Science.gov

Sample records for crystallization problem solved

  1. Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  2. Solving the Phase Problem in Crystal Structure Determination: A Simple Introduction to Direct Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a simple way to introduce Direct Methods program systems to solve phase problems in x-ray crystal structure determination. It is intended for the undergraduate chemistry student laboratory. (Author/SA)

  3. Problem Solving. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    No longer solely the domain of Mathematics, problem solving permeates every area of today's curricula. Ideally students are applying heuristics strategies in varied contexts and novel situations in every subject taught. The ability to solve problems is a basic life skill and is essential to understanding technical subjects. Problem-solving is a…

  4. The Problems of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses some common pitfalls in problem-solving and outlines three basic approaches to successfully identifying problems and their causes. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (Author/JG)

  5. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  6. Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James C.

    1988-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses group problem solving in schools. Its point of departure is that teachers go at problems from a number of different directions and that principals need to capitalize on those differences and bring a whole range of skills and perceptions to the problem-solving process. Rather than trying to get everyone to think alike,…

  7. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  8. Strategies for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.

    Problem-solving skills are becoming increasingly important in the workplace, and more schools are including them in the curriculum. Knowledge of problem solving will be critical to a work force that is dealing with advanced technology, yet many students have yet to master these skills. Based on this premise, this guide attempts to show how…

  9. Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

  10. Problem Solving and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Glaser, Robert

    This paper argues that a major aspect of intelligence is the ability to solve problems and that careful analysis of problem-solving behavior is a means of specifying many of the psychological processes that make up intelligence. The focus is on the mechanisms involved when, in the absence of complete instruction, a person must "invent" a new…

  11. Problem Solving and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  12. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  13. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  14. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  15. A Novel Approach to Solving the Problem of Needle Microcrystals (A Case Study of Ribosome Crystals)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, Elizaveta A.; Tarahovsky, Yuri S.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Different morphology crystals (needle, rod-tetragonal and wedge-shaped) were grown from the same solution of ribosome; furthermore, in the same drop using 10- 15% 2-methyl-2,4pentanediol as a precipitant. The crystals appeared in 5-48 hours. Observations of the kinetics of crystals appearance lead to the conclusion that higher supersaturation of ribosome solution produces needle-shaped crystals, while the tetragonal-rod and the wedge-shaped crystals grow at lower supersaturation. The ribosome packing in the crystals was characterized by electron microscopy (EM). An analysis of EM ultrathin sections indicates that the unit cells, with a high degree of probability, are the same in the crystals of different morphology. The data obtained suggests how to shift the process of crystal formation from the needles to the crystals with comparative size in all three dimensions.

  16. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  17. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  18. Inquiry and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High…

  19. Programming and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Barbara P.

    A study was conducted to examine computer programming as a problem solving activity. Thirteen fifth grade children were selected by their teacher from an above average class to use Apple IIe microcomputers. The investigator conducted sessions of 40-50 minutes with the children in groups of two or three. Four problems, incorporating the programming…

  20. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  1. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  2. Expertise in Problem Solving.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-18

    use at each step of the solution process. By contrast, both Issac and Newton contain separate representations of the same physics knowledge for each...representation. Issac . Issac by Gordon Novak (1977) is a program that can read the problem statement. It does this for statics problems only. The key feature of...problem does not generate an efficient solution. Newton . Newton by Johann de Kleer (1977) does not have any language translation facility. It solves

  3. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  4. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  5. Introspection in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  6. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  7. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  8. Solving Problems Reductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Tirosh, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Solving problems by reduction is an important issue in mathematics and science education in general (both in high school and in college or university) and particularly in computer science education. Developing reductive thinking patterns is an important goal in any scientific discipline, yet reduction is not an easy subject to cope with. Still,…

  9. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  10. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  11. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  12. Problem Solving Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that microcomputer technology has evolved to the stage that it should be routinely used by mathematics students at all levels. It is shown how the use of microcomputers can change the way problems are solved. Computer-generated graphics are highlighted. (PK)

  13. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  14. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  15. Circumference and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Katie; White, David

    The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to…

  16. Solving Problems in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez

    2005-01-01

    A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…

  17. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  18. Solving Problems through Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  19. Environmental problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.

    1999-06-01

    Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.

  20. Problem Solving and Reasoning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Sloan Foundation (HAS). This paper is a draft of a chapter to appear in R. C. Atkinson, R. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R. D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ...D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, (Revised Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING James G... LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill

  1. Planning and Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and ProblemSolving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  2. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1984-01-01

    The problem-solving strategy of making an organized list is highlighted, with a problem and suggestions for teaching the strategy. Other suggestions for teaching problem solving are then presented. (MNS)

  3. Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

  4. Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Alan

    Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…

  5. The Identity of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper raises issues motivated by considering the "identity" of problem solving. This means that we are concerned with how other mathematics education topics impinge on problem solving, and with themes that naturally arise within the problem-solving agenda. We claim that some of these issues need more attention by educational research, while…

  6. Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, Dianne K.

    The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem…

  7. Problem Solving: Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G., Ed.; Schaaf, Oscar

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) a computation-oriented problem with procedures and some questions that might be asked of students; (2) four ways to help students develop positive problem-solving attitudes; (3) a strategy game; (4) a multiplication problem; and (5) several questions that will help students develop problem-solving skills. (JN)

  8. Resource Scarcity: Problems Technology Cannot Solve; Problems Technology Can Solve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Dennis; Castle, Emery N.

    1979-01-01

    Lists resource problems technology can and cannot solve, and emphasizes the need for considering and restructuring the social environments and institutions as well as developing new technologies. (CK)

  9. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1985-01-01

    The focus is on the problem-solving strategy of find a pattern, with a problem explored to illustrate how to use the strategy. Other tips concern classroom climate, checking skills, research, and type of problems. (MNS)

  10. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity in which students first guess and then check their answer. Also presents an activity to help students develop skill in understanding the question in a problem and a suggestion to help develop a classroom climate conducive to problem-solving. (JN)

  11. Technological Problem Solving: A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waetjen, Walter B.

    Examination of newer technology education materials reveals two recurring themes: one relates to curriculum content, familiarizing students with technology, and another to a technique of classroom instruction, i.e., problem solving. A problem-solving framework for technical education has the following components: (1) define the problem; (2)…

  12. Solving Transportation Problems via Aggregation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AD-A144 219 SOLVING TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS VIA AGGREGATION (U) i/l GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH CENTER R W...10 July 1984 SOLVING TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS VIA AGGREGATION by" 4 Richard W. Taylort C. M. Shettytt PDRC 84-10 DTIC E L - TE~ School of Business...c UoaOO48--17 Rpouto spritein whol or pr for ny prpos of he U S. overment Abstract Solving Transportation Problems Via Aggregation 0

  13. Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…

  14. Problem Solving Tips for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.

    1984-01-01

    The strategy of making a table is highlighted. A problem is given and the procedure for setting up and using the table are explained. Other suggestions for teaching problem solving are also included. (MNS)

  15. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  16. Learning Impasses in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. P. E.

    1992-01-01

    Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

  17. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  18. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  19. Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Grace

    The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…

  20. A Personal Problem Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Petersen, Chris H.

    Few studies have explicitly attended to the personal problem-solving process within the counseling literature, perhaps due in part to the dearth of relevant assessment instruments. To examine the dimensions underlying the applied problem-solving process, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from four samples of college…

  1. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  2. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  3. The Future Problem Solving Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

  4. Adaptive Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Auckland Private Bag 92019 Auckland, 1142 New Zealand Name of Principal Investigators (Co-PI): Patricia J. Riddle - e-mail address : pat...Auckland, 1142 New Zealand Period of Performance: 5/27/2015 – 11/26/2016 Abstract: We have implemented a system, MSP, that given a specific problem...since 2014. Thus, we cannot compare MSP against a new set of competitors on a new set of problems. However, we can compare it against RIDA* on the

  5. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.

  6. Children Solve Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  7. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  8. Solving bearing overheating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jendzurski, T.

    1995-05-08

    Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

  9. Problem Solving and Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    response fre- of homework or test problems that the class was lems were esented quencies in two tasks. Findings that fit this working on at the time...psychological models were th this students who receive these tasks as homework simpler, and the inferences about processes ved by assignments and...quantitative relations study of children from kindergarten through and stud, nts must be able to choose formulas third grade. The versions differ in

  10. Irrelevance in Problem Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Alon Y.

    1992-01-01

    The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.

  11. Supporting Problem Solving in PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David

    2011-01-01

    Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…

  12. Student Problem-Solving Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2006-04-01

    Kathy Harper is director of undergraduate curriculum development in the physics department at The Ohio State University. She has been involved in local and national workshops for in-service teachers and conducts research in student problem solving.

  13. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  14. Problem Solving through Paper Folding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…

  15. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  16. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  17. Promote Problem-Solving Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

  18. Customer-centered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  19. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  20. Mathematical problem solving by analogy.

    PubMed

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J

    1991-05-01

    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  1. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  2. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  3. Problem Solving Does Not Have To Be a Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barb, Cynthia; Quinn, Anne Larson

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the argument that states that problem solving is much more than just solving problems, by focusing on problem-solving history, George Polya's view of problem solving, Asians' successful use of multiple intuitive solutions, and other examples. (ASK)

  4. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2016-07-12

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  5. Human Problem Solving in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…

  6. Time Out for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others

    Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…

  7. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  8. Human Problem Solving in 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of more than 200 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo database. Journal papers, book chapters, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied settings, as well as…

  9. Human Problem Solving in 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of more than 200 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo database. Journal papers, book chapters, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied settings, as well as…

  10. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Continuing research is reported in a program aimed at the development of a robot computer problem solving system. The motivation and results are described of a theoretical investigation concerning the general properties of behavioral systems. Some of the important issues which a general theory of behavioral organization should encompass are outlined and discussed.

  11. Teaching through Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of a prototype intelligent education system called WOMBAT (Weighted Objectives Method by Arguing with the Tutor) focuses on dialogue and negotiation in collaborative problem solving. The results of a formative evaluation, in which the system was used by 10 subjects who commented on various aspects of the design, are presented. (Contains…

  12. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  13. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sabrina Budasi

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

  15. Solving the problem of writing.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D

    1995-04-01

    This paper explores the difficulties which some students appear to encounter with written work and recommends the teaching of a problem-solving approach. Exploration of the skills necessary for writing, e.g. language skills and memory functions, highlights the structured format of cognitive processes. Most study skill packages emphasise the need for planning and organising work. It may be that students require more detailed help and guidance in such skills. This paper promotes the teaching to students of a problem-solving approach to written work. We all solve problems every day, many we are completely unaware of. This approach seeks to harness these transferable skills and utilise them in a new area. It can be applied at a macro and at a micro level, i.e. the entire essay/project/report may be planned utilising this approach and then each section or paragraph further planned in the same manner. The use of a mnemonic further aids the student in developing and applying the problem solving approach to written work.

  16. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

  17. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  18. Human Problem Solving in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…

  19. Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)

  20. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  1. Teaching Math. Extending Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola

    1996-01-01

    Describes four teaching activities to help children extend math problem-solving skills by using their own questions. Activities involve using a chart and symbols to develop equations adding up to 12, going on an imaginary shopping trip, using shapes to represent dollar amounts, using the date on a penny to engage in various mathematical…

  2. Time Out for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others

    Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…

  3. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  4. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the secreted chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a tricky crystallization problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Krengel, Ute; Dey, Raja; Sasso, Severin; Ökvist, Mats; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Kast, Peter

    2006-05-01

    A method is presented that allowed the diffraction limit of crystals of the secreted chorismate mutase from M. tuberculosis to be improved from approximately 3.5 to 1.3 Å. To obtain large well diffracting crystals, it was critical to initiate crystallization at higher precipitant concentration and then transfer the drops to lower precipitant concentrations within 5–15 min. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine in bacteria, fungi and plants. Here, the crystallization of the unusual secreted chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (encoded by Rv1885c), a 37.2 kDa dimeric protein belonging to the AroQ{sub γ} subclass of mutases, is reported. Crystal optimization was non-trivial and is discussed in detail. To obtain crystals of sufficient quality, it was critical to initiate crystallization at higher precipitant concentration and then transfer the drops to lower precipitant concentrations within 5–15 min, in an adaptation of a previously described technique [Saridakis & Chayen (2000 ▶), Protein Sci.9, 755–757]. As a result of the optimization, diffraction improved from 3.5 to 1.3 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.6, b = 72.6, c = 62.0 Å, β = 104.5°. The asymmetric unit contains one biological dimer, with 167 amino acids per protomer. A soak with a transition-state analogue is also described.

  5. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the secreted chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a tricky crystallization problem solved.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Ute; Dey, Raja; Sasso, Severin; Okvist, Mats; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Kast, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Chorismate mutase catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine in bacteria, fungi and plants. Here, the crystallization of the unusual secreted chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (encoded by Rv1885c), a 37.2 kDa dimeric protein belonging to the AroQ(gamma) subclass of mutases, is reported. Crystal optimization was non-trivial and is discussed in detail. To obtain crystals of sufficient quality, it was critical to initiate crystallization at higher precipitant concentration and then transfer the drops to lower precipitant concentrations within 5-15 min, in an adaptation of a previously described technique [Saridakis & Chayen (2000), Protein Sci. 9, 755-757]. As a result of the optimization, diffraction improved from 3.5 to 1.3 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 42.6, b = 72.6, c = 62.0 angstroms, beta = 104.5 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains one biological dimer, with 167 amino acids per protomer. A soak with a transition-state analogue is also described.

  6. Teaching Problem Solving through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgan, James W.

    This book helps general and special education teachers empower students in grades K-4 to independently solve problems by teaching them how characters in children's literature books solved similar problems. Students are also taught a problem solving strategy that they can apply to solve problems in any situation. The book contains ready-to-use…

  7. Modeling Applied to Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2016-07-12

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  10. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  11. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…

  12. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and…

  13. Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Vicki

    This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather…

  14. Research on Computers and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…

  15. Teaching DICOM by problem solving.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita; Pambrun, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is the standard for encoding and communicating medical imaging information. It is used in radiology as well as in many other imaging domains such as ophthalmology, dentistry, and pathology. DICOM information objects are used to encode medical images or information about the images. Their usage outside of the imaging department is increasing, especially with the sharing of medical images within Electronic Health Record systems. However, learning DICOM is long and difficult because it defines and uses many specific abstract concepts that relate to each other. In this paper, we present an approach, based on problem solving, for teaching DICOM as part of a graduate course on healthcare information. The proposed approach allows students with diversified background and no software development experience to grasp a large breadth of knowledge in a very short time.

  16. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.

  17. Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)

  18. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  19. Strategies for Problem Solving. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.

    This manual provides a comprehensive approach to problem solving; it is written in narrative style with numerous examples. The guide is organized in eight sections that cover the following topics: (1) problem-solving overview (with suggested readings and recommendations for schools); (2) a five-step model for solving problems; (3) strategies for…

  20. Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others

    The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…

  1. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  2. Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nickey Owen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…

  3. A Component Analysis of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwieger, Ruben Don

    The purpose of this study was the construction of a theoretical model for analyzing mathematical problem solving. A list of general problem-solving abilities was generated through a literature search. This list was narrowed to eight basic abilities pertinent to mathematics problem solving. Each of these was operationally defined and exemplified in…

  4. Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…

  5. Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nickey Owen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…

  6. Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…

  7. The Important Thing about Teaching Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sally K.

    2010-01-01

    The author teaches a content course in problem solving for middle school teachers. During the course, teacher candidates have the opportunity to confront their insecurities as they actively engage in solving math problems using a variety of strategies. As the semester progresses, they add new strategies to their problem-solving arsenal and…

  8. Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

    Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

  9. Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

    Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

  10. Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…

  11. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  12. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  13. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  14. Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savrda, Sherry L.

    2006-12-01

    An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. A fifth superordinate factor, stabilization, considers the shifting relationships between the four primary factors over the problem-solving process. Problem solving is then described in terms of a search for a stable relationship among the four primary factors. Results from the study to be presented suggest that with further refinement, the stabilization model could be an effective alternative model of problem solving. Results related to the observed problem-solving processes undertaken by the participants will also be presented.

  15. Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairing, Jackson Pasini

    2017-01-01

    Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…

  16. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    PubMed

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  17. Understanding Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Processes †

    PubMed Central

    Nehm, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Fostering effective problem-solving skills is one of the most longstanding and widely agreed upon goals of biology education. Nevertheless, undergraduate biology educators have yet to leverage many major findings about problem-solving processes from the educational and cognitive science research literatures. This article highlights key facets of problem-solving processes and introduces methodologies that may be used to reveal how undergraduate students perceive and represent biological problems. Overall, successful problem-solving entails a keen sensitivity to problem contexts, disciplined internal representation or modeling of the problem, and the principled management and deployment of cognitive resources. Context recognition tasks, problem representation practice, and cognitive resource management receive remarkably little emphasis in the biology curriculum, despite their central roles in problem-solving success. PMID:23653710

  18. The Problem Life Solves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    After forming, planets start the long process of dissipating energy into space. Early on, accretionary processes provide sufficient kinetic energy to raise temperatures enough to drive chemical systems rapidly toward equilibrium, maximizing the release of chemical energy. Eventually heat is dissipated, temperatures drop, and outer portions of planets cool enough to slow the rates of chemical reactions. As reaction rates slow to the scale of geologic time, chemical energy becomes trapped in assemblages of planetary materials far from equilibrium. Numerous examples are provided by chondritic meteorites, which show that activation energy barriers allow chemical energy to remain trapped for most of the age of the solar system even if heat dissipation is efficient -- and perhaps as a direct consequence. Activation energies that inhibit favorable reactions can be overcome by catalysis, which permits chemical systems to attain lower energy states. Catalysis in planets serves to continue the release of energy into space begun by heat dissipation. This implies that there is an overall thermodynamic drive for catalysis to appear as planets cool. Reasons why catalysis emerges in some cases and not others may depend on interactions of cooling rates and compositions but the specifics are murky at present. Life is a particularly efficient catalyst, and its emergence on a planet helps solve the problem generated by the catastrophic decrease in reaction rates during cooling. The single example we have of life on Earth got its start catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions arranged in states far from equilibrium by geologic processes. On the pre-photosynthetic Earth the boldest biosignatures were redox processes occurring at rates that could only be explained by catalysis, and specifically by catalytic processes that have no abiotic mechanism. Biologically enhanced rates of redox reactions persist to the present, and maintain the biogeochemical cycles that permit the photosynthetic

  19. Learning to Solve Problems in Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Problem solving lies at the heart of mathematical learning. Children need opportunities to write, discuss, and solve problems on a regular basis. The problems must incorporate grade-appropriate content and be "accessible and engaging to the students, building on what they know and can do." Teachers also play a key role in establishing a classroom…

  20. Computer Games Teach Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayson, James

    1982-01-01

    The difficulty many students have in solving complex problems stems not from a lack of mathematical skill but from an inability to visualize the problem. An appropriately-structured computer game may assist students in achieving this visualization and in solving problems better. A heuristic approach in programing one game is provided. (Author/JN)

  1. Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

    1993-01-01

    The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

  2. New Perspectives on Human Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2009-01-01

    In November 2008 at Purdue University, the 2nd Workshop on Human Problem Solving was held. This workshop, which was a natural continuation of the first workshop devoted almost exclusively to optimization problems, addressed a wider range of topics that reflect the scope of the "Journal of Problem Solving." The workshop was attended by 35…

  3. New Perspectives on Human Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2009-01-01

    In November 2008 at Purdue University, the 2nd Workshop on Human Problem Solving was held. This workshop, which was a natural continuation of the first workshop devoted almost exclusively to optimization problems, addressed a wider range of topics that reflect the scope of the "Journal of Problem Solving." The workshop was attended by 35…

  4. Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.

  5. Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard J.; Demel, John T.

    2007-01-01

    When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving "real-world" problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

  6. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

  8. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  9. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  10. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  11. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-10-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.

  12. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barczi, Krisztina

    2013-01-01

    Teaching how to solve problems--from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks--has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might…

  13. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  14. Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

    2003-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

  15. Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.

  16. Problem Posing and Solving with Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Fox, Jillian L.; Watters, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is explored as both problem posing and problem solving from two perspectives, that of the child and the teacher. Mathematical modeling provides rich learning experiences for elementary school children and their teachers.

  17. Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

    2003-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

  18. Pre-Service Class Teacher' Ability in Solving Mathematical Problems and Skills in Solving Daily Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…

  19. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. Problem Solving & Comprehension. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whimbey, Arthur; Lochhead, Jack

    This book shows how to increase one's power to analyze and comprehend problems. First, it outlines and illustrates the methods that good problem solvers use in attacking complex ideas. Then it gives some practice in applying these methods to a variety of questions in comprehension and reasoning. Chapters include: (1) "Test Your Mind--See How…

  1. Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…

  2. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  3. Trigonometric problem cases well solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, H.

    2001-10-01

    Content of the book are trigonometric problems that can be found scarely in the technical literature. It begins with using trigonometric functions to horizon and height. Interesting pure mathematical problems about tangent, inscribed tetragon and parallelogram follow. In chapter 6 is a generalization of Euclid's theorem fo the right-angled triangle. The next themes are exterior circle and incircle. In chapter 9 an unusual proof of the cosine law for sides is given. Further treated problems are the distance of two stars and eclipses. The aim group consists of mathematicians, natural scientists and technicians(also teacher) who have to do professionally with trigonometric problems and (or)who are interested in trigonometric problems. There is an english and a german edition.

  4. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  5. Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…

  6. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…

  7. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  8. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  9. Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

  10. Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…

  11. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  12. Strategies for Solving Word Problems in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigan, George A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the approaches presented in the Self-Paced Study of Strategies Useful for Solving Word Problems in the Physical and Biological Sciences that can be used by students to successfully solve word problems encountered in any entry-level science course. Describes the topics covered in five "study sessions" that allow the students to practice the…

  13. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  14. Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…

  15. Guiding Young Children in Successful Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kil S.

    1982-01-01

    A list of heuristics for elementary school children is provided. Two examples which are viewed to demonstrate the conscientious and creative use of problem-solving strategies by fourth graders are detailed. Suggestions for teachers on how to help pupils develop their problem-solving abilities are included. (MP)

  16. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  17. Problem-Solving Rules for Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Angelo

    The categories and applications of strategic knowledge as these relate to problem solving in the area of transmission genetics are examined in this research study. The role of computer simulations in helping students acquire the strategic knowledge necessary to solve realistic transmission genetics problems was emphasized. The Genetics…

  18. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    This paper reported the results of a study designed to determine whether certain instructional strategies are superior to others in teaching problem solving to high school chemistry students. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual…

  19. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  20. Problem Solving in the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Carol E.; Guild, D. Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Describes the mathematics curriculum proposed by the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM)in which students build new mathematical knowledge through problem-solving. Compares the role of PSSM problem solving with that in the 1989 curriculum standards. (YDS)

  1. Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

  2. Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Michael; And Others

    Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…

  3. Can Television Enhance Children's Mathematical Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…

  4. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…

  5. Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  7. Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2014-04-01

    A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation.

  8. Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutner, Joanne

    1987-01-01

    Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)

  9. Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…

  10. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  11. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  12. Problem Solving Under Time-Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michael; Hunt, Earl

    A model of how automated and controlled processing can be mixed in computer simulations of problem solving is proposed. It is based on previous work by Hunt and Lansman (1983), who developed a model of problem solving that could reproduce the data obtained with several attention and performance paradigms, extending production-system notation to…

  13. Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.

    This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…

  14. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  15. Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

  16. The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…

  17. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  18. Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…

  19. Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…

  20. Scaffolding Online Argumentation during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, S.; Jonassen, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, constraint-based argumentation scaffolding was proposed to facilitate online argumentation performance and ill-structured problem solving during online discussions. In addition, epistemological beliefs were presumed to play a role in solving ill-structured diagnosis-solution problems. Constraint-based discussion boards were…

  1. Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

  2. Teaching Problem-Solving. Informal Series/43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.

    This monograph is designed to provide practical classroom suggestions, including sample lesson plans, to show how teachers can improve the problem-solving competence of students at all educational and ability levels. The examples provided show that problem-solving instruction can be integrated with teaching the content of particular topics. While…

  3. Teaching Problem Solving: An Instructional Design Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.

    1983-01-01

    Instructional design strategy for improving problem solving is presented. The strategy entails selecting an appropriate domain of problem-solving tasks, learning hierarchies, teaching methods and assembling of learning materials, and designing teacher training and evaluation. Obstacles to be overcome and directions for future research are…

  4. Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed…

  5. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  6. Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.

    This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…

  7. Self-appraised social problem solving abilities, emotional reactions and actual problem solving performance.

    PubMed

    Shewchuk, R M; Johnson, M O; Elliott, T R

    2000-07-01

    Self-report measures of social problem solving abilities have yet to be associated with objective problem solving performance in any consistent manner. In the present study, we investigated the relation of social problem solving abilities--as measured by the Social Problem Solving Skills Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R [Maydeu-Olivares, A. & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1996). A factor analytic study of the Social Problem Solving Inventory: an integration of theory and data. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 115-133])--to performance on a structured problem solving task. Unlike previous studies, we examined the relation of problem solving skills to performance curves observed in repeated trials, while controlling for affective reactions to each trial. Using hierarchical modeling techniques, a negative problem orientation was significantly predictive of performance and this effect was not mediated by negative affectivity. Results are discussed as they pertain to contemporary models of social problem solving.

  8. Solving a problem by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  9. Problem-solving competency of nursing graduates.

    PubMed

    Uys, Leana R; Van Rhyn, Lily L; Gwele, Nomthandaso S; McInerney, Patricia; Tanga, Tobeka

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports a study describing and evaluating the outcomes of problem-based learning (PBL) programmes in nursing schools in South Africa in terms of the competence of graduates to solve problem in actual clinical settings, and comparing this competence with that of graduates from non-PBL programmes. The nursing literature tends to equate problem-solving with patient-centred problems or the nursing process. However, it is also a skill used in managing the work role, working in a team and managing a health care unit. Problem-solving refers to the process of selectively attending to information in a patient care setting. The investigation of problem-solving in nursing is complicated by the complex relationships between different cognitive processes. A qualitative evaluation study, descriptive and comparative in nature, was carried out. In-depth interviews were held with graduates and their supervisors, asking them to identify problem-solving incidents in which they had been involved. Template analysis style and Benner's interpretive approach were used to analyse the data. The majority of the incidents described by the graduates (84%) were graded at the advanced beginner level or above. The majority of incidents at the novice level came from the non-PBL group. 'Using people skills' and 'being assertive' were the two problem-solving strategies most often used. The PBL group fared better than the non-problem-based group in the level of their problem-solving ability. The findings of this study suggest that further research is warranted into the problem-solving abilities of PBL graduates, their personal development over time and at different stages of practice. In addition, it would be interesting to follow the development of their problem-solving abilities over time.

  10. Collection of solved problems in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koupilová, ZdeÅka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-01-01

    To solve physics problems is a key ability which students should reach during their physics education. Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of fully solved problems. The structure of problems' solutions is specially designed to substitute tutor's help during lesson and encourage students to solve at least some parts of a problem independently. Nowadays the database contains about 770 fully solved problems in physics in Czech, more than 100 problems in Polish and more than 140 problems in English. Other problems are still being translated. Except for physics problems, the Collection has also a mathematical part, which contains more than 300 fully solved problems in mathematics. This paper follows the presentation of the Collection of solved problems from previous years and introduces a new interface of the Collection, its enhanced functionality, new topics, newly created interface for teachers, user feedback and plans for future development. The database is placed at the website of the Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, the links are: http://reseneulohy.cz/fyzika (Czech version); http://www.physicstasks.eu/ (English version).

  11. Diagrams Benefit Symbolic Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic…

  12. Problem Solving with Generic Algorithms and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jay

    Success in using a computer in education as a problem-solving tool requires a change in the way of thinking or of approaching a problem. An algorithm, i.e., a finite step-by-step solution to a problem, can be designed around the data processing concepts of input, processing, and output to provide a basis for classifying problems. If educators…

  13. Problem Solving with Generic Algorithms and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jay

    Success in using a computer in education as a problem-solving tool requires a change in the way of thinking or of approaching a problem. An algorithm, i.e., a finite step-by-step solution to a problem, can be designed around the data processing concepts of input, processing, and output to provide a basis for classifying problems. If educators…

  14. Problem-Solving Analysis and Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrsiades, Linda Suny

    Problem solving skills such as patterning facts, locating problems, separating problems and solutions, and presenting effective written products are essential to success in the business community. Facts can be patterned using a grid relating a problem's effect at the individual, group, situational, and organizational level. Such a grid tests each…

  15. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.

  16. Causality in Solving Economic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, A. Emanuel; Sloman, Steven A.; Hagmayer, York; Hertzog, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of causal beliefs in people's decisions when faced with economic problems was investigated. Two experiments are reported that vary the causal structure in prisoner's dilemma-like economic situations. We measured willingness to cooperate or defect and collected justifications and think-aloud protocols to examine the strategies that people…

  17. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-29

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  18. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    DOE PAGES

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-29

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less

  19. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  20. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  1. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    PubMed

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say "no" when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  2. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. Results: The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say “no” when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession. PMID:26793247

  3. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  4. The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

  5. I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Program. Intermediate Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    Designed for teachers of intermediate elementary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) program includes both…

  6. The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

  7. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  8. The ideal science student and problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an

  9. Solving the Telomere Replication Problem

    PubMed Central

    Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113

  10. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  11. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  12. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  13. Solving inversion problems with neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.

  14. Towards Automated Training of Legal Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntjewerff, Antoinette J.

    An examination of Dutch research on legal case solving revealed that few law students get systematic instruction or testing in the technique of legal problem solving. The research being conducted at the Department of Computer Science and Law at the University of Amsterdam focuses on identifying the different functions in legal reasoning tasks in…

  15. Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This inventory was designed to assess the general problem solving ability of disadvantaged elementary school children from various ethnic backgrounds and grade levels. Twelve tasks are included in the inventory: sensing the problem, identifying the problem, asking questions, guessing causes, clarification of goals, judging if more information is…

  16. Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…

  17. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  18. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  19. Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)

  20. Problem Solving under Time-Constraints,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    to interruptions. Data from the simulation is compared to data from college students doing the same task. Keywords include: Thinking ; problem solving; dual tasks; computer simulation; production systems; arithmetic.

  1. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  2. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  3. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-07

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

  4. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  5. Collaborative Everyday Problem Solving: Interpersonal Relationships and Problem Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strough, Jonell; Patrick, Julie Hicks; Swenson, Lisa M.; Cheng, Suling; Barnes, Kristi A.

    2003-01-01

    Older adults' preferred partners for collaborative everyday problem solving and the types of everyday problems solved alone and with others were examined in a sample of community dwelling older adults (N = 112, M age = 71.86 yrs., SD = 5.92 yrs.). Family members (i.e., spouses, adult children) were the most frequently nominated partners for…

  6. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  7. Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…

  8. Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

  9. Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

  10. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  11. Solving Problems of Practice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)

  12. Personality, Problem Solving, and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, William B.; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the role of social problem solving in the relationship between personality and substance use in adolescents. Although a number of studies have identified a relationship between personality and substance use, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We hypothesized that problem-solving…

  13. Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…

  14. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  15. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  16. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  17. Reasoning by Analogy in Solving Comparison Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates 10-year-old children's abilities to reason by analogy in solving addition and subtraction comparison problems involving unknown compare sets and unknown reference sets. Children responded in a consistent manner to the tasks involving the basic addition problems, indicating substantial relational knowledge of these but responded in an…

  18. Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)

  19. Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were followed…

  20. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  1. Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgan, James W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…

  2. Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…

  3. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  4. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…

  6. Analogy Generation in Scientific Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    The spontaneous use of analogies in problem-solving occurs when a subject first spontaneously shifts his attention to a situation (B) which differs in some significant way from an original problem situation (A), and then tries to apply findings from B to A. This paper describes research on the process with 10 scientifically trained subjects…

  7. Solving Math Word Problems: A Software Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiser, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed are 11 software packages for the Apple II computer designed to help teach elementary and secondary school children how to solve mathword problems. Included in the review are hardware requirements, price, grade level, use of graphics, kinds of problems, tools provided, strengths, and weaknesses of each program. (CW)

  8. Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.

  9. Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

  10. Scientific Problem Solving by Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron

    1984-01-01

    Human expert problem-solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas are used to describe BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driver heuristics and "expectations" such as symmetry. Implications of BACON.5 type research for traditional science education…

  11. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-06-22

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

  13. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  14. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  15. Students' Errors in Solving the Permutation and Combination Problems Based on Problem Solving Steps of Polya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…

  16. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  17. Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

    The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving

  18. Problem-Solving Transfer Among Programming Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-04

    stable from programming in the first language to in the second. In other words, the transfer on subsequent drafts was mainly manifested as fewer drafts...substantial transfer from solving a problem in the first language (LISP or PROLOG) to solving it in the second language (PROLOG or LISP) in terms of time...transfer a lot of the algorithmic knowledge gained from programming in the first language to in the second. We will refer this type of transfer as

  19. Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

  20. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  1. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  2. Problem solving in a distributed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.

  3. Problem solving in a distributed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.

  4. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  5. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  6. Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741

  7. Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-11-01

    A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures.

  8. Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano

    2014-08-15

    Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

  9. Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

  10. Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

  11. A Conceptual Approach to Physics Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-10-01

    Students in introductory physics courses treat problem solving as an exercise in manipulating equations, symbols, and quantities with the goal of obtaining the correct answer. Although this approach is efficient for getting answers, it is far from optimal for learning how conceptual knowledge is applied in the problem-solving process. The goal of this study is to refine and evaluate an approach that encourages students to begin by writing a strategic analysis of a problem based on principles and procedures, and then to follow with a documented problem solution that exhibits, side-by-side, how concepts and equations go together in a solution. We will discuss the implementation and effectiveness of this approach in four local high school classrooms.

  12. Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

  13. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  14. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  15. I Can Problem Solve (ICPS): Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    1993-01-01

    Teachers of preschool and kindergarten children from low-income families used the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) program to help the children learn to think through and solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Compared to nontrained controls, the children exhibited fewer instances of impulsive and inhibited behaviors as observed in…

  16. I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving Program. Kindergarten and Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    Designed for teachers of kindergarten and the primary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The 89 lessons are adaptable for various levels of ability throughout the…

  17. I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Program. Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    Designed for teachers of preschool to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. Originally developed for four-year-old children in a preschool setting, most three-year-old…

  18. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  19. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  20. Solving Problems of Ice-Blocked Drainage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    operations. These techniques may allow ice to form, but will slow down its formation or will maintain an unfrozen opening so that drainage flow can -0...Hampshire 03755 Solving problems of ice-blocked 0 drainage 0 - *O 0 Kevin L. Carey % - S 0 Introduction Once the processes that lead to ice-blocked drainage ...facili- ties are understood (Ice-Blocked Drainage : Problems and - , Processes, Cold Regions Technical Digest No. 83-2), it is pos- sible to work out

  1. Appendix M. Research Utilization and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles

    The Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) Model--an instructional system designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and developing curriculum to meet the needs identified--is intended to facilitate the development of…

  2. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  3. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  4. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  5. Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L.

    1999-01-01

    Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…

  6. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine whether certain types of instructional strategies (factor-label method, use of analogies, use of diagrams, and proportionality) were superior to others in teaching problem solving in four topics (mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity). Also of major interest was whether particular…

  7. Problem Solving. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of three modules for the problem-solving and computer learning systems classes of…

  8. General Problem Solving: Navy Requirements and Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Applied Mathematical Problem Solving, ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education , Columbus, Ohio, 1979. Bourne, Lyle...Mathematics and Environmental Education , Columbus, Ohio, 1979. Lewis, Clayton and Mack, Robert L. "The Role of Abduction in Learning to Use a

  9. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and…

  10. Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

  11. Problem Solving and Behavior Therapy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Arthur M.

    2004-01-01

    Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…

  12. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  13. Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifarelli, Victor

    The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

  14. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  15. Problem-Solving Interaction in GFL Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshii, Makiko; Schumacher, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the interaction between upper intermediate German as a Foreign Language (GFL) learners in Tokyo and prospective GFL teachers in Berlin in an online videoconferencing environment. It focuses on the way problems in comprehension and production are brought up and solved in the subsequent interaction. Our findings illustrate that…

  16. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  17. Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

  18. Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.

    2017-01-01

    In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…

  19. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  20. A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDWARDS, M.O.

    TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…

  1. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki; Näveri, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open…

  2. How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

  3. Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

  4. Raise the Bar on Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and…

  5. Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

  6. Creating Environments for Peaceful Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Sandra; Groulx, Judith G.; Hansen, Cindy; Patton, Mary Martin; Slaton, Anna Jimenez

    2006-01-01

    For may early childhood teachers, angry voices of children are heard all too often. When children focus on protecting themselves and surviving conflicts, they miss out on the joys and opportunities the early childhood program has to offer. Without the ability to solve problems in their interactions with others, children are not able to peacefully…

  7. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application"…

  8. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

  9. Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…

  10. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  11. Why Some Communities Can Solve Their Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    1989-01-01

    Effective communities are well-educated about themselves, have a better understanding of public information, talk through public issues to generate shared knowledge, appreciate the difference between public opinion and public judgment, and believe in public leadership as the key to using public power to solve community problems. (SK)

  12. Problem-solving for better health.

    PubMed

    Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context.

  13. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  14. Accelerated Developmental Arithmetic Using Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, G. Michael; Cornick, Jonathan; Holt, Robert J.; Russell, Andrew S. H.

    2015-01-01

    After many years of extremely low success rates, a radical new design of the first semester arithmetic remedial course was implemented and studied. Students at a large urban community college could take a traditional semester-long traditional lecture-based remedial arithmetic course or a new accelerated 4-week 20-hour problem-solving based…

  15. Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1983-01-01

    Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

  16. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

  17. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  18. Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application"…

  19. How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

  20. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  1. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  2. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  3. Problem Solving in Chemistry Using Eureka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, F. T.; Chik, Andy S. W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a software package that allows the user to solve mathematical problems, analyze data, plot graphs, and to examine mathematical models. Presents the attributes of the program and the available mathematical functions. Provides an example of pH calculations. (MVL)

  4. Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…

  5. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  6. Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.

  7. Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…

  8. Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moursund, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…

  9. Predicting Positive Self-Efficacy in Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kay N.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 288 hospital employees engaged in problem-solving groups found that previous group problem-solving experience, educational level, work expertise, and problem-solving confidence were the best predictors of self-efficacy. (SK)

  10. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794

  11. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  12. Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.

  13. Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian

    Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.

  15. Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

  16. Giant Story Problems: Reading Comprehension through Math Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goularte, Renee

    Primary students solve "oversized" story problems using drawings, equations, and written responses, helping them understand the links between the language of story problems and the numerical representations of matching equations. The activity also includes oral language and reflective writing, thus bringing together a variety of language…

  17. A microgenetic study of insightful problem solving.

    PubMed

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-03-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the facilitative problems group discovered the insightful strategy earlier, used it more often subsequently, and transferred it more often to novel problems than did those in the nonfacilitative problems group. Children generally discovered the insightful strategy on the most facilitative items and extended it progressively to items on which its advantages were smaller but still substantial. The results indicate that experience outside the experimental situation, as well as experience inside the experimental situation, influences use of new strategies.

  18. A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.

    1989-01-01

    A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.

  19. Human Problem Solving in Fault Diagnosis Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    W - FPFag-kx~~ff~P~xNA F MMIP Research Note 86-33 cc HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING IN FAULT DIAGNOSIS TASKS J U William B. Rouse and Ruston M. Hunt Center...V -m ... 1 Ira wli W - -. W .: m.4.. . W - r - j ; - R 7T._ W77 m- UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Date Entered) REPORT...ii SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE( W "en Data Entered) ,.-... 2

  20. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976

  1. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on "transparent" Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point.

  2. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  3. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  4. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  5. Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles

    The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…

  6. Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…

  7. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  8. A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David

    The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).

  9. Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).

  10. Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, James P.

    Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).

  11. The Impact of Teacher Training on Creative Writing and Problem-Solving Using Futuristic Scenarios for Creative Problem Solving and Creative Problem Solving Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayel Al-Srour, Nadia; Al-Ali, Safa M.; Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to detect the impact of teacher training on creative writing and problem-solving using both Futuristic scenarios program to solve problems creatively, and creative problem solving. To achieve the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two groups, the first consist of 20 teachers, and 23 teachers to second…

  12. Solving optimization problems on computational grids.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-05-01

    Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software

  13. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2016-06-30

    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  14. Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107

  15. Solving Optimization Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Airport Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the author's students (in-service and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers) enrolled in college geometry courses use the Geometers' Sketchpad (GSP) to gain insight to formulate, confirm, test, and refine conjectures to solve the classical airport problem for triangles. The students are then provided with strategic…

  16. Solving Optimization Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Airport Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the author's students (in-service and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers) enrolled in college geometry courses use the Geometers' Sketchpad (GSP) to gain insight to formulate, confirm, test, and refine conjectures to solve the classical airport problem for triangles. The students are then provided with strategic…

  17. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  18. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  19. Can galileons solve the muon problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Henry

    2015-09-01

    The leptonic bound states positronium and muonium are used to constrain Galileon contributions to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Through the application of a variety of bounds on lepton compositeness, it is shown that either the assumption of equating the charge radius of a particle with its Galileon scale radius is incompatible with experiments, or the scale of Galileons must be M >1.33 GeV , too large to solve the muon problem. The possibility of stronger constraints in the future from true muonium is discussed.

  20. Electrical precipitation solves Udang's dehydration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    A tough crude dehydration problem was solved on the Udang a platform offshore Indonesia when Conoco opted to use electric precipitation to remove water from the field's high pour point crude. The platform's 13 wells could produce up to 40,000 bpd of crude, but the system was designed under the assumption that water cuts would increase. Design capacity was set at 50% water, to a maximum of 27,000 bpd of oil and a like amount of water. A dehydration system on a second platform is now handling 60,000 bpd of oil with 5% water.

  1. Aha: A Connectionist Perspective on Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-08

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE 7, -REPORtT SEC.𔃾l CASPFC.A’C ON R7ESRtC’ vE %MARK.%GS Unclassif led 22 SECRITY C ASSPFCATION Aur~oRifv 3 ; S’R @Bu ON AjALA81L 3 F...Typically, the search perspective has been used to desc ,.,e problem solving behavior occurring on a macro-level time scale of seconds as opposed to the...unit /. The constants S, E and / (all set to .05 for the simulations described below) scale the strength of the external input, the excitatory input from

  2. "I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…

  3. A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…

  4. Research Perspectives on Problem Solving in Elementary School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; Thompson, Alba G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five research areas offering guidance to people concerned about teaching problem solving in elementary schools. Areas are (1) components of problem difficulty; (2) the contribution of reading difficulties to problem-solving deficiencies; (3) characteristics of successful problem solvers; (4) children's use of problem-solving techniques…

  5. Teaching Problem Solving as Viewed Through a Theory of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of methods of teaching children to solve verbal arithmetic problems is presented together with transcriptions of interviews in which children solve problems by reference to problem types. (SD)

  6. Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

    1988-01-01

    An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

  7. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  8. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ganor-Stern, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224

  9. Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Ganor-Stern, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.

  10. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  11. Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billionniere, Elodie V.

    Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

  12. Teaching clinical problem solving: a preceptor's guide.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Kristin W; Walters, Erika A; Taylor, James

    2012-09-15

    Instructional methods to help pharmacists succeed in their growing role in practice-based teaching are discussed, with an emphasis on techniques for fulfilling the four key preceptor roles. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) and other organizations advocate ongoing efforts to develop the teaching skills of clinician-educators serving as preceptors to pharmacy students and residents. The broad model of teaching clinical problem solving recommended by ASHP emphasizes the creative and flexible application of the four major preceptor roles: (1) direct instruction, (2) modeling, (3) coaching, and (4) facilitating. A variety of teaching methods used in the fields of medicine and nursing that can also be adopted by practice-based pharmacy educators are presented; in particular, the advantages and disadvantages of various case-presentation formats (e.g., One-Minute Preceptor, SNAPPS, patient-witnessed teaching, "Aunt Minnie," "think-aloud") are reviewed. Other topics discussed include the appropriate use of questioning as an educational tool, strategies for providing constructive feedback, teaching learners to self-evaluate their skills and progress, and integrating residents into teaching activities. The ASHP-recommended approach to teaching clinical problem-solving skills can be applied within the educational frameworks provided by schools of pharmacy as well as pharmacy residency programs. A wide range of validated teaching strategies can be used to tailor learning experiences to individual learner needs while meeting overall program goals and objectives.

  13. Autonomy and Mathematical Problem-Solving: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Problem solving is seen to lie at the "heart" of mathematics (Cockcroft, 1982). Problem solving is also of great importance to industry that claims many young people leave school and take up jobs without the skills needed to sort out difficulties and problems (Smith Report, 2004). So is problem solving at the heart of mathematics teaching in…

  14. Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…

  15. Problem Solving: How Can We Help Students Overcome Cognitive Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approach to teach problem solving usually consists in showing students the solutions of some example-problems and then in asking students to practice individually on solving a certain number of related problems. This approach does not ensure that students learn to solve problems and above all to think about the solution process in…

  16. Posterior population expansion for solving inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäggli, C.; Straubhaar, J.; Renard, P.

    2017-04-01

    Solving inverse problems in a complex, geologically realistic, and discrete model space and from a sparse set of observations is a very challenging task. Extensive exploration by Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods often results in considerable computational efforts. Most optimization methods, on the other hand, are limited to linear (continuous) model spaces and the minimization of an objective function, what often proves to be insufficient. To overcome these problems, we propose a new ensemble-based exploration scheme for geostatistical prior models generated by a multiple-point statistics (MPS) tool. The principle of our method is to expand an existing set of models by using posterior facies information for conditioning new MPS realizations. The algorithm is independent of the physical parametrization. It is tested on a simple synthetic inverse problem. When compared to two existing McMC methods (iterative spatial resampling (ISR) and Interrupted Markov chain Monte Carlo (IMcMC)), the required number of forward model runs was divided by a factor of 8-12.

  17. [Problem solving care models for Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária; Molnár, Sándorné; Kellős, Éva; Domján, Gyula

    2016-05-29

    Parkinson's disease affects more than 6,3 million people worldwide. Most patients and relatives are left alone to struggle with the symptoms associated with fluctuations in drug levels and the psychotic side effects of the anti-Parkinson's medications. Moreover, quite often even health providers may find difficult to interpret and manage the problems that have been encountered. The aims of the authors were to analyze systematically the biopsychosocial needs of Parkinson's patients, and to develop a complex, evidence-based Parkinson's-nursing-care model. Patients' needs were assessed based on an observational study involving an old patient with Parkinson's disease for more than 28 years. The model has been specified as a multidisciplinary care framework adapted to the special characteristics of Parkinson's disease which transcends the limitations of different standard nursing models. The elaborated model contains a detailed description of cooperative problem solving, which is organized around individual patients along with recommendations for addressing various potential problems that might be encountered. Implementation of the presented model can improve the life quality of Parkinson's patients and can facilitate the life of affected families provided that these families are well aware about the potential benefits of the novel care delivery system.

  18. Problem-solving style and motivational attributions.

    PubMed

    Houtz, John C; Matos, Haifa; Park, Min-Kyung S; Scheinholtz, Jennifer; Selby, Edwin

    2007-12-01

    52 Master's-level female graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and provided attributions for their successes and failures according to several categories of reasons. Attributions were in the form of percentages to the categories of skill or ability, effort devoted to the task, task difficulty, chance, or other factors, after Weiner's theory of motivation. Women scoring as more Developer than Explorer on VIEW attributed a greater percentage of their failures to uncontrollable factors (chance and task difficulty). These results are consistent with the theory that individuals with a Developer style are more organized, deliberate, "planful," and precise in their work efforts. Thus, such individuals would more likely attribute failure to factors they had not foreseen.

  19. Solving buffering problems with Mathematica software.

    PubMed

    Kleene, S J; Cejtin, H C

    1994-11-01

    Determining ionic concentrations in buffered solutions usually reduces to solving a set of simultaneous polynomial equations. Mathematica software offers a convenient method for doing this. Using buffering of Ca2+ by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) as an example, we provide a Mathematica script to estimate the apparent association constant. A second example shows how to calculate free ion concentrations when two ligands (Ca2+ and Mg2+) compete for one chelator (EGTA). Finally, the concentrations of all species are determined in a complex mixture containing Ca2+, EGTA, and calmodulin, a protein with four Ca(2+)-binding sites. Modifying the examples presented should allow analysis of most practical buffering problems.

  20. Solving Maxwell eigenvalue problems for accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbenz, Peter; Geus, Roman; Adam, Stefan

    2001-02-01

    We investigate algorithms for computing steady state electromagnetic waves in cavities. The Maxwell equations for the strength of the electric field are solved by a mixed method with quadratic finite edge (Nédélec) elements for the field values and corresponding node-based finite elements for the Lagrange multiplier. This approach avoids so-called spurious modes which are introduced if the divergence-free condition for the electric field is not treated properly. To compute a few of the smallest positive eigenvalues and corresponding eigenmodes of the resulting large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems, two algorithms have been used: the implicitly restarted Lanczos algorithm and the Jacobi-Davidson algorithm, both with shift-and-invert spectral transformation. Two-level hierarchical basis preconditioners have been employed for the iterative solution of the resulting systems of equations.

  1. Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…

  2. The Factor Structure of the Problem-Solving Inventory: Measuring Perceptions of Personal Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stanley B.; Roberts, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    Administered Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) to ninth graders (N=198) to examine whether results would be similar to those obtained with collegiate population on which PSI was normed. Results revealed three factors which were defined somewhat differently with this younger population. (NB)

  3. Children use salience to solve coordination problems.

    PubMed

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique--and thus salient--picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution.

  4. Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

    2014-01-01

    In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

  5. Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.

  6. The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

  7. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  8. Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

  9. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…

  10. Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.

    This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…

  11. Using Digital Mapping Tool in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…

  12. Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

  13. Problem-Solving Processes Used by Students in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Craig W.; Bodner, George M.

    1991-01-01

    A model for problem solving stressing both psychological and cultural influences is presented. This model is based on the analyses of how graduate students (n=10) solve organic synthesis problems, along with two models of problem solving and a constructivist epistemological stance. (KR)

  14. Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.

    Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…

  15. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  16. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…

  17. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  18. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  19. Environmental Problem Solving: Theory, Practice and Possibilities in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardwell, Lisa V., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph is a resource for educators who wish to explore environmental problem solving. It consists of five parts. Chapter 1 presents a psychological perspective on problem solving and its implications for teaching problem solving skills in an interdisciplinary arena. Chapter 2 presents four approaches to developing environmental problem…

  20. Thinking Creatively at Work: Organization Influences on Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Considers how peoples' creative problem-solving efforts are influenced by organizational characteristics. Examines the situations which call for creative problem solving at work and describes the kinds of processes people must apply to solve these problems. Reviews organizational variables that help or hinder these processes. (Author/CR)

  1. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  2. Scaffolding Cards: A Strategy for Facilitating Groups in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Pee Choon; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Ho, Foo Him

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving task design is not only the design of a non-routine problem to be solves by the students. Our task design also requires a supporting document, the practical worksheet, which would act as a cognitive scaffold for the students in the initial stages of the problem solving process before they can internalize the metacognitive…

  3. Mathematical Problem Solving: Papers from a Research Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Larry L., Ed.; Bradbard, David A., Ed.

    Five papers from the Workshop on Mathematical Problem Solving sponsored by the Georgia Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Mathematics are included along with an overview of the interests and history of the Center and its organization of the problem-solving workshop. One paper contains an overview of mathematical problem solving. The…

  4. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  5. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  6. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  7. Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

  8. Students' Use of Imagery in Solving Qualitative Problems in Kinematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Hegarty, Mary; Mayer, Richard

    This report describes a study that investigated the relationship between mental imagery and problem solving in physics, specifically in kinematics. A distinction is made between visual imagery and spatial imagery used in solving physics problems. The results of this study indicate that while spatial imagery may promote problem solving success, the…

  9. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  10. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  11. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  12. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  13. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  14. A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…

  15. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  16. Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

    2010-01-01

    In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

  17. Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

  18. Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…

  19. Rejection Sensitivity and Depression: Indirect Effects Through Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Kraines, Morganne A; Wells, Tony T

    2017-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) and deficits in social problem solving are risk factors for depression. Despite their relationship to depression and the potential connection between them, no studies have examined RS and social problem solving together in the context of depression. As such, we examined RS, five facets of social problem solving, and symptoms of depression in a young adult sample. A total of 180 participants completed measures of RS, social problem solving, and depressive symptoms. We used bootstrapping to examine the indirect effect of RS on depressive symptoms through problem solving. RS was positively associated with depressive symptoms. A negative problem orientation, impulsive/careless style, and avoidance style of social problem solving were positively associated with depressive symptoms, and a positive problem orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. RS demonstrated an indirect effect on depressive symptoms through two social problem-solving facets: the tendency to view problems as threats to one's well-being and an avoidance problem-solving style characterized by procrastination, passivity, or overdependence on others. These results are consistent with prior research that found a positive association between RS and depression symptoms, but this is the first study to implicate specific problem-solving deficits in the relationship between RS and depression. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms in high RS individuals may result from viewing problems as threats and taking an avoidant, rather than proactive, approach to dealing with problems. These findings may have implications for problem-solving interventions for rejection sensitive individuals.

  20. Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000?

    PubMed

    Stearns, A T

    2002-09-01

    It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has

  1. The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

    2005-01-01

    A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.

  2. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  3. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.

    1989-03-01

    This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.

  4. Social problem-solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jinbo; Luo, Ying; Li, Yanhua; Huang, Wenxia

    2016-11-01

    To describe social problem solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a cluster sample of 681 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. The Chinese version of the Social Problem-Solving scale was used. Descriptive analyses, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. The final year nursing students presented the highest scores of positive social problem-solving skills. Students with experiences of self-directed and problem-based learning presented significantly higher scores in Positive Problem Orientation subscale. The group with Critical thinking training experience, however, displayed higher negative problem solving scores compared with nonexperience group. Social problem solving abilities varied based upon teaching-learning strategies. Self-directed and problem-based learning may be recommended as effective way to improve social problem-solving ability. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Effects of Training in Problem Solving on the Problem-Solving Abilities of Gifted Fourth Graders: A Comparison of the Future Problem Solving and Instrumental Enrichment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…

  6. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  7. Problem Solving: A Handbook for Elementary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.

    This book combines suggestions for the teaching of problem solving with activities and carefully discussed non-routine problems which students should find interesting as they gain valuable experience in problem solving. The over 300 activities and problems have been gleaned from a variety of sources and have been classroom tested by practicing…

  8. Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

  9. Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.

    PubMed

    Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Solving belief problems: toward a task analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, D; Leslie, A M

    1998-04-01

    Solving belief problems develops as a skill in normal children during the preschool years. To understand this process of development, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the tasks used to test preschool 'theory of mind' skills. This analysis should allow us to relate the structure of a given task to the underlying cognitive mechanisms that the task engages. In two experiments, we find that 3-year-old children show a pattern of success and failure on belief tasks that is not consistent with 'conceptual deficit' accounts. Young children possess the concept, BELIEF, but have certain characteristic difficulties with correctly calculating the contents of beliefs. In childhood autism, by contrast, the mechanisms that in normal development bestow conceptual competence in this domain are impaired. In the first experiment, parallel task structures are used to show that 3-year-olds are no better at predicting behavior from a partially true belief than they are at predicting behavior from an entirely false belief. We develop specific proposals about task structural factors that either facilitate or hinder success in belief-content calculation. These proposals are supported in a second experiment. We compare two false-belief tasks, one of which has helpful structural factors, the other of which has hampering factors, with a third task which exemplifies a hampering task structure but without any theory of mind content. We compare 3- and 4-year-olds' patterns of performance with that of autistic children. Each of the three groups shows a distinct performance profile across the three tasks, as predicted for each case by our model. Innate attentional mechanisms provide the conceptual foundations for 'theory of mind' but must be supplemented by a robust executive process that allows false beliefs to achieve 'conceptual pop-out.' Our approach has general implications for the study of conceptual development.

  11. Problem solving therapy - use and effectiveness in general practice.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David

    2012-09-01

    Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.

  12. The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction…

  13. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  14. Problem-solving therapy for depression: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alissa C; D'Zurilla, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention that focuses on training in adaptive problem-solving attitudes and skills. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies on efficacy of PST for reducing depressive symptomatology. Based on results involving 21 independent samples, PST was found to be equally effective as other psychosocial therapies and medication treatments and significantly more effective than no treatment and support/attention control groups. Moreover, component analyses indicated that PST is more effective when the treatment program includes (a) training in a positive problem orientation (vs. problem-solving skills only), (b) training in all four major problem-solving skills (i.e., problem definition and formulation, generation of alternatives, decision making, and solution implementation and verification), and (c) training in the complete PST package (problem orientation plus the four problem-solving skills).

  15. Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

  16. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  17. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  18. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and…

  19. Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

  20. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  1. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…

  2. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  3. Problem Solving Treatment for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Christine Maguth; Fiore, Alicia A.; Nezu, Arthur M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, Problem Solving Therapy (PST) has been shown to be an effective treatment for many different problems and patient populations (Nezu, 2004). Among its many clinical applications, PST interventions were developed for persons with intellectually disabilities (ID), where improving problem-solving skills led to adaptive…

  4. Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…

  5. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  6. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

  7. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  8. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  9. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  10. Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacter, John; And Others

    This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…

  11. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  12. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and…

  13. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  14. A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves the students' problems solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: i) finds step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept ii) enable students' to solve word problems on their own…

  15. A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own by…

  16. Future Problem Solving--One Program Meeting Many Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Katherine C.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Future Problem Solving Program, a year-long curriculum project with competitive and non-competitive options. The international program involves 250,000 students and is designed to help students enlarge, enrich, and make more accurate their images of the future. Team problem solving and individual problem solving…

  17. Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2008-01-01

    Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

  18. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  19. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  20. Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

  1. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  2. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

    2014-11-01

    Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-07-01

    Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  4. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  5. The role of conceptual understanding in children's addition problem solving.

    PubMed

    Canobi, K H; Reeve, R A; Pattison, P E

    1998-09-01

    The study examined the relationship between children's conceptual understanding and addition problem-solving procedures. Forty-eight 6- to 8-year-olds solved addition problems and, in a 2nd task, were prompted to judge whether a puppet could use the arithmetic properties of one problem to solve the next problem. Relational properties between consecutive problems were manipulated to reflect aspects of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles. Conceptual understanding was assessed by the ability to spontaneously use such relational properties in problem solving (Task 1) and to recognize and explain them when prompted (Task 2). Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving unrelated problems. The importance of conceptual understanding for addition development is discussed.

  6. Insightful problem solving and emulation in brown capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Renner, Elizabeth; Abramo, Allison M; Karen Hambright, M; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2017-05-01

    We investigated problem solving abilities of capuchin monkeys via the "floating object problem," a task in which the subject must use creative problem solving to retrieve a favored food item from the bottom of a clear tube. Some great apes have solved this problem by adding water to raise the object to a level at which it can be easily grabbed. We presented seven capuchins with the task over eight trials (four "dry" and four "wet"). None of the subjects solved the task, indicating that no capuchin demonstrated insightful problem solving under these experimental conditions. We then investigated whether capuchins would emulate a solution to the task. Seven subjects observed a human model solve the problem by pouring water from a cup into the tube, which brought the object to the top of the tube, allowing the subject to retrieve it. Subjects were then allowed to interact freely with an unfilled tube containing the object in the presence of water and objects that could be used to solve the task. While most subjects were unable to solve the task after viewing a demonstrator solve it, one subject did so, but in a unique way. Our results are consistent with some previous results in great ape species and indicate that capuchins do not spontaneously solve the floating object problem via insight.

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  8. Strategies in Subtraction Problem Solving in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lepine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and…

  9. Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberényi, József

    2014-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

  10. Using Microcomputers to Solve Probability Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Use of the computer to simulate or imitate probability problems that are difficult to analyze in any other way is discussed. How the Monte Carlo method works is clarified, with sample problems and programs. (MNS)

  11. Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

  12. Graphing as a Problem-Solving Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1984-01-01

    The focus is on how line graphs can be used to approximate solutions to rate problems and to suggest equations that offer exact algebraic solutions to the problem. Four problems requiring progressively greater graphing sophistication are presented plus four exercises. (MNS)

  13. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  14. How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

  15. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

  16. A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…

  17. Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleci, Carolann

    What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

  18. Thinking can cause forgetting: memory dynamics in creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2011-09-01

    Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving.

  19. Social problem solving and depression in couples coping with cancer.

    PubMed

    McClure, Kelly S; Nezu, Arthur M; Nezu, Christine Maguth; O'Hea, Erin L; McMahon, Cori

    2012-01-01

    When one person in a couple has cancer, both members may experience depressive symptoms and may react as an emotional system. However, the variables that influence this depressive system have not been identified. This study examined whether social problem solving, an important moderator of individual cancer-related depression, is related to depression in the couple system. Sixty-three couples with one partner diagnosed with cancer completed self-report questionnaires regarding depressive symptoms, social problem solving, and relationship satisfaction. Multiple regression correlations supported the hypothesis that depression occurs in an emotional system (patient depression predicted partner depression and partner depression predicted patient depression). When examining how partner social problem solving impacts transmission from patient to partner, hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that one social problem-solving component (positive problem orientation) eliminated the prediction of partner depression by patient depression. No other component of partner social problem solving eliminated the prediction of partner depression by patient depression. Partner social problem solving had no effect on whether partner depression predicted patient depression. Partners with more positive beliefs about solving problems were less likely to experience depression together with the patients. Further investigation into the role of social problem solving in the interpersonal depression system is warranted. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Solving multiple scattering problems in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Lenoble, J.

    1974-01-01

    Multiple scattering problems, radiative transfer problems in planetary atmospheres within extended visible portion of the spectrum, are examined. The direct and inverse problems and the extinction coefficient are defined, along with other scattering characteristics. Albedos in semi-infinite and finite atmospheres are considered, as well as surface illumination, energy deposition, and polarization. The Eddington approximation figures prominently in the calculations. Precise numerical methods and analytical solutions are included.