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Sample records for csti high capacity

  1. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  2. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  3. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  4. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements are presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  5. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  6. The NASA CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  7. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI high capacity power Stirling space power converter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  8. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI High Capacity Power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Department Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  9. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

  10. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  11. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  12. High capacity heavy media processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chedgy, D.G.; Yu, S.; Addison, F.; Stanley, F.

    1996-12-31

    Pittston Coal Company recognized the potential economic benefit of improving process efficiency with increased capacity at it`s U.K. No. 1 Coal Preparation Plant. Accordingly, extensive research, both domestically and internationally, was conducted to select the appropriate technologies to achieve the desired circuit in the most cost effective manner while, at the same time, sacrificing neither structural integrity nor process performance. Large diameter heavy media cyclone technology was combined with highly efficient banana type screens and improved high intensity magnetic separators to create a coordinated process circuit that provided high efficiency at very high capacities in an economically attractive package.

  13. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  14. High capacity tieback installation method

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherby, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A method of installing a high capacity tieback is described comprising: connecting a unitary hollow casing to a drill; inserting prestressing steel within the casing; fixing a lost bit to one end of the casing; positioning the drill and casing at the desired location of the tieback; rotating the casing into the ground with the drill and removing soil with a drilling fluid as the casing is advanced into the ground; releasing the bit from the casing and pumping grout down the hollow interior of the casing at a pressure of at least 150 psi forcing water in the grout to bleed from the grout; extracting the casing from the ground by developing a torque of at least 12,000 ft./lbs on the casing with the drill to overcome the frictional engagement between the grout and the casing and by applying a pulling force to the casing generally along the axis of the casing with the drill; and anchoring the prestressing steel.

  15. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  16. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  17. DWT-Based High Capacity Audio Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This letter suggests a novel high capacity robust audio watermarking algorithm by using the high frequency band of the wavelet decomposition, for which the human auditory system (HAS) is not very sensitive to alteration. The main idea is to divide the high frequency band into frames and then, for embedding, the wavelet samples are changed based on the average of the relevant frame. The experimental results show that the method has very high capacity (about 5.5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG in [-1, 0] and SNR about 33dB) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering, echo and MPEG compression (MP3).

  18. High capacity measurement systems for liquid lines

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, R.E. )

    1989-06-01

    High capacity flow control and measurement systems offer advantages over installing individual components, according to the author. In this article, he lists the advantages and types of equipment available. A typical prepackaged, pretested high capacity flow control and measurement system is shown. This system includes positive displacement flowmeters, strainers, flow control valves, block and bleed shut-off valves, bi-directional meter provers and remote instrument console; all pre-assembled on skid frames with electrical conduit, electro-hydraulic power supply, sampler system, pipe, fittings and manifolding., This particular system is designed to measure and control the flow of crude oil loading tankers from a single buoy mooring point.

  19. Advanced high capacity domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Akio; Kohiyama, Kenji; Odate, Hitoshi; Ishida, Noriaki

    This paper describes a concept of multibeam high capacity transmission possible with a 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz domestic satellite communication system. The relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-beam antenna interference, as well as the relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-satellite interference are looked at. The ultra high capacity domestic satellite communication system will have multi-beam antennas with a 76.0 dB at both 20 GHz and 40 GHz. These antennas will provide 4950 beams that approximately correspond to the number of end office of the Japanese telephone network, and have a pointing accuracy of 0.005 degrees. This system will be equipped with 9900 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz transponder channels with bit rates of 800 Mbps. Its capacity will be 119 Tbps through use of 15 large communication satellite platforms.

  20. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  1. High capacity magnetic separator for volatile dust

    SciTech Connect

    Mendrela, E.A.; Mendrela, E.M.; Osadnik, Z.; Staszak, J.

    1983-05-01

    The high percentage of ferromagnetic particles/..gamma.. - Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3// in chimney dust of coal power stations and a significant industrial demand for these materials suggests the possibility of extracting them on a large scale. Currently applied magnetic separators are too small for the requirements. A magnetic separator is presented which assures high capacity of dust flow and good quality of a separated ferromagnetic concentrate. The structure of this new magnetic separator and test results are described.

  2. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell has been designed and tested to deliver high capacity at a C/1.5 discharge rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet made at a discharge rate this high in the 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters, performance, and future test plans are described.

  3. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Hodges, Richard; Orr, Richard S.; Sands, O. Scott; Schuchman, Leonard; Vyas, Hemali

    2007-01-01

    High capacity communications from Martian distances, required for the envisioned human exploration and desirable for data-intensive science missions, is challenging. NASA s Deep Space Network currently requires large antennas to close RF telemetry links operating at kilobit-per-second data rates. To accommodate higher rate communications, NASA is considering means to achieve greater effective aperture at its ground stations. This report, focusing on the return link from Mars to Earth, demonstrates that without excessive research and development expenditure, operational Mars-to-Earth RF communications systems can achieve data rates up to 1 Gbps by 2020 using technology that today is at technology readiness level (TRL) 4-5. Advanced technology to achieve the needed increase in spacecraft power and transmit aperture is feasible at an only moderate increase in spacecraft mass and technology risk. In addition, both power-efficient, near-capacity coding and modulation and greater aperture from the DSN array will be required. In accord with these results and conclusions, investment in the following technologies is recommended:(1) lightweight (1 kg/sq m density) spacecraft antenna systems; (2) a Ka-band receive ground array consisting of relatively small (10-15 m) antennas; (3) coding and modulation technology that reduces spacecraft power by at least 3 dB; and (4) efficient generation of kilowatt-level spacecraft RF power.

  4. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.

  5. High Capacity Battery Cell Flight Qualified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.

    1997-01-01

    The High Capacity Battery Cell project is an effort equally funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Hughes Space and Communications Company (a unit of Hughes Aircraft Company) to develop and flight qualify a higher capacity nickel hydrogen battery for continuing use on commercial spacecraft. The larger diameter, individual pressure vessel cell will provide approximately twice the power, while occupying the same volume, as the current state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen cell. These cells are also anticipated to reduce battery cost by 20 percent. The battery is currently booked for use on 26 spacecraft, with the first flight scheduled in 1997. A strong requirement for batteries with higher power levels (6 to 12 kW), long life, and reduced cost was identified in studies of the needs of commercial communications spacecraft. With the design developed in this effort, the higher power level was accommodated without having to modify the rest of the existing spacecraft bus. This design scaled-up the existing state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen battery cell from a 3.5-in., 50-Ahr cell to a 5.5-in., 350-Ahr cell. An improvement in cycle life was also achieved by the use of the 26-percent KOH electrolyte design developed by NASA Lewis. The cell design was completed, and flight batteries were built and flight qualified by Hughes Space and Communications Company with input from NASA Lewis. Two batteries were shipped in September 1996 to undergo life cycle testing under the purview of NASA Lewis.

  6. High capacity heat pipe performance demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A high capacity heat pipe which will operate in one-g and in zero-g is investigated. An artery configuration which is self-priming in one-g was emphasized. Two artery modifications were evolved as candidates to achieve one-g priming and will provide the very high performance: the four artery and the eight artery configurations. These were each evaluated analytically for performance and priming capability. The eight artery configuration was found to be inadequate from a performance standpoint. The four artery showed promise of working. A five-inch long priming element test article was fabricated using the four artery design. Plexiglas viewing windows were made on each end of the heat pipe to permit viewing of the priming activity. The five-inch primary element would not successfully prime in one-g. Difficulties on priming in one-g raised questions about zero-g priming. Therefore a small test element heat pipe for verifying that the proposed configuration will self-prime in zero-g was fabricated and delivered.

  7. Advanced high capacity domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, A.; Kohiyama, K.; Odate, H.; Ishida, N.

    1981-09-01

    The high capacity transmission of a 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz domestic satellite communication system is presented with an investigation of the relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy, multibeam antenna interference, and multisatellite interference. Antenna pointing is found to affect an antenna's gain and pattern and multibeam interference; thus the antenna beam width is defined to include antenna pointing accuracy. Results include a 6 m antenna gain of 69.5 dB at 20 GHz for 114 beams with a pointing accuracy of 0.05 deg, and a 17.6 m gain of 69.0 dB at 20 GHz for 630 beams with an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The frequency reuse number is given as a function of total beam number and pointing accuracy, and a bandwidth of 7 GHz allocated at 30/20 and 50/40 GHz is made possible by multispot beam antennas and linearly polarized waves.

  8. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  9. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2011-09-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  10. Efficient high-capacity steganography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Alan A.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2013-05-01

    Performance indicators characterizing modern steganographic techniques include capacity (i.e. the quantity of data that can be hidden in the cover medium), stego quality (i.e. artifacts visibility), security (i.e. undetectability), and strength or robustness (intended as the resistance against active attacks aimed to destroy the secret message). Fibonacci based embedding techniques have been researched and proposed in the literature to achieve efficient steganography in terms of capacity with respect to stego quality. In this paper, we investigated an innovative idea that extends Fibonacci-like steganography by bit-plane(s) mapping instead of bit-plane(s) replacement. Our proposed algorithm increases embedding capacity using bit-plane mapping to embed two bits of the secret message in three bits of a pixel of the cover, at the expense of a marginal loss in stego quality. While existing Fibonacci embedding algorithms do not use certain intensities of the cover for embedding due to the limitation imposed by the Zeckendorf theorem, our proposal solve this problem and make all intensity values candidates for embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique double the embedding capacity when compared to existing Fibonacci methods, and it is secure against statistical attacks such as RS, POV, and difference image histogram (DIH).

  11. High Five: Building Capacity for School Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullen, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, five North Carolina school districts combined forces with five corporate foundations to leverage their collective wisdom and develop regional strategies for school improvement. The result was the High Five Regional Partnership for High School Excellence, a corporate-public sector effort that had the common goal of improving graduation…

  12. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everwhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separation components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6-m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m0-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory.

  13. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everywhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6-m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory. 17 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  14. High-capacity pressurized continuous chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Byers, C.H.; Sisson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. The feed material is continuously introduced at a stationary point at the top of the bed, and eluent is allowed to flow everywhere else around the annulus. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effects of annulus width and diameter have been studied using the same device with annulus widths up to 114.3 mm. With this largest width, approximately 96% of the area available within the outer cylinder is devoted to the rotating sorbent bed. Further annulus-width studies have been pursued on units with 89- and 445-mm diameters. These geometric extensions to the basic concept allow extremely large capacity increases with minimal loss in separation and no increase in chromatograph diameter. The effects associated with increased feed concentration have also been studied. In this effort as well as in the annulus-width program, the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution was studied in detail. The nickel and cobalt components are found in the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Nominally 50-..mu..m-diam Dowex 50W-X8 cation exchange resin was used as the bed material. The nickel concentration of the feed was varied tenfold, from 136.1 to approximately 1400 meq/L. The combined effects of the bed loading and annulus width were studied and compared with nonlinear theory. 9 figures, 1 table.

  15. [High intellectual capacity: perfectionism and metacognitive regulation].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2012-02-29

    The aim of this study is a better understanding of the high intellectual abilities. From the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of the life-span development, this is to say, not only the result of their neurobiological bases but of the interrelation among opportunity, personality, psychosocial factors and individual effort. This theoretical study analyses the differences between excellence and perfectionism, their types and incidence on high intellectual ability functioning. We propose a comparative view of the state of the art through recent research and their results referred to different types of perfectionism, their measure and relation with high intellectual abilities, its metacognitive regulation and its goal orientation. Finally, we propose a starting research comparing the relationship between perfectionism as a multidimensional cognitive pattern of functioning (positive or negative) and the measures of metacognitive performance.

  16. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  17. Lasting Leadership: A Study of High Leadership Capacity Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This report is about a study of high leadership capacity schools and those in the process of becoming such a school. Schools were selected for participation in the study based on the leadership capacity characteristics they possessed and evidence of improved and sustained student performance, professional cultures, and shared leadership dynamics.…

  18. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  19. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  20. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  1. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  2. Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

  3. A high-capacity streptavidin-coated microtitration plate.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Lasse; Pettersson, Kim; Vehniäinen, Markus; Karp, Matti; Lövgren, Timo

    2003-01-01

    A majority of current immunoassays rely on capturing a specific analyte on a solid phase to allow the separation of the bound analyte from nonbound components. Streptavidin-coated microtitration plates are widely used for immobilization of capturing antibodies, since they provide a generic surface for immobilization of any biotinylated molecule and preserve biomolecule activity much better than direct passive adsorption. Our trials to further improve the properties of the plates resulted in a development of a modified plate, which has higher binding capacity than currently used control plate. The modified coat was prepared by cross-linking streptavidin chemically prior to adsorption onto the microtitration well surfaces. The binding capacities of the plates were measured with biotinylated, europium-labeled molecules and labeled antigen. The immunoassay performance of the plates was studied with noncompetitive, sandwich-type assays of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The maximum immobilization capacity of the modified plate was up to 2.5 times higher than that of the control plate. The higher binding capacity was especially emphasized with small-size molecules. The modified high capacity plate increased the linear ranges of the immunoassays and thus delayed the high-dose hook effect. At high antigen concentrations the signal increased up to 59%, and at the conventional linear ranges of the assays, the increase was up to 29%. We conclude that the modified coating method will be valuable for the future miniaturized systems, where high immobilization capacity is needed at limited areas. PMID:12526699

  4. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  5. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  6. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  7. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.

    1973-01-01

    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  8. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  9. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 108 tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. PMID:23836636

  10. A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

  11. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.; Cerza, M. R., Jr.; Hall, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High capacity honeycomb panel heat pipes were investigated as heat rejection radiators on future space platforms. Starting with a remnant section of honeycomb panel measuring 3.05-m long by 0.127-m wide that was originally designed and built for high-efficiency radiator fins, features were added to increase thermal transport capacity and thus permit test evaluation as an integral heat transport and rejection radiator. A series of subscale panels were fabricated and reworked to isolate individual enhancement features. Key to the enhancement was the addition of a liquid sideflow that utilizes pressure priming. A prediction model was developed and correlated with measured data, and then used to project performance to large, space-station size radiators. Results show that a honeycomb panel with 5.08-cm sideflow spacing and core modification will meet the design load of a 50 kW space heat rejection system.

  12. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-08-14

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3.

  13. High capacity, easy release adhesives from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael D; Crosby, Alfred J

    2014-06-01

    Reversible adhesives composed of renewable materials are presented which achieve high force capacities (810 N) while maintaining easy release (∼ 0.25 N) and reusability. These simple, non-tacky adhesives consist of natural rubber impregnated into stiff natural fiber fabrics, including cotton, hemp, and jute. This versatile approach enables a clear method for designs of environmentally-responsible, reversible adhesives for a wide variety of applications. PMID:24504650

  14. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  15. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  16. Charged fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20 high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to approximately 8.0 wt %. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing encapsulated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

  17. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  18. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

  19. High thermal-transport capacity heat pipes for space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Albert W.; Gustafson, Eric; Roukis, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests of several dual-slot heat pipe test articles. The dual-slot configuration has a very high thermal transport capability and has been identified as a very promising candidate for the radiator system for the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. Two six-foot long aluminum heat pipes were built and tested with ammonia and acetone. A 20-ft long heat pipe was also built and tested with ammonia. The test results have been compared with performance predictions. A thermal transport capacity of 2000 W at an adverse tilt of 1 in. and a 1000 W capacity at an adverse tilt of 2 in. were achieved on the 20-ft long heat pipe. These values are in close agreement with the predicted performance limits.

  20. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  1. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  2. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  3. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  4. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  5. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  6. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

  7. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of performance enhancing the sandwich panel heat pipe was investigated for moderate temperature range heat rejection radiators on future-high-power spacecraft. The hardware development program consisted of performance prediction modeling, fabrication, ground test, and data correlation. Using available sandwich panel materials, a series of subscale test panels were augumented with high-capacity sideflow and temperature control variable conductance features, and test evaluated for correlation with performance prediction codes. Using the correlated prediction model, a 50-kW full size radiator was defined using methanol working fluid and closely spaced sideflows. A new concept called the hybrid radiator individually optimizes heat pipe components. A 2.44-m long hybrid test vehicle demonstrated proof-of-principle performance.

  8. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  9. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  10. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  11. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  12. High discharge capacity solid composite polymer electrolyte lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Chuang, Y. C.; Su, J. H.; Yu, H. C.; Chen-Yang, Y. W.

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a series of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), PAN/LiClO4/SAP, with high conductivity are prepared based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiClO4 and low content of the silica aerogel powder (SAP) prepared by the sol-gel method with ionic liquid (IL) as the template. The effect of addition of SAP on the properties of the CPEs is investigated by FTIR, AC impedance, linear sweep voltagrams and cyclic voltammetry measurements as well as the charge-discharge performance. It is found that the ionic conductivity of the CPE is significantly improved by addition of SAP. The maximum ambient ionic conductivity of CPEs is about 12.5 times higher than that without addition of SAP. The results of the voltammetry measurements of CPE-3, which contained 3 wt% of SAP, show that the anodic and cathodic peaks are well maintained after 100 cycles, showing excellent electrochemical stability and cyclability over the potential range between 0 V and 4 V vs. Li/Li+. Besides, the room temperature discharge capacity measured at 0.5C for the coin cell based on CPE-3 is 120 mAh g-1 and the capacity is retained after 20 cycles discharge, indicating the potential for practical use. This is perhaps the first report of the room temperature charge-discharge performance on the solid composite polymer electrolyte to the best of our knowledge.

  13. Testing of a high capacity research heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests were performed on a high-capacity channel-wick heat pipe to assess the transport limitations of v-grooves and the effects of boiling. The results showed that transport can vary significantly (less than 50 W) under similar conditions and the continuous boiling was observed at power levels as low as 40 W. In addition, some evidence was found to support the predictions using a groove transport model which shows that transport increases with lower groove densities and longer evaporators. However, due to transport variations, these results were not consistent throughout the program. When a glass fiber wick was installed over the grooves, a relatively low transport level was achieved (80 to 140 W). Based on these results and the identification of some potential causes for them, several design suggestions were recommended for reducing the possibility of boiling and improving groove transport.

  14. Stable high capacity, F-actin affinity column

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, E.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Branton, D.; Taylor, D.L.

    1982-11-10

    A high capacity F-actin affinity matrix is constructed by binding fluorescyl-actin to rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG that is covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. When stabilized with phalloidin, the actin remains associated with the Sepharose beads during repeated washes, activates the ATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1, and specifically binds /sup 125/I-heavy meromyosin and /sup 125/I-tropomyosin. The associations between the F-actin-binding proteins are monitored both by affinity chromatography and by a rapid, low speed sedimentation assay. Anti-fluorescein IgG-Sepharose should be generally useful as a matrix for the immobilization of proteins containing accessible, covalently bound fluorescein groups.

  15. High-capacity Ca2+ Binding of Human Skeletal Calsequestrin*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Danna, Benjamin R.; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca2+ complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca2+ sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl2 buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca2+ sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca2+ sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl2 shows 15 Ca2+ ions, including the six Ca2+ ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca2+ binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca2+-binding activity of calsequestrin. PMID:22337878

  16. NASA CSTI Earth-to-orbit propulsion R/T program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The programmatic objectives are to develop and validate technology, design tools, and methodologies needed for the development of a new generation of lower cost, operationally-efficient, long-life, highly reliable ETO propulsion systems. The technical objectives are: (1) high quality, low cost, inspectable manufacturing; (2) safe shutdown to fault tolerance operations for safety; (3) condition monitoring diagnostics for maintainability; (4) automatic servicing and checkout for ground operations; (5) max commensurate with life for performance; and full flow, combined cycle for advanced cycles.

  17. [High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa

    2013-02-22

    The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied.

  18. [High intellectual capacity, problem-solving and creativity].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia; Pascual-Sufrate, M Teresa

    2013-02-22

    The aim of the study is focused on the characteristics and components of creativity as a multidimensional construct in the context of intelligence, divergent thinking and problem solving, and their incorporation into the definition and explanation of intellectual functioning of giftedness and talent. It shows the progress of the investigation from the initial postulates of Guilford about the nature and cognitive processes involved in the creative act, its features and components, development and differential expression in the high intellectual ability, and the neurological correlates neuropsychological research is beginning to show. We present the results obtained with 41 participants with high intellectual capacity profiles of giftedness or talent of 6 to 14 years. We measure their cognitive skills through BADyG or DAT tests, and creative skills by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in two measuring points. Analyses show comparatively among high ability profiles: 1) the creative measurement stability between the two time points, 2) statistically significant differences between the creative components of fluency, flexibility and originality, related to the profiles of giftedness or talent (convergent or divergent), 3) the statistically significant changes among the scores of the creative components, at all ages studied. PMID:23446726

  19. Trajectory Specification for High-Capacity Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    In the current air traffic management system, the fundamental limitation on airspace capacity is the cognitive ability of human air traffic controllers to maintain safe separation with high reliability. The doubling or tripling of airspace capacity that will be needed over the next couple of decades will require that tactical separation be at least partially automated. Standardized conflict-free four-dimensional trajectory assignment will be needed to accomplish that objective. A trajectory specification format based on the Extensible Markup Language is proposed for that purpose. This format can be used to downlink a trajectory request, which can then be checked on the ground for conflicts and approved or modified, if necessary, then uplinked as the assigned trajectory. The horizontal path is specified as a series of geodetic waypoints connected by great circles, and the great-circle segments are connected by turns of specified radius. Vertical profiles for climb and descent are specified as low-order polynomial functions of along-track position, which is itself specified as a function of time. Flight technical error tolerances in the along-track, cross-track, and vertical axes define a bounding space around the reference trajectory, and conformance will guarantee the required separation for a period of time known as the conflict time horizon. An important safety benefit of this regimen is that the traffic will be able to fly free of conflicts for at least several minutes even if all ground systems and the entire communication infrastructure fail. Periodic updates in the along-track axis will adjust for errors in the predicted along-track winds.

  20. High-Capacity Drug Carriers from Common Polymer Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhun; Munyaradzi, Oliver; Xia, Xin; Green, Da'Sean; Bong, Dennis

    2016-09-12

    We report herein a dual-purpose role for polyacidic domains in an aqueous-phase polymer amphiphile assembly. In addition to their typical role as ionized water-solubilizing and self-repulsive motifs, we find that polycarboxylic acid domains uniquely enable high levels of hydrophobic drug encapsulation. By attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, we find significant differences in the carbonyl stretching region of the nanoparticles formed by polyacidic amphiphiles relative to those in soluble, single-domain poly(acrylic acid), suggesting that stabilization may be derived from limited ionization of the carboxylate groups upon assembly. Acidic-hydrophobic diblock polyacrylates were prepared and coassembled with up to 60 wt % camptothecin (CPT) into nanoparticles, the highest loading reported to date. Controlled release of bioactive CPT from polymer nanoparticles is observed, as well as protection from human serum albumin-induced hydrolysis. Surface protection with PEG limits uptake of the CPT-loaded nanoparticles by MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as expected. Acidic-hydrophobic polymer amphiphiles thus have the hallmarks of a useful and general drug delivery platform and are readily accessible from living radical polymerization of cheap, commercially available monomers. We highlight here the potential utility of this common polymer design in high-capacity, controlled-release polymer nanoparticle systems. PMID:27476544

  1. CSTI Earth-to-orbit propulsion research and technology program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA supports a vigorous Earth-to-orbit (ETO) research and technology program as part of its Civil Space Technology Initiative. The purpose of this program is to provide an up-to-date technology base to support future space transportation needs for a new generation of lower cost, operationally efficient, long-lived and highly reliable ETO propulsion systems by enhancing the knowledge, understanding and design methodology applicable to advanced oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon ETO propulsion systems. Program areas of interest include analytical models, advanced component technology, instrumentation, and validation/verification testing. Organizationally, the program is divided between technology acquisition and technology verification as follows: (1) technology acquisition; and (2) technology verification.

  2. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  3. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Wu, Yan

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  4. Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.

  5. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  6. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  7. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  8. Novel peptide ligand with high binding capacity for antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Lund, Line Naomi; Gustavsson, Per-Erik; Michael, Roice; Lindgren, Johan; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Leif; Lund, Martin; Houen, Gunnar; Staby, Arne; St Hilaire, Phaedria M

    2012-02-17

    Small synthetic ligands for protein purification have become increasingly interesting with the growing need for cheap chromatographic materials for protein purification and especially for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Today, Protein A-based chromatographic resins are the most commonly used capture step in mAb down stream processing; however, the use of Protein A chromatography is less attractive due to toxic ligand leakage as well as high cost. Whether used as an alternative to the Protein A chromatographic media or as a subsequent polishing step, small synthetic peptide ligands have an advantage over biological ligands; they are cheaper to produce, ligand leakage by enzymatic degradation is either eliminated or significantly reduced, and they can in general better withstand cleaning in place (CIP) conditions such as 0.1M NaOH. Here, we present a novel synthetic peptide ligand for purification of human IgG. Immobilized on WorkBeads, an agarose-based base matrix from Bio-Works, the ligand has a dynamic binding capacity of up to 48 mg/mL and purifies IgG from harvest cell culture fluid with purities and recovery of >93%. The binding affinity is ∼10⁵ M⁻¹ and the interaction is favorable and entropy-driven with an enthalpy penalty. Our results show that the binding of the Fc fragment of IgG is mediated by hydrophobic interactions and that elution at low pH is most likely due to electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, we have separated aggregated IgG from non-aggregated IgG, indicating that the ligand could be used both as a primary purification step of IgG as well as a subsequent polishing step.

  9. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  10. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J

    2016-03-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing.

  11. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing. PMID:26809569

  12. High accuracy heat capacity measurements through the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, W. M.; Lipa, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of the heat capacity singularity of helium at the lambda transition was performed with the aim of improving tests of the Renormalization Group (RG) predictions for the static thermodynamic behavior near the singularity. The goal was to approach as closely as possible to the lambda-point while making heat capacity measurements of high accuracy. To do this, a new temperature sensor capable of unprecedented resolution near the lambda-point, and two thermal control systems were used. A short description of the theoretical background and motivation is given. The initial apparatus and results are also described.

  13. High capacity cryogel-type adsorbents for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Dsouza, Roy N; Grasselli, Mariano; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-08-15

    Cryogel bodies were modified to obtain epoxy groups by graft-copolymerization using both chemical and gamma irradiation initiation techniques. The free epoxy adsorbents were reacted further to introduce diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) functionalities. The resulting weak anion-exchange cryogel adsorbents showed dynamic binding capacities of ca. 27±3mg/mL, which was significantly higher than previously reported for this type of adsorbent material. Gamma irradiated grafting initiation showed a 4-fold higher capacity for proteins than chemical grafting initiation procedures. The phosphate capacity for these DEAE cryogels was 119mmol/L and also showed similar column efficiency as compared to commercial adsorbents. The large pores in the cryogel structure ensure convective transport of the molecules to active binding sites located on the polymer-grafted surface of cryogels. However, as cryogels have relatively large pores (10-100μm), the BET area available for surface activation is low, and consequently, the capacity of the cryogels is relatively low for biomolecules, especially when compared to commercial beaded adsorbents. Nevertheless, we have shown that gamma ray mediated surface grafting of cryogel matrices greatly enhance their functional and adsorptive properties.

  14. High capacity cryogel-type adsorbents for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Dsouza, Roy N; Grasselli, Mariano; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-08-15

    Cryogel bodies were modified to obtain epoxy groups by graft-copolymerization using both chemical and gamma irradiation initiation techniques. The free epoxy adsorbents were reacted further to introduce diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) functionalities. The resulting weak anion-exchange cryogel adsorbents showed dynamic binding capacities of ca. 27±3mg/mL, which was significantly higher than previously reported for this type of adsorbent material. Gamma irradiated grafting initiation showed a 4-fold higher capacity for proteins than chemical grafting initiation procedures. The phosphate capacity for these DEAE cryogels was 119mmol/L and also showed similar column efficiency as compared to commercial adsorbents. The large pores in the cryogel structure ensure convective transport of the molecules to active binding sites located on the polymer-grafted surface of cryogels. However, as cryogels have relatively large pores (10-100μm), the BET area available for surface activation is low, and consequently, the capacity of the cryogels is relatively low for biomolecules, especially when compared to commercial beaded adsorbents. Nevertheless, we have shown that gamma ray mediated surface grafting of cryogel matrices greatly enhance their functional and adsorptive properties. PMID:24980092

  15. What Builds Student Capacity in an Alternative High School Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Good mental health is a learning enabler for adolescents, demonstrating a reciprocal relationship between mental health and learning outcomes. This article describes a Canadian participatory action research partnership between students, staff and a nurse researcher working together to explore student capacity-building experiences at an alternative…

  16. Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline-amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li(+) ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity ( approximately 1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with approximately 90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, approximately 20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

  17. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  18. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  19. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  20. Retinal transduction profiles by high-capacity viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Puppo, A; Cesi, G; Marrocco, E; Piccolo, P; Jacca, S; Shayakhmetov, D M; Parks, R J; Davidson, B L; Colloca, S; Brunetti-Pierri, N; Ng, P; Donofrio, G; Auricchio, A

    2014-10-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, the limited cargo capacity of AAV prevents their use for therapy of those inherited retinopathies (IRs) due to mutations in large (>5 kb) genes. Viral vectors derived from adenovirus (Ad), lentivirus (LV) and herpes virus (HV) can package large DNA sequences, but do not target efficiently retinal photoreceptors (PRs) where the majority of genes responsible for IRs are expressed. Here, we have evaluated the mouse retinal transduction profiles of vectors derived from 16 different Ad serotypes, 7 LV pseudotypes and from a bovine HV. Most of the vectors tested transduced efficiently the retinal pigment epithelium. We found that LV-GP64 tends to transduce more PRs than the canonical LV-VSVG, albeit this was restricted to a narrow region. We observed more extensive PR transduction with HdAd1, 2 and 5/F35++ than with LV, although none of them outperformed the canonical HdAd5 or matched the extension of PR transduction achieved with AAV2/8.

  1. Retinal transduction profiles by high-capacity viral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, Agostina; Cesi, Giulia; Marrocco, Elena; Piccolo, Pasquale; Jacca, Sarah; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.; Parks, Robin J.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Colloca, Stefano; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Ng, Philip; Donofrio, Gaetano; Auricchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is safe and effective in humans. However, the limited cargo capacity of AAV prevents their use for therapy of those inherited retinopathies (IRs) due to mutations in large (>5kb) genes. Viral vectors derived from Adenovirus (Ad), Lentivirus (LV) and Herpesvirus (HV) can package large DNA sequences but do not target efficiently retinal photoreceptors (PRs) where the majority of genes responsible for IRs are expressed. Here, we have evaluated the mouse retinal transduction profiles of vectors derived from 16 different Ad serotypes, 7 LV pseudotypes, and from a bovine HV. Most of the vectors tested transduced efficiently the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We found that LV-GP64 tends to transduce more PRs than the canonical LV-VSVG albeit this was restricted to a narrow region. We observed more extensive PR transduction with HdAd1, 2 and 5/F35++ than with LV, although none of them outperformed the canonical HdAd5 or matched the extension of PR transduction achieved with AAV2/8. PMID:24989814

  2. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, N; Cavaille, J P; Graziani, F; Robin, M; Ouari, O; Pietri, S; Stocker, P

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  3. Development of a high capacity longwall conveyor. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C

    1982-05-01

    The objectives of this program were to develop, fabricate, and demonstrate a longwall conveying system capable of transporting coal at a rate of 9000 tons/day (1000 tons/hr) and capable of accommodating a surge rate of 20 tons/min. The equipment was required to have the structural durability to perform with an operating availability of 90%. A review of available literature and discussions with longwall operators identified the problem areas of conveyor design that required attention. The conveyor under this contract was designed and fabricated with special attention given to these areas, and also to be easily maintainable. The design utilized twin 300 hp drives and twin inboard 26-mm chain at 270 ft/min; predictions of capacity and reliability based on the design indicating that it would satisfy the program requirements. Conveyor components were critically tested and the complete conveyor was surface-tested, the results verifying the design specifications. In addition, an instrumentation system was developed with analysis by computer techniques to monitor the performance of the conveyor. The conveyor was installed at a selected mine site, and it was the intention to monitor its performance over the entire longwall panel. Monitoring of the conveyor performance was conducted over approximately one-third of the longwall panel, at which point further effort was suspended. However, during the monitored period, data collected from various sources showed the conveyor to have exhibited its capability of transporting coal at the desired rate, and also to have conformed to the program requirements of reliability and availability.

  4. Aerobic work capacity in high school students in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Shapiro, Y; Mechtiger, A; Kovatz, S; Shapiro, A; Portugeeze, D

    1977-03-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) was predicted in 1,951 high school students aged 14 to 19 years--1,061 girls and 890 boys--from five different types of high school. The schools represented most of the ethnic groups. The mean Vo2max in the boys was 41.3 +/- 9.4 (SD), and in the girls, 34.7 +/- 10.1 ml - kg-1 - min-1; it was highest at the age of 16 in the boys, and at ages 14 and 15 in the girls. Significant ethnic differences in Vo2max were recorded; Vo2max was highest in students of Middle Eastern and North African origin [boys 42.7 +/- 9.3 (SD), girls 35.9 +/- 14.5], and lowest in the subjects of European and North American origin (boys 39.8 +/- 9.2, girls 33.2 +/- 9.3). Israel-born students showed average values (boys 40.7 +/- 9.6, girls 35.2 +/- 10.9). Significant differences in mean Vo2max values were observed in the general and agricultural high schools, and the lowest values in boys were oberved in the heshiva (parochial) high school, and in girls in the state religous high school. The differences in Vo2max in the various subpopulations in Israel can be attributed mainly to different patterns of physical activity and in part to ethnic origin. PMID:856763

  5. Agricultural capacity and conservation in high biodiversity forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gorenflo, L J; Brandon, Katrina

    2005-05-01

    Agricultural development is a leading cause of habitat destruction that increasingly threatens global biodiversity. To help understand the likelihood and implications of agricultural expansion in areas of high conservation importance, this article examines agricultural suitability in forested portions of biodiversity hotspots and tropical wilderness areas, regions with especially rich concentrations of species found nowhere else. The study employs geographic information system technology to examine suitability for six crop categories in selected conservation localities worldwide: those portions of regions containing high biodiversity, protected areas (e.g. national parks) within these regions, and 10-km bands around the protected areas that are dominated by forest. Analyses reveal low suitability for most crop categories under both commercial and subsistence scenarios, with a few exceptions. In most cases, adequate planning can enable the coexistence of agriculture and biodiversity without compromising either.

  6. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  7. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  8. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  9. Completion design for high capacity offshore gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sarawak Shell Berhad currently is developing 2 offshore gas fields to supply ca 1200 MMSCFD to a LNG plant being built at Bintulu, Sarawak. Both E11 and F23 are carbonate build-ups with high productivities, but because of their relative shallow depth, only moderate reservoir pressure. The produced gas is lean with carbon dioxide contents up to 7.3% and hydrogen sulfide contents ca 8 ppm. Because the wells are off shore, there is an increased risk caused by the proximity of other wells and the possibility of platform damage. Also, being off shore means high costs for drilling, compression, and workover. This work discusses the completion design developed to cope with these conditions. Safety considerations, the prevention of corrosion, and tubing stress analysis are discussed. The final design uses 7-in. tubulars, including 13 Cr steel at points where corrosion may be severe and utilizes a fire-resistant christmas tree and wellhead design. A further point of interest is that a study of possible blowout and cratering conditions was made to predict the maximum crater depth. The subsurface safety valve is set below this depth.

  10. A completion design for high-capacity offshore gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.

    1983-04-01

    Sarawak Shell Bhd. (SSB) is currently developing two offshore gas fields to supply about 1,200 MMscf/D (34.3 x 10/sup 6/ std m/sup 3//d) to a liquid natural gas (LNG) plant being built at Bintulu, Sarawak. Both fields are carbonate buildups with very high productivities but, because of their relatively shallow depth, only moderate reservoir pressure. The produced gas is lean, with CO/sub 2/ content of up to 7.3% and H/sub 2/S content of about 8 ppm. Because the wells are offshore, there is increased risk caused by the proximity of other wells and the possibility of platform damage. Being offshore also means high costs for drilling, compression, and workover. This paper discusses the completion design developed to cope with these conditions. Safety considerations, the prevention of corrosion, and tubing stress analysis are discussed. The final design uses 7-in. (17.8-cm) tubulars, including 13% Cr steel at points where corrosion may be severe, and uses a fire-resistant Christmas tree and wellhead design.

  11. Large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, R.W.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.; Suehiro, S.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK8600 2048K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron x-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources.

  12. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zhitao; Yong, Chaw K.; Wu, Guotao; Chen, Ping; Shaw, Wendy J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Jones, Martin O.; Johnson, Simon; Edwards, Peter; David, Bill

    2008-02-21

    A substantial effort worldwide has been given to materials development for onboard hydrogen storage over the past decade.1-6 One interesting family of potential hydrogen storage materials are ammonia borane (AB-NH3BH3) and the related amineboranes. Ammonia borane having a H content of 19.6 mass% encounters relatively high kinetic barrier in dehydrogenation. Recently some work has been reported on approaches to lower the ammonia borane dehydrogenation temperature by introducing nanoscaffold, using Ir-based catalysts or ionic liquids.4-6 Some work has focused on modifying the thermodynamics of ‘stable’ hydrides with additives that stabilize the dehydrogenated products.7 We have been thinking about this from the opposite point of view, i. e., altering the chemical composition of ammonia borane through the addition of amides and hydrides in order to destabilize it.8 The rationale behind this is that the inherent polarity and intermolecular interactions (dihydrogen bonding) of ammonia borane can be altered, and result in different dehydrogenation mechanism. In this paper we report that the interaction between LiH and ammonia borane leads to the replacement of a hydrogen by lithium to yield LiNH2BH3 with substantial resultant changes in dehydrogenation behavior. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

  13. Photonics applications in high-capacity data link terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-12-01

    Radio systems and, in particular, RF data link systems are evolving toward progressively more bandwidth and higher data rates. For many military RF data link applications the data transfer requirements exceed one Gigabit per second. Airborne collectors need to transfer sensor information and other large data files to ground locations and other airborne terminals, including the rel time transfer of files. It is a challenge to the system designer to provide a system design, which meets the RF link budget requirements for a one Gigabit per second data link; and there is a corresponding challenge in the development of the terminal architecture and hardware. The utilization of photonic circuitry and devices as a part of the terminal design offers the designer some alternatives to the conventional RF hardware design within the radio. Areas of consideration for the implementation of photonic technology include Gigabit per second baseband data interfaces with fiber along with the associated clocking rates and extending these Gigabit data rates into the radio for optical processing technology; optical interconnections within the individual circuit boards in the radio; and optical backplanes to allow the transfer of not only the Gigabit per second data rates and high speed clocks but other RF signals within the radio. True time delay using photonics in phased array antennas has been demonstrated and is an alternative to the conventional phase shifter designs used in phased array antennas, and remoting of phased array antennas from the terminal electronics in the Ku and Ka frequency bands using fiber optics as the carrier to minimize the RF losses, negate the use of the conventional waveguides, and allow the terminal equipment to be located with other electronic equipment in the aircraft suitable for controlled environment, ready access, and maintenance. The various photonics design alternatives will be discussed including specific photonic design approaches. Packaging

  14. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  15. Response of standard and high-capacity HEPA filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the response of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients. Most of the tests were directed toward evaluating the structural response of high-capacity filters to explosive transients. Selected tests were performed to evaluate the effects of particulate loading on filtration efficiencies. Also, several of the high-capacity filters were subjected to simulated toronado transients. The results indicate that the upper structural limits of high-capacity filters for explosive loading is 6.89-kPa (1-psi) peak pressure and 100-kPa-ms (14.51-psi-ms) impulse. These limits are below the approximately 13.78-kPa (2-psi) peak pressure loadings found for standard HEPA filters. Tests of high-capacity filters preloaded with aerosol indicated that the structural limits were further degraded by approximately 40%. The filtration efficiencies were degraded to approximately 70% when the filters were subjected to aerosol entrained within the shock pulse. The effect of simulated tornado transients on high-capacity filters resulted in an upper structural limit of 11.02 kPa (1.6 psi) for peak pressure.

  16. POINTS: high astrometric capacity at modest cost via focused design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Babcock, Robert W.; Murison, Marc A.; Noecker, Martin C.; Phillips, James D.; Schumaker, Bonny L.; Ulvestad, James S.; McKinley, William G.; Zielinski, Robert J.; Lillie, Charles F.

    1996-10-01

    is required when out-of-plane observations are made. An instrument for astrometry, unlike those for imaging, can be compact and yet scientifically productive. The POINTS instrument is compact and therefore requires no deployment of precision structures, has no low-frequency (i.e., under 100 Hz) vibration modes, and is relatively easy to control thermally. Because of its small size and mass, it is easily and quickly re-pointed between observations. Further, because of the low mass, it can be economically launched into high Earth orbit which, in conjunction with a solar shield, yields nearly unrestricted sky coverage and a stable thermal environment.

  17. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems. PMID:27530465

  18. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems.

  19. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ridenhour, Suzanne E; Shukla, Shivendra D; Thyfault, John P; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide "metabolic protection" from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  20. High capacity image steganography method based on framelet and compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Moyan; He, Zhibiao

    2015-12-01

    To improve the capacity and imperceptibility of image steganography, a novel high capacity and imperceptibility image steganography method based on a combination of framelet and compressive sensing (CS) is put forward. Firstly, SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) transform to measurement values obtained by compressive sensing technique to the secret data. Then the singular values in turn embed into the low frequency coarse subbands of framelet transform to the blocks of the cover image which is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Finally, use inverse framelet transforms and combine to obtain the stego image. The experimental results show that the proposed steganography method has a good performance in hiding capacity, security and imperceptibility.

  1. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, Georg; George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Sooy, Walter; Sutton, Steven B.

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  2. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  3. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  4. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, J.A.; Rickard, N.D.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. We are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight is expected to be very close to this target weight. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  6. Nano-structured phosphorus composite as high-capacity anode materials for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; He, Xiangming; Li, Jianjun; Sun, Wenting; Gao, Jian; Guo, Jianwei; Jiang, Changyin

    2012-09-01

    More than LiP service: The adsorption of red phosphorus into porous carbon provides a composite anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The amorphous nano phosphorus, in the carbon matrix, shows highly reversible lithium storage with high coulombic efficiencies and stable cycling capacity of 750 mAh per gram composite.

  7. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  8. Silicon nano-trees as high areal capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveau, Lucie; Laïk, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre; Gohier, Aurélien; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin

    2016-06-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have attracted attention as a potential candidate for high capacity anode in lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their high specific capacity and their ability to accommodate silicon volume changes upon cycling. However, the silicon amount deposited on these nanostructured electrodes is generally low and leads to low surface capacities. Here, a new structure is proposed to increase the areal density of silicon on the electrode. A second growth of secondary nanowires on a silicon nanowires electrode leads to a "nano-tree" structure with surface capacities between 1.8 and 7.1 mAh cm-2. These high loaded electrodes maintain very good rate capabilities and a rather stable cycling is observed for the intermediate loadings, with a capacity maintained above 2 mAh cm-2 after 100 cycles at C/5. This paper provides evidence of a successful synthesis of high loaded silicon electrodes for practical applications, of which the electrochemical performances outperform those of graphite commercial anodes.

  9. High Volumetric Capacity Three-Dimensionally Sphere-Caged Secondary Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Chen, Xi; Kim, Jinwoo; Zheng, Qiye; Ning, Hailong; Sun, Pengcheng; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Niu, Junjie; Braun, Paul V

    2016-07-13

    High volumetric energy density secondary batteries are important for many applications, which has led to considerable efforts to replace the low volumetric capacity graphite-based anode common to most Li-ion batteries with a higher energy density anode. Because most high capacity anode materials expand significantly during charging, such anodes must contain sufficient porosity in the discharged state to enable the expansion, yet not excess porosity, which lowers the overall energy density. Here, we present a high volumetric capacity anode consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite formed in only a few steps which includes both a 3D structured Sn scaffold and a hollow Sn sphere within each cavity where all the free Sn surfaces are coated with carbon. The anode exhibits a high volumetric capacity of ∼1700 mA h cm(-3) over 200 cycles at 0.5C, and a capacity greater than 1200 mA h cm(-3) at 10C. Importantly, the anode can even be formed into a commercially relevant ∼100 μm thick form. When assembled into a full cell the anode shows a good compatibility with a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode. In situ TEM observations confirm the electrode design accommodates the necessary volume expansion during lithiation. PMID:27322627

  10. High Volumetric Capacity Three-Dimensionally Sphere-Caged Secondary Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Chen, Xi; Kim, Jinwoo; Zheng, Qiye; Ning, Hailong; Sun, Pengcheng; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Niu, Junjie; Braun, Paul V

    2016-07-13

    High volumetric energy density secondary batteries are important for many applications, which has led to considerable efforts to replace the low volumetric capacity graphite-based anode common to most Li-ion batteries with a higher energy density anode. Because most high capacity anode materials expand significantly during charging, such anodes must contain sufficient porosity in the discharged state to enable the expansion, yet not excess porosity, which lowers the overall energy density. Here, we present a high volumetric capacity anode consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite formed in only a few steps which includes both a 3D structured Sn scaffold and a hollow Sn sphere within each cavity where all the free Sn surfaces are coated with carbon. The anode exhibits a high volumetric capacity of ∼1700 mA h cm(-3) over 200 cycles at 0.5C, and a capacity greater than 1200 mA h cm(-3) at 10C. Importantly, the anode can even be formed into a commercially relevant ∼100 μm thick form. When assembled into a full cell the anode shows a good compatibility with a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode. In situ TEM observations confirm the electrode design accommodates the necessary volume expansion during lithiation.

  11. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  12. Potential impacts of advanced technologies on the ATC capacity of high-density terminal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.; Odoni, A. R.; Salas-Roche, F.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced technologies for airborne systems (automatic flight control, flight displays, navigation) and for ground ATC systems (digital communications, improved surveillance and tracking, automated decision-making) create the possibility of advanced ATC operations and procedures which can bring increased capacity for runway systems. A systematic analysis is carried out to identify certain such advanced ATC operations, and then to evaluate the potential benefits occurring over time at typical US high-density airports (Denver and Boston). The study is divided into three parts: (1) A Critical Examination of Factors Which Determine Operational Capacity of Runway Systems at Major Airports, is an intensive review of current US separation criteria and terminal area ATC operations. It identifies 11 new methods to increase the capacity of landings and takeoffs for runway systems; (2) Development of Risk Based Separation Criteria is the development of a rational structure for establishing reduced ATC separation criteria which meet a consistent Target Level of Safety using advanced technology and operational procedures; and (3) Estimation of Capacity Benefits from Advanced Terminal Area Operations - Denver and Boston, provides an estimate of the overall annual improvement in runway capacity which might be expected at Denver and Boston from using some of the advanced ATC procedures developed in Part 1. Whereas Boston achieved a substantial 37% increase, Denver only achieved a 4.7% increase in its overall annual capacity.

  13. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays.

  14. Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.

  15. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  16. Enhanced Dissociation of Intact Proteins with High Capacity Electron Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Mullen, Christopher; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Sharma, Seema; Senko, Michael W.; Zabrouskov, Vlad; Westphall, Michael S.; Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-03-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a valuable tool for protein sequence analysis, especially for the fragmentation of intact proteins. However, low product ion signal-to-noise often requires some degree of signal averaging to achieve high quality MS/MS spectra of intact proteins. Here we describe a new implementation of ETD on the newest generation of quadrupole-Orbitrap-linear ion trap Tribrid, the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, for improved product ion signal-to-noise via ETD reactions on larger precursor populations. In this new high precursor capacity ETD implementation, precursor cations are accumulated in the center section of the high pressure cell in the dual pressure linear ion trap prior to charge-sign independent trapping, rather than precursor ion sequestration in only the back section as is done for standard ETD. This new scheme increases the charge capacity of the precursor accumulation event, enabling storage of approximately 3-fold more precursor charges. High capacity ETD boosts the number of matching fragments identified in a single MS/MS event, reducing the need for spectral averaging. These improvements in intra-scan dynamic range via reaction of larger precursor populations, which have been previously demonstrated through custom modified hardware, are now available on a commercial platform, offering considerable benefits for intact protein analysis and top down proteomics. In this work, we characterize the advantages of high precursor capacity ETD through studies with myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1107-10 - High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High expansion foam devices; minimum capacity. 75.1107-10 Section 75.1107-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...

  2. Principals Fostering the Instructional Leadership Capacities of Department Chairs: A Strategy for Urban High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klar, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature has highlighted the affordances of distributive forms of instructional leadership as a means to broaden and deepen instructional leadership capacity within schools. Yet, specifically how the capabilities of such key leaders as high school department chairs can be fostered to realize enhanced instructional capacity…

  3. Supporting Leadership Development: An Examination of High School Principals' Efforts to Develop Leaders' Personal Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Klar, Hans W.; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an exploratory, qualitative study in which we used a constructivist lens to examine how two high school principals endeavored to develop the personal capacities of teachers and other leaders in their schools. We collected data from semistructured interviews with the principals and three other leaders from…

  4. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  5. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  6. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks with High Methane Deliverable Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Martin, Richard; Simon, Cory; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend; Deem, Michael; Deem Team; Haranczyk Team; Smit Team

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a rapidly emerging class of nanoporous materials with largely tunable chemistry and diverse applications in gas storage, gas purification, catalysis, etc. Intensive efforts are being made to develop new MOFs with desirable properties both experimentally and computationally in the past decades. To guide experimental synthesis with limited throughput, we develop a computational methodology to explore MOFs with high methane deliverable capacity. This de novo design procedure applies known chemical reactions, considers synthesizability and geometric requirements of organic linkers, and evolves a population of MOFs with desirable property efficiently. We identify about 500 MOFs with higher deliverable capacity than MOF-5 in 10 networks. We also investigate the relationship between deliverable capacity and internal surface area of MOFs. This methodology can be extended to MOFs with multiple types of linkers and multiple SBUs. DE-FG02- 12ER16362.

  7. Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Viviane S; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the carotenoids produced by the extremophile microorganisms Halococcus morrhuae, Halobacterium salinarium and Thermus filiformis were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array detector and a tandem mass spectrometer. The in vitro scavenging capacity of the carotenoid extracts against radical and non-radical species was evaluated. In halophilic microorganisms, the following carotenoids were identified: bacterioruberin, bisanhydrobacterioruberin, trisanhydrobacterioruberin and their derivatives. In the thermophilic bacterium, the carotenoids all-trans-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin monoglucoside, thermozeaxanthins and thermobiszeaxanthins were identified. The antioxidant capacities of the carotenoid extracts of H. morrhuae (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.07 and IC(50) = 0.85 μg mL(-1)) and H. salinarium (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.28 and IC(50) = 0.84 μg mL(-1)) were similar and higher than those of the bacterium T. filiformis (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 2.87 and IC(50) = 2.41 μg mL(-1)). This difference is related to the presence of acyclic carotenoids with both large numbers of conjugated double bounds and of hydroxyl groups in the major carotenoid of the halophilic microorganisms.

  8. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    EARLY VISUAL MEMORY CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more "high-level" alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of three different visual features (color, orientation and motion) across a range of durations from 0 to 6 s. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for color or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ∼2 s. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 s was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory, and an effortful "lower-capacity" visual working memory.

  9. The development of a high-capacity instrument module heat transport system, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data sheets provide temperature requirements for 82 individual instruments that are under development or planned for grouping on a space platform or pallet. The scientific objectives of these instrument packages are related to solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, high energy astrophysics, resources observations, environmental observations, materials processing, and life sciences. System specifications are given for a high capacity instrument module heat transport system to be used with future payloads.

  10. The development of a high-capacity instrument module heat transport system, appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Data sheets provide temperature requirements for 82 individual instruments that are under development or planned for grouping on a space platform or pallet. The scientific objectives of these instrument packages are related to solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, high energy astrophysics, resources observations, environmental observations, materials processing, and life sciences. System specifications are given for a high capacity instrument module heat transport system to be used with future payloads.

  11. High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Kovarik, Libor; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A new SnSb/C nanocomposite based on Na alloying reactions is demonstrated as anode for Na-ion battery applications. The electrode can achieve an exceptionally high capacity (544 mA h g-1, almost double that of intercalation carbon materials), good rate capacity and cyclability (80% capacity retention over 50 cycles) for Na-ion storage.

  12. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. PMID:21038959

  13. Regulatory changes contribute to the adaptive enhancement of thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Zachary A; Bachman, Gwendolyn C; Connaty, Alex D; McClelland, Grant B; Storz, Jay F

    2012-05-29

    In response to hypoxic stress, many animals compensate for a reduced cellular O(2) supply by suppressing total metabolism, thereby reducing O(2) demand. For small endotherms that are native to high-altitude environments, this is not always a viable strategy, as the capacity for sustained aerobic thermogenesis is critical for survival during periods of prolonged cold stress. For example, survivorship studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated that thermogenic capacity is under strong directional selection at high altitude. Here, we integrate measures of whole-organism thermogenic performance with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and genomic transcriptional profiles to examine the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive variation in this complex trait in deer mice that are native to different elevations. We demonstrate that highland deer mice have an enhanced thermogenic capacity under hypoxia compared with lowland conspecifics and a closely related lowland species, Peromyscus leucopus. Our findings suggest that the enhanced thermogenic performance of highland deer mice is largely attributable to an increased capacity to oxidize lipids as a primary metabolic fuel source. This enhanced capacity for aerobic thermogenesis is associated with elevated activities of muscle metabolic enzymes that influence flux through fatty-acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in high-altitude deer mice and by concomitant changes in the expression of genes in these same pathways. Contrary to predictions derived from studies of humans at high altitude, our results suggest that selection to sustain prolonged thermogenesis under hypoxia promotes a shift in metabolic fuel use in favor of lipids over carbohydrates. PMID:22586089

  14. Bismuth sulfide: A high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2016-03-01

    Exploring high-performance anode materials is currently one of the most urgent issues towards practical sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, Bi2S3 is demonstrated to be a high-capacity anode for SIBs for the first time. The specific capacity of Bi2S3 nanorods achieves up to 658 and 264 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively. A full cell with Na3V2(PO4)3-based cathode is also assembled as a proof of concept and delivers 340 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1. The sodium storage mechanism of Bi2S3 is investigated by ex-situ XRD coupled with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and it is found that sodium storage is achieved by a combined conversion-intercalation mechanism.

  15. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure.

  16. Intrinsic aerobic capacity impacts susceptibility to acute high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthew Morris, E.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Lopez, Jordan L.; Kearney, Monica L.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Stephen L.; Scott Rector, R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation. PMID:24961240

  17. Si/TiSi2 Heteronanostructures as high-capacity anode material for li ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sa; Liu, Xiaohua; Wang, Dunwei

    2010-03-10

    We synthesized a unique heteronanostructure consisting of two-dimensional TiSi(2) nanonets and particulate Si coating. The high conductivity and the structural integrity of the TiSi(2) nanonet core were proven as great merits to permit reproducible Li(+) insertion and extraction into and from the Si coating. This heteronanostructure was tested as the anode material for Li(+) storage. At a charge/discharge rate of 8400 mA/g, we measured specific capacities >1000 mAh/g. Only an average of 0.1% capacity fade per cycle was observed between the 20th and the 100th cycles. The combined high capacity, long capacity life, and fast charge/discharge rate represent one of the best anode materials that have been reported. The remarkable performance was enabled by the capability to preserve the crystalline TiSi2 core during the charge/discharge process. This achievement demonstrates the potency of this novel heteronanostructure design as an electrode material for energy storage.

  18. High-Capacity and Rapid Removal of Refractory NOM Using Nanoscale Anion Exchange Resin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Billy R; Eldred, Tim B; Nguyen, Andy T; Payne, William M; Schmidt, Emily E; Alansari, Amir Y; Amburgey, James E; Poler, Jordan C

    2016-07-20

    As human health concerns over disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water increase, so does the need to develop new materials that remove them rapidly and at high capacity. Ion exchange (IEX) is an effective method for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), especially anion exchange resins (AERs) with quaternary ammonium functional groups. However, capacity is limited in existing commercial resin materials because adsorbates can only interact with the outermost surface area, which makes these products inefficient on a mass basis. We have synthesized a novel "NanoResin" exploiting the enhanced NOM removal of the quaternary ammonium resin while utilizing the vast surface area of SWCNTs, which act as scaffolding for the resin. Our nanomaterials show increased adsorption capacity compared to commercially available adsorbents, in a fraction of the time. This NanoResin requires only about 10 s to reach ion-exchange equilibrium. Comparatively, commercial AERs only achieved partial removal after more than 30 min. High capacity adsorption of a low molecular weight (MW) surrogate has been measured. NOM removal was demonstrated in solutions of both low and high specific UV absorbance (SUVA) composition with these nanomaterials. Additionally, the NanoResin showed enhanced removal of a NOM concentrate sample taken from Myrtle Beach, SC, demonstrating NanoResin is an effective method of removal for refractory NOM in a natural aqueous environment. Synthesis and characterization of the polymers and nanomaterials are presented below. Adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and the regeneration and reusability of these new materials for NOM removal are described. The open matrix microstructure precludes any intraparticle diffusion of adsorbates; thus, these nanomaterials act as a "contact resin". PMID:27348616

  19. Inadequate food intake at high temperatures is related to depressed mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Anderson, Graeme J; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-05-01

    Animals, especially ectotherms, are highly sensitive to the temperature of their surrounding environment. Extremely high temperature, for example, induces a decline of average performance of conspecifics within a population, but individual heterogeneity in the ability to cope with elevating temperatures has rarely been studied. Here, we examined inter-individual variation in feeding ability and consequent growth rate of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta acclimated to a high temperature (19°C), and investigated the relationship between these metrics of whole-animal performances and among-individual variation in mitochondrial respiration capacity. Food was provided ad libitum, yet intake varied ten-fold amongst individuals, resulting in some fish losing weight whilst others continued to grow. Almost half of the variation in food intake was related to variability in mitochondrial capacity: low intake (and hence growth failure) was associated with high leak respiration rates within liver and muscle mitochondria, and a lower coupling of muscle mitochondria. These observations, combined with the inability of fish with low food consumption to increase their intake despite ad libitum food levels, suggest a possible insufficient capacity of the mitochondria for maintaining ATP homeostasis. Individual variation in thermal performance is likely to confer variation in the upper limit of an organism's thermal niche and might affect the structure of wild populations in warming environments. PMID:26944497

  20. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  1. Radiator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiator technology is discussed in the context of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative's (CSTI's) high capacity power-thermal management project. The CSTI project is a subset of a project to develop a piloted Mars nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: advanced radiator concepts; heat pipe codes and testing; composite materials; radiator design and integration; and surface morphology.

  2. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  3. Estimation of parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on systems containing high capacities.

    PubMed

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  4. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose hydrogel as a high-capacity and reusable heavy metal ion adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriyuki; Chen, Xiaoxia; Kim, Ung-Jin; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-09-15

    Nitroxy radical catalyzed oxidation with hypochlorite/bromide (TEMPO-mediated oxidation) was performed on a cellulose hydrogel prepared using LiOH/urea solvent. TEMPO oxidation successfully introduced carboxyl groups onto the surface of the cellulose hydrogel with retention of the gel structure and its nanoporous property. The equilibrium measurement of Cu(2+) adsorption showed favorable interaction with Cu(2+) and high maximum adsorption capacity. In addition, over 98% of the adsorbed Cu(2+) was recovered using acid treatment, and the subsequent washing allowed the TEMPO-oxidized gels to be used repeatedly. Furthermore, the TEMPO-oxidized cellulose hydrogel showed high adsorption capacity for other toxic metal ions such as Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Cd(2+), and Cs(+).

  5. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  6. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  7. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm2, which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes.

  8. High-Capacity Three-Party Quantum Secret Sharing With Hyperentanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bin; Xu, Fei; Ding, Liuguan; Zhang, Yanan

    2012-11-01

    We presents a novel scheme for high-capacity three-party quantum secret sharing (QSS) with the hyperentanglement in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photon pairs. The boss Alice need only prepare a sequence of photon pairs and some decoy photons. Her two agents measure their photons received from the boss Alice with two bases by choosing two unsymmetrical probabilities. The present QSS scheme has a high capacity as each pair can carry 2 bits of information, several times as other QSS schemes. Moreover, our setups with linear optical elements show that our QSS scheme does not increase the difficulty of its implementation in experiment and it is feasible with current techniques.

  9. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-08-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  10. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  11. High mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic capacity represent a metabolic phenotype of human tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Malinarich, Frano; Duan, Kaibo; Hamid, Raudhah Abdull; Bijin, Au; Lin, Wu Xue; Poidinger, Michael; Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Connolly, John E

    2015-06-01

    Human dendritic cells (DCs) regulate the balance between immunity and tolerance through selective activation by environmental and pathogen-derived triggers. To characterize the rapid changes that occur during this process, we analyzed the underlying metabolic activity across a spectrum of functional DC activation states, from immunogenic to tolerogenic. We found that in contrast to the pronounced proinflammatory program of mature DCs, tolerogenic DCs displayed a markedly augmented catabolic pathway, related to oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, and glycolysis. Functionally, tolerogenic DCs demonstrated the highest mitochondrial oxidative activity, production of reactive oxygen species, superoxide, and increased spare respiratory capacity. Furthermore, assembled, electron transport chain complexes were significantly more abundant in tolerogenic DCs. At the level of glycolysis, tolerogenic and mature DCs showed similar glycolytic rates, but glycolytic capacity and reserve were more pronounced in tolerogenic DCs. The enhanced glycolytic reserve and respiratory capacity observed in these DCs were reflected in a higher metabolic plasticity to maintain intracellular ATP content. Interestingly, tolerogenic and mature DCs manifested substantially different expression of proteins involved in the fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway, and FAO activity was significantly higher in tolerogenic DCs. Inhibition of FAO prevented the function of tolerogenic DCs and partially restored T cell stimulatory capacity, demonstrating their dependence on this pathway. Overall, tolerogenic DCs show metabolic signatures of increased oxidative phosphorylation programing, a shift in redox state, and high plasticity for metabolic adaptation. These observations point to a mechanism for rapid genome-wide reprograming by modulation of underlying cellular metabolism during DC differentiation.

  12. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2016-04-01

    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  13. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S.; Elliman, R. G.; Volinsky, A. A.

    2012-02-20

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  14. Joint synchronization and high capacity data hiding for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itier, Vincent; Puech, William; Gesquière, Gilles; Pedeboy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) meshes are already profusely used in lot of domains. In this paper, we propose a new high capacity data hiding scheme for vertex cloud. Our approach is based on very small displacements of vertices, that produce very low distortion of the mesh. Moreover this method can embed three bits per vertex relying only on the geometry of the mesh. As an application, we show how we embed a large binary logo for copyright purpose.

  15. A new benzimidazole based covalent organic polymer having high energy storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Bidhan C; Khilari, Santimoy; Satyanarayana, Lanka; Pradhan, Debabrata; Bhaumik, Asim

    2016-06-18

    We report the synthesis of a new benzimidazole-based covalent organic polymer (TpDAB) via solvothermal Schiff base condensation between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). TpDAB showed high energy storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 335 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1) scan rate and good cyclic stability with 93% retention of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. PMID:27222226

  16. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Giraldo, Juan C; Henao-Zuluaga, Kelly; Gallardo, Cecilia; Atehortúa, Lucia; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA-UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB-UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc ) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73 ± 0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. PMID:26481216

  17. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  18. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  19. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  20. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace.

  1. Nanostructured hybrid silicon/carbon nanotube heterostructures: reversible high-capacity lithium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kumta, Prashant N

    2010-04-27

    Lithium-ion batteries have witnessed meteoric advancement the last two decades. The anode area has seen unprecedented research activity on Si and Sn, the two anode alternatives to currently used carbon following the initial seminal work by Fuji on tin oxide nanocomposites. Recent reports on silicon nanowires, porous Si, and amorphous Si coatings on graphite nanofibers (GNF) have been very encouraging. High capacity and long cycle life anodes are still, however, elusive and much needed to meet the ever increasing energy storage demands of modern society. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of novel 1D heterostructures comprising vertically aligned multiwall CNTs (VACNTs) containing nanoscale amorphous/nanocrystalline Si droplets deposited directly on VACNTs with clearly defined spacing using a simple two-step liquid injection CVD process. A hallmark of these single reactor derived heterostructures is an interfacial amorphous carbon layer anchoring the nanoscale Si clusters directly to the VACNTs. The defined spacing of nanoscale Si combined with their tethered CNT architecture allow for the silicon to undergo reversible electrochemical alloying and dealloying with Li with minimal loss of contact with the underlying CNTs. The novel heterostructures thus exhibit impressive reversible stable capacities approximately 2050 mAh/g with very good rate capability and an acceptable first cycle irreversible loss approximately 20% comparable to graphitic anodes indicating their promise as high capacity Li-ion anodes. Although warranting further research, particularly with regard to long-term cycling, it can be envisaged that optimization of this simple approach could lead to reversible high capacity next generation Li-ion anodes.

  2. Rapid, in Situ Synthesis of High Capacity Battery Anodes through High Temperature Radiation-Based Thermal Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yanbin; Fu, Kun; Danner, Valencia A; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Yao, Yonggang; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-14

    High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating. The as-prepared composites of ultrafine Si nanoparticles embedded in a RGO matrix show great performance as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode. The in situ nanoparticle synthesis method can also be adopted for other high capacity battery anode materials including tin (Sn) and aluminum (Al). This method for synthesizing high capacity anodes in a RGO matrix can be envisioned for roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing due to the ease and scalability of this high-temperature radiative heating process.

  3. Specificity of test duration when assessing the anaerobic lactacid capacity of high-performance track cyclists.

    PubMed

    Craig, N P; Pyke, F S; Norton, K I

    1989-08-01

    The specificity of three maximal cycling sprint tests as a measure of anaerobic lactacid capacity was determined in nine highly trained male cyclists when they performed 10-, 30-, 40-, and 60-s tests on a modified Repco wind-braked cycle ergometer. Peak power (PP), percent power loss (% PO), total work done (TW), and peak blood lactate (PHLa) were determined for each test. The cyclists also performed a 1000-m time trial under competition conditions during which 200-m split times, total time (TT), and peak post-competition blood lactate (TTPHLa) were recorded. While there was no statistically significant difference between the peak blood lactate of the 30-, 40-, and 60-s tests, peak blood lactate achieved after the 1000-m time trial was significantly greater than those after the cycle ergometer tests. Although there were high intercorrelations (0.88-0.99) between the anaerobic power and capacity indices of the laboratory tests, only the PP and TW achieved during the 60-s test correlated significantly (P less than 0.05) with TT. The data suggest that when assessing the anaerobic power and capacity of elite 1000-m time trial cyclists, a cycle ergometer test duration of at least 60 s should be employed.

  4. High capacity embedding with indexed data recovery using adjunctive numerical relations in multimedia signal covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a technique for covertly embedding data throughout an audio file using redundant number system decomposition across non-standard digital bit-lines. This bit-line implementation integrates an index recoverable embedded algorithm with an extended bit level representation that achieves a high capacity data channel within an audio multimedia file. It will be shown this new steganography method has minimal aural distortive affects while preserving both first and second order cover statistics, making it less susceptible to most steganalysis attacks. Our research approach involves reviewing the common numerical methods used in common binary-based algorithms. We then describe basic concepts and challenges when attempting to implement complex embedding algorithms that are based on redundant number systems. Finally, we introduce a novel class of numerical based multiple bit-line decomposition systems, which we define as Adjunctive Numerical Representations. The system is primarily described using basic PCM techniques in uncompressed audio files however extended applications for alternate multimedia is addressed. This new embedding system will not only provide the statistical stability required for effective steganography but will also give us an improvement in the embedding capacity in this class of multimedia carrier files. This novelty of our approach is demonstrated by an ability to embed high capacity covert data while simultaneously providing a means for rapid, indexed data recovery.

  5. Optimising molecular diagnostic capacity for effective control of tuberculosis in high-burden settings.

    PubMed

    Sabiiti, W; Mtafya, B; Kuchaka, D; Azam, K; Viegas, S; Mdolo, A; Farmer, E C W; Khonga, M; Evangelopoulos, D; Honeyborne, I; Rachow, A; Heinrich, N; Ntinginya, N E; Bhatt, N; Davies, G R; Jani, I V; McHugh, T D; Kibiki, G; Hoelscher, M; Gillespie, S H

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's 2035 vision is to reduce tuberculosis (TB) associated mortality by 95%. While low-burden, well-equipped industrialised economies can expect to see this goal achieved, it is challenging in the low- and middle-income countries that bear the highest burden of TB. Inadequate diagnosis leads to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. The roll-out of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated that molecular diagnostics can produce rapid diagnosis and treatment initiation. Strong molecular services are still limited to regional or national centres. The delay in implementation is due partly to resources, and partly to the suggestion that such techniques are too challenging for widespread implementation. We have successfully implemented a molecular tool for rapid monitoring of patient treatment response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in three high TB burden countries in Africa. We discuss here the challenges facing TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and draw from our experience in establishing molecular treatment monitoring platforms to provide practical insights into successful optimisation of molecular diagnostic capacity in resource-constrained, high TB burden settings. We recommend a holistic health system-wide approach for molecular diagnostic capacity development, addressing human resource training, institutional capacity development, streamlined procurement systems, and engagement with the public, policy makers and implementers of TB control programmes. PMID:27393531

  6. Universal roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: high rate capacity and atomistic origins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jianchao; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue; Shin, Swanee J.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R.I.; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Y. Morris

    2015-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes in graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. These findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes. PMID:26536830

  7. Paradoxical roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: High rate capacity and atomistic origins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Jianchao C.; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue Y.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; et al

    2015-11-05

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes inmore » graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. Furthermore, these findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes.« less

  8. Paradoxical roles of hydrogen in electrochemical performance of graphene: High rate capacity and atomistic origins

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Jianchao C.; Ong, Mitchell T.; Heo, Tae Wook; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Liu, Yuanyue Y.; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Y. Morris; Shin, Swanee J.

    2015-11-05

    Atomic hydrogen exists ubiquitously in graphene materials made by chemical methods. Yet determining the effect of hydrogen on the electrochemical performance of graphene remains a significant challenge. Here we report the experimental observations of high rate capacity in hydrogen-treated 3-dimensional (3D) graphene nanofoam electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Structural and electronic characterization suggests that defect sites and hydrogen play synergistic roles in disrupting sp2 graphene to facilitate fast lithium transport and reversible surface binding, as evidenced by the fast charge-transfer kinetics and increased capacitive contribution in hydrogen-treated 3D graphene. In concert with experiments, multiscale calculations reveal that defect complexes in graphene are prerequisite for low-temperature hydrogenation, and that the hydrogenation of defective or functionalized sites at strained domain boundaries plays a beneficial role in improving rate capacity by opening gaps to facilitate easier Li penetration. Additional reversible capacity is provided by enhanced lithium binding near hydrogen-terminated edge sites. Furthermore, these findings provide qualitative insights in helping the design of graphene-based materials for high-power electrodes.

  9. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  10. A new method for high-capacity information hiding in video robust against temporal desynchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitekin, Vitaly; Fedoseev, Victor A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity information hiding in digital video and algorithms of embedding and extraction of hidden information based on this method. These algorithms do not require temporal synchronization to provide robustness against both malicious and non-malicious frame dropping (temporal desynchronization). At the same time, due to randomized distribution of hidden information bits across the video frames, the proposed method allows to increase the hiding capacity proportionally to the number of frames used for information embedding. The proposed method is also robust against "watermark estimation" attack aimed at estimation of hidden information without knowing the embedding key or non-watermarked video. Presented experimental results demonstrate declared features of this method.

  11. Robust High-Capacity Audio Watermarking Based on FFT Amplitude Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This paper proposes a novel robust audio watermarking algorithm to embed data and extract it in a bit-exact manner based on changing the magnitudes of the FFT spectrum. The key point is selecting a frequency band for embedding based on the comparison between the original and the MP3 compressed/decompressed signal and on a suitable scaling factor. The experimental results show that the method has a very high capacity (about 5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG about -0.25) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering and MPEG compression (MP3). Furthermore, the proposed method has a larger capacity (number of embedded bits to number of host bits rate) than recent image data hiding methods.

  12. High-temperature heat capacity of Co3O4 spinel: thermally induced spin unpairing transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mocala, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Sherman, David M.

    1992-01-01

    A strong anomaly was found in the heat capacity of Co3O4 between 1000 K and the decomposition temperature. This anomaly is not related to the decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO. The measured entropy of transition, ??S=46??4 J mol-1 K-1 of Co3O4, supports the interpretation that this anomaly reflects a spin unpairing transition in octahedrally coordinated Co3+ cations. Experimental values of heat capacity, heat content and entropy of Co3O4 in the high temperature region are provided. The enthalpy of the spin unpairing transition is 53??4 kJ mol-1 of Co3O4. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  13. A high capacity multiple watermarking scheme based on Fourier descriptor and Sudoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Huimin

    2015-12-01

    Digital watermark is a type of technology to hide some significant information which is mainly used to protect digital data. A high capacity multiple watermarking method is proposed, which adapts the Fourier descriptor to pre-process the watermarks, while a Sudoku puzzle is used as a reference matrix in embedding process and a key in extraction process. It can dramatically reduce the required capacity by applying Fourier descriptor. Meanwhile, the security of watermarks can be guaranteed due to the Sudoku puzzle. Unlike previous algorithms applying Sudoku puzzle in spatial domain, the proposed algorithm works in transformed domain by applying LWT2.In addition, the proposed algorithm can detect the temper location accurately. The experimental results demonstrated that the goals mentioned above have been achieved.

  14. Geometrically invariant and high capacity image watermarking scheme using accurate radial transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandan; Ranade, Sukhjeet K.

    2013-12-01

    Angular radial transform (ART) is a region based descriptor and possesses many attractive features such as rotation invariance, low computational complexity and resilience to noise which make them more suitable for invariant image watermarking than that of many transform domain based image watermarking techniques. In this paper, we introduce ART for fast and geometrically invariant image watermarking scheme with high embedding capacity. We also develop an accurate and fast framework for the computation of ART coefficients based on Gaussian quadrature numerical integration, 8-way symmetry/anti-symmetry properties and recursive relations for the calculation of sinusoidal kernel functions. ART coefficients so computed are then used for embedding the binary watermark using dither modulation. Experimental studies reveal that the proposed watermarking scheme not only provides better robustness against geometric transformations and other signal processing distortions, but also has superior advantages over the existing ones in terms of embedding capacity, speed and visual imperceptibility.

  15. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ~1,100 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and ~420 mAh g-1 at 30 A g-1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage.

  16. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g(-1) at 30 mA g(-1) and ∼420 mAh g(-1) at 30 A g(-1), which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  17. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and ∼420 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  18. High intrinsic aerobic capacity and pomegranate juice are protective against macrophage atherogenecity: studies in high- vs. low-capacity runner (HCR vs. LCR) rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Volkova, Nina; Abassi, Zaid; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Aviram, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We studied the rat model system of high- vs. low-capacity runner (HCR vs. LCR) rats to question the atherogenic properties (oxidative stress, triglycerides and cholesterol metabolism) in the rat macrophages, serum, liver and heart. Half of the LCR or HCR rats consumed pomegranate juice (PJ; 15 μmol of gallic acid equivalents/rat/day) for 3 weeks and were compared to placebo-treated rats. At the end of the study blood samples, peritoneal macrophages (RPM), livers, and hearts were harvested from the rats. RPM harvested from HCR vs. LCR demonstrated reduced cellular oxidation (21%), increased paraoxonase 2 activity (28%) and decreased triglycerides mass (44%). Macrophage uptake rates of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxidized LDL were significantly lower, by 37% or by 18%, respectively, in HCR vs. LCR RPM. PJ consumption significantly decreased all the above atherogenic parameters with more substantial beneficial effects observed in the LCR vs. the HCR rats (~80% vs. ~40% improvement, respectively). Similar hypo-triglyceridemic pattern was noted in serum from HCR vs. LCR. In contrast to the above results, liver oxidation and triglycerides mass were both minimally increased in HCR vs. LCR rats by 31% and 28%, respectively. In the heart, lipid content was very low, and interestingly, an absence of any significant oxidative stress, along with modest triglyceride accumulation, was observed. We conclude that HCR vs. LCR rats demonstrate reduced atherogenicity, mostly in their macrophages. PJ exerts a further improvement, mostly in macrophages from LCR rats.

  19. A nanonet-enabled Li ion battery cathode material with high power rate, high capacity, and long cycle lifetime.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sa; Yang, Xiaogang; Lin, Yongjing; Xie, Jin; Wang, Dunwei

    2012-01-24

    The performance of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, including solar cells and batteries, is intimately connected to the electrode designs at the nanoscale. Consider a rechargeable Li ion battery, a prevalent energy storage technology, as an example. Among other factors, the electrode material design at the nanoscale is key to realizing the goal of measuring fast ionic diffusion and high electronic conductivity, the inherent properties that determine power rates, and good stability upon repeated charge and discharge, which is critical to the sustainable high capacities. Here we show that such a goal can be achieved by forming heteronanostructures on a radically new platform we discovered, TiSi(2) nanonets. In addition to the benefits of high surface area, good electrical conductivity, and superb mechanical strength offered by the nanonet, the design also takes advantage of how TiSi(2) reacts with O(2) upon heating. The resulting TiSi(2)/V(2)O(5) nanostructures exhibit a specific capacity of 350 Ah/kg, a power rate up to 14.5 kW/kg, and 78.7% capacity retention after 9800 cycles of charge and discharge. These figures indicate that a cathode material significantly better than V(2)O(5) of other morphologies is produced.

  20. Peak capacity, peak-capacity production rate, and boiling point resolution for temperature-programmed GC with very high programming rates

    PubMed

    Grall; Leonard; Sacks

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in column heating technology have made possible very fast linear temperature programming for high-speed gas chromatography. A fused-silica capillary column is contained in a tubular metal jacket, which is resistively heated by a precision power supply. With very rapid column heating, the rate of peak-capacity production is significantly enhanced, but the total peak capacity and the boiling-point resolution (minimum boiling-point difference required for the separation of two nonpolar compounds on a nonpolar column) are reduced relative to more conventional heating rates used with convection-oven instruments. As temperature-programming rates increase, elution temperatures also increase with the result that retention may become insignificant prior to elution. This results in inefficient utilization of the down-stream end of the column and causes a loss in the rate of peak-capacity production. The rate of peak-capacity production is increased by the use of shorter columns and higher carrier gas velocities. With high programming rates (100-600 degrees C/min), column lengths of 6-12 m and average linear carrier gas velocities in the 100-150 cm/s range are satisfactory. In this study, the rate of peak-capacity production, the total peak capacity, and the boiling point resolution are determined for C10-C28 n-alkanes using 6-18 m long columns, 50-200 cm/s average carrier gas velocities, and 60-600 degrees C/min programming rates. It was found that with a 6-meter-long, 0.25-mm i.d. column programmed at a rate of 600 degrees C/min, a maximum peak-capacity production rate of 6.1 peaks/s was obtained. A total peak capacity of about 75 peaks was produced in a 37-s long separation spanning a boiling-point range from n-C10 (174 degrees C) to n-C28 (432 degrees C).

  1. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  2. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, J.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  3. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity. PMID:27442620

  4. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:26609636

  5. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  6. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications. PMID:26316179

  7. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications.

  8. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides. PMID:22873406

  9. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  10. Durability testing of the high-capacity GA-4/GA-9 trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, A.

    1993-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) is under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Field Office, to develop two legal-weight truck from-reactor spent-fuel shipping casks with trailers. GA is developing these high capacity transport systems to support the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management`s (OCRWM) mission to transport spent fuel from reactors to a permanent disposal site. GA`s goal is to maximize the number of fuel assemblies that the transport system can safely carry. The GA-4 Cask is being designed to transport four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent-fuel assemblies, and the GA-9 Cask is being designed to transport nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies. The use of these high-capacity transport systems will have a large benefit to-public safety since the number of legal-weight truck shipments will be reduced by at least a factor of four over existing spent-fuel shipping cask systems. Achieving these capacities requires that the weight of each component of the transport system. i.e., cask, trailer and tractor, be minimized. The weight of the trailer is of particular importance. With a high load-to-weight ratio, the durability and reliability of the trailer become significant factors in the success of the transport system. In order to verify that the trailer design will meet the durability and performance requirements to safely transport spent-fuel, GA has planned an extensive testing program. The testing program includes non-destructive examination (NDE) of the trailer welds, operational testing, a static load test, an over-the-road performance test, and a test to verify the durability of the trailer up to its 1,000,000-mile design life. Since a prototype cask will not be available for the testing, GA designed and built a dummy payload that simulates the correct weight distribution and approximates the dynamic response of the prototype cask.

  11. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity. PMID:26866666

  12. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity.

  13. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with enhanced stability and high H2/CO2 storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-11-22

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation.

  14. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  15. Very high-resolution heat-capacity measurements near the lambda point of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Chui, T. C. P.

    1983-01-01

    New measurements of the heat capacity of a sample of helium 3-mm high are reported, which extend to within 5 x 10 to the -8th deg of the lambda transition at the vapor pressure. From an analysis of the results allowing for the effect of gravity, the values -0.0127 + or - 0.0026 (2 sigma) for the exponent alpha (= alpha-prime) and 1,058 + or - 0.004 for the leading singularity ratio A/A-prime are obtained. These values are in closer agreement with the theoretical predictions than those reported previously.

  16. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Ren, Ling; He, Yao; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2010-10-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H2. It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  17. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  18. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  19. High-temperature heat capacity of orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Belousova, N. V.; Denisov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Orthovanadates Ce1- x Bi x VO4 (1 ≥ x ≥ 0) have been produced by solid-phase synthesis from initial oxides CeO2, Bi2O3, and V2O5 upon step-by-step burning. The high-temperature heat capacity of Ce1- x Bi x VO4 has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental data on C p = f(T) were used to calculate the thermodynamic properties (the enthalpy changes, the entropy changes, and the Gibbs energy).

  20. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  1. Preparation and characterization of high capacity, strong cation-exchange fiber based adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Schwellenbach, Jan; Taft, Florian; Villain, Louis; Strube, Jochen

    2016-05-20

    Motivated by the demand for more economical capture and polishing steps in downstream processing of protein therapeutics, a novel strong cation-exchange chromatography stationary phase based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) high surface area short-cut fibers is presented. The fiber surface is modified by grafting glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and a subsequent derivatization leading to sulfonic acid groups. The obtained cation-exchange fibers have been characterized and compared to commercially available resin and membrane based adsorbers. High volumetric static binding capacities for lysozyme (90mg/mL) and polyclonal human IgG (hIgG, 92mg/mL) were found, suggesting an efficient multi-layer binding within the grafted hydrogel layer. A packed bed of randomly orientated fibers has been tested for packing efficiency, permeability and chromatographic performance. High dynamic binding capacities for lysozyme (50mg/mL) and hIgG (54mg/mL) were found nearly independent of the bed-residence time, revealing a fast mass-transport mechanism. Height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) values in the order of 0.1 cm and a peak asymmetry factor (AF) of 1.8 have been determined by tracer experiments. Additionally inverse size-exclusion chromatography (iSEC) revealed a bimodal structure within the fiber bed, consisting of larger transport channels, formed by the voidage between the fibers, and a hydrogel layer with porous properties. PMID:27106396

  2. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  3. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle. PMID:26035740

  4. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle.

  5. Endurance capacity and high-intensity exercise performance responses to a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jesse; Sharman, Matthew J; Avery, Neva G; Love, Dawn M; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-12-01

    The effects of adaptation to a high-fat diet on endurance performance are equivocal, and there is little data regarding the effects on high-intensity exercise performance. This study examined the effects of a high-fat/moderate protein diet on submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal performance. Twenty non-highly trained men were assigned to either a high-fat/moderate protein (HFMP; 61% fat diet) (n = 12) or a control (C; 25% fat) group (n = 8). A maximal oxygen consumption test, two 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests, and a 45-min timed ride were performed before and after 6 weeks of diet and training. Body mass decreased significantly (-2.2 kg; p < or = .05) in HFMP subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption significantly decreased in the HFMP group (3.5 +/- 0.14 to 3.27 +/- 0.09 L x min(-1)) but was unaffected when corrected for body mass. Perceived exertion was significantly higher during this test in the HFMP group. Main time effects indicated that peak and mean power decreased significantly during bout 1 of the Wingate sprints in the HFMP (-10 and -20%, respectively) group but not the C (-8 and -16%, respectively) group. Only peak power was lower during bout 1 in the HFMP group when corrected for body mass. Despite significantly reduced RER values in the HFMP group during the 45-min cycling bout, work output was significantly decreased (-18%). Adaptation to a 6-week HFMP diet in non-highly trained men resulted in increased fat oxidation during exercise and small decrements in peak power output and endurance performance. These deleterious effects on exercise performance may be accounted for in part by a reduction in body mass and/or increased ratings of perceived exertion.

  6. High-capacity electric double-layer capacitor with high-density-activated carbon fiber electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shudo, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi

    2000-01-01

    Recently the authors have presented a method to prepare activated carbon fiber with high bulk density (HD-ACF) without using any binders. The possibility of using the HD-ACF as an electrode for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) was examined in this paper. The capacitance of the EDLC with the HD-ACF electrode increased with the increase of bulk density of the HD-ACF, indicating that individual fibers are highly packed without losing their capacitance. The capacitance also increased in proportion to the size of the HD-ACF electrode. The initial discharge current of the EDLC showed little dependency on either the bulk density or the size of the HD-ACF electrode. These results clarified that the HD-ACF electrode is suitable for constructing a high-power EDLC. The initial discharge current was directly proportional to the conductivity of aqueous KCI used as the electrolyte, indicating that the resistance of the electrolyte is much higher than that of the HD-ACF electrode. This result showed that the efficiency of the HD-ACF was well above the efficiency of the electrolyte used in this study and that the improvement of the ionic conductivity of electrolyte is also necessary for developing a high-power EDLC.

  7. Integration and flight demonstration of a high-capacity monogroove heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, J. G.

    1984-06-01

    The cancellation of the TDRS-B satellite as the payload for the eighth Space Shuttle mission provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate on-orbit operation of the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe used in the space constructible radiator subsystem. In less than 4 months, a flight experiment was conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, integrated with a payload carrier, installed in the Orbiter Challenger payload bay, and successfully operated in flight. Still color photographs and direct crew visual observation of color changes in a pattern of temperature-sensitive liquid-crystal tapes provided the temperature data necessary to verify successful on-orbit startup and orbital transient response of the heat pipe when subjected to a heat load from its attached electrical heaters. This successful on-orbit demonstration verified analytical design tools and provided confidence in the use of high-capacity heat pipes for future space applications. The flight experiment hardware and the integration and test activities that led to the flight are described, and the actual flight results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

  8. Impact of a lowered water table on water holding capacity of high elevation meadow soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Meadow degradation, as a product of overgrazing or disruption of hydrologic regime, is a critical problem facing a variety of environments, including high elevation ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, California and has become a focus of major research and restoration efforts. Within the historic range of water level in a meadow, it is hypothesized that a meadow will retain its water holding capacity and resiliency. However, if the water table drops below a historic level, due to climate change and/or management practices, the process of soil consolidation will influence the resiliency of the meadow through the irreversible plastic deformation of the soil pores. The subsequent change in soil structure results in decreased porosity, increased bulk density, and a reduction in permeability of the meadow. Such changes can adversely impact the overall water holding capacity of the meadow. This study utilizes a modified triaxial system combined with a multiphysics modeling approach to quantify the historic limit of dryness experienced in a high elevation meadow and degree of consolidation the meadow would experience if that limit was exceeded.

  9. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  10. Integration and flight demonstration of a high-capacity monogroove heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The cancellation of the TDRS-B satellite as the payload for the eighth Space Shuttle mission provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate on-orbit operation of the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe used in the space constructible radiator subsystem. In less than 4 months, a flight experiment was conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, integrated with a payload carrier, installed in the Orbiter Challenger payload bay, and successfully operated in flight. Still color photographs and direct crew visual observation of color changes in a pattern of temperature-sensitive liquid-crystal tapes provided the temperature data necessary to verify successful on-orbit startup and orbital transient response of the heat pipe when subjected to a heat load from its attached electrical heaters. This successful on-orbit demonstration verified analytical design tools and provided confidence in the use of high-capacity heat pipes for future space applications. The flight experiment hardware and the integration and test activities that led to the flight are described, and the actual flight results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

  11. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandra M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Foster, Clifton E.; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T.; Slater, Steven C.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  12. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    PubMed

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandra M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Foster, Clifton E; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J; Barry, Kerrie W; Goodwin, Lynne A; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T; Slater, Steven C; Donohue, Timothy J; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  13. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    PubMed

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandra M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Foster, Clifton E; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J; Barry, Kerrie W; Goodwin, Lynne A; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T; Slater, Steven C; Donohue, Timothy J; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  14. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  15. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-15

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g{sup −1}) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g{sup −1}) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO{sub 2} adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Exceptionally high CO2 uptake (85.8 wt % at 273 K) has been observed over a high surface area porous organic polymer PDVTA-1 synthesized through copolymerization of divinylbenzene and triallyl amine. - Highlights: • Designing the synthesis of a new N-rich cross-linked porous organic polymer PDVTA-1. • PDVTA-1 showed mesoporosity with very high surface area of 903 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • High surface area and presence of basic sites facilitates the CO{sub 2} uptake. • PDVTA-1 showed exceptionally high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 85.8 wt% at 273 K, 3 bar pressure.

  16. High capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zekun; Yin, Zhaoxia; Hu, Honghe; Gao, Xiangping; Wang, Liangmin

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to embed large amount of data while minimize the sum of costs of all changed pixels, a novel high capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code is realized by a family of algorithms. Firstly, n (n = 1, 2, 3) cover pixels are assigned to one set according to the payload. Then, 128 binary strings of length seven are divided into eight sets according to the syndrome of every binary string. Binary strings that share the same syndrome are classified into one set. Finally, a binary string in a certain set determined by the data to be embedded is chosen to modify some of the least significant bits of the n cover pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the image quality of the proposed method with high embedding payload is superior to those of the related schemes. PMID:27026872

  17. Ovariectomy results in differential shifts in gut microbiota in low versus high aerobic capacity rats.

    PubMed

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sheflin, Amy M; Foster, Michelle T; Gentile, Christopher L; Kahl, Amber; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Weir, Tiffany L

    2015-08-01

    The increased risk for cardiometabolic disease with the onset of menopause is widely studied and likely precipitated by the decline in endogenous estradiol (E2), yet the precise mechanisms are unknown. The gut microbiome is involved in estrogen metabolism and has been linked to metabolic disease, suggesting its potential involvement in the postmenopausal phenotype. Furthermore, menopause-associated risk factors, as well as gut ecology, are altered with exercise. Therefore, we studied microbial changes in an ovariectomized (OVX vs. Sham) rat model of high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity (n = 8-10/group) in relation to changes in body weight/composition, glucose tolerance, and liver triglycerides (TG). Nine weeks after OVX, HCR rats were moderately protected against regional adipose tissue gain and liver TG accumulation (P < 0.05 for both). Microbial diversity and number of the Bacteroidetes phylum were significantly increased in LCR with OVX, but unchanged in HCR OVX relative to Sham. Plasma short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), produced by bacteria in the gut and recognized as metabolic signaling molecules, were significantly greater in HCR Sham relative to LCR Sham rats (P = 0.05) and were decreased with OVX in both groups. These results suggest that increased aerobic capacity may be protective against menopause-associated cardiometabolic risk and that gut ecology, and production of signaling molecules such as SCFA, may contribute to the mediation. PMID:26265751

  18. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  19. Invited Article: Polarization diversity and modulation for high-speed optical communications: architectures and capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, William; Khodakarami, Hamid; Che, Di

    2016-07-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of optical waves. To cope with the exponential growth of the Internet traffic, optical communications has advanced by leaps and bounds within the last decade. For the first time, the polarization domain has been extensively explored for high-speed optical communications. In this paper, we discuss the general principle of polarization modulation in both Jones and Stokes spaces. We show that there is no linear optical device capable of transforming an arbitrary input polarization into one that is orthogonal to itself. This excludes the receiver self-polarization diversity architecture by splitting the signal into two branches, and then transferring one of the branches into orthogonal polarization. We next propose a novel Stokes vector (SV) detection architecture using four single-ended photodiodes (PD) that can recover a full set of SV. We then derive a closed-form expression for the information capacity of different SV detection architectures and compare the capacity of our proposed architectures with that of intensity-modulated directly-detected (IM/DD) method. We next study the 3-PD SV detection architecture where a subset of SV is detected, and devise a novel modulation algorithm that can achieve 2-dimensional modulation with the 3-PD detection. By using cost-effective SV receivers, polarization modulation and multiplexing offers a powerful solution for short-reach optical networks where the wavelength domain is quickly exhausted.

  20. Ovariectomy results in differential shifts in gut microbiota in low versus high aerobic capacity rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sheflin, Amy M; Foster, Michelle T; Gentile, Christopher L; Kahl, Amber; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Weir, Tiffany L

    2015-01-01

    The increased risk for cardiometabolic disease with the onset of menopause is widely studied and likely precipitated by the decline in endogenous estradiol (E2), yet the precise mechanisms are unknown. The gut microbiome is involved in estrogen metabolism and has been linked to metabolic disease, suggesting its potential involvement in the postmenopausal phenotype. Furthermore, menopause-associated risk factors, as well as gut ecology, are altered with exercise. Therefore, we studied microbial changes in an ovariectomized (OVX vs. Sham) rat model of high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity (n = 8–10/group) in relation to changes in body weight/composition, glucose tolerance, and liver triglycerides (TG). Nine weeks after OVX, HCR rats were moderately protected against regional adipose tissue gain and liver TG accumulation (P < 0.05 for both). Microbial diversity and number of the Bacteroidetes phylum were significantly increased in LCR with OVX, but unchanged in HCR OVX relative to Sham. Plasma short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), produced by bacteria in the gut and recognized as metabolic signaling molecules, were significantly greater in HCR Sham relative to LCR Sham rats (P = 0.05) and were decreased with OVX in both groups. These results suggest that increased aerobic capacity may be protective against menopause-associated cardiometabolic risk and that gut ecology, and production of signaling molecules such as SCFA, may contribute to the mediation. PMID:26265751

  1. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-11-01

    Intramuscular acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Many nutritional strategies aiming to increase intra- and extracellular buffering capacity have been investigated. Among these, supplementation of beta-alanine (~3-6.4 g/day for 4 weeks or longer), the rate-limiting factor to the intramuscular synthesis of carnosine (i.e. an intracellular buffer), has been shown to result in positive effects on exercise performance in which acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and sodium/calcium lactate supplementation have been employed in an attempt to increase the extracellular buffering capacity. Although all attempts have increased blood bicarbonate concentrations, evidence indicates that sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg body mass) is the most effective in improving high-intensity exercise performance. The evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of sodium citrate and lactate remain weak. These nutritional strategies are not without side effects, as gastrointestinal distress is often associated with the effective doses of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and calcium lactate. Similarly, paresthesia (i.e. tingling sensation of the skin) is currently the only known side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation, and it is caused by the acute elevation in plasma beta-alanine concentration after a single dose of beta-alanine. Finally, the co-supplementation of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may result in additive ergogenic gains during high-intensity exercise, although studies are required to investigate this combination in a wide range of sports.

  2. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  3. Graphene Folding in Si Rich Carbon Nanofibers for Highly Stable, High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian P; Yoo, Sang H; Kim, Jangwoo; Shoorideh, Ghazal; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) wrapped by graphene in carbon nanofibers were obtained via electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In this study, water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with low carbon yield is selected to make the process water-based and to achieve a high silicon yield in the composite. It was also found that increasing the amount of graphene helps keep the PVA fiber morphology after carbonization, while forming a graphene network. The fiber SEM and HRTEM images reveal that micrometer graphene is heavily folded into sub-micron scale fibers during electrospinning, while Si NPs are incorporated into the folds with nanospace in between. When applied to lithium-ion battery anodes, the Si/graphene/carbon nanofiber composites show a high reversible capacity of ∼2300 mAh g(-1) at a charging rate of 100 mA/g and a stable capacity of 1191 mAh g(-1) at 1 A/g after more than 200 cycles. The interconnected graphene network not only ensures the excellent conductivity but also serves as a buffering matrix for the mechanic stress caused by volume change; the nanospace between Si NPs and folded graphene provides the space needed for volume expansion. PMID:26853163

  4. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  5. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  6. Development of a process for high capacity-arc heater production of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.; Meyer, T. N.; Fey, M. G.; Harvey, F. J.; Arcella, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    The realization of low cost, electric power from large-area silicon, photovoltaic arrays will depend on the development of new methods for large capacity production of solar grade (SG) silicon with a cost of less than $10 per kilogram by 1986 (established Department of Energy goal). The objective of the program is to develop a method to produce SG silicon in large quantities based on the high temperature-sodium reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) to yield molten silicon and the coproduct salt vapor (NaCl). Commercial ac electric arc heaters will be utilized to provide a hyper-heated mixture of argon and hydrogen which will furnish the required process energy. The reactor is designed for a nominal silicon flow rate of 45 kg/hr. Analyses and designs have been conducted to evaluate the process and complete the initial design of the experimental verification unit.

  7. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn; Rao, Dewei E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  8. Contamination-free high capacity converging waves sonoreactors for the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Dion, Jean-Luc

    2009-02-01

    A new sonoreactor technology is presented here which should give a decisive impulse to sonochemistry in various areas of chemical processing. These exclusive systems use high power converging acoustic waves in a tube to produce a relatively large volume confined acoustic cavitation zone in flowing liquid reagents under pressure. It is well known that numerous chemical reactions are strongly accelerated when they take place inside such a zone. The new cylindrical sonoreactors do not contaminate the processed liquids with erosion products as most other devices do since the cavitation zone is maintained away from the wall of the tube. The processing conditions can be widely varied with pressure, power, temperature, and flow rate. The processing capacity of the largest models may be up to several tons per hour, depending on the required cavitation energy per unit volume to produce the desired process enhancement, using an electric power input of about 50 kW. PMID:18789748

  9. Study on the Structures of Two Booster Pellets Having High Initiation Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang-Qi, Hu; Hong-Rong, Liu; Li-shuang, Hu; Xiong, Cao; Xiang-Chao, Mi; Hai-Xia, Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Insensitive munitions (IM) improve the survivability of both weapons and their associated platforms, which can lead to a reduction in casualties, mission losses, and whole life costs. All weapon systems contain an explosive train that needs to meet IM criteria but reliably initiate a main charge explosive. To ensure that these diametrically opposed requirements can be achieved, new highly effective booster charge structures were designed. The initiation capacity of the two booster pellets was studied using varied composition and axial-steel-dent methods. The results showed that the two new booster pellets can initiate standard main charge pellets with less explosive mass than the ordinary cylindrical booster pellet. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with the experiment results.

  10. Extended-capacity high-speed-disk recording system for TREAT hodoscope

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.A.; Travis, D.; DeVolpi, A.; Burrows, D.; Ray, D.; Stanford, G.

    1983-01-01

    New requirements for time resolution, test duration, field of view, and recording redundancy in dynamic digital radiographic imaging of fuel motion in TREAT and TREAT-Upgrade (TU) in-pile experiments have been formulated. This has necessitated the design and fabrication of a new hodoscope high-speed data acquisition system. Recently an array of proportional counters was installed to operate in tandem with the Hornyak-button array. The full implementation of this new array, together with the increased field-of-view needed for future TU 37-pin experiments, required a separate recording system operting in parallel with that for the Hornyak buttons. The new recording system was required to have substantially higher capacity than the earlier recording system in use, in order to record sufficient data channels and samples with adequately small collection intervals, for some new types of experiments.

  11. Estimation of the burn-back rate in high breaking capacity fuses using fast imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussière, W.

    2001-03-01

    The viewing of the erosion rate of the fuse element in high breaking capacity fuses is carried out using fast imagery. The rotating drum camera we have used provides up to 160 frames to observe the arc extinction throughout the phenomenon which lasts 4 ms. From these frames, we show that three stages follow each other with different values of burn-back rates: the maximum values are obtained at the beginning of the phenomenon and are equal to 6.65 m s-1 and 5.81 m s-1 for silver and copper fuse elements, respectively. The direct observation of the burn-back mechanism shows a reproducible disequilibrium depending on the nature of the electrode: the cathode erosion rate is 1.7 times that of the anode rate in the case of silver, and 1.2 times that of the anode in the case of copper.

  12. Integration of High-Charge-Injection-Capacity Electrodes onto Polymer Softening Neural Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Arreaga-Salas, David E; Avendaño-Bolívar, Adrian; Simon, Dustin; Reit, Radu; Garcia-Sandoval, Aldo; Rennaker, Robert L; Voit, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Softening neural interfaces are implanted stiff to enable precise insertion, and they soften in physiological conditions to minimize modulus mismatch with tissue. In this work, a high-charge-injection-capacity iridium electrode fabrication process is detailed. For the first time, this process enables integration of iridium electrodes onto softening substrates using photolithography to define all features in the device. Importantly, no electroplated layers are utilized, leading to a highly scalable method for consistent device fabrication. The iridium electrode is metallically bonded to the gold conductor layer, which is covalently bonded to the softening substrate via sulfur-based click chemistry. The resulting shape-memory polymer neural interfaces can deliver more than 2 billion symmetric biphasic pulses (100 μs/phase), with a charge of 200 μC/cm(2) and geometric surface area (GSA) of 300 μm(2). A transfer-by-polymerization method is used in combination with standard semiconductor processing techniques to fabricate functional neural probes onto a thiol-ene-based, thin film substrate. Electrical stability is tested under simulated physiological conditions in an accelerated electrical aging paradigm with periodic measurement of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and charge storage capacity (CSC) at various intervals. Electrochemical characterization and both optical and scanning electron microscopy suggest significant breakdown of the 600 nm-thick parylene-C insulation, although no delamination of the conductors or of the final electrode interface was observed. Minor cracking at the edges of the thin film iridium electrodes was occasionally observed. The resulting devices will provide electrical recording and stimulation of the nervous system to better understand neural wiring and timing, to target treatments for debilitating diseases, and to give neuroscientists spatially selective and specific tools to interact with the body. This approach has uses for

  13. Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  14. Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr; Sherrow, Lester

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300ºF range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400ºF were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  15. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  16. Integration of High-Charge-Injection-Capacity Electrodes onto Polymer Softening Neural Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Arreaga-Salas, David E; Avendaño-Bolívar, Adrian; Simon, Dustin; Reit, Radu; Garcia-Sandoval, Aldo; Rennaker, Robert L; Voit, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Softening neural interfaces are implanted stiff to enable precise insertion, and they soften in physiological conditions to minimize modulus mismatch with tissue. In this work, a high-charge-injection-capacity iridium electrode fabrication process is detailed. For the first time, this process enables integration of iridium electrodes onto softening substrates using photolithography to define all features in the device. Importantly, no electroplated layers are utilized, leading to a highly scalable method for consistent device fabrication. The iridium electrode is metallically bonded to the gold conductor layer, which is covalently bonded to the softening substrate via sulfur-based click chemistry. The resulting shape-memory polymer neural interfaces can deliver more than 2 billion symmetric biphasic pulses (100 μs/phase), with a charge of 200 μC/cm(2) and geometric surface area (GSA) of 300 μm(2). A transfer-by-polymerization method is used in combination with standard semiconductor processing techniques to fabricate functional neural probes onto a thiol-ene-based, thin film substrate. Electrical stability is tested under simulated physiological conditions in an accelerated electrical aging paradigm with periodic measurement of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and charge storage capacity (CSC) at various intervals. Electrochemical characterization and both optical and scanning electron microscopy suggest significant breakdown of the 600 nm-thick parylene-C insulation, although no delamination of the conductors or of the final electrode interface was observed. Minor cracking at the edges of the thin film iridium electrodes was occasionally observed. The resulting devices will provide electrical recording and stimulation of the nervous system to better understand neural wiring and timing, to target treatments for debilitating diseases, and to give neuroscientists spatially selective and specific tools to interact with the body. This approach has uses for

  17. Efficient Activation of High-Loading Sulfur by Small CNTs Confined Inside a Large CNT for High-Capacity and High-Rate Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feiying; Xiao, Suo; Lu, Lijie; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-13

    Sulfur with a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh g(-1) is yet to be used as commercial cathode for lithium batteries because of its low utilization rate and poor cycle stability. In this work, a tube-in-tube carbon structure is demonstrated to relieve the critical problems with sulfur cathode: poor electrical conductivity, dissolution of lithium polysulfides, and large volume change during cycling. A number of small carbon nanotubes (∼20 nm in diameter) and a high loading amount of 85.2 wt % sulfur are both filled completely inside a large amorphous carbon nanotube (∼200 nm in diameter). Owing to the presence of these electrically conductive, highly flexible and structurally robust small CNTs and a large CNT overlayer, sulfur material exhibits a high utilization rate and delivers a large discharge capacity of 1633 mAh g(-1) (based on the mass of sulfur) at 0.1 C, approaching its theoretical capacity (1673 mAh g(-1)). The obtained S-CNTs@CNT electrode demonstrates superior high-rate cycling performances. Large discharge capacities of ∼1146, 1121, and 954 mAh g(-1) are observed after 150 cycles at large current rates of 1, 2, and 5 C, respectively. PMID:26675744

  18. High fatty acid oxidation capacity and phosphorylation control despite elevated leak and reduced respiratory capacity in northern elephant seal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Schlater, Amber; Nguyen, Alex; Kaye, Spencer; Beals, Joseph W; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E; Kanatous, Shane B

    2014-08-15

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are extreme, hypoxia-adapted endotherms that rely largely on aerobic metabolism during extended breath-hold dives in near-freezing water temperatures. While many aspects of their physiology have been characterized to account for these remarkable feats, the contribution of adaptations in the aerobic powerhouses of muscle cells, the mitochondria, are unknown. In the present study, the ontogeny and comparative physiology of elephant seal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function was investigated under a variety of substrate conditions and respiratory states. Intact mitochondrial networks were studied by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fiber bundles obtained from primary swimming muscles of pup, juvenile and adult seals, and compared with fibers from adult human vastus lateralis. Results indicate that seal muscle maintains a high capacity for fatty acid oxidation despite a progressive decrease in total respiratory capacity as animals mature from pups to adults. This is explained by a progressive increase in phosphorylation control and fatty acid utilization over pyruvate in adult seals compared with humans and seal pups. Interestingly, despite higher indices of oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, juvenile and adult seals also exhibit a ~50% greater capacity for respiratory 'leak' compared with humans and seal pups. The ontogeny of this phenotype suggests it is an adaptation of muscle to the prolonged breath-hold exercise and highly variable ambient temperatures experienced by mature elephant seals. These studies highlight the remarkable plasticity of mammalian mitochondria to meet the demands for both efficient ATP production and endothermy in a cold, oxygen-limited environment. PMID:24902742

  19. High fatty acid oxidation capacity and phosphorylation control despite elevated leak and reduced respiratory capacity in northern elephant seal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Schlater, Amber; Nguyen, Alex; Kaye, Spencer; Beals, Joseph W; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E; Kanatous, Shane B

    2014-08-15

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are extreme, hypoxia-adapted endotherms that rely largely on aerobic metabolism during extended breath-hold dives in near-freezing water temperatures. While many aspects of their physiology have been characterized to account for these remarkable feats, the contribution of adaptations in the aerobic powerhouses of muscle cells, the mitochondria, are unknown. In the present study, the ontogeny and comparative physiology of elephant seal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function was investigated under a variety of substrate conditions and respiratory states. Intact mitochondrial networks were studied by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fiber bundles obtained from primary swimming muscles of pup, juvenile and adult seals, and compared with fibers from adult human vastus lateralis. Results indicate that seal muscle maintains a high capacity for fatty acid oxidation despite a progressive decrease in total respiratory capacity as animals mature from pups to adults. This is explained by a progressive increase in phosphorylation control and fatty acid utilization over pyruvate in adult seals compared with humans and seal pups. Interestingly, despite higher indices of oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, juvenile and adult seals also exhibit a ~50% greater capacity for respiratory 'leak' compared with humans and seal pups. The ontogeny of this phenotype suggests it is an adaptation of muscle to the prolonged breath-hold exercise and highly variable ambient temperatures experienced by mature elephant seals. These studies highlight the remarkable plasticity of mammalian mitochondria to meet the demands for both efficient ATP production and endothermy in a cold, oxygen-limited environment.

  20. High-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects for high-capacity removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl₂·6H₂O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m²/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd²⁺ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb²⁺~ 882 mg/g, Ni²⁺ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu²⁺ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  1. Microbial response and elimination capacity in biofilters subjected to high toluene loadings.

    PubMed

    Song, JiHyeon; Kinney, Kerry A

    2005-09-01

    Elimination capacity (EC) is frequently used as a performance and design criterion for vapor-phase biofilters without further verification of the microbial quantity and activity. This study was conducted to investigate how biofilters respond to high pollutant loadings and ultimately how this affects the EC of the biofilter. Two identical laboratory-scale biofilters were maintained at an initial toluene loading rate of 46 g m-3 h-1 for a period of 24 days. After the initial biofilm development stage, the loading rates were increased to 91 g m-3 h-1 and 137 g m-3 h-1, respectively. Following a short period of pseudo-steady state, toluene removal efficiencies rapidly declined in both biofilters, with a concurrent decline in both critical and maximum ECs. The decline was mainly due to deterioration in the biodegradation activity of the biofilm and a decline in the toluene-degrading bacterial population within the biofilm phase. The findings imply that high toluene loadings accelerated the deterioration in overall performance due to a rapid accumulation of inactive biomass. As a result, care must be used when relying on EC values for biofilter design and operational purposes, since the values do not appropriately reflect the temporal changes in biodegradation activity and active biomass quantities that can occur in biofilters subjected to high inlet loadings.

  2. The Sediment Yield of High Mountain Environment Watersheds: Strong Evidence of Transport Capacity Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, N.; Lane, S. N.; Lambiel, C.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine landscapes are likely to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of: (1) the vulnerability of permafrost and glacial and nival processes to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation; (2) their history, which may have led to high rates of sediment production, and hence high rates of sediment supply; and (3) the steep slopes that may sustain sediment transport. Assessing the effects of climate change upon these processes over the timescale of recent rapid warming (i.e. decades) is difficult because of the lack of available data. Here, we use two unique data sources to assess the relative importance of these three processes for two high mountain basins (altitude range 2'000 to 3'500 m asl): (1) histories of surface change from the late 1950s, based upon construction of digital elevation models from archival imagery; and (2) a long term record, beginning in the early 1960s, of sediment export based upon the flushing of sediment from hydropower intakes. The two basins contain glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost and the legacy of past glacial activity. These data show that the level of geomorphic activity within both basins is orders of magnitude higher than the volume of sediment exported from the basins. Decadal scale changes in elevation and surface displacement velocities suggest an acceleration of landscape dynamics from the 1980s. Changes in atmospheric temperature remain a key control of this process, but precipitation and snow cover prove critical in controlling rock glacier behaviour and can induce acceleration of surface displacements even under cold atmospheric conditions. However, the analysis of the sediment export data show that despite generally greater within basin dynamics, the rate of export of sediment remains orders of magnitude lower than rates of sediment production. Calculations of sediment transport capacity suggest that this is because the fundamental limit upon sediment yield is the capacity of the stream to

  3. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  4. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Li₄Ti₅O₁₂/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel "core-shell" porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities.

  5. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-08-01

    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel ``core-shell'' porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities.

  6. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m2/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  7. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel “core-shell” porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities. PMID:23963328

  8. Does low serum carnosinase activity favor high-intensity exercise capacity?

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; Yard, Benito; Peters, Verena; Zschocke, Johannes; Zutinic, Ana; De Heer, Emile; Podgórski, Tomasz; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Derave, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Given the ergogenic properties of β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) in skeletal muscle, it can be hypothesized that elevated levels of circulating carnosine could equally be advantageous for high-intensity exercises. Serum carnosinase (CN1), the enzyme hydrolyzing the dipeptide, is highly active in the human circulation. Consequently, dietary intake of carnosine usually results in rapid degradation upon absorption, yet this is less pronounced in subjects with low CN1 activity. Therefore, acute carnosine supplementation before high-intensity exercise could be ergogenic in these subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we determined plasma CN1 activity and content in 235 subjects, including 154 untrained controls and 45 explosive and 36 middle- to long-distance elite athletes. In a subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 12 men performed a cycling capacity test at 110% maximal power output (CCT 110%) following acute carnosine (20 mg/kg body wt) or placebo supplementation. Blood samples were collected to measure CN1 content, carnosine, and acid-base balance. Both male and female explosive athletes had significantly lower CN1 activity (14% and 21% lower, respectively) and content (30% and 33% lower, respectively) than controls. Acute carnosine supplementation resulted only in three subjects in carnosinemia. The CCT 110% performance was not improved after carnosine supplementation, even when accounting for low/high CN1 content. No differences were found in acid-base balance, except for elevated resting bicarbonate following carnosine supplementation and in low CN1 subjects. In conclusion, explosive athletes have lower serum CN1 activity and content compared with untrained controls, possibly resulting from genetic selection. Acute carnosine supplementation does not improve high-intensity performance.

  9. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  10. Intracavity, adaptive correction of a high-average-power, solid-state, heat-capacity laser

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N; Hurd, R L; Brase, J M; Yamamoto, R M

    2005-01-05

    The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multigeneration laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels. Wavefront quality is a driving metric of its performance. A deformable mirror with over 100 degrees of freedom situated within the cavity is used to correct both the static and dynamic aberrations sensed with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The laser geometry is an unstable, confocal resonator with a clear aperture of 10 cm x 10 cm. It operates in a pulsed mode at a high repetition rate (up to 200 Hz) with a correction being applied before each pulse. Wavefront information is gathered in real-time from a low-power pick-off of the high-power beam. It is combined with historical trends of aberration growth to calculate a correction that is both feedback and feed-forward driven. The overall system design, measurement techniques and correction algorithms are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

  11. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration.

  12. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  13. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-09-06

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Population of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells With High Myogenic Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Vauchez, Karine; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Schmid, Michel; Khattar, Patricia; Chapel, Alain; Catelain, Cyril; Lecourt, Séverine; Larghéro, Jérôme; Fiszman, Marc; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH) activity is one hallmark of human bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and peripheral blood (PB) primitive progenitors presenting high reconstitution capacities in vivo. In this study, we have identified ALDH+ cells within human skeletal muscles, and have analyzed their phenotypical and functional characteristics. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of human muscle tissue sections revealed rare endomysial cells. Flow cytometry analysis using the fluorescent substrate of ALDH, Aldefluor, identified brightly stained (ALDHbr) cells with low side scatter (SSClo), in enzymatically dissociated muscle biopsies, thereafter abbreviated as SMALD+ (for skeletal muscle ALDH+) cells. Phenotypical analysis discriminated two sub-populations according to CD34 expression: SMALD+/CD34− and SMALD+/CD34+ cells. These sub-populations did not initially express endothelial (CD31), hematopoietic (CD45), and myogenic (CD56) markers. Upon sorting, however, whereas SMALD+/CD34+ cells developed in vitro as a heterogeneous population of CD56− cells able to differentiate in adipoblasts, the SMALD+/CD34− fraction developed in vitro as a highly enriched population of CD56+ myoblasts able to form myotubes. Moreover, only the SMALD+/CD34− population maintained a strong myogenic potential in vivo upon intramuscular transplantation. Our results suggest that ALDH activity is a novel marker for a population of new human skeletal muscle progenitors presenting a potential for cell biology and cell therapy. PMID:19738599

  15. High levels of SOX5 decrease proliferative capacity of human B cells, but permit plasmablast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Sic, Heiko; Kienzler, Anne-Kathrin; Fischer, Beate; Rizzi, Marta; Seidl, Maximilian; Melkaoui, Kerstina; Unger, Susanne; Moehle, Luisa; Schmit, Nadine E; Deshmukh, Sachin D; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Schuh, Wolfgang; Zhang, Zhibing; Cosset, François-Loic; Verhoeyen, Els; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Voll, Reinhard E; Salzer, Ulrich; Eibel, Hermann; Warnatz, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Currently very little is known about the differential expression and function of the transcription factor SOX5 during B cell maturation. We identified two new splice variants of SOX5 in human B cells, encoding the known L-SOX5B isoform and a new shorter isoform L-SOX5F. The SOX5 transcripts are highly expressed during late stages of B-cell differentiation, including atypical memory B cells, activated CD21low B cells and germinal center B cells of tonsils. In tonsillar sections SOX5 expression was predominantly polarized to centrocytes within the light zone. After in vitro stimulation, SOX5 expression was down-regulated during proliferation while high expression levels were permissible for plasmablast differentiation. Overexpression of L-SOX5F in human primary B lymphocytes resulted in reduced proliferation, less survival of CD138neg B cells, but comparable numbers of CD138+CD38hi plasmablasts compared to control cells. Thus, our findings describe for the first time a functional role of SOX5 during late B cell development reducing the proliferative capacity and thus potentially affecting the differentiation of B cells during the germinal center response. PMID:24945754

  16. The Ideal and Real Gas Heat Capacity of Potassium Atoms at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ideal gas heat capacity, Cp, of potassium atoms is calculated to high temperatures using statistical mechanics. Since there are a large number of electronic energy levels in the partition function (Boltzmann sum) below the first ionization potential, the partition function and Cp will become very large as the temperature increases unless the number of energy levels contributing to the partition function is constrained. Two primary categories of arguments are used to do this. First, at high temperatures, the increased size of the atoms constrains the sum (Bethe method). Second, an argument based on the existence of interacting charged species at higher temperatures is used to constrain the sum (ionization potential lowering method). When potassium atoms are assumed to constitute a real gas that obeys the virial equation of state, the lowest non-ideal contribution to Cp depends on the second derivative of the second virial coefficient, B( T), which depends on the interaction potential energy curves between two potassium atoms. When two ground-state (2{S}) atoms interact, they can follow either of the two potential energy curves. When a 2{S} atom interacts with an atom in the first electronically excited (2{P}) state, they can follow any of the eight potential energy curves. The values of B( T) for the ten states are determined, then averaged, and used to calculate the nonideal contribution to Cp.

  17. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration. PMID:25830081

  18. The role of aerobic capacity in high-intensity intermittent efforts in ice-hockey.

    PubMed

    Stanula, A; Roczniok, R; Maszczyk, A; Pietraszewski, P; Zając, A

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text]O2max) and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS) consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max). The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001). An analysis of the fatigue index (FI) calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%). The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between [Formula: see text]O2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =-0.584) was significant (p=0.003). The variance in the index of players' fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in [Formula: see text]O2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78). Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players. PMID:25177097

  19. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the 'umbilical scar' in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) 'umbilical scar' healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status.

  20. The infectious BAC genomic DNA expression library: a high capacity vector system for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lufino, Michele M. P.; Edser, Pauline A. H.; Quail, Michael A.; Rice, Stephen; Adams, David J.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene dosage plays a critical role in a range of cellular phenotypes, yet most cellular expression systems use heterologous cDNA-based vectors which express proteins well above physiological levels. In contrast, genomic DNA expression vectors generate physiologically-relevant levels of gene expression by carrying the whole genomic DNA locus of a gene including its regulatory elements. Here we describe the first genomic DNA expression library generated using the high-capacity herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon technology to deliver bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) into cells by viral transduction. The infectious BAC (iBAC) library contains 184,320 clones with an average insert size of 134.5 kb. We show in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) disease model cell line and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that this library can be used for genetic rescue studies in a range of contexts including the physiological restoration of Ldlr deficiency, and viral receptor expression. The iBAC library represents an important new genetic analysis tool openly available to the research community. PMID:27353647

  1. High-buffering capacity, hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes for isoelectric trapping separations.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjiv; Shave, Evan; Vigh, Gyula

    2004-10-01

    Hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been synthesized from low-pI ampholytic components, poly(vinyl alcohol), and a bifunctional cross-linker, glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether. The low-pI ampholytic components used contain one amino group and at least two weakly acidic functional groups. The acidic functional groups are selected such that the pI value of the ampholytic component is determined by the pK(a) values of the acidic functional groups. When the concentration of the ampholytic component incorporated into the membrane is higher than a required minimum value, the pI of the membrane becomes independent of variations in the actual incorporation rate of the ampholytic compound. The new, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been successfully used as anodic membranes in isoelectric trapping separations with pH < 1.5 anolytes and replaced the hydrolytically less stable polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membranes. The new low-pI isoelectric membranes have excellent mechanical stability, low electric resistance, good buffering capacity, and long life time, even when used with as much as 50 W power and current densities as high as 33 mA/cm(2) during the isoelectric trapping separations.

  2. Zirconium oxide aerogel for effective enrichment of phosphopeptides with high binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-04-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) aerogel was synthesized via a green sol-gel approach, with zirconium oxychloride, instead of the commonly used alkoxide with high toxicity, as the precursor. With such material, phosphopeptides from the digests of 4 pmol of β-casein with the coexistence of 100 times (mol ratio) BSA could be selectively captured, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Due to the large surface area (416.0 m(2) g(-1)) and the mesoporous structure (the average pore size of 10.2 nm) of ZrO(2) aerogel, a 20-fold higher loading capacity for phosphopeptide, YKVPQLEIVPN[pS]AEER (MW 1952.12), was obtained compared to that of commercial ZrO(2) microspheres (341.5 vs. 17.87 mg g(-1)). The metal oxide aerogel was further applied in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from 100 ng nonfat milk, and 17 phosphopeptides were positively identified, with a 1.5-fold improvement in phosphopeptide detection compared with previously reported results. These results demonstrate that ZrO(2) aerogel can be a powerful enrichment material for phosphoproteome study.

  3. Structural originations of irreversible capacity loss from highly lithiated copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Corey T.; Dmowski, Wojtek; Johannes, Michelle D.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2012-02-07

    We use electrochemistry, high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) with pair-distribution function analysis (PDF), and density functional theory (DFT) to study the instabilities of Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} at varying state of charge. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns revealed phase evolution from pure Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} body-centered orthorhombic (Immm) space group to multiphase compositions after cycling. The PDF showed CuO{sub 4} square chains with varying packing during electrochemical cycling. Peaks in the G(r) at the Cu-O distance for delithiated, LiCuO{sub 2}, showed CuO{sub 4} square chains with reduced ionic radius for Cu in the 3+ state. At full depth of discharge to 1.5 V, CuO was observed in fractions greater than the initial impurity level which strongly affects the reversibility of the lithiation reactions contributing to capacity loss. DFT calculations showed electron removal from Cu and O during delithiation of Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}.

  4. Novel polymeric ionic liquid microspheres with high exchange capacity for fast extraction of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Xing, Ligang; Shu, Yang; Chen, Xuwei; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-07-21

    A novel polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) microsphere, poly(1-vinyl-3-(2-methoxy-2-oxyl ethyl)imidazolium) hexafluorophosphate, is prepared via W/O emulsion polymerization. Rapid ion-exchange between the anionic moieties of PIL and DNA fragments is demonstrated facilitating the exchange equilibrium to be reached within 1 min. The PIL microspheres exhibit a high capacity of 190.7 μg mg(-1) for DNA adsorption. A fast DNA isolation protocol is thus developed with the PIL microspheres as solid phase adsorbent. It is feasible to facilitate DNA adsorption or stripping from the microspheres by simply regulating the concentration of salt. DNA adsorption is facilitated at low salt concentration, while higher concentration of salt entails DNA recovery from the microspheres. In practice, the retained DNA could be readily recovered with 1.0 mol L(-1) NaCl as stripping reagent, giving rise to a recovery of ca. 80.7%. The PIL microspheres are used for the adsorption/isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli cell culture, demonstrating a superior adsorption performance with respect to that achieved by a commercial Plasmid Miniprep Kit.

  5. Magnetic carbon nanotubes with particle-free surfaces and high drug loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Pilatos, George; Romanos, George E; Devlin, Eamon; Kanellopoulos, Nick K; Karanikolos, Georgios N

    2011-09-01

    Open-ended, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated within their graphitic walls (magCNTs) were fabricated by a combined action of templated growth and a ferrofluid catalyst/carbon precursor, and tested as drug hosts. The hybrid nanotubes are stable under extreme pH conditions due to particle protection provided by the graphitic shell. The magCNTs are promising for high capacity drug loading given that the magnetic functionalization did not block any of the active sites available for drug attachment, either from the CNT internal void or on the internal and external surfaces. This is in contrast to typical approaches of loading CNTs with particles that proceed through surface attachment or capillary filling of the tube interior. Additionally, the CNTs exhibit enhanced hydrophilic character, as shown by water adsorption measurements, which make them suitable for biological applications. The morphological and structural characteristics of the hybrid CNTs are evaluated in conjunction to their magnetic properties and ability for drug loading (diaminophenothiazine). The fact that the magnetic functionality is provided from 'inside the walls' can allow for multimode functionalization of the graphitic surfaces and makes the magCNTs promising for targeted therapeutic applications. PMID:21817779

  6. High-buffering capacity, hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes for isoelectric trapping separations.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjiv; Shave, Evan; Vigh, Gyula

    2004-10-01

    Hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been synthesized from low-pI ampholytic components, poly(vinyl alcohol), and a bifunctional cross-linker, glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether. The low-pI ampholytic components used contain one amino group and at least two weakly acidic functional groups. The acidic functional groups are selected such that the pI value of the ampholytic component is determined by the pK(a) values of the acidic functional groups. When the concentration of the ampholytic component incorporated into the membrane is higher than a required minimum value, the pI of the membrane becomes independent of variations in the actual incorporation rate of the ampholytic compound. The new, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been successfully used as anodic membranes in isoelectric trapping separations with pH < 1.5 anolytes and replaced the hydrolytically less stable polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membranes. The new low-pI isoelectric membranes have excellent mechanical stability, low electric resistance, good buffering capacity, and long life time, even when used with as much as 50 W power and current densities as high as 33 mA/cm(2) during the isoelectric trapping separations. PMID:15490454

  7. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  8. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Driever, Steven M.; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock’s and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses. PMID:26860066

  9. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard J; Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D B; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P

    2016-02-10

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock's and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses.

  10. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard J; Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D B; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock's and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses. PMID:26860066

  11. Mesoporous carbon-carbon nanotube-sulfur composite microspheres for high-areal-capacity lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Terrence; Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail L; Sohn, Hiesang; Yu, Zhaoxin; Chen, Shuru; Wang, Donghai

    2013-11-13

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer theoretical energy density much higher than that of lithium-ion batteries, but their development faces significant challenges. Mesoporous carbon-sulfur composite microspheres are successfully synthesized by combining emulsion polymerization and the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process. Such materials not only exhibit high sulfur-specific capacity and excellent retention as Li-S cathodes but also afford much improved tap density, sulfur content, and areal capacity necessary for practical development of high-energy-density Li-S batteries. In addition, when incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form mesoporous carbon-CNT-sulfur composite microspheres, the material demonstrated superb battery performance even at a high current density of 2.8 mA/cm(2), with a reversible capacity over 700 mAh/g after 200 cycles.

  12. Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. D.; Chui, Y. S.; Chen, X. F. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Zhang, W. J. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Li, Y.

    2013-12-16

    A binder-free, high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g{sup −1} at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g{sup −1} at 8C after 60 cycles, and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g{sup −1} was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs.

  13. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  14. First Clinical Experience with a High-Capacity Implantable Infusion Pump for Continuous Intravenous Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Damascelli, Bruno; Patelli, Gianluigi; Frigerio, Laura F.; Lanocita, Rodolfo; Di Tolla, Giuseppe; Marchiano, Alfonso; Spreafico, Carlo; Garbagnati, Francesco; Bonalumi, Maria G.; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Ticha, Vladimira; Prino, Aurelio

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a new high-capacity pump for systemic venous chemotherapy and to verify the quality of implantation by interventional radiology staff. Methods: A total of 47 infusion pumps with a 60-ml reservoir and variable flow rates (2, 6, 8, or 12 ml/24 hr) were implanted by radiologists in 46 patients with solid tumor metastases requiring treatment with a single, continuously infused cytostatic agent. The reservoir was refilled transcutaneously, usually once weekly. The flow accuracy of the pump was assessed from actual drug delivery recorded on 34 patients over a minimum observation period of 180 days. Results: No early complications occurred in any of the 47 implants in 46 patients. A total of 12 (25.53%) complications occurred between 3 and 24 months after implantation. Seven (14.90%) of these were due to the external design of the pump, while five (10.63%) were related to the central venous catheter. In the 34 patients available for pump evaluation (follow-up of at least 180 days), the system was used for a total of 14,191 days (range 180-911 days, mean 417.38 days), giving an overall complication rate of 0.84 per 1000 days of operation. The mean flow rate accuracy was 90.26%. Conclusion: The new implantable pump showed good flow rate accuracy and reliable operation. The pump-related complications were related to its external design and have now been corrected by appropriate modifications. From a radiologic and surgical viewpoint, the venous implantation procedure is identical to that of conventional vascular access devices and can be performed by radiologists familiar with these techniques. The current limitations lie in the high cost of the pump and, for certain drugs, the short time between refills.

  15. Cyclic peptide ligand with high binding capacity for affinity purification of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Choe, Weonu; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, B Moon; Chung, Sang J

    2016-09-30

    The rapidly increasing implementation of antibodies in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the development of antibody production and purification technologies for both academic and industrial usage. Bacterial Protein A and Protein G are known to bind antibodies with high affinity and have facilitated the isolation and purification thereof. Recently, small peptide ligands (i.e. IgG Fc domain-binding peptides, FcBP) that specifically bind to the Fc-domain of antibodies were reported. In the present study we describe the development of a reusable high affinity column for antibody purification utilizing immobilized FcBP, comprising 13 amino acids residues, on a sepharose resin. In addition to FcBP, Cys to Ser substituted FcBP (FcBP-Ser), reduced FcBP (FcBP-Red), commercial Protein A and Protein G resins, packed into columns, were evaluated for antibody purification. All these columns except the FcBP-Ser one showed good binding capacity for a humanized IgG (trastuzumab) and a chimeric IgG (cetuximab). The column packed with FcBP-Red allowed antibody purification at a less acidic pH (pH 4.8) than was required for the other ligand affinity columns used in our experiments (i.e., pH 3.2 for Protein G and FcBP columns, and pH 3.5 for Protein A column, respectively). Utilizing the FcBP column, antibodies from swine human sera were isolated with a purity of 95%. Interestingly, the FcBP column could be easily regenerated and operated without loss of efficiency for up to 60 runs, the maximum number of runs performed in the present study.

  16. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification.

  17. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification. PMID:25476688

  18. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhaoxin; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  19. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability. PMID:25097883

  20. Electrospun titania-based fibers for high areal capacity Li-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, Ethan C.; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N.

    2015-05-01

    Electrospinning is utilized to prepare composite fiber Li-ion battery anodes containing titania and carbon nanoparticles with a poly (acrylic acid) binder. The electrospun material exhibits a stable charge/discharge capacity with only 5% capacity fade over 450 cycles at 0.5 C. Compared to a conventional slurry cast electrode of the same composition, the electrospun anode demonstrates 4-fold higher capacity retention (31% vs. 7.9%) at a charge/discharge rate of 5 C. Electrospinning is also used to prepare ultrathick anodes (>1 mm) with areal capacities up to 3.9 mAh cm-2. Notably, the thick electrodes exhibit areal capacities of 2.5 and 1.3 mAh cm-2 at 1 C and 2 C, respectively. Electrospun anodes with densely packed fibers have a 2 C volumetric capacity which exceeds that of the slurry cast material (21.2 and 17.5 mAh cm-3, respectively). The excellent performance of the electrospun anodes is attributed to interfiber voids which provide complete electrolyte intrusion, a large electrode/electrolyte interface, and short Li+ transport pathways between the electrolyte and titania nanoparticles.

  1. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (p<0.001) increase (10%) in total distance during the ramp test protocol (the speed was increased linearly by 1 km/h per 1min until volitional exhaustion), as well as increased (p<0.01) absolute (4.5%) and relative (6.2%) maximal workload (WRmax). Also, the absolute and relative values of VO2max in this group increased significantly (p<0.001) by 6.5% and 7.8%. Significant, yet minor changes were also observed in the group C, where training in normoxia caused an increase (p<0.05) in relative values of WRmax by 2.8%, as well as an increase (p<0.05) in the absolute (1.3%) and relative (2.1%) values of VO2max

  2. Expression of angiogenic regulators and skeletal muscle capillarity in selectively bred high aerobic capacity mice.

    PubMed

    Audet, Gerald N; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore; Olfert, I Mark

    2011-11-01

    Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in untrained mice has resulted in a 'mini muscle' (MM) phenotype, which has increased skeletal muscle capillarity compared with muscles from non-selected control lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are essential mediators of skeletal muscle angiogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that untrained MM mice with elevated muscle capillarity would have higher basal VEGF expression and lower basal TSP-1 expression, and potentially an exaggerated VEGF response to acute exercise. We examined skeletal muscle morphology and skeletal muscle protein expression of VEGF and TSP-1 in male mice from two (untrained) mouse lines selectively bred for high exercise capacity (MM and Non-MM), as well as one non-selected control mouse line (normal aerobic capacity). In the MM mice, gastrocnemius (GA) and plantaris (PLT) muscle capillarity (i.e. capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density) were greater compared with control mice (P < 0.05). In Non-MM mice, only muscle capillarity in PLT was greater than in control mice (P < 0.001). The soleus (SOL) showed no statistical differences in muscle capillarity among groups. In the GA, MM mice had 58% greater basal VEGF (P < 0.05), with no statistical difference in basal TSP-1 when compared with control mice. In the PLT, MM mice had a 79% increase in basal VEGF (P < 0.05) and a 39% lower basal TSP-1 (P < 0.05) compared with the control animals. Non-MM mice showed no difference in basal VEGF in either the GA or the PLT compared with control mice. In contrast, basal TSP-1 was elevated in the PLT, but not in the GA, of Non-MM mice compared with control mice. Neither VEGF nor TSP-1 was significantly different in SOL muscle among the three mouse lines. In response to acute exercise, MM mice displayed a 41 and 28% increase (P < 0.05) in VEGF in the GA and PLT, respectively, whereas neither control nor Non-MM mice showed a significant VEGF response to acute

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Function Measurement in Human Studies: Focus on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several observations have highlighted the shortcomings of using cholesterol content as the sole reflection of HDL metabolism. In particular, several large randomized controlled trials of extended release niacin and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on background statin therapy have failed to show improvement in ASCVD outcomes despite significant increases in HDL-C. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the principal HDL function that impacts macrophage foam cell formation and other functions such as endothelial activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma/serum reflects the first critical step of RCT and is considered a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL. Whether this function is operative in humans remains to be seen, but recent studies assessing cholesterol efflux in humans suggest that the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of human plasma or serum is a potent marker of ASCVD risk. This review describes the methodology of measuring CEC ex vivo from human samples and the findings to date linking CEC to human disease. Studies to date confirm that CEC can be reliably measured using stored human blood samples as cholesterol acceptors and suggest that CEC may be a promising new biomarker for atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize measurements and clarify the role CEC may play in predicting risk of developing disease and response to therapies. PMID:25968932

  4. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  5. High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2013-11-26

    Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents.

  6. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the ‘umbilical scar’ in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) ‘umbilical scar’ healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  7. High-Density Lipoprotein Function Measurement in Human Studies: Focus on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several observations have highlighted the shortcomings of using cholesterol content as the sole reflection of HDL metabolism. In particular, several large randomized controlled trials of extended release niacin and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on background statin therapy have failed to show improvement in ASCVD outcomes despite significant increases in HDL-C. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the principal HDL function that impacts macrophage foam cell formation and other functions such as endothelial activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma/serum reflects the first critical step of RCT and is considered a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL. Whether this function is operative in humans remains to be seen, but recent studies assessing cholesterol efflux in humans suggest that the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of human plasma or serum is a potent marker of ASCVD risk. This review describes the methodology of measuring CEC ex vivo from human samples and the findings to date linking CEC to human disease. Studies to date confirm that CEC can be reliably measured using stored human blood samples as cholesterol acceptors and suggest that CEC may be a promising new biomarker for atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize measurements and clarify the role CEC may play in predicting risk of developing disease and response to therapies. PMID:25968932

  8. High-Density Lipoprotein Function Measurement in Human Studies: Focus on Cholesterol Efflux Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, several observations have highlighted the shortcomings of using cholesterol content as the sole reflection of HDL metabolism. In particular, several large randomized controlled trials of extended release niacin and cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on background statin therapy have failed to show improvement in ASCVD outcomes despite significant increases in HDL-C. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the principal HDL function that impacts macrophage foam cell formation and other functions such as endothelial activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, monocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma/serum reflects the first critical step of RCT and is considered a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL. Whether this function is operative in humans remains to be seen, but recent studies assessing cholesterol efflux in humans suggest that the cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of human plasma or serum is a potent marker of ASCVD risk. This review describes the methodology of measuring CEC ex vivo from human samples and the findings to date linking CEC to human disease. Studies to date confirm that CEC can be reliably measured using stored human blood samples as cholesterol acceptors and suggest that CEC may be a promising new biomarker for atherosclerotic and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize measurements and clarify the role CEC may play in predicting risk of developing disease and response to therapies.

  9. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the 'umbilical scar' in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) 'umbilical scar' healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  10. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  11. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  12. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  13. Silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material with low expansion for high capacity and long cycle life lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Inden, Yuki; Endo, Morinobu

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims at developing a silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid material for high performance lithium-ion battery (LIB). It is composed of micronized silicon coated with so-called "soft-carbon" dispersed in soft-carbon matrix at nanometer level. This material is characterized with abundant nanosized voids with diameter of ca. 70 nm and hard bulk skeletal structure. It exhibited a long cycle life of 163 charging and discharging cycles with a large capacity of 850 mAh/g and retention rate up to 90% of the initial capacity in a half cell with Li-metal counter electrode. For this new material, the volume expansion ratio was 6.9% at a capacity level of 1100 mAh/g. This electrode capacity is approximately three times larger than that of graphite-based electrode currently used in LIB. Furthermore, this electrode retained 80.9% of its capacity at 250 cycles in a full cell with a LiCoO2 counter electrode. Addition of 5 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte improved the retention up to 81.3% after 300 cycles. These results demonstrate the usefulness and high possibility of this material as the negative electrode of LIB.

  14. Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.

    2010-02-03

    The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products

  15. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  16. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  17. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  18. A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, F

    1985-01-01

    A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form. PMID:3978213

  19. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  20. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  1. Study of genetic effects of high energy radiations with different ionizing capacities on extracellular phages.

    PubMed

    Bresler, S E; Kalinin, V L; Kopylova, Y U; Krivisky, A S; Rybchin, V N; Shelegedin, V N

    1975-07-01

    The inactivating and mutagenic action of high-energy radiations with different ionizing capacities (gamma-rays, protons, alpha-particles and accelerated ions of 12C and 20Ne) was studied by using coliphages lambda11 and SD as subjects. In particular the role of irradiation conditions (broth suspension, pure buffer, dry samples) and of the host functions recA, exrA and polA was investigated. The dose-response curve of induced mutagenesis was studied by measuring the yield of vir mutants in lambda11 and plaque mutants in SD. The following results were obtained. (1) The inactivation kinetics of phages under the action of gamma-rays and protons was first order to a survival of 10(-7). Heavy ions also showed exponential inactivation kinetics to a survival of 10(-4). At higher doses of 20Ne ion bombardment some deviation from one-hit kinetics was observed. For dry samples of phages the dimensions of targets for all types of radiation were approximately proportional to the molecular weights of phage DNA's. For densely ionizing radiation (heavy ions) the inactivating action was 3-5 times weaker than for gamma-rays and protons. (2) Mutagenesis was observed for all types of radiation, but heavy ions were 1-5-2 times less efficient than gamma-rays. For both phages studied the dose-response curve of mutagenesis was non-linear. The dependence on the dose was near to parabolic for lambda11. For SD a plateau or maximum of mutagenesis was observed for the relative number of mutants at a survival of about 10(-4). (3) Host-cell functions recA and exrA were practically indifferent for survival of gamma-irradiated phage lambda11, but indispensable for mutagenesis. Mutation recAI3 abolished induced vir mutations totally and exrA- reduced them significantly. The absence of the function polA had a considerable influence on phage survival, but no effect on vir mutation yield (if compared at the same survival level). (4) In conditions of indirect action of gamma-rays no vir mutations were

  2. High-temperature adiabatic calorimeter for constant-volume heat capacity measurements of compressed gases and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, J.W.; Deal, R.J.; Blanco, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    A high-temperature adiabatic calorimeter has been developed to measure the constant-volume specific heat capacities (c{sub v}) of both gases and liquids, especially fluids of interest to emerging energy technologies. The chief design feature is its nearly identical twin bomb arrangement, which allows accurate measurement of energy differences without large corrections for energy losses due to thermal radiation fluxes. Operating conditions for the calorimeter cover a range of temperatures from 250 K to 700 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Performance tests were made with a sample of twice-distilled water. Heat capacities for water were measured from 300 K to 420 K at pressures to 20 MPa. The measured heat capacities differed from those calculated with an independently developed standard reference formulation with a root-mean-square fractional deviation of 0.48%.

  3. Exploring highly-efficient routing strategy on scale-free networks with limited and diverse node capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; He, Xuan; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Since the delivery capacity of each node is neither uniform nor strictly proportional to the degree in many real networked systems such as the Internet, we consider the node capacity is composed of a small uniform fraction and a large degree dependent proportion. By comparing the optimal routing strategy [B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 046106; B. Danila, Y. Yu, J. A. Marsh and K. E. Bassler, Chaos 17 (2007) 026102] with the shortest path routing (SPR), the results show that the OR appears to be not efficient enough to enhance network traffic capacity. Then the efficient betweenness defined as the average betweenness for per delivery capacity is employed, and a so-called highly-efficient routing (HER) strategy is proposed. By iteratively minimizing the maximum efficient betweenness of any node in the network, the highest traffic capacity is achieved at the cost of a little average path lengthening. This work is very useful for network service providers to optimize the weight of each link incrementally to improve whole network transport ability.

  4. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  5. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  6. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ∼90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles.

  8. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. PMID:25697373

  9. Spontaneous Activity, Economy of Activity, and Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Bred for High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Colleen M.; Escande, Carlos; Burghardt, Paul R.; Zhang, Minzhi; Barbosa, Maria Teresa; Chini, Eduardo N.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Akil, Huda; Levine, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Though obesity is common, some people remain resistant to weight gain even in an obesogenic environment. The propensity to remain lean may be partly associated with high endurance capacity along with high spontaneous physical activity and the energy expenditure of activity, called non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Previous studies have shown that high-capacity running rats (HCR) are lean compared to low-capacity runners (LCR), which are susceptible to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Here, we examine the effect of diet on spontaneous activity and NEAT, as well as potential mechanisms underlying these traits, in rats selectively bred for high or low intrinsic aerobic endurance capacity. Compared to LCR, HCR were resistant to the sizeable increases in body mass and fat mass induced by a high-fat diet; HCR also had lower levels of circulating leptin. HCR were consistently more active than LCR, and had lower fuel economy of activity, regardless of diet. Nonetheless, both HCR and LCR showed a similar decrease in daily activity levels after high-fat feeding, as well as decreases in hypothalamic orexin-A content. The HCR were more sensitive to the NEAT-activating effects of intra-paraventricular orexin-A compared to LCR, especially after high-fat feeding. Lastly, levels of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in the skeletal muscle of HCR were consistently higher than LCR, and the high-fat diet decreased skeletal muscle PEPCK-C in both groups of rats. Differences in muscle PEPCK were not secondary to the differing amount of activity. This suggests the possibility that intrinsic differences in physical activity levels may originate at the level of the skeletal muscle, which could alter brain responsiveness to neuropeptides and other factors that regulate spontaneous daily activity and NEAT. PMID:20350549

  10. HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity are reduced in patients with very high HDL-C and coronary disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Anandita P.; Rodrigues, Amrith; Risman, Marjorie; McCoy, Mary; Trindade, Kevin; Qu, Liming; Cuchel, Marina; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared to controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. Approach 55 subjects with very high HDL-C (mean 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD around age 60 with no known risk factors for CAD (‘cases’) were identified through systematic recruitment. 120 control subjects without CAD, matched for race, gender, and HDL-C level (‘controls’), were identified. In all subjects, HDL composition was analyzed and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed. Results HDL phospholipid composition was significantly lower in cases (92 ± 37 mg/dL) than in controls (109 ± 43 mg/dL, p= 0.0095). HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly lower in cases (1.96 ± 0.39) compared with controls (2.11 ± 0.43, p= 0.04). Conclusions In persons with very high HDL-C, reduced HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with the paradoxical development of CAD. PMID:25838421

  11. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  12. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater.

  13. High-capacity adsorption of aniline using surface modification of lignocellulose-biomass jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Hu, Qi; Pan, Hongyu; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified jute fiber (MJF) were prepared with microwave treatment to generate a biosorbent for aniline removal. The characterization of the biosorbent was investigated by SEM, BET and FT-IR analysis to discuss the adsorption mechanism. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the optimum dosage for aniline adsorption was 3g/L, the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 7.0 and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The aniline adsorption follows the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated through the desorption of aniline by using 0.5M HCl solution, and the adsorption capacity after regeneration is even higher than that of virgin MJF. All these results prove MJF is a promising adsorbent for aniline removal in wastewater. PMID:26172392

  14. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  15. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-28

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ∼6.30 wt. %.

  16. An in situ self-developed graphite as high capacity anode of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengyao; Liu, Naiqiang; Chen, Yilei; Guan, Yuepeng; Wang, Weikun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yaqin

    2015-08-01

    Graphite with a large inter-planar distance (0.357 nm) was obtained from pig bone. It delivered an improving specific capacity which increased continuously to 538 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles. With microscopic characterization, it has been found that the pig-bone-based graphite was exfoliated to graphene during the charge-discharge process.

  17. An in situ self-developed graphite as high capacity anode of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengyao; Liu, Naiqiang; Chen, Yilei; Guan, Yuepeng; Wang, Weikun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yaqin

    2015-08-01

    Graphite with a large inter-planar distance (0.357 nm) was obtained from pig bone. It delivered an improving specific capacity which increased continuously to 538 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles. With microscopic characterization, it has been found that the pig-bone-based graphite was exfoliated to graphene during the charge-discharge process. PMID:26125069

  18. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  19. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  20. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  1. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  2. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  3. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  4. Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets: facile synthesis, structural modelling, magnetic properties and application for high capacity lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Horvat, Josip; Munroe, Paul; Ahn, Hyojun; Ranjbartoreh, Ali R; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets were synthesised by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Atomistic simulation and calculations on surface attachment energy successfully predicted the polyhedral structure of magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy confirmed the crystal structure of magnetite, which is consistent with the theoretical modelling. The magnetic property measurements show the superspin glass state of the polyhedral nanocrystals, which could originate from the nanometer size of individual single crystals. When applied as an anode material in lithium ion cells, magnetite nanocrystals demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capacity, a satisfactory cyclability, and an excellent high rate capacity.

  5. Tissue-like Silicon Nanowires-Based Three-Dimensional Anodes for High-Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peled, Emanuel; Patolsky, Fernando; Golodnitsky, Diana; Freedman, Kathrin; Davidi, Guy; Schneier, Dan

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report on the scalable synthesis and characterization of novel architecture three-dimensional (3D) high-capacity amorphous silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based anodes with focus on studying their electrochemical degradation mechanisms. We achieved an unprecedented combination of remarkable performance characteristics, high loadings of 3-15 mAh/cm(2), a very low irreversible capacity (10% for the 3-4 mAh/cm(2) anodes), current efficiency greater than 99.5%, cycle stability (both in half cells and a LiFePO4 battery), a total capacity of 457 mAh/cm(2) over 204 cycles and fast charge-discharge rates (up to 2.7C at 20 mA/cm(2)). These SiNWs-based binder-free 3D anodes have been cycled for over 200 cycles, exhibiting a stable cycle life. Notably, it was found that the growth of the continuous SEI layer thickness, and its concomitant increase in resistivity, represents the major reason for the observed capacity loss of the SiNWs-based anodes. Importantly, these NWs-based anodes of novel architecture meet the requirements of lithium batteries for future portable, and electric-vehicle, applications.

  6. Modeling high adsorption capacity and kinetics of organic macromolecules on super-powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kurotobi, Ryuji; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The capacity to adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) on small particle-size activated carbon (super-powdered activated carbon, SPAC) is higher than that on larger particle-size activated carbon (powdered-activated carbon, PAC). Increased adsorption capacity is likely attributable to the larger external surface area because the NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle; they preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle. In this study, we propose a new isotherm equation, the Shell Adsorption Model (SAM), to explain the higher adsorption capacity on smaller adsorbent particles and to describe quantitatively adsorption isotherms of activated carbons of different particle sizes: PAC and SPAC. The SAM was verified with the experimental data of PSS adsorption kinetics as well as equilibrium. SAM successfully characterized PSS adsorption isotherm data for SPACs and PAC simultaneously with the same model parameters. When SAM was incorporated into an adsorption kinetic model, kinetic decay curves for PSSs adsorbing onto activated carbons of different particle sizes could be simultaneously described with a single kinetics parameter value. On the other hand, when SAM was not incorporated into such an adsorption kinetic model and instead isotherms were described by the Freundlich model, the kinetic decay curves were not well described. The success of the SAM further supports the adsorption mechanism of PSSs preferentially adsorbing near the outer surface of activated carbon particles. PMID:21172719

  7. On-chip high power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10 000 cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif S.; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms.We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium battery anode with over 50X power density, and 100X energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA cm-2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, preventing the degradation and poor cycling performance attributed to deep storage in the bulk silicon. This device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10 000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mA h cm-2 without notable capacity fade. This demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based platforms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04720f

  8. Renal function and hyperfiltration capacity in lead smelter workers with high bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Konings, J; Buchet, J P; Bernard, A; Green, S; Bradley, D; Morgan, W; Chettle, D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The study was undertaken to assess whether the changes in urinary excretion of eicosanoids (a decrease of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGF2 and an increase of thromboxane) previously found in lead (Pb) exposed workers may decrease the renal haemodynamic response to an acute oral protein load. METHODS--The renal haemodynamic response was estimated by determining the capacity of the kidney to increase the glomerular filtration rate (in terms of creatinine clearance) after an acute consumption of cooked red meat (400 g). A cross sectional study was carried out in 76 male Pb workers (age range 30 to 60 years) and 68 controls matched for age, sex, socioeconomic state, general environment (residence), and workshift characteristics. RESULTS--The Pb workers had been exposed to lead on average for 18 (range 6-36) years and showed a threefold higher body burden of Pb than the controls as estimated by in vivo measurements of tibial Pb concentration (Pb-T) (geometric mean 66 v 21 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral). The geometric mean concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and Pb in urine (Pb-U) were also significantly higher in the Pb group (Pb-B: 430 v 141 micrograms Pb/l; Pb-U: 40 v 7.5 micrograms Pb/g creatinine). These conditions of chronic exposure to Pb did not entail any significant changes in the concentration of blood borne and urinary markers of nephrotoxicity, such as urinary low and high molecular weight plasma derived proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein, albumin, transferrin), urinary activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and kallikrein, and serum concentrations of creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin, urea, and uric acid. All participants also had normal baseline creatinine clearances (> 80 ml/min/1.73 m2) amounting on average to 115.5 in the controls v 121.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 in the Pb group. Both control and Pb exposed workers showed a significant increment in creatinine clearance (on average 15%) after oral protein load suggesting that the

  9. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, Frank; Grevendonk, Lotte; Verboven, Kenneth; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type II (+23±7%) and IIa (+23±6%,) CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13±7% and +45±20%) and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9±2.0% and HCTR: -2.5±1.2%). Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21±4%, time to exhaustion +24±5%, VO2max +17±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:26418222

  10. Lower oxidative DNA damage despite greater ROS production in muscles from rats selectively bred for high running capacity.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, Constance; Romestaing, Caroline; Burelle, Yan; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Seadon, Scott; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Hepple, Russell T

    2011-03-01

    Artificial selection in rat has yielded high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR) that differ in intrinsic (untrained) aerobic exercise ability and metabolic disease risk. To gain insight into how oxygen metabolism may have been affected by selection, we compared mitochondrial function, oxidative DNA damage (8-dihydroxy-guanosine; 8dOHG), and antioxidant enzyme activities in soleus muscle (Sol) and gastrocnemius muscle (Gas) of adult and aged LCR vs. HCR rats. In Sol of adult HCR rats, maximal ADP-stimulated respiration was 37% greater, whereas in Gas of adult HCR rats, there was a 23% greater complex IV-driven respiratory capacity and 54% greater leak as a fraction of electron transport capacity (suggesting looser mitochondrial coupling) vs. LCR rats. H(2)O(2) emission per gram of muscle was 24-26% greater for both muscles in adult HCR rats vs. LCR, although H(2)O(2) emission in Gas was 17% lower in HCR, after normalizing for citrate synthase activity (marker of mitochondrial content). Despite greater H(2)O(2) emission, 8dOHG levels were 62-78% lower in HCR rats due to 62-96% higher superoxide dismutase activity in both muscles and 47% higher catalase activity in Sol muscle in adult HCR rats, with no evidence for higher 8 oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1; DNA repair enzyme) protein expression. We conclude that genetic segregation for high running capacity has generated a molecular network of cellular adaptations, facilitating a superior response to oxidative stress. PMID:21148474

  11. Powder-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-05-03

    A powder-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The powder-based adsorbent includes polymer powder with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the powder-based adsorbent includes irradiating polymer powder, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Powder-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  12. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  13. Manganese hexacyanomanganate open framework as a high-capacity positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Richard Y; Pasta, Mauro; Woo Lee, Seok; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-14

    Potential applications of sodium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage, portable electronics and electric vehicles have revitalized research interest in these batteries. However, the performance of sodium-ion electrode materials has not been competitive with that of lithium-ion electrode materials. Here we present sodium manganese hexacyanomanganate (Na2MnII[MnII(CN)6]), an open-framework crystal structure material, as a viable positive electrode for sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate a high discharge capacity of 209 mAh g(-1) at C/5 (40 mA g(-1)) and excellent capacity retention at high rates in a propylene carbonate electrolyte. We provide chemical and structural evidence for the unprecedented storage of 50% more sodium cations than previously thought possible during electrochemical cycling. These results represent a step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries.

  14. Genetic determinants for intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity in mice selected for high muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kärst, Stefan; Cheng, Riyan; Schmitt, Armin O; Yang, Hyuna; de Villena, Fernando Pardo Manuel; Palmer, Abraham A; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-10-01

    Intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity are important traits in livestock as they influence meat quality, nutritive value of the muscle, and animal health. As a model for livestock, two inbred lines of the Berlin Muscle Mouse population, which had been long-term selected for high muscle mass, were used to identify genomic regions affecting intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity. The intramuscular fat content of the Musculus longissimus was on average 1.4 times higher in BMMI806 than in BMMI816 mice. This was accompanied by a 1.5 times lower water-holding capacity of the Musculus quadriceps in BMMI816 mice. Linkage analyses with 332 G(3) animals of reciprocal crosses between these two lines revealed quantitative trait loci for intramuscular fat content on chromosome 7 and for water-holding capacity on chromosome 2. In part, the identified loci coincide with syntenic regions in pigs in which genetic effects for the same traits were found. Therefore, these muscle-weight-selected mouse lines and the produced intercross populations are valuable genetic resources to identify genes that could also contribute to meat quality in other species. PMID:21732194

  15. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g−1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water. PMID:26843015

  16. A Porous Aromatic Framework Constructed from Benzene Rings Has a High Adsorption Capacity for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qin; Zhao, Changwei; Liu, Guixia; Ren, Hao

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and easily constructed porous aromatic framework (PAF-45) was successfully prepared using the Scholl reaction. PAF-45 was, for the first time, used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Systematic experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS and to characterize the kinetics of the adsorption process. The adsorption of PFOS onto PAF-45 reached equilibrium in 30 min, and the adsorption capacity of PAF-45 for PFOS was excellent (5847 mg g‑1 at pH 3). The amount of PFOS adsorbed by PAF-45 increased significantly as the cation (Na+, Mg2+, or Fe3+) concentration increased, which probably occurred because the cations enhanced the interactions between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and the positively charged PAF-45 surface. The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ were found to form complexes with PFOS anions in solution. Density functional theory was used to identify the interactions between PFOS and Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. We expect that materials of the same type as PAF-45 could be useful adsorbents for removing organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and contaminated surface water.

  17. A completely automated flow, heat-capacity, calorimeter for use at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z. ); Sandarusi, J. )

    1990-11-01

    An automated, flow calorimeter has been constructed to measure the isobaric heat capacities of concentrated, aqueous electrolyte solutions using a differential calorimetry technique. The calorimeter is capable of operation to 700 K and 40 MPa with a measurement accuracy of 0.03% relative to the heat capacity of the pure reference fluid (water). A novel design encloses the calorimeter within a double set of separately controlled, copper, adiabatic shields that minimize calorimeter heat losses and precisely control the temperature of the inlet fluids. A multistage preheat train, used to efficiently heat the flowing fluid, includes a counter-current heat exchanger for the inlet and outlet fluid streams in tandem with two calorimeter preheaters. Complete system automation is accomplished with a distributed control scheme using multiple processors, allowing the major control tasks of calorimeter operation and control, data logging and display, and pump control to be performed simultaneously. A sophisticated pumping strategy for the two separate syringe pumps allows continuous fluid delivery. This automation system enables the calorimeter to operate unattended except for the reloading of sample fluids. In addition, automation has allowed the development and implementation of an improved heat loss calibration method that provides calorimeter calibration with absolute accuracy comparable to the overall measurement precision, even for very concentrated solutions.

  18. A systematic approach to high and stable discharge capacity for scaling up the lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mohammad Rejaul; Wang, Jiazhao; Liang, Xin; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2015-04-01

    A systematic approach to improving the performance of the Li-S battery is presented, based on applying high energy ball milling to create a porous sulfur-carbon composite, insertion of a free-standing layer, and adoption of a new charging method. Surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope imaging show that the ball-milled sulfur powder has a porous structure and very high specific surface area. A vacuum-filtrated single-walled carbon nanotube free-standing layer is inserted in between the sulfur cathode and the separator. It is believed that high-surface-area porous sulfur will help to increase the conductivity of the elemental sulfur due to better adhesion between the conducting carbon and the sulfur, while the free-standing layer will sequester longer chain polysulfides, which are responsible for the well-known shuttling phenomenon. By the combination of these methods, we have achieved excellent capacity and cycle life. Finally, a new charging method which will largely prevent the formation of longer chain polysulfides is also applied to increase the capacity retention. It is believed that with the combination of ball milling, the free-standing layer, and the new charging method, it is possible to commercialize the Li-S battery with better capacity and cycle life.

  19. Ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation can both induce photoprotective capacity allowing barley to overcome high radiation stress.

    PubMed

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Štroch, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Špunda, Vladimír; Tříska, Jan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Robson, T Matthew; Urban, Otmar

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of acclimation to ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on photoprotective mechanisms in barley leaves. Barley plants were acclimated for 7 days under three combinations of high or low UV and PAR treatments ([UV-PAR-], [UV-PAR+], [UV+PAR+]). Subsequently, plants were exposed to short-term high radiation stress (HRS; defined by high intensities of PAR - 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1), UV-A - 10 W m(-2) and UV-B 2 W m(-2) for 4 h), to test their photoprotective capacity. The barley variety sensitive to photooxidative stress (Barke) had low constitutive flavonoid content compared to the resistant variety (Bonus) under low UV and PAR intensities. The accumulation of lutonarin and 3-feruloylquinic acid, but not of saponarin, was greatly enhanced by high PAR and further increased by UV exposure. Acclimation of plants to both high UV and PAR intensities also increased the total pool of xanthophyll-cycle pigments (VAZ). Subsequent exposure to HRS revealed that prior acclimation to UV and PAR was able to ameliorate the negative consequences of HRS on photosynthesis. Both total contents of epidermal flavonols and the total pool of VAZ were closely correlated with small reductions in light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry caused by HRS. Based on these results, we conclude that growth under high PAR can substantially increase the photoprotective capacity of barley plants compared with plants grown under low PAR. However, additional UV radiation is necessary to fully induce photoprotective mechanisms in the variety Barke. This study demonstrates that UV-exposure can lead to enhanced photoprotective capacity and can contribute to the induction of tolerance to high radiation stress in barley.

  20. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  1. Raising the Bar, Building Capacity: Driving Improvement in California's Continuation High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2012-01-01

    California's approximately 500 continuation high schools are estimated to serve more than 115,000 California high school students each year--a number that approaches almost 10 percent of all high school students and as many as one of every seven high school seniors. Continuation schools are, however, more racially and ethnically concentrated than…

  2. Raising the Bar, Building Capacity: Driving Improvement in California's Continuation High Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2012-01-01

    California's approximately 500 continuation high schools are estimated to serve more than 115,000 California high school students each year--a number that approaches almost 10 percent of all high school students and as many as one of every seven high school seniors. Continuation schools are, however, more racially and ethnically concentrated than…

  3. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  4. High Capacity Method for Real-Time Audio Data Hiding Using the FFT Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This paper presents a very efficient method for audio data hiding which is suitable for real-time applications. The FFT magnitudes which are in a band of frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz are modified slightly and the frequencies which have a magnitude less than a threshold are used for embedding. Its low complexity is one of the most important properties of this method making it appropriate for real-time applications. In addition, the suggested scheme is blind, since it does not need the original signal for extracting the hidden bits. The Experimental results show that it has a very good capacity (5 kbps), without significant perceptual distortion and provides robustness against MPEG compression (MP3).

  5. Graphene-wrapped sulfur particles as a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery cathode material with high capacity and cycling stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-13

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated submicrometer sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates, and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ∼600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  6. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    PubMed

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  7. High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Jin; Wang, Linfeng; Gao, Nan; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance.

  8. Chemical forces and water holding capacity study of heat-induced myofibrillar protein gel as affected by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziye; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Xiaozhi; Chen, Yinji; You, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The effects of high pressure (100-500 MPa) on chemical forces and water holding capacity of heat-induced myofibrillar protein (MP) gel were investigated. As pressure increased, total sulfhydryl (SH) group content decreased and absolute value of zeta potential increased, which suggested the formation of disulfide bonds and increased the strength of electrostatic repulsion. Surface hydrophobicity and normalized intensity of the 760 cm(-1) band showed a maximum value at 200 MPa, indicating that 200 MPa was the optimum pressure for hydrophobic interactions. Hydrogen bonding of MP gel was strengthened at pressures of 300 MPa and above. Bound water (T2b) had lower water mobility and was more closely associated with proteins. Free water (T22) had higher water mobility. More free water was attracted by proteins or trapped in gel structure, and transferred to bound or immobilized water as pressure increased. A value of 200 MPa was the optimum pressure for the water holding capacity of MP gel.

  9. High capacity and superlong cycle life of Li3VO4/N-C hybrids as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jicheng; Ni, Shibing; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

    2016-01-01

    High capacity and superlong cycle life of Li3VO4 have been actualized via carbon hybridization and N doping. The Li3VO4/N doped C (Li3VO4/N-C) that fabricated via an in situ carbonization method based on an intermedial solution phase delivers initial discharge and charge capacities of 686 and 540 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 0.15 A g-1, which maintain of 538 and 536 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles, showing excellent cycle stability. Meanwhile, the Li3VO4/N-C exhibits superior rate performance and long life performance. After 150 cycles at various specific currents from 0.1 to 2.0 A g-1, the discharge and charge capacities can restore 100% when reverting the specific current to 0.1 A g-1. After 1100 cycles at a specific current of 2.0 A g-1, the discharge and charge capacities can maintain of 340 and 337 mAh g-1, showing no capacity attenuation in cycling.

  10. Reversible conversion-alloying of Sb2O3 as a high-capacity, high-rate, and durable anode for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meijuan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Wenping; Wang, Hongtao; Jin, Chuanhong; Yan, Mi

    2014-11-12

    Sodium ion batteries are attracting ever-increasing attention for the applications in large/grid scale energy storage systems. However, the research on novel Na-storage electrode materials is still in its infancy, and the cycling stability, specific capacity, and rate capability of the reported electrode materials cannot satisfy the demands of practical applications. Herein, a high performance Sb(2)O(3) anode electrochemically reacted via the reversible conversion-alloying mechanism is demonstrated for the first time. The Sb(2)O(3) anode exhibits a high capacity of 550 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) and 265 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1). A reversible capacity of 414 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved after 200 stable cycles. The synergistic effect involving conversion and alloying reactions promotes stabilizing the structure of the active material and accelerating the kinetics of the reaction. The mechanism may offer a well-balanced approach for sodium storage to create high capacity and cycle-stable anode materials.

  11. A lithium-sulfur cathode with high sulfur loading and high capacity per area: a binder-free carbon fiber cloth-sulfur material.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiao; Wang, Weikun; Yuan, Keguo; Yang, Yusheng; Wang, Anbang

    2014-11-11

    A sulfur cathode with high capacity per area (>7 mA h cm(-2)) and high sulfur loading (6.7 mg cm(-2)) was fabricated by synthesizing a carbon fiber cloth-sulfur composite via a simple method. It is worth noting that an ingenious method is adopted which can improve the performance of Li-S batteries by forming in situ polysulfide ions.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with different shells for biorecognition: high specific binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Tumturk, Hayrettin; Sahin, Ferat; Turan, Eylem

    2014-03-01

    Modifying the surfaces of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by the covalent attachment of biomolecules will enable their application as media for magnetically-assisted bioseparations. In this paper, we reported both the activity and specific binding capacity of ferritin antibodies on core-shell MNPs. The antibodies were covalently attached on silica-, silver- and polydopamine-coated MNPs by different methods. Anti-ferritin was bound onto the silica- or silver-coated MNPs by conventional methods using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) or 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), which was followed by activation of carboxyl groups by EDC/NHS. However with anti-ferritin immobilized onto the Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified with polydopamine, an in situ coating formed through the adhesive proteins. In addition, a great deal of anti-ferritin biomolecules covalently attached onto the MNPs. According to our results, the amounts of bound anti-ferritin onto the silica-, silver- and PDA-coated MNPs were 70, 75 and 95 μg anti-ferritin per mg MNP, respectively. In the experiments, polydopamine (PDA)-coated MNPs showed faster adsorption, more significant selectivity and a larger binding capacity than the others. Also, the equilibrium dissociation constants of the antigen-antibody complexes were determined on the anti-ferritin-immobilized MNPs. Silica-, PDA- and silver-coated MNPs had Kd values of 5.45 × 10(-7), 2.12 × 10(-7) and 3.91 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), respectively. Based on these results, the affinity of the anti-ferritin for ferritin on the PDA-coated MNPs was approximately 10-fold higher than that on the silica- and silver-coated MNPs. In addition, among the anti-ferritin-immobilized silica-, silver- and PDA-coated MNPs, the PDA-coated MNPs showed the highest antigen selectivity values. As a result, anti-ferritin-immobilized PDA-coated MNPs represented a higher activity and stronger affinity for the specific antigen than the others. PMID:24409453

  13. High-capacity anion exchangers based on poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Wang, Yong; Cheng, Heli; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres were prepared by the two-staged swelling and polymerization method and applied to prepare anion exchange stationary phases. Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, diethylamine and triethylamine were selected to prepare the quaternary ammonium groups of anion exchangers, respectively. The diameters and surface characteristics of microspheres were measured by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The anion exchangers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis and breakthrough curve methods. The chromatographic performances of anion exchangers were illustrated by separating conventional anions, organic weak acids and carbohydrates. The results indicated that the anion exchange capacities were controllable by changing either the content of glycidylmethacrylate in microspheres or the number of bonded quaternary ammonium layer. Meanwhile, the substituents of quaternary ammonium groups greatly influenced the separation properties of anion exchangers. Finally, the three-layer methylamine-quaternized anion exchanger was successfully applied for the determination of fluoride in tea sample. The content of fluoride was detected to be 0.13mgg(-1) without the interference of acetate and formate. PMID:27474308

  14. High-capacity adsorption of dissolved hexavalent chromium using amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Zhang, Tengge; Xu, Xing; Huang, Xin; Yu, Huan; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-08-01

    Easily separable amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites (AF-MCS) were employed for effective adsorption and reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to nontoxic Cr(III). The saturated magnetization of AF-MCS reached 6.2emu/g, and as a result, it could be separated from aqueous solution by a magnetic process for its superparamagnetism. The studies of various factors influencing the sorption behavior indicated that the optimum AF-MCS dosage for Cr(VI) adsorption was 1g/L, and the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 3.0. The chromium adsorption perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. Furthermore, characterization of AF-MCS was investigated by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, BET, VSM and XPS analysis to discuss the uptake mechanism. Basically, these results demonstrated that AF-MCS prepared in this work has shown its merit in effective removal of Cr(VI) and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  15. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  16. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  17. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J.; Willner, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front ‘twisting’ indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s−1 millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s−1 Hz−1 using four independent orbital–angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10−3. In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than −12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s−1 link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. PMID:25224763

  18. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-09-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  19. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  20. Harnessing a High Cargo-Capacity Transposon for Genetic Applications in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Balciunas, Darius; Bell, Jason; Geurts, Aron; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Wang, Xin; Hackett, Perry B; Largaespada, David A; McIvor, R. Scott; Ekker, Stephen C

    2006-01-01

    Viruses and transposons are efficient tools for permanently delivering foreign DNA into vertebrate genomes but exhibit diminished activity when cargo exceeds 8 kilobases (kb). This size restriction limits their molecular genetic and biotechnological utility, such as numerous therapeutically relevant genes that exceed 8 kb in size. Furthermore, a greater payload capacity vector would accommodate more sophisticated cis cargo designs to modulate the expression and mutagenic risk of these molecular therapeutics. We show that the Tol2 transposon can efficiently integrate DNA sequences larger than 10 kb into human cells. We characterize minimal sequences necessary for transposition (miniTol2) in vivo in zebrafish and in vitro in human cells. Both the 8.5-kb Tol2 transposon and 5.8-kb miniTol2 engineered elements readily function to revert the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase in an animal model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Together, Tol2 provides a novel nonviral vector for the delivery of large genetic payloads for gene therapy and other transgenic applications. PMID:17096595

  1. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  2. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P J; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J; Willner, Alan E

    2014-09-16

    One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front 'twisting' indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s(-1) millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s(-1) Hz(-1) using four independent orbital-angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10(-3). In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than -12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s(-1) link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations.

  3. Electrochemically Induced High Capacity Displacement Reaction of PEO/MoS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Wang, Xaojian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Xun, Shidi; Liu, Gao; Koech, Phillip K.; Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P.

    2011-08-09

    MoS2/PEO/graphene composite is successfully prepared and the discharge mechanism of MoS2 as an anode material for Li-ion batteries has been investigated systematically in this work. The simultaneous formation of Li2S and Mo at deep discharge depth has been shown for the first time. The deposition of Mo metal with Li residing on the defects after the first discharge increases the intrinsic electronic conductivity of the electrode leading to a superior cycling stability for over 185 cycles. After the first discharge the amorphous Mo matrix allows a large amount of Li+ ions to repeatedly deposit and being oxidized during cycling while the transition between Li2S and S contribute to the capacity above 2.0 V. The interactions between as-formed Mo and S prevents the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfide thus providing clues to immobilize the soluble species in a Li-S battery. Excellent rate performances are achieved in this MoS2/PEO/graphene composite indicating a fast diffusion path of Li+ ions existing not only in the bulk material but also in the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte.

  4. Li2CuVO4: A high capacity positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The new compound Li2CuVO4 was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2CuVO4 was characterized by galvanometric cycling, cycle voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structure of Li2CuVO4 is isotypic to Pmn21-Li3VO4. It can be described as a disordered wurtzite structure with rows of Li1/Cu1 atoms alternating with rows of (Li2/Cu2)-V-(Li2/Cu2) atoms along [100]. All cations are tetrahedrally coordinated. The lithium and copper atoms are statistically disordered over two crystallographic sites. The electrochemical cycling between 2.0 and 4.7 V indicates that almost two lithium atoms could be extracted and re-intercalated. This delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 at a C/50 rate (theoretical capacity = 139 mA h g-1 for one lithium). Li2CuVO4 shows also high rate capability with a capacity of 175 mA h g-1 at 1C rate. This demonstrates that Cu-based compounds can be very interesting as electrodes for Li-ion batteries if Cu-dissolution is avoided.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis and potential applicability of rhombohedral siderite as a high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Yu, Yue; Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxi; Zhao, Chenhao; Liu, Rui; Shen, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Natural siderite is a valuable iron mineral composed of ferrous carbonate (FeCO3), which is commonly found in hydrothermal veins and contains no sulfur or phosphorus. In this paper, micro-sized FeCO3 crystallites are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route, and almost all of them possess a rhombohedral shape similar to that of natural products. When applied as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the synthetic siderite can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of ∼1587 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of 68% at 200 mA g-1, remaining a reversible value of 1018 mAh g-1 over 120 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, after 120 cycles the residual specific capacity (812 mAh g-1) is still higher than the theoretical capacity of FeCO3 (463 mAh g-1). Moreover, a novel reversible conversion mechanism accounts for the excellent electrochemical performances of rhombohedral FeCO3 to a great extent, implying the potential applicability of synthetic siderite as lithium ion battery anodes.

  6. Sepiolite-sulfur as a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Junan; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Juanjuan; Pan, Yong; Ma, Zengsheng; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have the theoretical energy density of up to 2600 Wh/kg, though its commercialization is limited by high material cost and poor cyclic performance. In this work, we show that sepiolite-sulfur is a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Sepiolite is a porous mineral with specific structure, outstanding physical and chemical adsorption characteristics, and excellent ion exchange capability, making it an ideal matrix material for lithium-sulfur batteries. It is shown that the first specific discharge capacity of sepiolite-sulfur cathode is about 1436 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C current rate, and it remains as high as 901 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles. Under 1 C current density, the first discharge capacity is 1206 mAh g-1, and maintains a high value of 601 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles. The raw materials are abundant and low cost, and the manufacturing process is simple and scalable, making it promising for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  7. School Reform in a High Poverty Elementary School: A Grounded Theory Case Study of Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodman, Stephanie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…

  8. NOVEL POLY-GLUTAMIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AT HIGH CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various sorbent/ion exchange materials have been reported in the literature for metal ion entrapment. We have developed a highly innovative and new approach to obtain high metal pick-up utilizing poly-amino acids (poly-L-glutamic acid, 14,000 MW) covalently attached to membrane p...

  9. Evaluating the Capacity to Generate and Preserve Nitric Oxide Bioactivity in Highly Purified Earthworm Erythrocruorin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Camille J.; Talwar, Abhinav; Palmer, Andre F.; Cabrales, Pedro; Gerfen, Gary; Friedman, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    The giant extracellular hemoglobin (erythrocruorin) from the earth worm (Lumbricus terrestris) has shown promise as a potential hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) in in vivo animal studies. An important beneficial characteristic of this hemoglobin (LtHb) is the large number of heme-based oxygen transport sites that helps overcome issues of osmotic stress when attempting to provide enough material for efficient oxygen delivery. A potentially important additional property is the capacity of the HBOC either to generate nitric oxide (NO) or to preserve NO bioactivity to compensate for decreased levels of NO in the circulation. The present study compares the NO-generating and NO bioactivity-preserving capability of LtHb with that of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) through several reactions including the nitrite reductase, reductive nitrosylation, and still controversial nitrite anhydrase reactions. An assignment of a heme-bound dinitrogen trioxide as the stable intermediate associated with the nitrite anhydrase reaction in both LtHb and HbA is supported based on functional and EPR spectroscopic studies. The role of the redox potential as a factor contributing to the NO-generating activity of these two proteins is evaluated. The results show that LtHb undergoes the same reactions as HbA and that the reduced efficacy for these reactions for LtHb relative to HbA is consistent with the much higher redox potential of LtHb. Evidence of functional heterogeneity in LtHb is explained in terms of the large difference in the redox potential of the isolated subunits. PMID:25371199

  10. Innate stimulatory capacity of high molecular weight transition metals Au (gold) and Hg (mercury).

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Alsalem, Inás W A; Bontkes, Hetty J; Verstege, Marleen I; Gibbs, Sue; von Blomberg, B M E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, cobalt and palladium ions can induce an innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which is present on dendritic cells (DC). Here we studied mechanisms of action for DC immunotoxicity to gold and mercury. Next to gold (Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O) and mercury (HgCl2), nickel (NiCl2) was included as a positive control. MoDC activation was assessed by release of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-8. Also PBMC were studied, and THP-1 cells were used as a substitution for DC for evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, as well as phenotypic, alterations in response to gold and mercury. Our results showed that both Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O and HgCl2 induce substantial release of IL-8, but not IL-6, CCL2 or IL-10, from MoDc, PBMC, or THP-1 cells. Also gold and, to a lesser extent mercury, caused modest dendritic cell maturation as detected by increased membrane expression of CD40 and CD80. Both metals thus show innate immune response capacities, although to a lower extent than reported earlier for NiCl2, CoCl2 and Na2 [PdCl4]. Importantly, the gold-induced response could be ascribed to TLR3 rather than TLR4 triggering, whereas the nature of the innate mercury response remains to be clarified. In conclusion both gold and mercury can induce innate immune responses, which for gold could be ascribed to TLR3 dependent signalling. These responses are likely to contribute to adaptive immune responses to these metals, as reflected by skin and mucosal allergies.

  11. High-Capacity and Self-Stabilized Manganese Carbonate Microspheres as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Wang, Shiyao; Wang, Yafei; Meng, Wen; Deng, Bohua; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Liu, Jinping

    2016-09-28

    Manganese carbonate (MnCO3) is an attractive anode material with high capacity based on conversion reaction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its application is mainly hindered by poor cycling performance. Building nanostructures/porous structures and nanocomposites has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to buffer the volume changes and maintain the electrode integrity for long-term cycling. It is widely believed that microsized MnCO3 is not suitable for use as anode material for LIBs because of its poor conductivity and the absence of nanostructure. Herein, different from previous reports, spherical MnCO3 with the mean diameters of 6.9 μm (MnCO3-B), 4.0 μm (MnCO3-M), and 2.6 μm (MnCO3-S) were prepared via controllable precipitation and utilized as anode materials for LIBs. It is interesting that the as-prepared MnCO3 microspheres demonstrate both high capacity and excellent cycling performance comparable to their reported nanosized counterparts. MnCO3-B, MnCO3-M, and MnCO3-S deliver reversible specific capacities of 487.3, 573.9, and 656.8 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, respectively. All the MnCO3 microspheres show capacity retention more than 90% after the initial stage. The advantages of MnCO3 microspheres were investigated via constant-current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that there should be substantial structure transformation from microsized particle to self-stabilized nanostructured matrix for MnCO3 at the initial charge/discharge stage. The evolution of EIS during charge/discharge clearly indicates the formation and stabilization of the nanostructured matrix. The self-stabilized porous matrix maintains the electrode structure to deliver excellent cycling performance, and contributes extra capacity beyond conversion reaction. PMID:27598035

  12. Simultaneous high-capacity optical and microwave data transmission over metal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Banan, Behnam; Hai, Mohammed Shafiqul; Berini, Pierre; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of power efficient and high throughput chip-to-chip interconnects is necessary to keep pace with the bandwidth demands in high-performance computing platforms. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to optimize inter-chip communications using traditional copper waveguides. Also, optical links are extensively investigated as an alternative technology for fast and efficient data routing. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous microwave and optical high-speed data transmission over metallic waveguides embedded in polymer. The demonstration is significant as it merges two layers of communications onto the same structure towards increased aggregated bandwidth, and energy-efficient data movement. PMID:26072782

  13. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  14. piggyBac as a high-capacity transgenesis and gene-therapy vector in human cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongbo; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Tian; Wu, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The stable genomic integration and expression of a large transgene is a major hurdle in gene therapy. We show that the modified piggyBac (PB) transposon system can be used to introduce a 207 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the RORγ/γt locus into human cells and mice. PB-mediated transgenesis results in a single copy of a stably inherited and expressed transgene. These results indicate that PB could serve as an effective high-capacity vector for functional analysis of the mammalian genome and for gene therapy in human cells.

  15. [Use of new high-protein products in nutrition for the purpose of increasing the work capacity of students].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, M A; Fateeva, E M; Balashova, V A; Popova, A V; Kodrian, N Iu

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a dietary that includes new high-protein products containing complete protein, on the health status and performance capacity of schoolchildren during their school-hours was studied. Under observation were kept 60 schoolchildren, aged 13-14 years who were learning two foreign languages. Schoolchildren receiving a specialized ration were noted to show a number of positive regular changes. Their physical state, clinico-physiological characteristics and the functional state of the central nervous system demonstrated a definite improvement. PMID:930042

  16. Terahertz oscillators and receivers using electron devices for high-capacity wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Recent progress in room-temperature resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) terahertz (THz) oscillators and high-electron-mobility- transistor (HEMT) THz receivers is reported in this paper. In this study, oscillations up to 1.86 THz were obtained using an optimized antenna and RTD. Using a two-element oscillator array, high output power of 0.6 mW at 620 GHz was obtained. THz communication up to 3 Gbps was demonstrated. A structure for high-speed direct modulation was fabricated, and the intensity modulation up to 30 GHz was achieved. A novel oscillator structure was proposed and fabricated for extraction of output power without using a Si lens. A short-gate InGaAs HEMT detector integrated with a broadband bow-tie antenna was fabricated, and a high current sensitivity of ~5 A/W was obtained at 280 GHz.

  17. On-chip high-power porous silicon lithium ion batteries with stable capacity over 10000 cycles (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Andrew S.; Freudiger, Daniel; Gani, Zarif; Share, Keith; Oakes, Landon; Carter, Rachel E.; Pint, Cary L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a graphene-passivated on-chip porous silicon material as a high rate lithium ion battery anode with over 50x power density and 100x energy density improvement compared to identically prepared on-chip porous silicon supercapacitors. We demonstrate this Faradaic storage behavior to occur at fast charging rates (1-10 mA/cm2) where lithium locally intercalates into the nanoporous silicon, but not underlying bulk silicon material. This prevents the degradation and poor cycling performance that is commonly observed from deep storage in bulk silicon materials. As a result, this device exhibits cycling performance that exceeds 10,000 cycles with capacity above 0.1 mAh/cm2, without notable capacity fade. This work demonstrates a practical route toward high power, high energy, and long lifetime all-silicon on-chip storage systems relevant toward integration of energy storage into electronics, photovoltaics, and other silicon-based technology.

  18. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  19. Macrophages from chickens selected for high antibody response produced more nitric oxide and have greater phagocytic capacity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes; Guillermo, Landi Veivi Costilla; Matta, Marcos Fernando de Rezende; Soares, Sandro Gomes; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2011-04-15

    Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system, which, through phagocytosis and nitric oxide production, eliminate pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine if macrophages from chicken families divergently selected to high and low antibodies response differ in nitric oxide production and phagocytic capacity. Blood monocytes derived macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide and supernatant from chicken spleen lymphocytes cultured with Concanavalin A (containing chicken interferon). Nitric oxide production was evaluated in culture supernatants. Phagocytic capacity of activated and non-activated macrophages was assayed using yeasts and IgY opsonized sheep red blood cells. Activated and non-activated macrophages from the high antibodies response family produced higher nitric oxide levels, internalized more yeast and significantly more opsonized sheep red blood cells than macrophages from the low antibodies response family. Moreover, activated macrophages became more elongated and widely spread. These findings indicate that macrophages from the high antibodies response family were more active suggesting that the differences in antibody response also depend on macrophage function.

  20. Unusual Mn coordination and redox chemistry in the high capacity borate cathode Li7Mn(BO3)3.

    PubMed

    Roos, Julian; Eames, Christopher; Wood, Stephen M; Whiteside, Alexander; Islam, M Saiful

    2015-09-14

    The recently discovered lithium-rich cathode material Li7Mn(BO3)3 has a high theoretical capacity and an unusual tetrahedral Mn(2+) coordination. Atomistic simulation and density functional theory (DFT) techniques are employed to provide insights into the defect and redox chemistry, the structural changes upon lithium extraction and the mechanisms of lithium ion diffusion. The most favourable intrinsic defects are Li/Mn anti-site pairs, where Li and Mn ions occupy interchanged positions, and Li Frenkel defects. DFT calculations reproduce the experimental cell voltage and confirm the presence of the unusually high Mn(V) redox state, which corresponds to a theoretical capacity of nearly 288 mA h g(-1). The ability to reach the high manganese oxidation state is related to both the initial tetrahedral coordination of Mn and the observed distortion/tilting of the BO3 units to accommodate the contraction of the Mn-O bonds upon oxidation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate fast three-dimensional lithium diffusion in line with the good rate performance observed.

  1. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  2. MOF-derived ZnO and ZnO@C composites with high photocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Jae; Im, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Kunsil; Park, Chong Rae

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured ZnO materials have unique and highly attractive properties and have inspired interest in their research and development. This paper presents a facile method for the preparation of novel ZnO-based nanostructured architectures using a metal organic framework (MOF) as a precursor. In this approach, ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO@C hybrid composites were produced under several heating and atmospheric (air or nitrogen) conditions. The resultant ZnO nanoparticles formed hierarchical aggregates with a three-dimensional cubic morphology, whereas ZnO@C hybrid composites consisted of faceted ZnO crystals embedded within a highly porous carbonaceous species, as determined by several characterization methods. The newly synthesized nanomaterials showed relatively high photocatalytic decomposition activity and significantly enhanced adsorption capacities for organic pollutants.

  3. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices.

  4. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices. PMID:26201747

  5. Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

  6. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  7. Pulmonary gas exchange, diffusing capacity in natives and newcomers at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Vincent, J; Hellot, M F; Vargas, E; Gautier, H; Pasquis, P; Lefrançois, R

    1978-08-01

    At high altitude, in resting conditions, no differences have been observed between High Altitude Natives (HAN) and acclimatized Sea Level Natives (SLN) in AaDO2, aADCO2 or venous admixture. In acclimatized SLN, AaDO2 is smaller than at sea level because of: (1) The minor effect on arterial oxygenation of the probably constant venous admixture. (2) The reduction of VA/Q inequality as shown by a smaller aADCO2. In HAN, DLCO is greater than in SLN; the contribution of DM or VC in this difference remains unsettled, mainly because of the difficulties of measurement of DM and VC in HAN suddenly exposed to acute hyperoxia. In SLN, in acute hypoxia, DLCO increased transitorily. Asynchronous mechanisms of adaptation to high altitude are evoked.

  8. Propogation of the 1(mu) High-Power Beam from a Solid-State Heat-Capacity Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C B; Moriss, J R; Rubenchik, A M; Boley, C D

    2002-06-25

    A solid-state laser system, used as a directed energy defensive weapon, possesses many compelling logistical advantages over high-average-power chemical laser systems. As an electrically-powered laser, it uses no chemicals, generates no effluents, and requires no specialized logistics support--the laser is recharged by running the vehicle engine. It provides stealth, having low signature operation without the generation of temperature, smoke, or visible light. It is silent in operation, limited only by the onboard vehicle electrical charging and propulsion system. Using the heat-capacity mode of operation, scaling of average power from a solid-state laser has been demonstrated beyond 10kW and work in progress will result in the demonstration of a 100 kW solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL). The heat-capacity approach provides unprecedented power-to-weight ratios in a compact platform that is readily adapted to mobile operation. A conceptual engineering and packaging study has resulted in a 100kW SSHCL design that we believe can be integrated onto a hybrid-electric HMMWV or onto new vehicle designs emerging from the future combat system (FCS) development. 100 kW has been proposed as a power level that demonstrates a significant scaling beyond what has been demonstrated for a solid-state laser system and which could have a significant lethality against target sets of interest. However, the characteristics of heat-capacity laser scaling are such that designs with output powers in excess of 1 MW can be readily formulated. An important question when addressing the military utility of a high-power solid-state laser system is that of the required average power during engagement with a target. The answer to this question is complex, involving atmospheric propagation, beam interaction with the target, and the damage response of the target. Successful target shoot-downs with the THEL deuterium fluoride (DF) laser system provide what is probably the best understanding of

  9. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  10. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research.

    PubMed

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  11. TASSEL-GBS: a high capacity genotyping by sequencing analysis pipeline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is...

  12. School Improvement in High-Capacity Schools: Educational Leadership and Living-Systems Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Coral; Sackney, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Although school improvement continues to present as an unresolved educational problem, the required changes are relatively straightforward. Essentially, schools need to be retooled with students' experiences and high-quality instruction at the center of the design. In this article, we present the findings of research into the leadership of…

  13. Metallurgically lithiated SiOx anode with high capacity and ambient air compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Sun, Jie; Yan, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhenda; Lin, Dingchang; Zhou, Guangmin; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    A common issue plaguing battery anodes is the large consumption of lithium in the initial cycle as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase followed by gradual loss in subsequent cycles. It presents a need for prelithiation to compensate for the loss. However, anode prelithiation faces the challenge of high chemical reactivity because of the low anode potential. Previous efforts have produced prelithiated Si nanoparticles with dry air stability, which cannot be stabilized under ambient air. Here, we developed a one-pot metallurgical process to synthesize LixSi/Li2O composites by using low-cost SiO or SiO2 as the starting material. The resulting composites consist of homogeneously dispersed LixSi nanodomains embedded in a highly crystalline Li2O matrix, providing the composite excellent stability even in ambient air with 40% relative humidity. The composites are readily mixed with various anode materials to achieve high first cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of >100% or serve as an excellent anode material by itself with stable cyclability and consistently high CEs (99.81% at the seventh cycle and ∼99.87% for subsequent cycles). Therefore, LixSi/Li2O composites achieved balanced reactivity and stability, promising a significant boost to lithium ion batteries. PMID:27313206

  14. Capitalizing on Leadership Capacity: Gifted African American Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Fred A., II; Jennings, Michael E.; Marbley, Aretha F.; Brown, Lesley-Ann

    2008-01-01

    Leadership is one of the most underemphasized dimensions of high ability cited in the current federal definition of giftedness. This particular ability area is highlighted here in an effort to offer helpful information and recommendations to administrators, educators, parents, and policymakers who seek plausible solutions to the problem of…

  15. Designing Their Own: Increasing Urban High School Teacher Capacity for Creating Interim Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ado, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzes and documents factors that affect teacher learning and instructional practices in connection to the design your own (DYO) interim or periodic assessment process at one newly developed high school in New York City. Examining these factors through Riggan and Nabors Olah's (2011) conceptual framework offers insights into…

  16. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  17. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  18. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  19. Imbalance between oxygen photoreduction and antioxidant capacities in Symbiodinium cells exposed to combined heat and high light stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberty, S.; Fransolet, D.; Cardol, P.; Plumier, J.-C.; Franck, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, coral reefs have been affected by several large-scale bleaching events, and such phenomena are expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future, thus compromising their survival. High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance has been found to be responsible for the induction of oxidative stress ultimately ending with the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium. For two decades, many studies have pointed to the water-water cycle (WWC) as being one of the primary mediators of this phenomenon, but the impacts of environmental stress on the O2 reduction by PSI and the associated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes remain to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the impacts of acute thermal and light stress on the WWC in the model Symbiodinium strain A1. We observed that the high light treatment at 26 °C resulted in the up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and an increased production of ROS with no significant change in O2-dependent electron transport. Under high light and at 33 °C, O2-dependent electron transport was significantly increased relative to total electron transport. This increase was concomitant with a twofold increase in ROS generation compared with the treatment at 26 °C, while enzymes involved in the WWC were largely inactivated. These data show for the first time that combined heat and light stress inactivate antioxidant capacities of the WWC and suggests that its photoprotective functions are overwhelmed under these conditions. This study also indicates that cnidarians may be more prone to bleach if they harbor Symbiodinium cells having a highly active Mehler-type electron transport, unless they are able to quickly up-regulate their antioxidant capacities.

  20. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances Part 2: Spacecraft Antennas and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard E.; Kodis, Mary Anne; Epp, Larry W.; Orr, Richard; Schuchman, Leonard; Collins, Michael; Sands, O. Scott; Vyas, Hemali; Williams, W. Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent advances in antenna and power systems technology to enable a high data rate Ka-band Mars-to-Earth telecommunications system. Promising antenna technologies are lightweight, deployable space qualified structures at least 12-m in diameter (potentially up to 25-m). These technologies include deployable mesh reflectors, inflatable reflectarray and folded thermosetting composite. Advances in 1kW-class RF power amplifiers include both TWTA and SSPA technologies.

  1. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  2. Separation of intact proteins on γ-ray-induced polymethacrylate monolithic columns: A highly permeable stationary phase with high peak capacity for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simone, Patrizia; Pierri, Giuseppe; Foglia, Patrizia; Gasparrini, Francesca; Mazzoccanti, Giulia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Ursini, Ornella; Ciogli, Alessia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Polymethacrylate-based monolithic capillary columns, prepared by γ-radiation-induced polymerization, were used to optimize the experimental conditions (nature of the organic modifiers, the content of trifluoroacetic acid and the column temperature) in the separation of nine standard proteins with different hydrophobicities and a wide range of molecular weights. Because of the excellent permeability of the monolithic columns, an ion-pair reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry method has been developed by coupling the column directly to the mass spectrometer without a flow-split and using a standard electrospray interface. Additionally, the high working flow and concomitant high efficiency of these columns allowed us to employ a longer column (up to 50 cm) and achieve a peak capacity value superior to 1000. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for high-resolution chromatographic separation that combine chemical stability at elevated temperatures (up to 75°C) and a broad pH range, with a high peak capacity value. The advantage of the γ-ray-induced monolithic column lies in the batch-to-batch reproducibility and long-term high-temperature stability. Their proven high loading capacity, recovery, good selectivity and high permeability, moreover, compared well with that of a commercially available poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monolithic column, which confirms that such monolithic supports might facilitate analysis in proteomics.

  3. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-04-03

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor.

  4. A novel high-throughput image based rapid Folin-Ciocalteau assay for assessment of reducing capacity in foods.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Mohamed; M Arribas, Silvia; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the presented work was to develop and validate a novel high-throughput rapid Folin-Ciocalteau assay for the quantification of reducing capacity of foods based on image scanner (Image-F-C assay). The original rapid F-C assay using a 96-well plate was improved by adding a neutralization step that stabilizes the formed color, enabling image acquisition using a flatbed scanner. Although the scanner has been already used in other analytical applications, no analysis has been reported regarding the effect of the scanner model, the plate orientation or the reaction volume. In the present study, we establish that the mentioned parameters do affect the linearity and precision of image based Folin-Ciocalteau assay, and provide the optimal scanning conditions for the analyzed scanner models. Euclidean distance calculated from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) values was chosen, based on linearity and sensitivity, in order to quantify the reducing capacity. An in-house program using free ImageJ macro language was written to calculate automatically the RGB values of each well. The Image-F-C assay is linear within the range of 0-20 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (R(2)≥0.9939). We compared reducing capacity values from real samples quantified by the image F-C assay and by a microplate reader and an inter-day relative standard error<8% was observed. Bland-Altman and correlation analyzes showed that there were no significant differences between the two methods. PMID:26992497

  5. High areal capacity, micrometer-scale amorphous Si film anode based on nanostructured Cu foil for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Wenping; Sun, Xiaolei; Liu, Xianghong; Xi, Lixia; Jia, Yandong; Yan, Chenglin; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-12-01

    We report a feasible design to fabricate micrometer-scale Si films deposited on nanostructured Cu foil as high areal capacity anodes for Li-ion batteries with excellent cycling performance. Nanostructured copper oxides are prepared by anodic oxidation of Cu foil in alkaline solution. The resultant copper oxide nanofibers function as matrix for thick Si films (1-2 μm) loading. Metallic Cu nanofibers are obtained by in-situ electrochemical reduction at low potentials, which work as electrical highways for fast electron transport and a reliable mechanical matrix to accommodate volume changes during lithium-silicon alloy/dealloy processes. The engineered thick Si film anode exhibit both high areal capacity (0.48 mAh cm-2 for 1 μm Si film and 0.6 mAh cm-2 for 2 μm Si film after 200 cycles at 0.225 mA cm-2) and excellent rate capability (0.52 mAh cm-2 at 1.05 mA cm-2 for 2 μm Si film). The 2 μm silicon film electrode is able to recover to the initial value of 1 mAh cm-2 when the current rate is set back to 0.15 mA cm-2 even after cycling at high current rates. The reported concept can be a general method for high-loading-film electrodes, which is industrial scalable and compatible with current battery manufacturing processes.

  6. High-fat diet with acyl-ghrelin treatment leads to weight gain with low inflammation, high oxidative capacity and normal triglycerides in rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Barazzoni, Rocco; Zanetti, Michela; Semolic, Annamaria; Cattin, Maria Rosa; Pirulli, Alessia; Cattin, Luigi; Guarnieri, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with muscle lipid accumulation. Experimental models suggest that inflammatory cytokines, low mitochondrial oxidative capacity and paradoxically high insulin signaling activation favor this alteration. The gastric orexigenic hormone acylated ghrelin (A-Ghr) has antiinflammatory effects in vitro and it lowers muscle triglycerides while modulating mitochondrial oxidative capacity in lean rodents. We tested the hypothesis that A-Ghr treatment in high-fat feeding results in a model of weight gain characterized by low muscle inflammation and triglycerides with high muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. A-Ghr at a non-orexigenic dose (HFG: twice-daily 200-µg s.c.) or saline (HF) were administered for 4 days to rats fed a high-fat diet for one month. Compared to lean control (C) HF had higher body weight and plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and HFG partially prevented FFA elevation (P<0.05). HFG also had the lowest muscle inflammation (nuclear NFkB, tissue TNF-alpha) with mitochondrial enzyme activities higher than C (P<0.05 vs C, P = NS vs HF). Under these conditions HFG prevented the HF-associated muscle triglyceride accumulation (P<0.05). The above effects were independent of changes in redox state (total-oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity) and were not associated with changes in phosphorylation of AKT and selected AKT targets. Ghrelin administration following high-fat feeding results in a novel model of weight gain with low inflammation, high mitochondrial enzyme activities and normalized triglycerides in skeletal muscle. These effects are independent of changes in tissue redox state and insulin signaling, and they suggest a potential positive metabolic impact of ghrelin in fat-induced obesity.

  7. Initial characterization of a modular heat exchanger with an integral heat pipe. [for Stirling space engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) Advanced Technology program, a conceptual design of the Stirling space engibe (SSE) was generated to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) was chosen as the growth option in the CSTI program. An existing FPSE was modified as a test bed for a modular heat exchanger evaluation. Evaluation of the individual heat pipes before installation in the engine is described.

  8. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g−1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g−1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g−1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g−1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g−1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage. PMID:25761938

  9. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g-1 are 2213 and 1402 mA h g-1 with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g-1, respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g-1, and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g-1 after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  10. Graphite-coated ZnO nanosheets as high-capacity, highly stable, and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Dall'Asta, Valentina; Resmini, Alessandro; Tealdi, Cristina; Tredici, Ilenia Giuseppina; Tamburini, Umberto Anselmi; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2016-07-01

    ZnO is one of the materials of choice as anode for lithium batteries, due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, low toxicity, and low cost. At present, however, its industrial exploitation is impeded by massive capacity fading, and by cycling instability due to the drastic volume expansions during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process. Herein, we present a novel graphite coated-ZnO anode for LiBs based on films of nanosheets, coated with graphite. The electrode is obtained by a simple and inexpensive solution hydrothermal synthesis, whereas the graphite is deposited by thermal evaporation, which is easier to perform than a wet chemistry technique. Our approach leads to a substantial increase of the permanent specific capacity, obtaining values of 600 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 1 Ag-1. This represents the best performance for long-cycled, ZnO-based anodes obtained so far. Such result derives from the peculiar porous structure of the nanosheets film (pore diameter < 1 nm), as well as by the graphite coating that works as a dimensional buffer and preserves its morphology during cycling. This appears a very promising strategy for designing more stable ZnO-based anodes for Li batteries and microbatteries.

  11. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). PMID:24754908

  12. [Isolation of highly-effective benzo[a]pyrene degrading strain and its degradation capacity].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Bin; Wang, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Wei; Hao, Zhi-Neng; Sun, Hong-Wen

    2011-09-01

    One new mycete, which could degrade high concentration (up to 100 mg/L) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in liquid, was isolated from contaminated soil of Beijing Coking Plant by gradually increasing the concentration of BaP in mineral salt medium (MSM) in order to get new microorganism species for remediation of BaP contamination. The strain was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and its biodegradation ability in liquid was further investigated. The results showed that L. theobromae could utilize BaP as sole carbon and energy sources. The experiment was conducted for 10 days, and the biodegradation rate of BaP was 52.5% +/- 1.5%. Compared to Czapek's mineral medium, MSM was more suitable for L. theobromae, and biodegradation rate was 2.8 percent greater than that by using Czapek's mineral media after 10 days' cultivation. Potato-dextrose nutrient medium could accelrate the biodegradation in early stage, and biodegradation rate of BaP increased by 19.2 percent in the second day. However, the accelration was not significant in the latter period, biodegradation rate was only increased by 5.4 percent after 10 days' cultivation. L. theobromae could tolerate a wide pH range, with the optimum pH of 5. Addition of salicylic and sodium succinate enhanced the biodegradation rates by 6.2 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively, after 10 days' cultivation. Besides BaP, L. theobromae could also degrade high concentration (200 mg/L) of phenanthrene and pyrene, and the biodegradation rates were 70.0% +/- 1.0%, 59.2% +/- 3.2%, and 52.5% +/- 1.5% when they were single substrate and were 21.6% +/- 2.1%, 14.5% +/- 5.5%, and 11.9% +/- 2.2% when they existed in mixture, respectively. The biodegradation rate followed an order of phenanthrene > pyrene > BaP. The co-existence of the three substrates led a reduction in biodegradation. This study provides a new microorganism species for remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in the environment. PMID:22165241

  13. A multi scale multi-dimensional thermo electrochemical modelling of high capacity lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourani, Abbas; White, Peter; Ivey, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium manganese oxide (LMO) are competitive and complementary to each other as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, especially for use in electric vehicles. A multi scale multi-dimensional physic-based model is proposed in this paper to study the thermal behaviour of the two lithium-ion chemistries. The model consists of two sub models, a one dimensional (1D) electrochemical sub model and a two dimensional (2D) thermo-electric sub model, which are coupled and solved concurrently. The 1D model predicts the heat generation rate (Qh) and voltage (V) of the battery cell through different load cycles. The 2D model of the battery cell accounts for temperature distribution and current distribution across the surface of the battery cell. The two cells are examined experimentally through 90 h load cycles including high/low charge/discharge rates. The experimental results are compared with the model results and they are in good agreement. The presented results in this paper verify the cells temperature behaviour at different operating conditions which will lead to the design of a cost effective thermal management system for the battery pack.

  14. High Temperature Heat Capacity of Alloy D9 Using Drop Calorimetry Based Enthalpy Increment Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Raju, S.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2007-02-01

    Alloy D9 is a void-swelling resistant nuclear grade austenitic stainless steel (SS) based on AISI type 316-SS in which titanium constitutes an added predetermined alloying composition. In the present study, the high-temperature enthalpy values of alloy D9 with three different titanium-to-carbon mass percent ratios, namely Ti/C = 4, 6, and 8, have been measured using inverse drop calorimetry in the temperature range from 295 to 1323 K. It is found that within the level of experimental uncertainty, the enthalpy values are independent of the Ti-C mass ratio. The temperature dependence of the isobaric specific heat C P is obtained by a linear regression of the measured enthalpy data. The measured C P data for alloy D9 may be represented by the following best-fit expression: C_P(J \\cdot kg^{-1}\\cdot K^{-1})= 431 + 17.7 × 10^{-2}T + 8.72 × 10^{-5}/T^2. It is found that the measured enthalpy and specific heat values exhibit good agreement with reported data on 316 and other related austenitic stainless steels.

  15. High-capacity quantum key distribution via hyperentangled degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David S.; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2014-06-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has long been a promising area for the application of quantum effects in solving real-world problems. However, two major obstacles have stood in the way of its widespread application: low secure key generation rates and short achievable operating distances. In this paper, a new physical mechanism for dealing with the first of these problems is proposed: the interplay between different degrees of freedom in a hyperentangled system (parametric down-conversion) is used to increase the Hilbert space dimension available for key generation while maintaining security. Polarization-based Bell tests provide security checking, while orbital angular momentum (OAM) and total angular momentum (TAM) provide a higher key generation rate. Whether to measure TAM or OAM is decided randomly in each trial. The concurrent noncommutativity of TAM with OAM and polarization provides the physical basis for quantum security. TAM measurements link polarization to OAM, so that if the legitimate participants measure OAM while the eavesdropper measures TAM (or vice-versa), then polarization entanglement is lost, revealing the eavesdropper. In contrast to other OAM-based QKD methods, complex active switching between OAM bases is not required; instead, passive switching by beam splitters combined with much simpler active switching between polarization bases makes implementation at high OAM more practical.

  16. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Craig; McGrady, Sean; Severa, Godwin; Eliseo, Jennifer; Chong, Marina

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  17. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more » When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  18. Two dimensional layered Co0.85Se nanosheets as a high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jisheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Tupei; Song, Huaihe; Yang, Hui Ying

    2016-08-11

    In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) layered transitional metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have received much attention as promising electrode materials in energy storage. Although recent reports on 2D TMC nanostructures have demonstrated promising electrochemical performances, the major scientific challenge is to develop a viable synthesis process to produce layered structures of chalcogenides (Co, Ni or Fe based TMCs) as anode materials. In this work, we propose the synthesis of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets in a solution based method by using a 2D oriented attachment strategy. The as-prepared Co0.85Se nanosheets exhibit specific capacities as high as 675 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1). When the current densities were further increased to 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacities can still reach up to 645, 574 and 493 mA h g(-1) with excellent cycling life of 95, 85 and 73%, respectively. Li-ion storage performance of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets is higher than that of Co0.85Se microspheres as well as cobalt sulfide. The superior electrochemical performance of Co0.85Se nanosheets is attributed to their 2D layered structure which enhances electrical conductivity and improves diffusion pathways of the Li-ion within the host material. The synthesis method described in this work serves as a general route for the design and preparation of other 2D layered TMCs. PMID:27471135

  19. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm-2, the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date.

  20. A complete carbon-nanotube-based on-chip cooling solution with very high heat dissipation capacity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yifeng; Nabiollahi, Nabi; Wang, Teng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Zhili; Carlberg, Björn; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the factors limiting the continuous miniaturization of electronics. In the study presented in this paper, we designed an ultra-thin heat sink using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as micro cooling fins attached directly onto a chip. A metal-enhanced CNT transfer technique was utilized to improve the interface between the CNTs and the chip surface by minimizing the thermal contact resistance and promoting the mechanical strength of the microfins. In order to optimize the geometrical design of the CNT microfin structure, multi-scale modeling was performed. A molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was carried out to investigate the interaction between water and CNTs at the nanoscale and a finite element method (FEM) modeling was executed to analyze the fluid field and temperature distribution at the macroscale. Experimental results show that water is much more efficient than air as a cooling medium due to its three orders-of-magnitude higher heat capacity. For a hotspot with a high power density of 5000 W cm(-2), the CNT microfins can cool down its temperature by more than 40 °C. The large heat dissipation capacity could make this cooling solution meet the thermal management requirement of the hottest electronic systems up to date. PMID:22222357

  1. High-capacity antimony sulphide nanoparticle-decorated graphene composite as anode for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denis Y W; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Mason, Chad W; Batabyal, Sudip K; Gun, Jenny; Sladkevich, Sergey; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are an alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes are the main bottlenecks to future developments. Here we report a uniform coating of antimony sulphide (stibnite) on graphene, fabricated by a solution-based synthesis technique, as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries. It gives a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1), an excellent rate capability up to 6C and a good cycle performance. The promising performance is attributed to fast sodium ion diffusion from the small nanoparticles, and good electrical transport from the intimate contact between the active material and graphene, which also provides a template for anchoring the nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a battery with the stibnite-graphene composite that is free from sodium metal, having energy density up to 80 Wh kg(-1). The energy density could exceed that of some lithium-ion batteries with further optimization. PMID:24322450

  2. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  3. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting.

  4. TASSEL-GBS: a high capacity genotyping by sequencing analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Casstevens, Terry M; Lu, Fei; Harriman, James; Elshire, Robert J; Sun, Qi; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is currently being applied in numerous species by a large number of researchers. Herein we describe a bioinformatics pipeline, TASSEL-GBS, designed for the efficient processing of raw GBS sequence data into SNP genotypes. The TASSEL-GBS pipeline successfully fulfills the following key design criteria: (1) Ability to run on the modest computing resources that are typically available to small breeding or ecological research programs, including desktop or laptop machines with only 8-16 GB of RAM, (2) Scalability from small to extremely large studies, where hundreds of thousands or even millions of SNPs can be scored in up to 100,000 individuals (e.g., for large breeding programs or genetic surveys), and (3) Applicability in an accelerated breeding context, requiring rapid turnover from tissue collection to genotypes. Although a reference genome is required, the pipeline can also be run with an unfinished "pseudo-reference" consisting of numerous contigs. We describe the TASSEL-GBS pipeline in detail and benchmark it based upon a large scale, species wide analysis in maize (Zea mays), where the average error rate was reduced to 0.0042 through application of population genetic-based SNP filters. Overall, the GBS assay and the TASSEL-GBS pipeline provide robust tools for studying genomic diversity.

  5. Test results for a high capacity cryocooler with internal thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertele, Ted; Glaister, Dave; Gully, Wilfred; Hendershott, Paul; Levenduski, Robert; Marquardt, Eric; Wilson, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Redstone Aerospace are developing a space cryocooler for cooling complex optical systems whose loads are intermittent. An example of such a system would be an Earth observation satellite that images for only a fraction of its orbit. If a cooler can store refrigeration during the lull and provide it when the system is active, the cooler can be considerably smaller than one sized to provide the full load continuously. Our cooler provides two stages of refrigeration, a stage of intermittent cooling at 35 K for a focal plane assembly and a stage of continuous cooling at 85 K for the surrounding thermal shields. The cooler provides the intermittent cooling by collecting liquid neon in a unique internal thermal storage tank and forwarding it to the focal plane when the heat loads are high. Our paper presents extensive performance data for neon at 35 K. It carries 2 W at 35 K for 30 minutes plus the 8.5 W of continuous cooling at 85 K for less than 300 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in an hour. For contrast, the same hardware was filled with nitrogen and tested at 82 K. It carries 5 W for 25 minutes plus 15 W of continuous cooling at 130 K for less than 220 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in a little over an hour. The system has many features for space system compatibility. Because the storage is located within an active control loop, the cooler can maintain the 35 K interface temperature to better than ± 0.1 K. Because it circulates liquid it can be located remotely, which solves many compatibility issues. And with careful liquid management, it can work in any orientation and in 0-g. In this paper our flight like equipment will be described, and its continuing evolution to flight will be discussed.

  6. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  7. TASSEL-GBS: a high capacity genotyping by sequencing analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Casstevens, Terry M; Lu, Fei; Harriman, James; Elshire, Robert J; Sun, Qi; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is currently being applied in numerous species by a large number of researchers. Herein we describe a bioinformatics pipeline, TASSEL-GBS, designed for the efficient processing of raw GBS sequence data into SNP genotypes. The TASSEL-GBS pipeline successfully fulfills the following key design criteria: (1) Ability to run on the modest computing resources that are typically available to small breeding or ecological research programs, including desktop or laptop machines with only 8-16 GB of RAM, (2) Scalability from small to extremely large studies, where hundreds of thousands or even millions of SNPs can be scored in up to 100,000 individuals (e.g., for large breeding programs or genetic surveys), and (3) Applicability in an accelerated breeding context, requiring rapid turnover from tissue collection to genotypes. Although a reference genome is required, the pipeline can also be run with an unfinished "pseudo-reference" consisting of numerous contigs. We describe the TASSEL-GBS pipeline in detail and benchmark it based upon a large scale, species wide analysis in maize (Zea mays), where the average error rate was reduced to 0.0042 through application of population genetic-based SNP filters. Overall, the GBS assay and the TASSEL-GBS pipeline provide robust tools for studying genomic diversity. PMID:24587335

  8. TASSEL-GBS: A High Capacity Genotyping by Sequencing Analysis Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Casstevens, Terry M.; Lu, Fei; Harriman, James; Elshire, Robert J.; Sun, Qi; Buckler, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a next generation sequencing based method that takes advantage of reduced representation to enable high throughput genotyping of large numbers of individuals at a large number of SNP markers. The relatively straightforward, robust, and cost-effective GBS protocol is currently being applied in numerous species by a large number of researchers. Herein we describe a bioinformatics pipeline, tassel-gbs, designed for the efficient processing of raw GBS sequence data into SNP genotypes. The tassel-gbs pipeline successfully fulfills the following key design criteria: (1) Ability to run on the modest computing resources that are typically available to small breeding or ecological research programs, including desktop or laptop machines with only 8–16 GB of RAM, (2) Scalability from small to extremely large studies, where hundreds of thousands or even millions of SNPs can be scored in up to 100,000 individuals (e.g., for large breeding programs or genetic surveys), and (3) Applicability in an accelerated breeding context, requiring rapid turnover from tissue collection to genotypes. Although a reference genome is required, the pipeline can also be run with an unfinished “pseudo-reference” consisting of numerous contigs. We describe the tassel-gbs pipeline in detail and benchmark it based upon a large scale, species wide analysis in maize (Zea mays), where the average error rate was reduced to 0.0042 through application of population genetic-based SNP filters. Overall, the GBS assay and the tassel-gbs pipeline provide robust tools for studying genomic diversity. PMID:24587335

  9. Predictors of high-intensity running capacity in collegiate women during a soccer game.

    PubMed

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine which physiological assessments best predicted high-intensity running (HIR) performance during a women's collegiate soccer game. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among physiological performance measures including muscle architecture on soccer performance (distance covered, HIR, and sprints during the game) during a competitive collegiate women's soccer game. Ten National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women soccer players performed physiological assessments within a 2-week period before a competitive regulation soccer game performed during the spring season. Testing consisted of height, body mass, ultrasound measurement of dominant (DOMleg), and nondominant leg (NDOMleg) vastus lateralis for muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA), VO2max, running economy, and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue rate (FR). During the game, distance run, HIR, and sprints were measured using a 10-Hz global positioning system. Stepwise regression revealed that VO2max, dominant leg thickness, and dominant leg PA were the strongest predictors of HIR distance during the game (R = 0.989, SEE = 115.5 m, p = 0.001). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with total distance run (r = 0.831; p = 0.003), HIR (r = 0.755; p = 0.012), WAnTPP (r = -0.737; p = 0.015), WAnTPP·kg (r = -0.706; p = 0.022), and WAnTFR (r = -0.713; p = 0.021). DOMlegMT was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.893; p = 0.001). DOMlegPA was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.740; p = 0.023). The NDOMlegPA was significantly correlated to peak running velocity (r = 0.781; p = 0.013) and WAnT MP·kg (r = 0.801; p = 0.01). Results of this study indicate that V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and muscle architecture are important characteristics of NCAA Division I women soccer players and may predict HIR distance during a competitive contest.

  10. An open, parallel I/O computer as the platform for high-performance, high-capacity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abineri, Adrian; Chen, Y. P.

    1992-01-01

    APTEC Computer Systems is a Portland, Oregon based manufacturer of I/O computers. APTEC's work in the context of high density storage media is on programs requiring real-time data capture with low latency processing and storage requirements. An example of APTEC's work in this area is the Loral/Space Telescope-Data Archival and Distribution System. This is an existing Loral AeroSys designed system, which utilizes an APTEC I/O computer. The key attributes of a system architecture that is suitable for this environment are as follows: (1) data acquisition alternatives; (2) a wide range of supported mass storage devices; (3) data processing options; (4) data availability through standard network connections; and (5) an overall system architecture (hardware and software designed for high bandwidth and low latency). APTEC's approach is outlined in this document.

  11. Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation.

  12. A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2014-08-01

    A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements.

  13. Morphologically robust NiFe2O4 nanofibers as high capacity Li-ion battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Christie Thomas; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Reddy, M V; Suresh Kumar, Palanisamy; Mani, Kalaivani; Pliszka, Damian; Sow, Chorng Haur; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chowdari, B V R

    2013-10-23

    In this work, the electrochemical performance of NiFe2O4 nanofibers synthesized by an electrospinning approach have been discussed in detail. Lithium storage properties of nanofibers are evaluated and compared with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry studies, both in half-cell configurations. Nanofibers exhibit a higher charge-storage capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) even after 100 cycles with high Coulmbic efficiency of 100% between 10 and 100 cycles. Ex situ microscopy studies confirmed that cycled nanofiber electrodes maintained the morphology and remained intact even after 100 charge-discharge cycles. The NiFe2O4 nanofiber electrode does not experience any structural stress and eventual pulverisation during lithium cycling and hence provides an efficient electron conducting pathway. The excellent electrochemical performance of NiFe2O4 nanofibers is due to the unique porous morphology of continuous nanofibers.

  14. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Cam, J.-F.; Chauveau, P.; Daudin, L.; Delahaye, P.; Delalee, F.; Dupré, P.; El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H.; Lunney, D.; Metz, F.; Naimi, S.; Perrot, L.; de Roubin, A.; Serani, L.; Thomas, B.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 105 ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 105 is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  15. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s-1, and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge’s g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key points Total work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test). The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a

  16. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s(-1), and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge's g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key pointsTotal work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test).The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a high

  17. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density. PMID:27502997

  18. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D.; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05) line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026) in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05) with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially impacts

  19. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05) line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026) in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05) with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially impacts

  20. Liquid Phase Exfoliated MoS2 Nanosheets Percolated with Carbon Nanotubes for High Volumetric/Areal Capacity Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Coleman, Jonathan N; Li, Yanguang

    2016-09-27

    The search for high-capacity, low-cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries is a significant challenge in energy research. Among the many potential candidates, layered compounds such as MoS2 have attracted increasing attention. However, such materials have not yet fulfilled their true potential. Here, we show that networks of liquid phase exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, reinforced with 20 wt % single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), can be formed into sodium-ion battery electrodes with large gravimetric, volumetric, and areal capacity. The MoS2/SWNT composite films are highly porous, electrically conductive, and mechanically robust due to its percolating carbon nanotube network. When directly employed as the working electrode, they exhibit a specific capacity of >400 mAh/g and volumetric capacity of ∼650 mAh/cm(3). Their mechanical stability allows them to be processed into free-standing films with tunable thickness up to ∼100 μm, corresponding to an areal loading of 15 mg/cm(2). Their high electrical conductivity allows the high volumetric capacity to be retained, even at high thickness, resulting in state-of-the-art areal capacities of >4.0 mAh/cm(2). Such values are competitive with their lithium-ion counterparts. PMID:27541502

  1. Liquid Phase Exfoliated MoS2 Nanosheets Percolated with Carbon Nanotubes for High Volumetric/Areal Capacity Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Coleman, Jonathan N; Li, Yanguang

    2016-09-27

    The search for high-capacity, low-cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries is a significant challenge in energy research. Among the many potential candidates, layered compounds such as MoS2 have attracted increasing attention. However, such materials have not yet fulfilled their true potential. Here, we show that networks of liquid phase exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, reinforced with 20 wt % single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), can be formed into sodium-ion battery electrodes with large gravimetric, volumetric, and areal capacity. The MoS2/SWNT composite films are highly porous, electrically conductive, and mechanically robust due to its percolating carbon nanotube network. When directly employed as the working electrode, they exhibit a specific capacity of >400 mAh/g and volumetric capacity of ∼650 mAh/cm(3). Their mechanical stability allows them to be processed into free-standing films with tunable thickness up to ∼100 μm, corresponding to an areal loading of 15 mg/cm(2). Their high electrical conductivity allows the high volumetric capacity to be retained, even at high thickness, resulting in state-of-the-art areal capacities of >4.0 mAh/cm(2). Such values are competitive with their lithium-ion counterparts.

  2. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  3. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  4. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  5. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  6. Passive cooling effect of RC roof covered with the ceramics having high water retention and evaporation capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, M.; Kanaya, M.; Shimazu, T.; Ohashi, T.; Kato, N.; Horikoshi, T.

    2011-10-01

    Hot days in metropolitan cities have increased remarkably by the heat island phenomenon these days. Thus the authors tried to develop the porous ceramics with high water retention and evaporation capacity as a maintenance-free material to improve thermal environment. The developed ceramic pellets have high water retention of more than 60 % of water absorption and high water evaporation which is similar to water surface. In this study, three types of 5 meter squared large flat-roofed structural specimen simulated reinforced concrete (RC) slab were constructed on the outside. The variation of water content and temperature of the specimens and atmosphere temperature around the specimens were measured from summer in 2009. In the case of the ceramic pellets, the temperature under RC slab was around 15 degree C lower than that of the control. The results were probably contributed by passive cooling effect of evaporated rain water, and the effect was similar to in the case of the grasses. From the viewpoint of thermal environment improvement, substitution of a rooftop gardening by the porous ceramics could be a promising method.

  7. Achieving High Efficiency and Eliminating Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Using High Oxygen-Capacity Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Jun, Areum; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Kim, Guntae

    2016-09-26

    Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis. In this study, we successfully design and fabricate highly efficient SOECs using layered perovskites, PrBaMn2 O5+δ (PBM) and PrBa0.5 Sr0.5 Co1.5 Fe0.5 O5+δ (PBSCF50), as both electrodes for the first time. The SOEC with layered perovskites as both-side electrodes shows outstanding performance, reversible cycling, and remarkable stability over 600 hours. PMID:27604172

  8. Achieving High Efficiency and Eliminating Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Using High Oxygen-Capacity Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Jun, Areum; Kim, Junyoung; Shin, Jeeyoung; Kim, Guntae

    2016-09-26

    Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis. In this study, we successfully design and fabricate highly efficient SOECs using layered perovskites, PrBaMn2 O5+δ (PBM) and PrBa0.5 Sr0.5 Co1.5 Fe0.5 O5+δ (PBSCF50), as both electrodes for the first time. The SOEC with layered perovskites as both-side electrodes shows outstanding performance, reversible cycling, and remarkable stability over 600 hours.

  9. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  10. Y-doped Li8ZrO6: A Li-Ion Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuping; Wilson, Benjamin E; Wang, Bo; Fang, Yuan; Buffington, Keegan; Stein, Andreas; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-09-01

    We study--experimentally and theoretically--the energetics, structural changes, and charge flows during the charging and discharging processes for a new high-capacity cathode material, Li8ZrO6 (LZO), which we study both pure and yttrium-doped. We quantum mechanically calculated the stable delithiated configurations, the delithiation energy, the charge flow during delithiation, and the stability of the delithiated materials. We find that Li atoms are easier to extract from tetrahedral sites than octahedral ones. We calculate a large average voltage of 4.04 eV vs Li/Li(+) for delithiation of the first Li atom in a primitive cell, which is confirmed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling data. Energy calculations indicate that topotactic delithiation is kinetically favored over decomposition into Li, ZrO2, and O2 during the charging process, although the thermodynamic energy of the topotactic reaction is less favorable. When one or two lithium atoms are extracted from a primitive cell of LZO, its volume and structure change little, whereas extraction of the third lithium greatly distorts the layered structure. The Li6ZrO6 and Li5ZrO6 delithiation products can be thermodynamically metastable to release of O2. Experimentally, materials with sufficiently small particle size for efficient delithiation and relithiation were achieved within an yttrium-doped LZO/carbon composite cathode that exhibited an initial discharge capacity of at least 200 mAh/g over the first 10 cycles, with 142 mAh/g maintained after 60 cycles. Computations predict that during the charging process, the oxygen ion near the Li vacancy is oxidized for both pure LZO and yttrium-doped LZO, which leads to a small-polaron hole. PMID:26264394

  11. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. PMID:25395877

  12. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G.; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S.; Griffin, Robert G.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, 27Al/29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick’s 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. PMID:25395877

  14. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun, C; Petit, M; McKenzie, D; Taunton, J; Prior, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oral contraceptives are commonly used by women athletes. However, their effect on athletic performance is unclear. Objectives: To examine the effects of a moderate dose, triphasic oral contraceptive on measures of athletic performance in highly trained women athletes. Methods: This is a double blind, placebo controlled trial in 14 women with ovulatory menstrual cycles and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2MAX) ≥50 ml/kg/min. Four measures of athletic performance were tested: VO2MAX, anaerobic capacity (anaerobic speed test), aerobic endurance (time to fatigue at 90% of VO2MAX), and isokinetic strength (Cybex II dynamometer). Height, weight, and six skinfold measurements were also recorded. All these observational tests were completed during both the follicular and mid-luteal phases of an ovulatory menstrual cycle. Cycle phases were confirmed by assaying plasma oestradiol and progesterone. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either a tricyclic oral contraceptive or placebo and retested in identical fashion (oral contraceptive phase). Results: Absolute and relative changes in VO2MAX from follicular to oral contraceptive phase decreased in the oral contraceptive group by 4.7%, whereas the placebo group showed a slight increase (+1.5%) over the same time period. Two of the women taking oral contraceptive had decreases of 4 and 9 ml/kg/min. In contrast, most women in the placebo group improved or maintained VO2MAX. There was also a significant increase in the sum of skinfolds in women taking oral contraceptive compared with those taking placebo (p<0.01). There were no significant changes in other physiological variables (maximum ventilation, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, packed cell volume) or measures of performance (anaerobic speed test, aerobic endurance, isokinetic strength) as a function of oral contraceptive treatment. Conclusions: The decrease in VO2MAX that occurs when oral contraceptive is taken may influence elite sporting

  15. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS. When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  16. High power TiO2 and high capacity Sn-doped TiO2 nanomaterial anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübke, Mechthild; Johnson, Ian; Makwana, Neel M.; Brett, Dan; Shearing, Paul; Liu, Zhaolin; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2015-10-01

    A range of phase-pure anatase TiO2 (∼5 nm) and Sn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the formula Ti1-xSnxO2 (where x = 0, 0.06, 0.11 and 0.15) were synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) reactor. Charge/discharge cycling tests were carried out in two different potential ranges of 3 to 1 V and also a wider range of 3 to 0.05 V vs Li/Li+. In the narrower potential range, the undoped TiO2 nanoparticles display superior electrochemical performance to all the Sn-doped titania crystallites. In the wider potential range, the Sn-doped samples perform better than undoped TiO2. The sample with composition Ti0.85Sn0.15O2, shows a capacity of ca. 350 mAh g-1 at an applied constant current of 100 mA g-1 and a capacity of 192.3 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1500 mA g-1. After 500 charge/discharge cycles (at a high constant current rate of 382 mA g-1), the same nanomaterial anode retains a relatively high specific capacity of 240 mAh g-1. The performance of these nanomaterials is notable, particularly as they are processed into electrodes, directly from the CHFS process (after drying) without any post-synthesis heat-treatment, and they are made without any conductive surface coating.

  17. Simultaneous Measurements of Eight Oxyanions Using High-Capacity Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Zr-Oxide DGT) with a High-Efficiency Elution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yan; Li, Yangyang; Gong, Mengdan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-07-19

    A zirconium oxide binding gel-based diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) was developed for simultaneous measurements of P(V), As(V), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), Sb(V), Se(VI), V(V), and W(VI). All of the oxyanions were rapidly bound to Zr-oxide gel with differences in binding affinity. The eight bound oxyanions were successfully recovered by one-step elution using a mild reagent of 0.2 M NaOH-0.5 M H2O2 by overcoming the problems in analyses of the oxyanions. The optimized elution time was reduced to 3-5 h from 24-48 h required by other DGTs. DGT uptakes of all the oxyanions were independent of pH (4.42-8.45) and ionic strength (0.1-500 mM). The DGT capacities for six oxyanions detected in multioxyanion solution were only 0.19 to 0.35 times of those detected in single-oxyanion solution, reflecting a strong competition among the oxyanions during DGT uptake. Except for Se(VI) in seawater, Zr-oxide DGT accurately measured all of the oxyanions in synthetic freshwater and seawater, with the capacities ∼29 to >2397 times and ∼7.5 to 232 times those of two commonly used DGTs (Metsorb and precipitated ferrihydrite (PF) DGTs) in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Measurements by Zr-oxide DGT in contaminated sediments were in agreement with only two oxyanions with the two commonly used DGTs; the two DGTs accumulated less or no mass of other oxyanions. This study demonstrates significant advantage of Zr-oxide DGT over the other DGTs in simultaneous measurements of the eight oxyanions due to the former's high capacity and a wide tolerance to environmental interferences, together with a high efficiency in elution. PMID:27303914

  18. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  19. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  20. Effect of high-pressure processing and milk on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of strawberry-based beverages.

    PubMed

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Patazca, Eduardo; Edirisinghe, Indika; Cappozzo, Jack; Jackson, Lauren; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2012-06-13

    The present study investigated processing strategies and matrix effects on the antioxidant capacity (AC) and polyphenols (PP) content of fruit-based beverages: (1) strawberry powder (Str) + dairy, D-Str; (2) Str + water, ND-Str; (3) dairy + no Str, D-NStr. Beverages were subjected to high-temperature-short-time (HTST) and high-pressure processing (HPP). AC and PP were measured before and after processing and after a 5 week shelf-life study. Unprocessed D-Str had significantly lower AC compared to unprocessed ND-Str. Significant reductions in AC were apparent in HTST- compared to HPP-processed beverages (up to 600 MPa). PP content was significantly reduced in D-Str compared to ND-Str and in response to HPP and HTST in all beverages. After storage (5 weeks), AC and PP were reduced in all beverages compared to unprocessed and week 0 processed beverages. These findings indicate potentially negative effects of milk and processing on AC and PP of fruit-based beverages.

  1. Effect of high-pressure processing and milk on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of strawberry-based beverages.

    PubMed

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Banaszewski, Katarzyna; Patazca, Eduardo; Edirisinghe, Indika; Cappozzo, Jack; Jackson, Lauren; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2012-06-13

    The present study investigated processing strategies and matrix effects on the antioxidant capacity (AC) and polyphenols (PP) content of fruit-based beverages: (1) strawberry powder (Str) + dairy, D-Str; (2) Str + water, ND-Str; (3) dairy + no Str, D-NStr. Beverages were subjected to high-temperature-short-time (HTST) and high-pressure processing (HPP). AC and PP were measured before and after processing and after a 5 week shelf-life study. Unprocessed D-Str had significantly lower AC compared to unprocessed ND-Str. Significant reductions in AC were apparent in HTST- compared to HPP-processed beverages (up to 600 MPa). PP content was significantly reduced in D-Str compared to ND-Str and in response to HPP and HTST in all beverages. After storage (5 weeks), AC and PP were reduced in all beverages compared to unprocessed and week 0 processed beverages. These findings indicate potentially negative effects of milk and processing on AC and PP of fruit-based beverages. PMID:22224588

  2. Highly loaded interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers: prediction of the adhesion capacity using surface energy and solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, K G; Dowe, U; Zadnik, J

    2005-05-01

    In order to correlate drug adhesion properties of a highly loaded interactive mixture for the use in dry powder inhalers with the surface energy and to establish a link to the solubility parameter, surface free energy was detected for micronized substances (salbutamol sulfate, salbutamol base, theophylline and alpha-lactose monohydrate) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Interactive mixtures with coarse crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier were prepared at loading levels from 7.5 to 20% (w/w) and analyzed with respect to their adhesion capacity (CA) using the air jet sieving method. Solubility parameters were taken from literature or calculated. As a result the CA was independent of the drug load and correlated linearly with volume specific surface energy interaction (SEIv) values of the adherents (R2 = 0.98498). A link between SEIv and the size normalized solubility parameter (delta(tot)/d50) was found. Consequently, plotting delta(tot)/d50 versus CA resulted also in a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.99140). Overall a powerful tool was established to judge and quantify adhesion properties of highly loaded interactive mixtures even for estimates in early preformulation at a time where just the molecular structure of the active ingredient is known.

  3. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  4. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  5. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-06-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  6. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-06-20

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  7. High oxidative capacity and type IIx fibre content in springbok and fallow deer skeletal muscle suggest fast sprinters with a resistance to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Curry, Jennifer Wendy; Hohl, Rodrigo; Noakes, Timothy David; Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2012-11-15

    Some wild antelopes are fast sprinters and more resistant to fatigue than others. This study therefore investigated two wild antelope species to better understand their reported performance capability. Muscle samples collected post mortem from the vastus lateralis and longissimus lumborum of fallow deer (Dama dama) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) were analysed for myosin heavy chain isoform content, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities. Cross-sectional areas, fibre type and oxidative capacities of each fibre type were determined in the vastus lateralis only. The predominant fibre type in both muscle groups and species were type IIX (>50%), with springbok having more type IIX fibres than fallow deer (P<0.05). Overall cross-sectional area was not different between the two species. The metabolic pathway analyses showed high glycolytic and oxidative capacities for both species, but springbok had significantly higher CS activities than fallow deer. Large variation and overlap in oxidative capacities existed within and between the fibre types. Some type IIX fibres presented with oxidative capacities similar to those from type I and IIA fibres. The data suggest that springbok and fallow deer are able sprint at >90 and 46 km h(-1), respectively, partly from having large type IIX fibre contents and high glycolytic capacities. The high oxidative capacities also suggest that these animals may be able to withstand fatigue for long periods of time.

  8. Influence of particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in Ultra-high speed hybrid bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  9. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  10. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle).

  11. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  12. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Neil A.; Ford, Matthew P.; Standaert, David G.; Watts, Ray L.; Bickel, C. Scott; Moellering, Douglas R.; Tuggle, S. Craig; Williams, Jeri Y.; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P < 0.05) to exercise training in PD included myofiber hypertrophy (type I: +14%, type II: +36%), shift to less fatigable myofiber type profile, and increased mitochondrial complex activity in both subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar fractions (I: +45–56%, IV: +39–54%). These adaptations were accompanied by a host of functional and clinical improvements (P < 0.05): total body strength (+30–56%); leg power (+42%); single leg balance (+34%); sit-to-stand motor unit activation requirement (−30%); 6-min walk (+43 m), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQ-39, −7.8pts); Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total (−5.7 pts) and motor (−2.7 pts); and fatigue severity (−17%). Additionally, PD subjects in the pretraining state were compared with a group of matched, non-PD controls (CON; did not exercise). A combined assessment of muscle tissue phenotype and neuromuscular function revealed a higher distribution and larger cross-sectional area of type I myofibers and greater type II myofiber size heterogeneity in PD vs. CON (P < 0.05). In conclusion, persons with moderately advanced PD adapt to high-intensity exercise training with favorable changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception. PMID:24408997

  13. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  14. Impaired Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein Isolated From Interstitial Fluid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. Approach and Results— HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. Conclusion— These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. PMID:27034474

  15. Encapsulating Sn(x)Sb Nanoparticles in Multichannel Graphene-Carbon Fibers As Flexible Anodes to Store Lithium Ions with High Capacities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Yan, Feilong; Wei, Yuehua; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Tianfang

    2015-10-01

    SnxSb intermetallic composites as high theoretical capacities anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) suffer from the quick capacity fading owing to their huge volume change. In this study, flexible mats made up of SnxSb-graphene-carbon porous multichannel nanofibers are fabricated by an electrospinning method and succedent annealing treatment at 700 °C. The flexible mats as binder-free anodes show a specific capacity of 729 mA h/g in the 500th cycle at a current density of 0.1 A/g, which is much higher than those of graphene-carbon nanofibers, pure carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-graphene-carbon nanofibers at the same cycle. The flexible mats could provide a reversible capacity of 381 mA h/g at 2 A/g, also higher than those of nanofibers, graphene-carbon nanofibers, and SnxSb-carbon nanofibers. It is found that the suitable nanochannels could accommodate the volume expansion to achieve a high specific capacity. Besides, the graphene serves as both conductive and mechanical-property additives to enhance the rate capacity and flexibility of the mats. The electrospinning technique combined with graphene modification may be an effective method to produce flexible electrodes for fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, and super capacitors.

  16. Structure-Property Relationships in Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes with Cation Strings and High Ion-Exchange Capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junhua; Gu, Shuang; Xiong, Ruichang; Zhang, Bingzi; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2015-12-21

    A series of poly(2,4-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) hydroxide-exchange membranes (HEMs) with cation strings containing a well-defined number of cations (CS-n) and similar, high ion-exchange capacities are synthesized to investigate the effect of cation distribution on key HEM properties. As the number of cations on each string grows, the size of the ionic clusters increases from 10 to 55 nm. Well-connected ion pathways and a hydrophobic framework are observed for n≥4. The enhanced phase segregation increases the hydroxide conductivity from CS-1 to CS-6 (30 to 65 mS cm(-1) ) and suppresses the water uptake (from 143 % to 62 %). Moreover, molar hydroxide conductivities for CS-n membranes show two distinctive stages as n increases: ∼23 S cm(2)  mol(-1) for n≤3; and ∼34 cm(2)  mol(-1) for n≥4.

  17. Nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite as cathode material for high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Two types of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method are used to immobilize sulfur via an in situ sulfur deposition route. The structure and composition of the prepared nitrogen doped graphene/sulfur (NGS/S) composites are confirmed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images shows the porous sulfur particles are well wrapped by NGS. Compared with graphene/sulfur (GS/S) composite, the NGS-1/S composite with high loading (80 wt%) of sulfur presents a remarkably higher reversible capacity (1356.8 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C) and long cycle stability (578.5 mAh g-1 remaining at 1 C up to 500 cycles). Pyridinic-N rich NGS-1/S exhibits a better electrochemical performance than pyrrolic-N enriched NGS-2/S. The improvement of electrochemical properties could be attributed to the chemical interaction between the nitrogen functionalities on the surface of NGS and polysulfide as well as the enhanced electronic conductivity of the carbon matrix.

  18. Monolayer MoS2-Graphene Hybrid Aerogels with Controllable Porosity for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Reversible Capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lianfu; Lin, Binghui; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Xiufeng; Xia, Hui; Li, Liang; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because all redox reactions take place at the surface without lithium-ion diffusion limit. However, the expanded band gap of monolayer MoS2 NSs (∼1.8 eV) compared to their bulk counterparts (∼1.2 eV) and restacking tendency due to the van der Waals forces result in poor electron transfer and loss of the structure advantage. Here, a facile approach is developed to fabricate the MoS2-graphene aerogels comprising controlled three-dimensional (3D) porous architectures constructed by interconnected monolayer MoS2-graphene hybrid NSs. The robust 3D architectures combining with the monolayer feature of the hybrid NSs not only prevent the MoS2 and graphene NSs from restacking, but also enable fast electrode kinetics due to the surface reaction mechanism and highly conductive graphene matrix. As a consequence, the 3D porous monolayer MoS2-graphene composite aerogels exhibit a large reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh g(-1) as well as outstanding cycling stability and rate performance, making them promising as advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Irlbeck, Brad

    2006-01-01

    Although it looks like module level voltage drives the cutoff for charge, the actual cutoff is due to unbalanced cell voltages that drive the module voltage up. Individual cell voltage drives the cutoff for discharge Low resistance cells are the first to reach the low-voltage cutoff Cell-to-Cell voltage differences are generally small and show similar trends for each cycle Increase for a distinct window during charge and at the end of discharge Increase in max to min cell voltage difference with time/cycles Decrease in max to min cell voltage difference during high current pulses with time/cycles Individual cell voltage trends (with respect to other cells) are very repeatable from cycle to cycle, although voltage slowly degrades with time/cycles (resistance growth) Much more difference observed near end of discharge Little change in order of cell voltage (cell with highest voltage to cell with lowest voltage) Temp sensor on the side of cell (between 2 cells) shows much greater rise during discharge than for single cell tests (18 C vs 5 C) Conclusion: Serial Charging of this string of cells is feasible as it has only a minor impact on useful capacity

  20. Whole genome and global gene expression analyses of the model mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveal a high capacity for lignocellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model.