Previously it was shown that by crystallizing each of the two counter-circulating beams, a much larger beam-beam tune shift can be tolerated during the beam-beam collisions; thus a higher luminosity can be reached for colliding beams [1]. On the other hand, crystalline beams can only be formed at energies below the transition energy ({gamma}{sub T}) of the accelerators [2]. In this paper, we investigate the formation of crystals in a high-{gamma}{sub T} lattice that also satisfies the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam [3].

  16. Multifocal intraocular lens to correct presbyopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Liu, Yongji; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Zhaoqi

    2016-10-01

    Due to the loss of the flexibility of the crystalline lens, presbyopia is the most common vision dysfunction for adults after 40. To correct presbyopia, this paper presents a design of a MIOL, which can give extended clear vision range both in photopic vision(3mm pupil diameter) and in the mesopic vision(4.5mm pupil diameter). With a pseudophakic eye model, a multi-configuration with object distance covering a full range of normal visual from 8m to 0.4m was applied. The surfaces of MIOL were aspherical diffractive surface. MIOL was divided into two regions: the inner zone was optimized when the pupil diameter was 3mm and the outer zone was optimized when the pupil diameter was 4.5mm. Finally, we got a 22 diopters (D) MIOL with a central thickness of 0.652mm and an optical diameter of 4.5mm. By evaluating the modulation transfer function, we got optical performance of the pseudophakic eye with this MIOL. When the pupil diameter of pseudophakic eye was 3mm, MTF at 50c/mm and 100c/mm was respectively above 0.4 and 0.15 for the object distance from 8m to 0.4m. When the pupil diameter of pseudophakic eye was 4.5mm, MTF at 50c/mm and 100c/mm was respectively above 0.25 and 0.09 for the object distance from 8m to 0.4m.The visual acuity was above 0.9 for the whole visual range at both of two pupil diameters. Therefore it is safe to say that the new MIOL design provides good optical performance for whole visual range under both of the photopic vision and the mesopic vision.

  17. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  18. Safety of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery: assessment of aqueous humour and lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-Yong; Lin, Cai-Xia; Wang, Qin-Mei; Zheng, Mei-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Yi

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) on aqueous humour and lens capsule. This prospective randomized comparative study enrolled 19 eyes that underwent FLACS as the trial group and 20 eyes that underwent conventional phacoemulsification as the control group. The femtosecond laser platform (LLS-fs 3D; LensAR, Orlando, FL, USA) was used to generate capsulotomy (laser energy 8 μJ) and lens fragmentation (laser energy 10 μJ). Morphology of the cutting edge and cells of anterior capsule was assessed by light microscopy. The proteins in the aqueous humour were identified by mass spectrometry (Ultraflex III TOF/TOF; Bruker Dalton, Bremen, Germany). Electrolyte in the aqueous humour was detected by a chemistry analyzer (Aeroset Clinical Chemistry Analyzer; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). The cutting edge of anterior capsule was saw-tooth-shaped under magnification of 200× and 400× in the trial group, while it was smooth in the control group. Intact cells were found in the boundary area next to the cutting edge of anterior capsule in both groups. β-Crystallin B1, γ-crystallin S and transferrin were detected in the aqueous humour in the trial group. The concentrations of K(+) , Na(+) and Cl(-) in the aqueous humour in the trial group differed significantly from those in the control group (p = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) causes release of transferrin and crystallin from lens to aqueous humour and results in significant changes in the concentrations of K(+) , Na(+) and Cl(-) in aqueous humour. However, these changes due to FLACS have no clinical significance or toxicity. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Glycation of human γB-crystallin: A biophysical investigation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Susmitnarayan; Ghosh, Pooja; Parveen, Sultana; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2017-03-01

    Glycation of ocular lens proteins plays a vital role in the development of diabetic cataract. In order to investigate the role of glycation in cataractogenesis, the extent of glycation of human γB-crystallin was determined by an in vitro glycation study in a solution of high glucose content for upto 28days. The glycated protein has been purified and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been monitored spectroscopically. Size exclusion chromatographic studies showed that the covalent intermolecular crosslinking in the dimer formed was not due to disulfide bond formation. MALDI-TOF spectroscopy was employed to determine the number of glucose moieties attached to the protein due to glycation.

  20. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  1. Defocus in cathode lens instruments.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Altman, M S

    2017-02-24

    Accurately measuring defocus in cathode lens instruments (Low Energy Electron Microscopy - LEEM, and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy - PEEM) is a pre-requisite for quantitative image analysis using Fourier Optics (FO) or Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) image simulations. In particular, one must establish a quantitative relation between lens excitation and image defocus. One way to accomplish this is the Real-Space Microspot LEED method, making use of the accurately known angles of diffracted electron beams, and the defocus-dependent shifts of their corresponding real-space images. However, this only works if a sufficiently large number of diffracted beams is available for the sample under investigation. An alternative is to shift the sample along the optical axis by a known distance, and measure the change in objective lens excitation required to re-focus the image. We analytically derive the relation between sample shift and defocus, and apply our results to the measurement and analysis of achromats in an aberration-corrected LEEM instrument.

  2. [Postoperative deposits on a second-generation silicone lens].

    PubMed

    Tsinopoulos, I; Manthos, A; Kalpadakis, P; Chalvatzis, N; Kallinderis, K; Alexandridis, A

    2004-02-01

    In the literature there have often been reports about deposits (hydroxyapatite) in hydrophilic or hydrophobic intraocular lenses (IOLs). We report, for the first time, about deposits on a silicone IOL of the second generation. A silicone IOL (Allergan, type SI-40) which was extracted due to gradual visual loss, has been examined. The examination with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed crystalline precipitations in the anterior surface of the IOL while the X-ray analysis showed the existence of calcium and carbon, whereas no phosphorus was found. It could be hypothesised that metabolic disorders in aqueous humor (i. e., in patients with diabetes mellitus), the quality of the production of the lens, and not the IOL material, are the main cause for deposits in the IOL surface.

  3. Crystalline retinopathy in primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Omar S; Riaz, Kamran; Mets, Marilyn B

    2011-04-01

    We present the case of a 2.5-month-old boy with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria and severe systemic oxalosis resulting in massive retinal crystalline deposition. Maculopathy was demonstrated by optical coherence tomography, and nystagmus was present. Electroretinography demonstrated retinal dysfunction, unusual in oxalosis.

  4. Hydrogel lens dehydration and subjective comfort and dryness ratings in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Fonn, D; Situ, P; Simpson, T

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether lens dehydration correlates with discomfort, dryness, and noninvasive tear break-up time in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers and whether dehydration of the two lens types varies. Twenty hydrogel contact lens wearers with dryness-related symptoms and 20 asymptomatic wearers wore an Etafilcon A lens (Acuvue; Vistakon, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida) in one eye and an Omafilcon A lens (Proclear; Biocompatibles, Norfolk, Virginia) in the contralateral eye for 7 h in a randomized, double-masked study. Lens water content was measured before and after 7 h of lens wear and prelens noninvasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT) was measured immediately after insertion and after 5 h of lens wear. Subjective comfort and dryness were rated at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 h of lens wear. The symptomatic group had significantly reduced prelens NIBUT, decreased comfort, and increased dryness, but there was no difference between lenses for these variables. The Omafilcon A lenses dehydrated significantly less than the Etafilcon A lenses, but there was no significant difference in lens dehydration between two subject groups. No correlation was found between lens dehydration and subjective dryness and comfort. Symptomatic hydrogel contact lens wearers with decreased wearing time had measurably decreased comfort, increased dryness ratings, and reduced NIBUT.

  5. Growth and differentiation of human lens epithelial cells in vitro on matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; McNamara, M. P.; Chang, E.; Aragon, G.; Lin, S. P.; Lui, G.; Polansky, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the growth and maturation of nonimmortalized human lens epithelial (HLE) cells grown in vitro. METHODS: HLE cells, established from 18-week prenatal lenses, were maintained on bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) extracellular matrix (ECM) in medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The identity, growth, and differentiation of the cultures were characterized by karyotyping, cell morphology, and growth kinetics studies, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: HLE cells had a male, human diploid (2N = 46) karyotype. The population-doubling time of exponentially growing cells was 24 hours. After 15 days in culture, cell morphology changed, and lentoid formation was evident. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated expression of alphaA- and betaB2-crystallin, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and major intrinsic protein (MIP26) in exponential growth. Western analyses of protein extracts show positive expression of three immunologically distinct classes of crystallin proteins (alphaA-, alphaB-, and betaB2-crystallin) with time in culture. By Western blot analysis, expression of p57(KIP2), a known marker of terminally differentiated fiber cells, was detectable in exponential cultures, and levels increased after confluence. MIP26 and gamma-crystallin protein expression was detected in confluent cultures, by using immunofluorescence, but not in exponentially growing cells. CONCLUSIONS: HLE cells can be maintained for up to 4 months on ECM derived from BCE cells in medium containing FGF-2. With time in culture, the cells demonstrate morphologic characteristics of, and express protein markers for, lens fiber cell differentiation. This in vitro model will be useful for investigations of radiation-induced cataractogenesis and other studies of lens toxicity.

  6. Growth and differentiation of human lens epithelial cells in vitro on matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; McNamara, M. P.; Chang, E.; Aragon, G.; Lin, S. P.; Lui, G.; Polansky, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the growth and maturation of nonimmortalized human lens epithelial (HLE) cells grown in vitro. METHODS: HLE cells, established from 18-week prenatal lenses, were maintained on bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) extracellular matrix (ECM) in medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The identity, growth, and differentiation of the cultures were characterized by karyotyping, cell morphology, and growth kinetics studies, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: HLE cells had a male, human diploid (2N = 46) karyotype. The population-doubling time of exponentially growing cells was 24 hours. After 15 days in culture, cell morphology changed, and lentoid formation was evident. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated expression of alphaA- and betaB2-crystallin, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and major intrinsic protein (MIP26) in exponential growth. Western analyses of protein extracts show positive expression of three immunologically distinct classes of crystallin proteins (alphaA-, alphaB-, and betaB2-crystallin) with time in culture. By Western blot analysis, expression of p57(KIP2), a known marker of terminally differentiated fiber cells, was detectable in exponential cultures, and levels increased after confluence. MIP26 and gamma-crystallin protein expression was detected in confluent cultures, by using immunofluorescence, but not in exponentially growing cells. CONCLUSIONS: HLE cells can be maintained for up to 4 months on ECM derived from BCE cells in medium containing FGF-2. With time in culture, the cells demonstrate morphologic characteristics of, and express protein markers for, lens fiber cell differentiation. This in vitro model will be useful for investigations of radiation-induced cataractogenesis and other studies of lens toxicity.

  7. Trends of contact lens prescribing in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mera F; Bakkar, May; Gammoh, Yazan; Morgan, Philip

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Optometrists from 173 practices in Jordan were surveyed about prescribing contact lenses in their practice. Practitioners were required to record information for the last 10 patients that visited their practice. Demographic data such as age and gender was obtained for each patient. In addition, data relating to lens type, lens design, replacement methods and the care regime advised to each patient were recorded. Practitioners were required to provide information relating to their education and years of experience. The influence of education and experience with respect to lens prescribing trends was explored using linear regression models for the proportions of lens types fitted for patients. A total of 1730 contact lens fits were analyzed. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 26.6 (±7.9) years, of whom 65% were female. Conventional hydrogel lenses were the most prescribed lenses, accounting for 60.3% of the fits, followed by silicone hydrogel lenses (31.3%), and rigid lenses (8.4%). In terms of lens design, spherical lenses appeared to be most commonly prescribed on monthly basis. Daily disposable lenses were second most prescribed lens modality, accounting for 20.4% of the study sample. Multi-purpose solution (MPS) was the preferred care regimen, with a prevalence of 88.1% reported in the study sample, compared to hydrogen peroxide (1-step and 2-step), which represented only 2.8% of the patients in this study. A relationship was established between the two educational groups for rigid lens prescribing (F=17.4, p<0.0001), while the experience of the optometrist was not a significant factor (F=0.4, p=0.54). This work has provides an up-to-date analysis of contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Contact lens prescribing in terms of lens type, lens design, modality of wear and care regimen agree with global market trends with small variations. This report will help

  8. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Brg1 is required for mouse lens fiber cell terminal differentiation and its denucleation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1, also known as Smarca4 and Snf2β) encodes an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent catalytical subunit of the (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF complexes are recruited to chromatin through multiple mechanisms, including specific DNA-binding factors (for example, heat shock transcription factor 4 (Hsf4) and paired box gene 6 (Pax6)), chromatin structural proteins (for example, high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1)) and/or acetylated core histones. Previous studies have shown that a single amino acid substitution (K798R) in the Brg1 ATPase domain acts via a dominant-negative (dn) mechanism. Genetic studies have demonstrated that Brg1 is an essential gene for early (that is, prior implantation) mouse embryonic development. Brg1 also controls neural stem cell maintenance, terminal differentiation of multiple cell lineages and organs including the T-cells, glial cells and limbs. Results To examine the roles of Brg1 in mouse lens development, a dnBrg1 transgenic construct was expressed using the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter in postmitotic lens fiber cells. Morphological studies revealed abnormal lens fiber cell differentiation in transgenic lenses resulting in cataract. Electron microscopic studies showed abnormal lens suture formation and incomplete karyolysis (that is, denucleation) of lens fiber cells. To identify genes regulated by Brg1, RNA expression profiling was performed in embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) wild-type and dnBrg1 transgenic lenses. In addition, comparisons between differentially expressed genes in dnBrg1 transgenic, Pax6 heterozygous and Hsf4 homozygous lenses identified multiple genes coregulated by Brg1, Hsf4 and Pax6. DNase IIβ, a key enzyme required for lens fiber cell denucleation, was found to be downregulated in each of the Pax6, Brg1 and Hsf4 model systems. Lens-specific deletion of Brg1 using conditional gene targeting demonstrated that Brg1 was

  9. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  10. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: finite ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2014-11-17

    The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable power-law profile, which provides additional flexibility of the model. An analytical method for layer-by-layer finite ray tracing through the GIGL model is developed and used to calculate aberrations of the GIGL model. The result of the finite ray tracing aberrations of the GIGL model are compared to those obtained with paraxial ray tracing. The derived analytical expression for the refractive index distribution can be employed in the reconstruction processes of the eye using the conventional ray tracing methods. The layer-by-layer finite ray tracing approach would be an asset in ray tracing through a modified GIGL model, where the refractive index distribution cannot be described analytically. Using the layer-by-layer finite ray-tracing method, the potential of the GIGL model in representing continuous as well as shell-like layered structures is illustrated and the results for both cases are presented and analysed.

  11. On the structural organization of isolated bovine lens fiber junctions.

    PubMed

    Zampighi, G; Simon, S A; Robertson, J D; McIntosh, T J; Costello, M J

    1982-04-01

    Junctions between fiber cells of bovine lenses have been isolated in milligram quantities, without using detergents or proteases. The structure of the isolated junctions has been studied by thin-section, negative-stain, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy and by x-ray diffraction. The junctions are large and most often have an undulating surface topology as determined by thin sectioning and freeze-fracture. These undulations resemble the tongue-and-groove interdigitations between lens fiber cells previously seen by others (D. H. Dickson and G. W. Crock, 1972, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11:809-815). In sections, the isolated junctions display a pentalamellar structure approximately 13-14 nm in overall thickness, which is significantly thinner than liver gap junctions. Each junctional membrane contains in the plane of the lipid bilayers distinct units arranged in a square lattice with a center-to-center spacing of 6.6 nm. Freeze-fracture replicas of the junctions fractured transversely show that the repeating units extend across the entire thickness of each membrane. Each unit is probably constructed from four identical subunits, with each subunit containing a protein of an apparent molecular weight of 27,000. We conclude that the lens junctions are structurally and chemically, different from gap junctions and could represent a new kind of intercellular contact, not simply another crystalline state of the gap junction protein.

  12. Chalcogenide material strengthening through the lens molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Scordato, M.; Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.

    2016-05-01

    The demand for infrared transmitting materials has grown steadily for several decades as markets realize new applications for longer wavelength sensing and imaging. With this growth has come the demand for new and challenging material requirements that cannot be satisfied with crystalline products alone. Chalcogenide materials, with their unique physical, thermal, and optical properties, have found acceptance by designers and fabricators to meet these demands. No material is perfect in every regard, and chalcogenides are no exception. A cause for concern has been the relatively low fracture toughness and the propensity of the bulk material to fracture. This condition is amplified when traditional subtractive manufacturing processes are employed. This form of processing leaves behind micro fractures and sub surface damage, which act as propagation points for both local and catastrophic failure of the material. Precision lens molding is not a subtractive process, and as a result, micro fractures and sub surface damage are not created. This results in a stronger component than one produced by traditional methods. New processing methods have also been identified that result in an even stronger surface that is more resistant to breakage, without the need for post processing techniques that may compromise surface integrity. This paper will discuss results achieved in the process of lens molding development at Edmund Optics that result in measurably stronger chalcogenide components. Various metrics will be examined and data will be presented that quantifies component strength for different manufacturing processes.

  13. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  14. Evaluation of an unused 1952 Ridley intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Patel, A S; Carson, D R; Patel, P H

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate an unused 1952 historic Ridley intraocular lens (IOL) brought to Bombay, India, in 1952 from an Oxford Ophthalmologic Conference in England and given to 1 of the authors during his residency. Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. The Ridley IOL was evaluated at Alcon Laboratories, Inc., using the established procedures of its Intraocular R&D Laboratories. Various optical and physical aspects of the Ridley lens were evaluated including (1) dimensions, (2) weight, (3) power, (4) resolution efficiency and modulation transfer function (MTF), (5) surface sphericity by interferometry, (6) ultraviolet (UV)-visible transmission characteristic, (7) attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectrum, and (8) cosmetics by visual inspection using light microscopy. This 8.5 mm diameter, 2.4 mm thick, 23 diopter biconvex IOL weighed 108 mg. The ATR spectrum, UV-visible transmission, and refractive index confirmed its poly-(methyl methacrylate) material. The 0.56 MTF value at 100 line pairs/mm, per the International Standards Organization--IOL Optics Standard, and 93% resolution efficiency in water, per the American National Standard Institute IOL Optics Standard, revealed the IOL's excellent optics. This was confirmed by 0.278 wave root mean square surface figure as measured by Zygo interferometer using a 633 nm wavelength. Visual inspection revealed rough edges with sharp corners and some surface scratches. Early clinical experience with Ridley IOLs in Bombay, India, is briefly given. The Ridley IOL had excellent optical quality, meeting the requirements of current IOL optics standards. The selection of its dimensions was guided by the human crystalline lens, and the Ridley IOL was half as bulky. Although its clinical results were mixed, successful cases inspired subsequent improvements, leading to modern, highly satisfactory IOLs. This IOL represented a revolutionary innovation in ophthalmology.

  15. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  16. Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoxi; Liu, Xueming; Lu, Hua; Zeng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating the energy flow of light is at the heart of modern information and communication technologies. Because photons are uncharged, it is still difficult to effectively control them by electrical means. Here, we propose a graphene plasmonic (GP) lens to efficiently manipulate energy flow by elaborately designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer beneath the graphene sheet. Different from traditional metal-based lenses, the proposed graphene plasmonic lens possesses the advantages of tunability and excellent confinement of surface plasmons. It is found that the proposed lens can be utilized to focus and collimate the GP waves propagating along the graphene sheet. Particularly, the lens is dispersionless over a wide frequency range and the performance of lens can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the bias voltage. As an application of such a lens, the image transfer of two point sources with a separation of λ0/30 is demonstrated. PMID:24517981

  17. Evolution of a pre and post lens tear film with a contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhart, Matthew; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The work is the development, implementation, and analysis of a two-dimensional tear film model including a porous contact lens. The geometry of the problem is: a pre-lens layer that is a thin tear film between the outside air and contact lens, a contact lens that is a rigid but movable porous substrate, and a post-lens layer that is a thin film layer between the contact lens and the cornea. We are looking at short and long term behavior of the evolution of the thin film in the pre-lens layer coupled with the porous layer and the thin squeeze film in the post-lens layer. We model the different behaviors that arise as the Darcy number, evaporation effects, and boundary flux conditions change.

  18. Autophagy and mitophagy participate in ocular lens organelle degradation.

    PubMed

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A; Basu, Subharsee; Chauss, Daniel; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O; Johnsen, Sönke; Menko, Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The eye lens consists of a layer of epithelial cells that overlay a series of differentiating fiber cells that upon maturation lose their mitochondria, nuclei and other organelles. Lens transparency relies on the metabolic function of mitochondria contained in the lens epithelial cells and in the immature fiber cells and the programmed degradation of mitochondria and other organelles occurring upon lens fiber cell maturation. Loss of lens mitochondrial function in the epithelium or failure to degrade mitochondria and other organelles in lens fiber cells results in lens cataract formation. To date, the mechanisms that govern the maintenance of mitochondria in the lens and the degradation of mitochondria during programmed lens fiber cell maturation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate using electron microscopy and dual-label confocal imaging the presence of autophagic vesicles containing mitochondria in lens epithelial cells, immature lens fiber cells and during early stages of lens fiber cell differentiation. We also show that mitophagy is induced in primary lens epithelial cells upon serum starvation. These data provide evidence that autophagy occurs throughout the lens and that mitophagy functions in the lens to remove damaged mitochondria from the lens epithelium and to degrade mitochondria in the differentiating lens fiber cells for lens development. The results provide a novel mechanism for how mitochondria are maintained to preserve lens metabolic function and how mitochondria are degraded upon lens fiber cell maturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fresnel lens analysis for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, E; Luque, A

    1981-09-01

    In this paper we analyze an arbitrarily shaped lineal Fresnel lens acting either as sole concentration stage or as the first stage of a two-stage concentration system in which the second stage considers the first as a Lambertian source. We determine the gain and position of the lens for all possible configurations, and we demonstrate that a curved lens with a refractive-index approaching infinity and with a given profile turns out to be an ideal concentrator.

  20. Fresnel lens analysis for solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, E.; Luque, A.

    1981-09-01

    In this paper we analyze an arbitrarily shaped lineal Fresnel lens acting either as sole concentration stage or as the first stage of a two-stage concentration system in which the second stage considers the first as a Lambertian source. We determine the gain and position of the lens for all possible configurations, and we demonstrate that a curved lens with a refractive-index approaching infinity and with a given profile turns out to be an ideal concentrator.

  1. A γA-Crystallin Mouse Mutant Secc with Small Eye, Cataract and Closed Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man Hei; Tam, Chung Nga; Choy, Kwong Wai; Tsang, Wai Hung; Tsang, Sze Lan; Pang, Chi Pui; Song, You Qiang; Sham, Mai Har

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Secc mutant mice have eyelids that remain half-closed throughout their life. The mutant lens has a significant reduction in size and with opaque spots clustered in the centre. Histological analysis showed that in the core region of the mutant lens, the fiber cells were disorganized and clefts and vacuoles were observed. The cataract phenotype was evident from new born stage. We identified the Secc mutation by linkage analysis using whole genome microsatellite markers and SNP markers. The Secc locus was mapped at chromosome 1 flanked by SNPs rs3158129 and rs13475900. Based on the chromosomal position, the candidate cataract locus γ-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg) was investigated by sequencing. A single base deletion (299delG) in exon 3 of Cryga which led to a frame-shift of amino acid sequence from position 91 was identified. As a result of this mutation, the sequences of the 3rd and 4th Greek-key motifs of the γA-crystallin are replaced with an unrelated C-terminal peptide of 75 residues long. Coincidentally, the point mutation generated a HindIII restriction site, allowing the identification of the CrygaSecc mutant allele by RFLP. Western blot analysis of 3-week old lenses showed that the expression of γ-crystallins was reduced in the CrygaSecc mutant. Furthermore, in cell transfection assays using CrygaSecc mutant cDNA expression constructs in 293T, COS-7 and human lens epithelial B3 cell lines, the mutant γA-crystallins were enriched in the insoluble fractions and appeared as insoluble aggregates in the transfected cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the Secc mutation leads to the generation of Cryga

  2. A γA-Crystallin Mouse Mutant Secc with Small Eye, Cataract and Closed Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Man Hei; Tam, Chung Nga; Choy, Kwong Wai; Tsang, Wai Hung; Tsang, Sze Lan; Pang, Chi Pui; Song, You Qiang; Sham, Mai Har

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Secc mutant mice have eyelids that remain half-closed throughout their life. The mutant lens has a significant reduction in size and with opaque spots clustered in the centre. Histological analysis showed that in the core region of the mutant lens, the fiber cells were disorganized and clefts and vacuoles were observed. The cataract phenotype was evident from new born stage. We identified the Secc mutation by linkage analysis using whole genome microsatellite markers and SNP markers. The Secc locus was mapped at chromosome 1 flanked by SNPs rs3158129 and rs13475900. Based on the chromosomal position, the candidate cataract locus γ-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg) was investigated by sequencing. A single base deletion (299delG) in exon 3 of Cryga which led to a frame-shift of amino acid sequence from position 91 was identified. As a result of this mutation, the sequences of the 3rd and 4th Greek-key motifs of the γA-crystallin are replaced with an unrelated C-terminal peptide of 75 residues long. Coincidentally, the point mutation generated a HindIII restriction site, allowing the identification of the CrygaSecc mutant allele by RFLP. Western blot analysis of 3-week old lenses showed that the expression of γ-crystallins was reduced in the CrygaSecc mutant. Furthermore, in cell transfection assays using CrygaSecc mutant cDNA expression constructs in 293T, COS-7 and human lens epithelial B3 cell lines, the mutant γA-crystallins were enriched in the insoluble fractions and appeared as insoluble aggregates in the transfected cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the Secc mutation leads to the generation of Cryga

  3. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  4. Contact lens fitting after photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Astin, C. L.; Gartry, D. S.; McG Steele, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: This study evaluated contact lens fitting and the longer term response of the photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) cornea to lens wear. In PRK for myopia problems such as regression, anterior stromal haze, irregular astigmatism, halo aberration, and anisometropia have been reported. Certain patients therefore require contact lens correction to obtain best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). METHOD: From an original cohort of 80 patients, 15 were dissatisfied with their visual outcome 6 months after PRK. Ten of these were fitted with lenses and monitored regularly. RESULTS: The best fit rigid gas permeable lens of diameter 9.20-10.00 mm was generally 0.10 mm steeper than mean keratometry readings. Because of lid discomfort five patients were refitted with daily wear soft lenses. All 10 achieved satisfactory lens wear of 10 hours per day. Central corneal steepening of 0.75 D (0.15 mm) occurred in one patient. Two patients had slight central corneal flattening. Three patients discontinued lens wear as they found lens care a nuisance. Four finally opted for retreatment by PRK. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, contact lenses gave good visual acuity and, in cases of mild irregular astigmatism, a significant improvement over spectacle BCVA. No significant adverse reaction to contact lens wear was found. Although ocular tolerance of lenses was satisfactory, several patients discontinued lens wear or sought improved unaided vision. Images PMID:8795370

  5. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H.; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%. PMID:27139747

  6. An electron-lens for opaque photocathodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    It is possible to employ opaque photocathodes in image tubes having a special electromagnetic lens without the use of special internal image-forming optical lenses or mirrors. The special electron lens, having flat object and image planes, is found to provide excellent quality electron-optical image transfer. Stray light reflection inside the tube is expected to be less serious in this electron lens than in a conventional magnetically focused image tube lens due to the offset image plane, and due to the increased absorption of photons in opaque photocathode applications.

  7. Foxe view of lens development and disease.

    PubMed

    Medina-Martinez, Olga; Jamrich, Milan

    2007-04-01

    The recent identification of a mutation in Foxe3 that causes congenital primary aphakia in humans marks an important milestone. Congenital primary aphakia is a rare developmental disease in which the lens does not form. Previously, Foxe3 had been shown to play a crucial role in vertebrate lens formation and this gene is one of the earliest integrators of several signaling pathways that cooperate to form a lens. In this review, we highlight recent advances that have led to a better understanding of the developmental processes and gene regulatory networks involved in lens development and disease.

  8. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  9. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H.; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%.

  10. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-05-03

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%.

  11. Wireless Control of an LC Adaptive Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, G.; Loktev, M.; Zhang, X.

    We consider using liquid crystal adaptive lenses to correct the accommodation loss and higher-order aberrations of the human eye. In this configuration, the adaptive lens is embedded into the eye lens implant and can be controlled through a wireless inductive link. In this work we experimentally demonstrate a wireless control of a liquid crystal adaptive lens in a wide range of its focusing power by using two coupled coils with the primary coil driven from a low-voltage source through a switching control circuit and the secondary coil used to drive the lens.

  12. Scattering of waves by the invisible lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzaňáková, Kateřina; Tyc, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of the invisible lens in two ways. First, we describe the scattering of electromagnetic waves by the invisible lens realised by a purely dielectric, purely magnetic, and impedance-matched medium, respectively, using Debye potentials. Second, we employ the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to analyse the scattering of scalar waves by the lens. We show that in all cases the scattering is negligible for a discrete set of frequencies, while for other frequencies there is a phase slip at the boundary of the lens ‘shadow’.

  13. Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.

  14. Organization of the human [zeta]-crystallin/quinone reductase gene (CRYZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Rao, P.V.; Zigler, J.S. Jr. )

    1994-05-15

    [zeta]-Crystallin is a protein highly expressed in the lens of guinea pigs and camels, where it comprises about 10% of the total soluble protein. It has recently been characterized as a novel quinone oxidoreductase present in a variety of mammalian tissues. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of the human [zeta]-crystallin gene (CRYZ) and its processed pseudogene. The functional gene is composed of nine exons and spans about 20 kb. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene is rich in G and C (58%) and lacks TATA and CAAT boxes. Previous analysis of the guinea pig gene revealed the presence of two different promoters, one responsible for the high lens-specific expression and the other for expression at the enzymatic level in numerous tissues. Comparative analysis with the guinea pig gene shows that a region of [approximately]2.5 kb that includes the promoter responsible for the high expression in the lens in guinea pig is not present in the human gene. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Anaerobic vs aerobic pathways of carbonyl and oxidant stress in human lens and skin during aging and in diabetes: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xingjun; Sell, David R; Zhang, Jianye; Nemet, Ina; Theves, Mathilde; Lu, Jie; Strauch, Christopher; Halushka, Marc K; Monnier, Vincent M

    2010-09-01

    The effects of anaerobic (lens) vs aerobic (skin) environment on carbonyl and oxidant stress are compared using de novo and existing data on advanced glycation and oxidation products in human crystallins and collagen. Almost all modifications increase with age. Methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones, carboxymethyllysine, and carboxyethyllysine are severalfold higher in lens than in skin and markedly increase upon incubation of lens crystallins with 5mM ascorbic acid. In contrast, fructose-lysine, glucosepane crosslinks, glyoxal hydroimidazolones, metal-catalyzed oxidation (allysine), and H(2)O(2)-dependent modifications (2-aminoapidic acid and methionine sulfoxide) are markedly elevated in skin, but relatively suppressed in the aging lens. In both tissues ornithine is the dominant modification, implicating arginine residues as the principal target of the Maillard reaction in vivo. Diabetes (here mostly type 2 studied) increases significantly fructose-lysine and glucosepane in both tissues (P<0.001) but has surprisingly little effect on the absolute level of most other advanced glycation end products. However, diabetes strengthens the Spearman correlation coefficients for age-related accumulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated modifications in the lens. Overall, the data suggest that oxoaldehyde stress involving methylglyoxal from either glucose or ascorbate is predominant in the aging noncataractous lens, whereas aging skin collagen undergoes combined attack by nonoxidative glucose-mediated modifications, as well as those from metal-catalyzed oxidation and H(2)O(2).

  16. ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC PATHWAYS OF CARBONYL AND OXIDANT STRESS IN HUMAN LENS AND SKIN DURING AGING AND IN DIABETES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xingjun; Sell, David R; Zhang, Jianye; Nemet, Ina; Theves, Mathilde; Lu, Jie; Strauch, Christopher; Halushka, Marc K.; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anaerobic (lens) vs aerobic (skin) environment on carbonyl and oxidant stress are compared using de novo and existing data on advanced glycation and oxidation products in human crystallins and collagen. Almost all modifications increase with age. Methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones (MG-H1), carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) are several folds higher in lens than skin, and markedly increase upon incubation of lens crystallins with 5 mM ascorbic acid. Vice-versa, fructose-lysine, glucosepane crosslinks, glyoxal hydroimidazolones (G-H1), metal catalyzed oxidation (allysine) and H2O2 dependent modifications (2-aminoapidic acid and methionine sulfoxide) are markedly elevated in skin, but relatively suppressed in the aging lens. In both tissues ornithine is the dominant modification, implicating arginine residues as the principal target of the Maillard reaction in vivo. Diabetes (here mostly type 2 studied) increases significantly fructose-lysine and glucosepane in both tissues (P<0.001) but has surprisingly little effect on the absolute level of most other advanced glycation end products (AGEs) . However, diabetes strengthens the Spearman correlation coefficients for age-related accumulation of hydrogen peroxide mediated modifications in the lens. Overall, the data suggest oxoaldehyde stress involving methylglyoxal from either glucose or ascorbate is predominant in the aging non-cataractous lens, while aging skin collagen undergoes combined attack by non-oxidative glucose mediated modifications, as well as those from metal catalyzed oxidation and H2O2. PMID:20541005

  17. 5-S-GAD, a novel radical scavenging compound, prevents lens opacity development.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Nobuko; Umeda, Izumi O; Sogo, Shunji; Nishigori, Hideo; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Natori, Shunji

    2009-02-15

    The ability of N-beta-alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-GAD)-a novel catechol derivative isolated from an insect as an antibacterial substance-to scavenge free radicals and prevent cataract progression was examined. 5-S-GAD scavenged 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anions (O(2)(*)(-)), and inhibited lipid peroxidation. It also significantly inhibited the onset of glucocorticoid-induced lens opacification in chick embryos. These effects of 5-S-GAD were stronger than those of N-acetylcarnosine and TEMPOL, which are reported to be effective radical scavengers in the prevention of cataract progression. 5-S-GAD clearly delayed the maturation of cataracts induced by diamide in cultured lenses of rats. Daily instillation of 5-S-GAD retarded the development of lens opacity in galactose-fed rats. Biochemical analysis of the lenses revealed that 20-kDa proteins, presumably consisting of alpha-crystallin, were the most susceptible to oxidative stress, which leads to the carbonylation of the side chains of these proteins. alpha-Crystallin carbonylation induced by diamide or galactose was notably inhibited by 5-S-GAD in a dose-dependent manner. Our results show that 5-S-GAD prevents acute lens opacification in these short-term experimental models, possibly in part by virtue of its antioxidative property, and 5-S-GAD is expected to have long-term pharmaceutical effects.

  18. Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Lee

    2014-07-02

    This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) that impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords potential for

  19. Repeatability of OCT lens thickness measures with age and accommodation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lesley; Little, Julie-Anne; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2013-12-01

    To investigate crystalline lens thickness (LT) across a range of ages and accommodative demands and to evaluate the repeatability of LT measurements using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) (Zeiss Meditec, Germany) under non-cycloplegic conditions. Participants were 98 visually normal adults aged 18-75 years, stratified into age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years of age. Images of the crystalline lens were taken using the Visante AS-OCT during stimulation of accommodation at demands of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 D with accommodative response measured in a subgroup of participants. Images were analyzed and LT measured assuming a refractive index of 1.42. Repeat measures were taken from 86 participants for each accommodative demand at a second visit. The mean unaccommodated LT for all participants was 4.07 ± 0.40 mm. An average increase in LT of 20 μm per year was calculated (linear regression, R² = 0.61, F(1,89) = 143.92, p < 0.00001). Increase in LT with accommodation was shown to be significant in the 18- to 29-year-olds (repeated measures ANOVA, F(6,105) = 96.31, p < 0.00001), 30- to 39-year-olds (F(6,93) = 71.25, p < 0.00001), and 40- to 49-year-olds (F(6,90) = 12.60, p < 0.01) with little or no measureable change in the older age groups. Eighty-six participants returned for a second visit. The mean difference in LT in the unaccommodated state for all participants between visit 1 and visit 2 was 0.0006 mm (95% limits of agreement of -0.07 to 0.07 mm). The 95% limits of agreement were widest for youngest age groups and narrowest for the oldest participants. This study is the first to report the repeatability of LT measures using the Visante AS-OCT in the non-cyclopleged eye. It has also demonstrated the ability of the Visante AS-OCT to detect small changes in lens thickness with accommodation.

  20. Intraocular lens optics and aberrations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel H; Rocha, Karolinne M

    2016-07-01

    This review outlines concepts in intraocular lens (IOL) optics and aberrations important both for current IOLs and for new IOLs in development. Optical aberrations make a significant impact on the laboratory and clinical performance of IOLs, especially under mesopic and low-contrast conditions. Minimizing or correcting these aberrations c