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Sample records for ct virtual bronchoscopy

  1. Virtual hybrid bronchoscopy using PET/CT data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Seemann, Marcus D.

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities, advantages and limitations of virtual bronchoscopy using data sets from positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Eight consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent PET/CT. PET was performed with F-18-labelled 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose ((18)F-FDG). The tracheobronchial system was segmented with a volume-growing algorithm, using the CT data sets, and visualized with a shaded-surface rendering method. The primary tumours and the lymph node metastases were segmented for virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the CT data set and for virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy using the PET/CT data set. Virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the low-dose or diagnostic CT facilitates the detection of anatomical/morphological structure changes of the tracheobronchial system. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy was superior to virtual CT-bronchoscopy in the detection of lymph node metastases (P=0.001), because it uses the CT information and the molecular/metabolic information from PET. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy with a transparent colour-coded shaded-surface rendering model is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy of identification and characterization of malignancies, assessment of tumour staging, differentiation of viable tumour tissue from atelectases and scars, verification of infections, evaluation of therapeutic response and detection of an early stage of recurrence that is not detectable or is misjudged in comparison with virtual CT-bronchoscopy.

  2. CT-video registration accuracy for virtual guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helferty, James P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Higgins, William E.

    2004-04-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy is often used for assisting the assessment of lung cancer. We have found in previous research that live image guidance of bronchoscopy has much potential for improving biopsy outcome. We have devised a system for this purpose. During a guided bronchoscopy procedure, our system simultaneously draws upon both the bronchoscope's video stream and the patient's 3D MDCT volume. The key data-processing step during guided bronchoscopy is the registration of the 3D MDCT data volume to the bronchoscopic video. The registration process is initialized by assuming that the bronchoscope is at a fixed viewpoint, giving a target reference video image, while the virtual-world camera inside the MDCT volume begins at an initial viewpoint that is within a reasonable vicinity of the bronchoscope's viewpoint. During registration, an optimization process searches for the optimal viewpoint to give the virtual image best matching the fixed video target. Overall, we have found that the CT-video registration technique operates robustly over a wide range of conditions, with considerable flexibility in the initial-viewpoint choice. Further, the system appears to be largely insensitive to the differences in lung capacity during the MDCT scan and during bronchoscopy. Finally, the system matches effectively in a wide range of anatomical circumstances.

  3. Bronchoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    Fiberoptic bronchoscopy; Lung cancer - bronchoscopy; Pneumonia - bronchoscopy; Chronic lung disease - bronchoscopy ... to see the inside of the airways and lungs. The scope can be flexible or rigid. A ...

  4. Interactive CT-Video Registration for the Continuous Guidance of Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Scott A.; Khare, Rahul; Bascom, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is a major step in lung cancer staging. To perform bronchoscopy, the physician uses a procedure plan, derived from a patient’s 3D computed-tomography (CT) chest scan, to navigate the bronchoscope through the lung airways. Unfortunately, physicians vary greatly in their ability to perform bronchoscopy. As a result, image-guided bronchoscopy systems, drawing upon the concept of CT-based virtual bronchoscopy (VB), have been proposed. These systems attempt to register the bronchoscope’s live position within the chest to a CT-based virtual chest space. Recent methods, which register the bronchoscopic video to CT-based endoluminal airway renderings, show promise but do not enable continuous real-time guidance. We present a CT-video registration method inspired by computer-vision innovations in the fields of image alignment and image-based rendering. In particular, motivated by the Lucas–Kanade algorithm, we propose an inverse-compositional framework built around a gradient-based optimization procedure. We next propose an implementation of the framework suitable for image-guided bronchoscopy. Laboratory tests, involving both single frames and continuous video sequences, demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method. Benchmark timing tests indicate that the method can run continuously at 300 frames/s, well beyond the real-time bronchoscopic video rate of 30 frames/s. This compares extremely favorably to the ≥1 s/frame speeds of other methods and indicates the method’s potential for real-time continuous registration. A human phantom study confirms the method’s efficacy for real-time guidance in a controlled setting, and, hence, points the way toward the first interactive CT-video registration approach for image-guided bronchoscopy. Along this line, we demonstrate the method’s efficacy in a complete guidance system by presenting a clinical study involving lung cancer patients. PMID:23508260

  5. Interactive CT-video registration for the continuous guidance of bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Scott A; Khare, Rahul; Bascom, Rebecca; Higgins, William E

    2013-08-01

    Bronchoscopy is a major step in lung cancer staging. To perform bronchoscopy, the physician uses a procedure plan, derived from a patient's 3D computed-tomography (CT) chest scan, to navigate the bronchoscope through the lung airways. Unfortunately, physicians vary greatly in their ability to perform bronchoscopy. As a result, image-guided bronchoscopy systems, drawing upon the concept of CT-based virtual bronchoscopy (VB), have been proposed. These systems attempt to register the bronchoscope's live position within the chest to a CT-based virtual chest space. Recent methods, which register the bronchoscopic video to CT-based endoluminal airway renderings, show promise but do not enable continuous real-time guidance. We present a CT-video registration method inspired by computer-vision innovations in the fields of image alignment and image-based rendering. In particular, motivated by the Lucas-Kanade algorithm, we propose an inverse-compositional framework built around a gradient-based optimization procedure. We next propose an implementation of the framework suitable for image-guided bronchoscopy. Laboratory tests, involving both single frames and continuous video sequences, demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method. Benchmark timing tests indicate that the method can run continuously at 300 frames/s, well beyond the real-time bronchoscopic video rate of 30 frames/s. This compares extremely favorably to the ≥ 1 s/frame speeds of other methods and indicates the method's potential for real-time continuous registration. A human phantom study confirms the method's efficacy for real-time guidance in a controlled setting, and, hence, points the way toward the first interactive CT-video registration approach for image-guided bronchoscopy. Along this line, we demonstrate the method's efficacy in a complete guidance system by presenting a clinical study involving lung cancer patients.

  6. [Development of a virtual model of fibro-bronchoscopy].

    PubMed

    Solar, Mauricio; Ducoing, Eugenio

    2011-09-01

    A virtual model of fibro-bronchoscopy is reported. The virtual model represents in 3D the trachea and the bronchi creating a virtual world of the bronchial tree. The bronchoscope is modeled to look over the bronchial tree imitating the displacement and rotation of the real bronchoscope. The parameters of the virtual model were gradually adjusted according to expert opinion and allowed the training of specialists with a virtual bronchoscope of great realism. The virtual bronchial tree provides clues of reality regarding the movement of the bronchoscope, creating the illusion that the virtual instrument is behaving as the real one with all the benefits in costs that this means.

  7. CT Colonography (Virtual Colonoscopy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z CT Colonography Computed tomography (CT) colonography or virtual colonoscopy uses special x-ray equipment to examine ... and blood vessels. CT colonography, also known as virtual colonoscopy, uses low dose radiation CT scanning to ...

  8. High dynamic range (HDR) virtual bronchoscopy rendering for video tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Teo; Choi, Jae

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a new rendering method based on high dynamic range (HDR) lighting and exposure control. This rendering method is applied to create video images for a 3D virtual bronchoscopy system. One of the main optical parameters of a bronchoscope's camera is the sensor exposure. The exposure adjustment is needed since the dynamic range of most digital video cameras is narrower than the high dynamic range of real scenes. The dynamic range of a camera is defined as the ratio of the brightest point of an image to the darkest point of the same image where details are present. In a video camera exposure is controlled by shutter speed and the lens aperture. To create the virtual bronchoscopic images, we first rendered a raw image in absolute units (luminance); then, we simulated exposure by mapping the computed values to the values appropriate for video-acquired images using a tone mapping operator. We generated several images with HDR and others with low dynamic range (LDR), and then compared their quality by applying them to a 2D/3D video-based tracking system. We conclude that images with HDR are closer to real bronchoscopy images than those with LDR, and thus, that HDR lighting can improve the accuracy of image-based tracking.

  9. Pre-clinical validation of virtual bronchoscopy using 3D Slicer.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Pietro; Jaeger, Alexander; O'Shea, Conor; Khan, Kashif A; Kennedy, Marcus P; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer still represents the leading cause of cancer-related death, and the long-term survival rate remains low. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the most common imaging modality for lung diseases recognition. The purpose of this work was to develop a simple and easily accessible virtual bronchoscopy system to be coupled with a customized electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for navigation in the lung and which requires as little user interaction as possible, while maintaining high usability. The proposed method has been implemented as an extension to the open-source platform, 3D Slicer. It creates a virtual reconstruction of the airways starting from CT images for virtual navigation. It provides tools for pre-procedural planning and virtual navigation, and it has been optimized for use in combination with a [Formula: see text] of freedom EM tracking sensor. Performance of the algorithm has been evaluated in ex vivo and in vivo testing. During ex vivo testing, nine volunteer physicians tested the implemented algorithm to navigate three separate targets placed inside a breathing pig lung model. In general, the system proved easy to use and accurate in replicating the clinical setting and seemed to help choose the correct path without any previous experience or image analysis. Two separate animal studies confirmed technical feasibility and usability of the system. This work describes an easily accessible virtual bronchoscopy system for navigation in the lung. The system provides the user with a complete set of tools that facilitate navigation towards user-selected regions of interest. Results from ex vivo and in vivo studies showed that the system opens the way for potential future work with virtual navigation for safe and reliable airway disease diagnosis.

  10. 3D CT-Video Fusion for Image-Guided Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, William E.; Helferty, James P.; Lu, Kongkuo; Merritt, Scott A.; Rai, Lav; Yu, Kun-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is an important step for lung-cancer staging. Before bronchoscopy, the physician first visually assesses a patient’s three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) chest scan to identify suspect lymph-node sites. Next, during bronchoscopy, the physician guides the bronchoscope to each desired lymph-node site. Unfortunately, the physician has no link between the 3D CT image data and the live video stream provided during bronchoscopy. Thus, the physician must essentially perform biopsy blindly, and the skill levels between different physicians differ greatly. We describe an approach that enables synergistic fusion between the 3D CT data and the bronchoscopic video. Both the integrated planning and guidance system and the internal CT-video registration and fusion methods are described. Phantom, animal, and human studies illustrate the efficacy of the methods. PMID:18096365

  11. 3D CT-video fusion for image-guided bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Higgins, William E; Helferty, James P; Lu, Kongkuo; Merritt, Scott A; Rai, Lav; Yu, Kun-Chang

    2008-04-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is an important step for lung-cancer staging. Before bronchoscopy, the physician first visually assesses a patient's three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) chest scan to identify suspect lymph-node sites. Next, during bronchoscopy, the physician guides the bronchoscope to each desired lymph-node site. Unfortunately, the physician has no link between the 3D CT image data and the live video stream provided during bronchoscopy. Thus, the physician must essentially perform biopsy blindly, and the skill levels between different physicians differ greatly. We describe an approach that enables synergistic fusion between the 3D CT data and the bronchoscopic video. Both the integrated planning and guidance system and the internal CT-video registration and fusion methods are described. Phantom, animal, and human studies illustrate the efficacy of the methods.

  12. Computer-based System for the Virtual-Endoscopic Guidance of Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Helferty, J.P.; Sherbondy, A.J.; Kiraly, A.P.; Higgins, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing lung cancer involves two stages: three-dimensional (3D) computed-tomography (CT) image assessment, followed by interventional bronchoscopy. In general, the physician has no link between the 3D CT image assessment results and the follow-on bronchoscopy. Thus, the physician essentially performs bronchoscopic biopsy of suspect cancer sites blindly. We have devised a computer-based system that greatly augments the physician’s vision during bronchoscopy. The system uses techniques from computer graphics and computer vision to enable detailed 3D CT procedure planning and follow-on image-guided bronchoscopy. The procedure plan is directly linked to the bronchoscope procedure, through a live registration and fusion of the 3D CT data and bronchoscopic video. During a procedure, the system provides many visual tools, fused CT-video data, and quantitative distance measures; this gives the physician considerable visual feedback on how to maneuver the bronchoscope and where to insert the biopsy needle. Central to the system is a CT-video registration technique, based on normalized mutual information. Several sets of results verify the efficacy of the registration technique. In addition, we present a series of test results for the complete system for phantoms, animals, and human lung-cancer patients. The results indicate that not only is the variation in skill level between different physicians greatly reduced by the system over the standard procedure, but that biopsy effectiveness increases. PMID:18978928

  13. Diagnosis of Peripheral Lung Lesions via Conventional Flexible Bronchoscopy with Multiplanar CT Planning

    PubMed Central

    De Roza, Marianne Anastasia; Quah, Kien Hong; Tay, Cheong Kiat; Toh, Weiquan; Li, HuiHua; Kalyanasundaram, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conventional flexible bronchoscopy has limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions and is dependent on lesion size. However, advancement of CT imaging offers multiplanar reconstruction facilitating enhanced preprocedure planning. This study aims to report efficacy and safety while considering the impact of patient selection and multiplanar CT planning. Method. Prospective case series of patients with peripheral lung lesions suspected of having lung cancer who underwent flexible bronchoscopy (forceps biopsy and lavage). Endobronchial lesions were excluded. Patients with negative results underwent CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration, surgical biopsy, or clinical-radiological surveillance to establish the final diagnosis. Results. 226 patients were analysed. The diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy was 80.1% (181/226) with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 100%. In patients with a positive CT-Bronchus sign, the diagnostic yield was 82.4% compared to 72.8% with negative CT-Bronchus sign (p = 0.116). Diagnostic yield was 84.9% in lesions > 20 mm and 63.0% in lesions ≤ 20 mm (p = 0.001). Six (2.7%) patients had transient hypoxia and 2 (0.9%) had pneumothorax. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusion. Flexible bronchoscopy with appropriate patient selection and preprocedure planning is more efficacious in obtaining a diagnosis in peripheral lung lesions compared to historical data. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374542. PMID:27957340

  14. Radiography, computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in four dogs and two cats with lung lobe torsion.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R M; Peters, J; Zwingenberger, A

    2009-07-01

    This report describes the imaging features of radiography, computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in dogs and cats with lung lobe torsions. The medical records, thoracic radiographs and computed tomography images of four dogs and two cats with confirmed lung lobe torsions were retrospectively reviewed. Computed tomography with virtual bronchoscopy showed bronchial narrowing, collapse or occlusion in all six animals, while this was only appreciated on one radiographic examination. A tapering terminating angle of the air-filled bronchus proximal or distal to the collapsed region was seen only on computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in all six animals. The vesicular emphysema pattern typical of lung lobe torsion was seen on three computed tomographies but only on one radiographic examination. The lung lobe torsion-specific findings of vesicular emphysema and a proximally narrowed or occluded bronchus were more easily recognised on computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy than with radiographs. Computed tomography slices acquired through the bronchus and lung lobe of interest in a cat or dog with possible lung lobe torsion can be reformatted into virtual bronchoscopic images that can be utilised along with computed tomography to help make a more definitive preoperative diagnosis.

  15. Automated display of the anatomical name of bronchial branches in a virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool for medical students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro; Natori, Hiroshi

    1999-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for automated labeling of the bronchial branches in the virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool. Virtual Bronchoscopy System (VBS) is a new observation method of 3-D medical images. This system is useful for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis, planning of surgery, informed consent, education and training. By the proposed method the VBS can automatically labels bronchial branches which are extracted from 3-D chest X-ray CT images by the knowledge based processing in the VBS. The knowledge base of the bronchial branch name is constructed. Automated labeling is performed by comparing the tree structure of the extracted bronchus with the knowledge base. The bronchial branch name is displayed in the navigation inside the bronchus. We extended the VBS to a teaching tool by using this function. The system generates questions about bronchial branch name. When the user navigate inside the bronchus by using the VBS, the system presents a question on the virtual endoscopic view and the user answers a question. The proposed method was implemented in our VBS. We confirmed that the method can assign anatomical names to about 90% of bronchial branches extracted from 3-D X-ray CT image automatically. In an extended module for educational use of the VBS, the system could generate questions about branch names and could display them on the virtual endoscopic view automatically.

  16. Automated anatomical labeling of bronchial branches using multiple classifiers and its application to bronchoscopy guidance based on fusion of virtual and real bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Shunsuke; Deguchi, Daisuke; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a method for automated anatomical labeling of bronchial branches (ALBB) extracted from 3D CT datasets. The proposed method constructs classifiers that output anatomical names of bronchial branches by employing the machine-learning approach. We also present its application to a bronchoscopy guidance system. Since the bronchus has a complex tree structure, bronchoscopists easily tend to get disoriented and lose the way to a target location. A bronchoscopy guidance system is strongly expected to be developed to assist bronchoscopists. In such guidance system, automated presentation of anatomical names is quite useful information for bronchoscopy. Although several methods for automated ALBB were reported, most of them constructed models taking only variations of branching patterns into account and did not consider those of running directions. Since the running directions of bronchial branches differ greatly in individuals, they could not perform ALBB accurately when running directions of bronchial branches were different from those of models. Our method tries to solve such problems by utilizing the machine-learning approach. Actual procedure consists of three steps: (a) extraction of bronchial tree structures from 3D CT datasets, (b) construction of classifiers using the multi-class AdaBoost technique, and (c) automated classification of bronchial branches by using the constructed classifiers. We applied the proposed method to 51 cases of 3D CT datasets. The constructed classifiers were evaluated by leave-one-out scheme. The experimental results showed that the proposed method could assign correct anatomical names to bronchial branches of 89.1% up to segmental lobe branches. Also, we confirmed that it was quite useful to assist the bronchoscopy by presenting anatomical names of bronchial branches on real bronchoscopic views.

  17. [Diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Lu; Huang, Ying; Li, Qu-Bei; Dai, Ji-Hong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate and compare the diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants. Analysis was performed on the clinical data, bronchoscopic findings and multi-slice spiral CT findings of 319 infants (≤1 years old) who underwent bronchoscopy and/or multi-slice spiral CT and were diagnosed with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system. A total of 476 cases of congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system were found in the 319 infants, including primary dysplasia of the respiratory system (392 cases) and compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system (84 cases). Of the 392 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system, 225 (57.4%) were diagnosed by bronchoscopy versus 167 (42.6%) by multi-slice spiral CT. There were significant differences in etiological diagnosis between bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT in infants with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system (P<0.05). All 76 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system caused by tracheobronchomalacia were diagnosed by bronchoscopy and all 17 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system caused by lung tissue dysplasia were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT. Of the 84 cases of compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system, 74 cases were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT and only 10 cases were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Compared with multi-slice spiral CT, bronchoscopy can detect primary dysplasia of the respiratory system more directly. Bronchoscopy is valuable in the confirmed diagnosis of tracheobronchomalacia. Multi-slice spiral CT has a higher diagnostic value for lung tissue dysplasia than bronchoscopy.

  18. A novel research platform for electromagnetic navigated bronchoscopy using cone beam CT imaging and an animal model.

    PubMed

    Leira, Håkon Olav; Amundsen, Tore; Tangen, Geir Arne; Bø, Lars Eirik; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Langø, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy is a new field of research, essential for the development of advanced investigation of the airways and lung tissue. Consecutive problem-based solutions and refinements are urgent requisites to achieve improvements. For that purpose, our intention is to build a complete research platform for electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy. The experimental interventional electromagnetic field tracking system in conjunction with a C-arm cone beam CT unit is presented in this paper. The animal model and the navigation platform performed well and the aims were achieved; the 3D localization of foreign bodies and their navigated and tracked removal, assessment of tracking accuracy that showed a high level of precision, and assessment of image quality. The platform may prove to be a suitable platform for further research and development and a full-fledged electromagnetic guided bronchoscopy navigation system. The inclusion of the C-arm cone beam CT unit in the experimental setup adds a number of new possibilities for diagnostic procedures and accuracy measurements. Among other future challenges that need to be solved are the interaction between the C-arm and the electromagnetic navigation field, as we demonstrate in this feasibility study.

  19. A new visualization method for navigated bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Reynisson, Pall Jens; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Leira, Håkon Olav; Askeland, Christian; Langø, Thomas; Sorger, Hanne; Lindseth, Frank; Amundsen, Tore; Hernes, Toril Anita Nagelhus

    2017-05-30

    In flexible endoscopy techniques, such as bronchoscopy, there is often a challenge visualizing the path from start to target based on preoperative data and accessing these during the procedure. An example of this is visualizing only the inside of central airways in bronchoscopy. Virtual bronchoscopy (VB) does not meet the pulmonologist's need to detect, define and sample the frequent targets outside the bronchial wall. Our aim was to develop and study a new visualization technique for navigated bronchoscopy. We extracted the shortest possible path from the top of the trachea to the target along the airway centerline and a corresponding auxiliary route in the opposite lung. A surface structure between the centerlines was developed and displayed. The new technique was tested on non-selective CT data from eight patients using artificial lung targets. The new display technique anchored to centerline curved surface (ACCuSurf) made it easy to detect and interpret anatomical features, targets and neighboring anatomy outside the airways, in all eight patients. ACCuSurf can simplify planning and performing navigated bronchoscopy, meets the challenge of improving orientation and register the direction of the moving endoscope, thus creating an optimal visualization for navigated bronchoscopy.

  20. Navigated bronchoscopy: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Reynisson, Pall J; Leira, Håkon O; Hernes, Toril N; Hofstad, Erlend F; Scali, Marta; Sorger, Hanne; Amundsen, Tore; Lindseth, Frank; Langø, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Navigated bronchoscopy uses virtual 3-dimensional lung model visualizations created from preoperative computed tomography images often in synchronization with the video bronchoscope to guide a tool to peripheral lesions. Navigated bronchoscopy has developed fast since the introduction of virtual bronchoscopy with integrated electromagnetic sensors in the late 1990s. The purposes of the review are to give an overview and update of the technological components of navigated bronchoscopy, an assessment of its clinical usefulness, and a brief assessment of the commercial platforms for navigated bronchoscopy. We performed a literature search with relevant keywords to navigation and bronchoscopy and iterated on the reference lists of relevant papers, with emphasis on the last 5 years. The paper presents an overview of the components necessary for performing navigated bronchoscopy, assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of different approaches, and an analysis of the commercial systems. We were able to identify 4 commercial platforms and 9 research and development groups with considerable activity in the field. Finally, on the basis of our findings and our own experience, we provide a discussion on navigated bronchoscopy with focus on the next steps of development. The literature review showed that the peripheral diagnostic accuracy has improved using navigated bronchoscopy compared with traditional bronchoscopy. We believe that there is room for improvement in the diagnostic success rate by further refinement of methods, approaches, and tools used in navigated bronchoscopy.

  1. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  2. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult.

  3. SU-C-BRA-07: Virtual Bronchoscopy-Guided IMRT Planning for Mapping and Avoiding Radiation Injury to the Airway Tree in Lung SAbR

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, A; Modiri, A; Bland, R; Yan, Y; Ahn, C; Timmerman, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Post-treatment radiation injury to central and peripheral airways is a potentially important, yet under-investigated determinant of toxicity in lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR). We integrate virtual bronchoscopy technology into the radiotherapy planning process to spatially map and quantify the radiosensitivity of bronchial segments, and propose novel IMRT planning that limits airway dose through non-isotropic intermediate- and low-dose spillage. Methods: Pre- and ∼8.5 months post-SAbR diagnostic-quality CT scans were retrospectively collected from six NSCLC patients (50–60Gy in 3–5 fractions). From each scan, ∼5 branching levels of the bronchial tree were segmented using LungPoint, a virtual bronchoscopic navigation system. The pre-SAbR CT and the segmented bronchial tree were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and deformably registered to the planning CT. The five-fraction equivalent dose from the clinically-delivered plan was calculated for each segment using the Universal Survival Curve model. The pre- and post-SAbR CTs were used to evaluate radiation-induced segmental collapse. Two of six patients exhibited significant segmental collapse with associated atelectasis and fibrosis, and were re-planned using IMRT. Results: Multivariate stepwise logistic regression over six patients (81 segments) showed that D0.01cc (minimum point dose within the 0.01cc receiving highest dose) was a significant independent factor associated with collapse (odds-ratio=1.17, p=0.010). The D0.01cc threshold for collapse was 57Gy, above which, collapse rate was 45%. In the two patients exhibiting segmental collapse, 22 out of 32 segments showed D0.01cc >57Gy. IMRT re-planning reduced D0.01cc below 57Gy in 15 of the 22 segments (68%) while simultaneously achieving the original clinical plan objectives for PTV coverage and OAR-sparing. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the administration of lung SAbR can Result in significant injury to

  4. Central airway pathology: clinic features, CT findings with pathologic and virtual endoscopy correlation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Daniel; Gutiérrez Chacoff, José; Benegas, Mariana; Perea, Rosario J; de Caralt, Teresa M; Ramirez, José; Vollmer, Ivan; Sanchez, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    To describe the imaging features of the central airway pathology, correlating the findings with those in pathology and virtual endoscopy. To propose a schematic and practical approach to reach diagnoses, placing strong emphasis on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings. We reviewed our thoracic pathology database and the central airway pathology-related literature. Best cases were selected to illustrate the main features of each disease. MDCT was performed in all cases. Multiplanar and volume-rendering reconstructions were obtained when necessary. Virtual endoscopy was obtained from the CT with dedicated software. Pathological conditions affecting the central airways are a heterogeneous group of diseases. Focal alterations include benign neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and non-neoplastic conditions. Diffuse abnormalities are divided into those that produce dilation and those that produce stenosis and tracheobronchomalacia. Direct bronchoscopy (DB) visualises the mucosal layer and is an important diagnostic and therapeutic weapon. However, assessing the deep layers or the adjacent tissue is not possible. MDCT and post-processing techniques such as virtual bronchoscopy (VB) provide an excellent evaluation of the airway wall. This review presents the complete spectrum of the central airway pathology with its clinical, pathological and radiological features. • Dividing diseases into diffuse and focal lesions helps narrow the differential diagnosis. • Focal lesions with nodularity are more likely to correspond to tumours. • Focal lesions with stenosis are more likely to correspond to inflammatory disease. • Posterior wall involvement is the main feature in diffuse lesions with stenosis.

  5. An interactive 3D user interface for guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Soper, Timothy D.; Glenny, Robb W.; Seibel, Eric J.; Shapiro, Linda G.

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that more than 5 million bronchoscopy procedures are performed each year worldwide. The procedure usually involves biopsy of possible cancerous tissues from the lung. Standard bronchoscopes are too large to reach into the peripheral lung, where cancerous nodules are often found. The University of Washington has developed an ultrathin and flexible scanning fiber endoscope that is able to advance into the periphery of the human lungs without sacrificing image quality. To accompany the novel endoscope, we have developed a user interface that serves as a navigation guide for doctors when performing a bronchoscopy. The navigation system consists of a virtual surface mesh of the airways extracted from computed-tomography (CT) scan and an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS). The complete system can be viewed as a global positioning system for the lung that provides pre-procedural planning functionalities, virtual bronchoscopy navigation, and real time tracking of the endoscope inside the lung. The real time virtual navigation is complemented by a particle filter algorithm to compensate for registration errors and outliers, and to prevent going through surfaces of the virtual lung model. The particle filter method tracks the endoscope tip based on real time tracking data and attaches the virtual endoscopic view to the skeleton that runs inside the virtual airway surface. Experiment results on a dried sheep lung show that the particle filter method converges and is able to accurately track the endoscope tip in real time when the endoscope is inserted both at slow and fast insertion speeds.

  6. Diagnostic yield of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy is highly dependent on the presence of a Bronchus sign on CT imaging: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Luis M; de Torres, Juan P; Lozano, María D; Bastarrika, Gorka; Alcaide, Ana B; Lacunza, Maria M; Zulueta, Javier J

    2010-12-01

    Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) has been developed as a novel ancillary tool for the bronchoscopic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Despite successful navigation in 90% of patients, ENB diagnostic yield does not generally exceed 70%. We sought to determine whether the presence of a bronchus sign on CT imaging conditions diagnostic yield of ENB and might account for the discrepancy between successful navigation and diagnostic yield. We conducted a prospective, single-center study of ENB in 51 consecutive patients with pulmonary nodules. ENB was chosen as the least invasive diagnostic technique in patients with a high surgical risk, suspected metastatic disease, or advanced-stage disease, or in those who demanded a preoperative diagnosis prior to undergoing curative resection. We studied patient and technical variables that might condition diagnostic yield, including size, cause, location, distance to the pleural surface, and fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of a given nodule; the presence of a bronchus sign on CT imaging; registration point divergence; and the minimum distance from the tip of the locatable guide to the nodule measured during the procedure. The diagnostic yield of ENB was 67% (34/51). The sensitivity and specificity of ENB for malignancy in this study were 71% and 100%, respectively. ENB was diagnostic in 79% (30/38) patients with a bronchus sign on CT imaging but only in 4/13 (31%) with no discernible bronchus sign. Univariate analysis identified the bronchus sign (P = .005) and nodule size (P = .04) as statistically significant variables conditioning yield, but on multivariate analysis, only the bronchus sign remained significant (OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 1.8-31.7). No procedure-related complications were observed. ENB diagnostic yield is highly dependent on the presence of a bronchus sign on CT imaging.

  7. Electromagnetic navigation during flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Yehuda; Mehta, Atul C; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix; Engel, Ahuva; Besser, Doron; Becker, Heinrich D

    2003-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is routinely utilized in the diagnosis and treatment of various lung diseases. Nondiagnostic bronchoscopy leads to more invasive interventions, such as transthoracic needle aspiration, mediastinoscopy or even thoracotomy. Electromagnetic navigation is a novel technology that facilitates approaching peripheral lung lesions, which are difficult to sample by conventional means. The navigation system involves creating an electromagnetic field around the chest and localizing an endoscopic tool using a microsensor overlaid upon previously acquired CT images. To determine the practicality, accuracy and safety of real-time electromagnetic navigation, coupled with previously acquired 3D CT images, in locating artificially created peripheral lung lesions in a swine model. Peripheral lung lesions were created in four swine models by insertion of a metal tube (1 x 10 mm) via a transthoracic approach. An electromagnetic field was created by placing the animal on an electromagnetic location board. A position sensor incorporated into the distal tip of a dedicated tool was used to navigate to the various target lesions. Information gathered in real time during bronchoscopy was presented on a monitor simultaneously by displaying previously acquired CT images. Upon reaching the target lesion, biopsies were performed and the functionality and safety of the superDimension/Bronchus System was observed and documented. The registration accuracy expressed by the fiducial target registration error, expressing both the registration quality and the stability of fiducial (registration) points, was 4.5 mm on average. No adverse effects, such as pneumothorax or internal bleeding, were encountered in any of the animals in this study. Real-time electromagnetic positioning technology coupled with previously acquired CT images is an accurate technology added to standard bronchoscopy to assist in reaching peripheral lung lesions and performing biopsies. Copyright 2003 S. Karger

  8. Simulation-Based Bronchoscopy Training

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Cassie C.; Maldonado, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Simulation-based bronchoscopy training is increasingly used, but effectiveness remains uncertain. We sought to perform a comprehensive synthesis of published work on simulation-based bronchoscopy training. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, and Scopus for eligible articles through May 11, 2011. We included all original studies involving health professionals that evaluated, in comparison with no intervention or an alternative instructional approach, simulation-based training for flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. Study selection and data abstraction were performed independently and in duplicate. We pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. Results: From an initial pool of 10,903 articles, we identified 17 studies evaluating simulation-based bronchoscopy training. In comparison with no intervention, simulation training was associated with large benefits on skills and behaviors (pooled effect size, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.82-1.60]; n = 8 studies) and moderate benefits on time (0.62 [95% CI, 0.12-1.13]; n = 7). In comparison with clinical instruction, behaviors with real patients showed nonsignificant effects favoring simulation for time (0.61 [95% CI, −1.47 to 2.69]) and process (0.33 [95% CI, −1.46 to 2.11]) outcomes (n = 2 studies each), although variation in training time might account for these differences. Four studies compared alternate simulation-based training approaches. Inductive analysis to inform instructional design suggested that longer or more structured training is more effective, authentic clinical context adds value, and animal models and plastic part-task models may be superior to more costly virtual-reality simulators. Conclusions: Simulation-based bronchoscopy training is effective in comparison with no intervention. Comparative effectiveness studies are few. PMID:23370487

  9. Helical CT scan with 2D and 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopy versus conventional endoscopy in the assessment of airway disease in neonates, infants and children.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mahira

    2012-11-01

    To study the use of helical computed tomography 2-D and 3-D images, and virtual endoscopy in the evaluation of airway disease in neonates, infants and children and its value in lesion detection, characterisation and extension. Conducted at Al-Noor Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from January 1 to June 30, 2006, the study comprised of 40 patients with strider, having various causes of airway obstruction. They were examined by helical CT scan with 2-D and 3-D reconstructions and virtual endoscopy. The level and characterisation of lesions were carried out and results were compared with actual endoscopic findings. Conventional endoscopy was chosen as the gold standard, and the evaluation of endoscopy was done in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the procedure. For statistical purposes, SPSS version 10 was used. All CT methods detected airway stenosis or obstruction. Accuracy was 98% (n=40) for virtual endoscopy, 96% (n=48) for 3-D external rendering, 90% (n=45) for multiplanar reconstructions and 86% (n=43) for axial images. Comparing the results of 3-D internal and external volume rendering images with conventional endoscopy for detection and grading of stenosis were closer than with 2-D minimum intensity multiplanar reconstruction and axial CT slices. Even high-grade stenosis could be evaluated with virtual endoscope through which conventional endoscope cannot be passed. A case of 4-year-old patient with tracheomalacia could not be diagnosed by helical CT scan and virtual bronchoscopy which was diagriosed on conventional endoscopy and needed CT scan in inspiration and expiration. Virtual endoscopy [VE] enabled better assessment of stenosis compared to the reading of 3-D external rendering, 2-D multiplanar reconstruction [MPR] or axial slices. It can replace conventional endoscopy in the assessment of airway disease without any additional risk.

  10. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, F; Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers.

  11. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-01-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers. PMID:24234584

  12. Immersive virtual reality for visualization of abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A.; Bodenheimer, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  13. Immersive Virtual Reality for Visualization of Abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A; Bodenheimer, Robert E

    2013-03-28

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two-dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  14. Anaesthesia for bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Meenu; Kulshrestha, Mayank; Biyani, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Bronchoscopy as an investigation or therapeutic procedure demands anaesthesiologist to act accordingly. The present review will take the reader from rigid to fibreoptic flexible bronchoscopy. These procedures are now done as day care procedures in the operation theatre or in critical care units. Advantages and limitations of both rigid and flexible bronchoscopy are analysed. Recently, conscious sedation has come up as the commonly used anaesthetic technique for simple bronchoscopic procedures. However, general anaesthesia still remains a standard technique for more complex procedures. New advances in the field of anaesthesiology such as use of short acting opioids, use of newer drugs such as dexmedetomidine, supraglottic airways and mechanical jet ventilators have facilitated and eased the conduct of the procedure. PMID:26556915

  15. Adult Bronchoscopy Training

    PubMed Central

    Wahidi, Momen M.; Read, Charles A.; Buckley, John D.; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J.; Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J. F.; de Hoyos Parra, Alberto; Ornelas, Joseph; Yarmus, Lonny; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The determination of competency of trainees in programs performing bronchoscopy is quite variable. Some programs provide didactic lectures with hands-on supervision, other programs incorporate advanced simulation centers, whereas others have a checklist approach. Although no single method has been proven best, the variability alone suggests that outcomes are variable. Program directors and certifying bodies need guidance to create standards for training programs. Little well-developed literature on the topic exists. METHODS: To provide credible and trustworthy guidance, rigorous methodology has been applied to create this bronchoscopy consensus training statement. All panelists were vetted and approved by the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee. Each topic group drafted questions in a PICO (population, intervention, comparator, outcome) format. MEDLINE data through PubMed and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched. Manual searches also supplemented the searches. All gathered references were screened for consideration based on inclusion criteria, and all statements were designated as an Ungraded Consensus-Based Statement. RESULTS: We suggest that professional societies move from a volume-based certification system to skill acquisition and knowledge-based competency assessment for trainees. Bronchoscopy training programs should incorporate multiple tools, including simulation. We suggest that ongoing quality and process improvement systems be introduced and that certifying agencies move from a volume-based certification system to skill acquisition and knowledge-based competency assessment for trainees. We also suggest that assessment of skill maintenance and improvement in practice be evaluated regularly with ongoing quality and process improvement systems after initial skill acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The current methods used for bronchoscopy competency in training programs are variable. We suggest that professional societies and certifying

  16. Image fusion in craniofacial virtual reality modeling based on CT and 3dMD photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Xin, Pengfei; Yu, Hongbo; Cheng, Huanchong; Shen, Shunyao; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D CT models were reconstructed by Materialise Mimics software, and the stereophotogrammetric facial surface was reconstructed by 3 dMD patient software. All 3D CT models were exported as Stereo Lithography file format, and the 3 dMD model was exported as Virtual Reality Modeling Language file format. Image registration and fusion were performed in Mimics software. Genetic algorithm was used for precise image fusion alignment with minimum error. The 3D CT models and the 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface were finally merged into a single file and displayed using Deep Exploration software. Errors between the CT soft tissue model and 3 dMD facial surface were also analyzed. Virtual model based on CT-3 dMD image fusion clearly showed the photorealistic face and bone structures. Image registration errors in virtual face are mainly located in bilateral cheeks and eyeballs, and the errors are more than 1.5 mm. However, the image fusion of whole point cloud sets of CT and 3 dMD is acceptable with a minimum error that is less than 1 mm. The ease of use and high reliability of CT-3 dMD image fusion allows the 3D virtual head to be an accurate, realistic, and widespread tool, and has a great benefit to virtual face model.

  17. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy: ten years on.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D M; Emerson, C J; Collyer, J; Collins, J V

    1980-01-01

    Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was introduced more than 10 years ago and is now in many centres a routine diagnostic procedure, having superseded rigid bronchoscopy. Its major role is in the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma, where the results are as good as, if not better than, results with the rigid instrument. Other major applications have been found in investigating haemoptysis, transbronchial lung biopsy in interstitial lung disease, and in the critically ill patient in the intensive care unit. More recently, the instrument has been used to perform bronchoalveolar lavage in investigating interstitial lung diseases and to enable lobar and segmental lung function studies to be performed. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy is a major advance in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, but there will always be times when rigid bronchoscopy is preferable. PMID:7000258

  18. Technical Note: Improved CT number stability across patient size using dual-energy CT virtual monoenergetic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Gregory; Grimes, Joshua; Fletcher, Joel; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia; Halaweish, Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, over a wide range of phantom sizes, CT number stability achieved using two techniques for generating dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) virtual monoenergetic images. Methods: Water phantoms ranging in lateral diameter from 15 to 50 cm and containing a CT number test object were scanned on a DSCT scanner using both single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) techniques. The SE tube potentials were 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, and 150 kV; the DE tube potential pairs were 80/140, 70/150Sn, 80/150Sn, 90/150Sn, and 100/150Sn kV (Sn denotes that the 150 kV beam was filtered with a 0.6 mm tin filter). Virtual monoenergetic images at energies ranging from 40 to 140 keV were produced from the DECT data using two algorithms, monoenergetic (mono) and monoenergetic plus (mono+). Particularly in large phantoms, water CT number errors and/or artifacts were observed; thus, datasets with water CT numbers outside ±10 HU or with noticeable artifacts were excluded from the study. CT numbers were measured to determine CT number stability across all phantom sizes. Results: Data exclusions were generally limited to cases when a SE or DE technique with a tube potential of less than 90 kV was used to scan a phantom larger than 30 cm. The 90/150Sn DE technique provided the most accurate water background over the large range of phantom sizes evaluated. Mono and mono+ provided equally improved CT number stability as a function of phantom size compared to SE; the average deviation in CT number was only 1.4% using 40 keV and 1.8% using 70 keV, while SE had an average deviation of 11.8%. Conclusions: The authors’ report demonstrates, across all phantom sizes, the improvement in CT number stability achieved with mono and mono+ relative to SE.

  19. WE-AB-BRA-12: Virtual Endoscope Tracking for Endoscopy-CT Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, W; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Court, L; Yang, J; Beadle, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of endoscopy in radiotherapy will remain limited until we can register endoscopic video to CT using standard clinical equipment. In this phantom study we tested a registration method using virtual endoscopy to measure CT-space positions from endoscopic video. Methods: Our phantom is a contorted clay cylinder with 2-mm-diameter markers in the luminal surface. These markers are visible on both CT and endoscopic video. Virtual endoscope images were rendered from a polygonal mesh created by segmenting the phantom’s luminal surface on CT. We tested registration accuracy by tracking the endoscope’s 6-degree-of-freedom coordinates frame-to-frame in a video recorded as it moved through the phantom, and using these coordinates to measure CT-space positions of markers visible in the final frame. To track the endoscope we used the Nelder-Mead method to search for coordinates that render the virtual frame most similar to the next recorded frame. We measured the endoscope’s initial-frame coordinates using a set of visible markers, and for image similarity we used a combination of mutual information and gradient alignment. CT-space marker positions were measured by projecting their final-frame pixel addresses through the virtual endoscope to intersect with the mesh. Registration error was quantified as the distance between this intersection and the marker’s manually-selected CT-space position. Results: Tracking succeeded for 6 of 8 videos, for which the mean registration error was 4.8±3.5mm (24 measurements total). The mean error in the axial direction (3.1±3.3mm) was larger than in the sagittal or coronal directions (2.0±2.3mm, 1.7±1.6mm). In the other 2 videos, the virtual endoscope got stuck in a false minimum. Conclusion: Our method can successfully track the position and orientation of an endoscope, and it provides accurate spatial mapping from endoscopic video to CT. This method will serve as a foundation for an endoscopy-CT registration

  20. [CT and MR virtual colonscopy: indications, limits and comparison with conventional colonscopy].

    PubMed

    Bertini, L; Campagnano, S; Lanciotti, S; Fiorello, S; Fabiani, B; Graziani, M G; Gualdi, G F

    2006-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a new method for studying the colon; it consists in acquisition of CT and MR images and to elaborate them with a workstation, to create endoluminal vision as like as traditional colonscopy, permitting the complete exploration of colonic lumen, also with stenotic tumors. The analysis of the differences between CT and MR colography shows like these two techniques present both advantages and disadvantages, such as the impossibility to perform MR in patients with pace-maker or in claustrophobic patients and the impossibility to perform CT with iodated agents in patients with renal failure or with a story of adverse reactions. The increased use of these techniques is due to the high sensitivity of last-generation CT and MR machine, to the increased spatial resolution, to specific softwares for digital cleaning of colon, to the introduction of high-end workstations and to the possibility of computed assisted diagnosis (CAD). So, it is desiderable that the increasing spread of multidetector CT devices and the future technical innovations, should have the effect to increase culture and experience in various diagnostic centers about CT-colography, making possible the spreading of virtual endoscopy as a screening tool.

  1. What is Bronchoscopy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Chest CT Scan Chest X Ray Cough Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Send a link to ... Chest X Ray Clinical Trials Cough Oxygen Therapy Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Pneumonia Rate This Content: ...

  2. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F.; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Liu, Bob; Xu, X. George

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose—a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the ‘software as a service (SaaS)’ delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose’s functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT—two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations.

  3. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F; Long, Daniel J; Bolch, Wesley E; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose--a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the 'software as a service (SaaS)' delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose's functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT-two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations.

  4. Hemoptysis: Beyond routine chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Saurabh; Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Prajapat, Deepak; Gupta, Samir K; Talwar, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Hemoptysis is considered as a medical emergency which requires urgent stabilization with identification and correction of underlying etiology. Diagnosis of the cause of hemoptysis is not always readily identified after bronchoscopy and conventional computed tomography (CT) chest. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but important cause of massive hemoptysis which can be easily picked up by the use of double turn contrast CT chest. We here report a rare congenital AVM anomaly called Klippel-Trenaunay-Parks-Weber syndrome as a cause of massive hemoptysis and utility of double turn CT in diagnosing AVM as a cause of hemoptysis. PMID:28671169

  5. Automatic Segmentation and Online virtualCT in Head-and-Neck Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Peroni, Marta; Ciardo, Delia; Spadea, Maria Francesca; Riboldi, Marco; Comi, Stefania; Alterio, Daniela; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an efficient and automatic strategy to generate online virtual computed tomography (CT) scans for adaptive radiation therapy (ART) in head-and-neck (HN) cancer treatment. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients, treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), for an HN malignancy. Different anatomical structures were considered: mandible, parotid glands, and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV). We generated 28 virtualCT scans by means of nonrigid registration of simulation computed tomography (CTsim) and cone beam CT images (CBCTs), acquired for patient setup. We validated our approach by considering the real replanning CT (CTrepl) as ground truth. We computed the Dice coefficient (DSC), center of mass (COM) distance, and root mean square error (RMSE) between correspondent points located on the automatically segmented structures on CBCT and virtualCT. Results: Residual deformation between CTrepl and CBCT was below one voxel. Median DSC was around 0.8 for mandible and parotid glands, but only 0.55 for nGTV, because of the fairly homogeneous surrounding soft tissues and of its small volume. Median COM distance and RMSE were comparable with image resolution. No significant correlation between RMSE and initial or final deformation was found. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence that deformable image registration may contribute significantly in reducing the need of full CT-based replanning in HN radiation therapy by supporting swift and objective decision-making in clinical practice. Further work is needed to strengthen algorithm potential in nGTV localization.

  6. On proton CT reconstruction using MVCT-converted virtual proton projections

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dongxu; Mackie, T. Rockwell; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To describe a novel methodology of converting megavoltage x-ray projections into virtual proton projections that are otherwise missing due to the proton range limit. These converted virtual proton projections can be used in the reconstruction of proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: Relations exist between proton projections and multispectral megavoltage x-ray projections for human tissue. Based on these relations, these tissues can be categorized into: (a) adipose tissue; (b) nonadipose soft tissues; and (c) bone. These three tissue categories can be visibly identified on a regular megavoltage x-ray computed tomography (MVCT) image. With an MVCT image and its projection data available, the x-ray projections through heterogeneous anatomy can be converted to the corresponding proton projections using predetermined calibration curves for individual materials, aided by a coarse segmentation on the x-ray CT image. To show the feasibility of this approach, mathematical simulations were carried out. The converted proton projections, plotted on a proton sinogram, were compared to the simulated ground truth. Proton stopping power images were reconstructed using either the virtual proton projections only or a blend of physically available proton projections and virtual proton projections that make up for those missing due to the range limit. These images were compared to a reference image reconstructed from theoretically calculated proton projections. Results: The converted virtual projections had an uncertainty of {+-}0.8% compared to the calculated ground truth. Proton stopping power images reconstructed using a blend of converted virtual projections (48%) and physically available projections (52%) had an uncertainty of {+-}0.86% compared with that reconstructed from theoretically calculated projections. Reconstruction solely from converted virtual proton projections had an uncertainty of {+-}1.1% compared with that reconstructed from theoretical projections

  7. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

  8. TU-F-18A-09: CT Number Stability Across Patient Sizes Using Virtual-Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, G; Grimes, J; Fletcher, J; McCollough, C; Halaweish, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Virtual-monoenergetic imaging uses dual-energy CT data to synthesize images corresponding to a single photon energy, thereby reducing beam-hardening artifacts. This work evaluated the ability of a commercial virtual-monoenergetic algorithm to achieve stable CT numbers across patient sizes. Methods: Test objects containing a range of iodine and calcium hydroxyapatite concentrations were placed inside 8 torso-shaped water phantoms, ranging in lateral width from 15 to 50 cm, and scanned on a dual-source CT system (Siemens Somatom Force). Single-energy scans were acquired from 70-150 kV in 10 kV increments; dual-energy scans were acquired using 4 energy pairs (low energy: 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV; high energy: 150 kV + 0.6 mm Sn). CTDIvol was matched for all single- and dual-energy scans for a given phantom size. All scans used 128×0.6 mm collimation and were reconstructed with 1-mm thickness at 0.8-mm increment and a medium smooth body kernel. Monoenergetic images were generated using commercial software (syngo Via Dual Energy, VA30). Iodine contrast was calculated as the difference in mean iodine and water CT numbers from respective regions-of-interest in 10 consecutive images. Results: CT numbers remained stable as phantom width varied from 15 to 50 cm for all dual-energy data sets (except for at 50 cm using 70/150Sn due to photon starvation effects). Relative to the 15 cm phantom, iodine contrast was within 5.2% of the 70 keV value for phantom sizes up to 45 cm. At 90/150Sn, photon starvation did not occur at 50 cm, and iodine contrast in the 50-cm phantom was within 1.4% of the 15-cm phantom. Conclusion: Monoenergetic imaging, as implemented in the evaluated commercial system, eliminated the variation in CT numbers due to patient size, and may provide more accurate data for quantitative tasks, including radiation therapy treatment planning. Siemens Healthcare.

  9. A new 3-D diagnosis strategy for duodenal malignant lesions using multidetector row CT, CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, and 3-D multicholangiography.

    PubMed

    Sata, N; Endo, K; Shimura, K; Koizumi, M; Nagai, H

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in multidetector row computed tomography (MD-CT) technology provide new opportunities for clinical diagnoses of various diseases. Here we assessed CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, and three-dimensional (3D) multicholangiography created by MD-CT for clinical diagnosis of duodenal malignant lesions. The study involved seven cases of periduodenal carcinoma (four ampullary carcinomas, two duodenal carcinomas, one pancreatic carcinoma). Biliary contrast medium was administered intravenously, followed by intravenous administration of an anticholinergic agent and oral administration of effervescent granules for expanding the upper gastrointestinal tract. Following intravenous administration of a nonionic contrast medium, an upper abdominal MD-CT scan was performed in the left lateral position. Scan data were processed on a workstation to create CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, 3D multicholangiography, and various postprocessing images, which were then evaluated for their effectiveness as preoperative diagnostic tools. Carcinoma location and extent were clearly demonstrated as defects or colored low-density areas in 3-D multicholangiography images and as protruding lesions in virtual duodenography and duodenoscopy images. These findings were confirmed using multiplanar or curved planar reformation images. In conclusion, CT virtual duodenoscopy, doudenography, 3-D multicholangiography, and various images created by MD-CT alone provided necessary and adequate preoperative diagnostic information.

  10. [Synopsis of computed tomography, scintigraphy and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Beyer-Enke, S A; Clorius, J; Becker, H; Goerich, J; Probst, G; van Kaick, G

    1988-08-01

    In 87 patients with histologically proven bronchogenic carcinoma, computerised tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy were performed to assess the accuracy of CT in detecting bronchial stenosis. Whereas patent airways and mainstem stenosis were recognised in 85% of the cases, the overall accuracy was only 57%. Furthermore, the results of both methods were compared to scintigraphy (ventilation, perfusion) to evaluate the functional impairment due to altered lung morphology and bronchial stenosis. With an increasing number of CT-diagnosed atelectatic or infiltrated segments an almost linear decrease in ventilation and perfusion values was observed. In comparison, bronchoscopy-diagnosed tumour stenosis resulted in decreased ventilation and perfusion data only if the lesion was centrally located.

  11. Value of Virtual Colonoscopy with 64 Row CT in Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Łasecki, Mateusz; Nienartowicz, Ewa; Pelak, Joanna; Słonina, Joanna; Olchowy, Cyprian; Ścieżka, Marek; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Virtual colonoscopy (VC) enables three-dimensional view of walls and internal lumen of the colon as a result of reconstruction of multislice CT images. The role of VC in diagnosis of the colon abnormalities systematically increases, and in many medical centers all over the world is carried out as a screening test of patients with high risk of colorectal cancer. Material/Methods We analyzed results of virtual colonoscopy of 360 patients with clinical suspicion of colorectal cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of CT colonoscopy for detection of colon cancers and polyps were assessed. Results Results of our research have shown high diagnostic efficiency of CT colonoscopy in detection of focal lesions in large intestine of 10 mm or more diameter. Sensitivity was 85.7%, specificity 89.2%. Conclusions Virtual colonoscopy is noninvasive and well tolerated by patients imaging method, which permits for early detection of the large intestine lesions with specificity and sensitivity similar to classical colonoscopy in screening exams in patients suspected for colorectal cancer. Good preparation of the patients for the examination is very important for proper diagnosis and interpretation of this imaginge procedure. PMID:25302086

  12. Bronchoscopy as a supplement to computed tomography in patients with haemoptysis may be unnecessary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Klaus; Gottlieb, Magnus; Colella, Sara; Saghir, Zaigham; Larsen, Klaus R.; Clementsen, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemoptysis is a common symptom and can be an early sign of lung cancer. Careful investigation of patients with haemoptysis may lead to early diagnosis. The strategy for investigation of these patients, however, is still being debated. Objectives We studied whether the combination of computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy had a higher sensitivity for malignant and non-malignant causes of haemoptysis than CT alone. Methods The study was a retrospective, non-randomised, two-centre study and included patients who were referred from primary care for the investigation of haemoptysis. Results A total of 326 patients were included in the study (mean age 60.5 [SD 15.3] years, 63.3% male). The most common aetiologies of haemoptysis were cryptogenic (52.5%), pneumonia (16.3%), emphysema (8.0%), bronchiectasis (5.8%) and lung cancer (4.0%). In patients diagnosed with lung cancer, bronchoscopy, CT and the combination of bronchoscopy and CT had a sensitivity of 0.61, 0.92 (p<0.05) and 0.97 (p=0.58), respectively. In patients with non-malignant causes of haemoptysis, most aetiologies were diagnosed by CT and comprised mainly pneumonia, emphysema and bronchiectasis. Bronchoscopy did not reveal these conditions and the sensitivity to these conditions was not increased by combining CT and bronchoscopy. Conclusions CT can stand alone as a diagnostic workup for patients with haemoptysis referred to an outpatient clinic. Bronchoscopy does not identify any malignant aetiologies not already diagnosed by CT. Combining the two test modalities does not result in a significant increase in sensitivity for malignant or non-malignant causes of haemoptysis. PMID:27343164

  13. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  14. Bronchoscopy Simulation: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohsen; Colt, Henri G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 flexible bronchoscopies are performed annually by chest physicians in the United States (Ernst et al., Chest 123:1693-1717, 2003). Indications include diagnosis of lung cancer and airway tumors, benign strictures, pulmonary infections, and treatment of central airway obstruction, emphysema, and intraepithelial lesions such as…

  15. Bronchoscopy Simulation: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohsen; Colt, Henri G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 flexible bronchoscopies are performed annually by chest physicians in the United States (Ernst et al., Chest 123:1693-1717, 2003). Indications include diagnosis of lung cancer and airway tumors, benign strictures, pulmonary infections, and treatment of central airway obstruction, emphysema, and intraepithelial lesions such as…

  16. Training on a new, portable, simple simulator transfers to performance of complex bronchoscopy procedures.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Charlotte Loumann; Konge, Lars; Bjurström, Johanna; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Virtual-reality (VR) simulation provides a safe and effective learning environment prior to practicing on patients. However, existing bronchoscopy simulators are expensive and not easily portable. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of self-directed training on a new, portable, simple simulator measured by transfer of skills to performance of more complex bronchoscopy procedures on an advanced VR simulator. Twenty medical students participated in the study. After a general introduction to bronchoscopy, they were randomised into two groups, receiving either self-directed bronchoscopy training using a portable, simple simulator or no manual training. Subsequently, all participants were tested on complex scenarios in an advanced VR simulator using a validated bronchoscopy quality test. Bronchoscopy quality scores were compared using independent samples t-test and correlated with a previously established pass-fail standard. The intervention group spent an average of 71-min training on the new simulator. The intervention group performed significantly better than the control group, mean bronchoscopy quality score 0.55 [standard deviation (SD) 0.16] vs 0.36 (SD 0.10), P = 0.005, effect size = 1.47. Eight out of 10 participants in the intervention group passed the test compared with only 1 out of 10 in the control group. The effect of a brief, self-directed training session using a portable, simple simulator was substantial and transferred to performance of more complex skills. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Virtual Colonoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Symptoms That Are Being Studied Virtual Colonoscopy Virtual Colonoscopy Print Screening CT scan takes images of ... less than a regular colonoscopy Get the facts Virtual colonoscopy, also called CT colonography, is a relatively ...

  18. Can CT Virtual Cystoscopy Replace Conventional Cystoscopy in Early Detection of Bladder Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Sachin; Jairath, Ankush; Ganpule, Sanika; Ganpule, Arvind; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To correlate findings of conventional cystoscopy with CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC) in detecting bladder tumors and to evaluate accuracy of virtual cystoscopy in early detection of bladder cancer. Material and Method. From June 2013 to June 2014, 50 patients (46 males, four females) with history and investigations suggestive of urothelial cancer, with mean age 62.76 ± 10.45 years, underwent CTVC by a radiologist as per protocol and subsequently underwent conventional cystoscopy (CPE) the same day or the next day. One urologist and one radiologist, blinded to the findings of conventional cystoscopy, independently interpreted the images, and any discrepant readings were resolved with consensus. Result. CTVC detected 23 out of 25 patients with bladder tumor(s) correctly. Two patients were falsely detected as negative while two were falsely labeled as positive in CTVC. Virtual and conventional cystoscopy were comparable in detection of tumor growth in urinary bladder. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of virtual cystoscopy were 92% each. Conclusion. CTVC correlates closely with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. Bladder should be adequately distended and devoid of urine at the time of procedure. However, more studies are required to define the role of virtual cystoscopy in routine clinical practice. PMID:26600802

  19. Virtual monochromatic spectral imaging with fast kilovoltage switching: reduction of metal artifacts at CT.

    PubMed

    Pessis, Eric; Campagna, Raphaël; Sverzut, Jean-Michel; Bach, Fabienne; Rodallec, Mathieu; Guerini, Henri; Feydy, Antoine; Drapé, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    With arthroplasty being increasingly used to relieve joint pain, imaging of patients with metal implants can represent a significant part of the clinical work load in the radiologist's daily practice. Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the postoperative evaluation of patients who are suspected of having metal prosthesis-related problems such as aseptic loosening, bone resorption or osteolysis, infection, dislocation, metal hardware failure, or periprosthetic bone fracture. Despite advances in detector technology and computer software, artifacts from metal implants can seriously degrade the quality of CT images, sometimes to the point of making them diagnostically unusable. Several factors may help reduce the number and severity of artifacts at multidetector CT, including decreasing the detector collimation and pitch, increasing the kilovolt peak and tube charge, and using appropriate reconstruction algorithms and section thickness. More recently, dual-energy CT has been proposed as a means of reducing beam-hardening artifacts. The use of dual-energy CT scanners allows the synthesis of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images. Monochromatic images depict how the imaged object would look if the x-ray source produced x-ray photons at only a single energy level. For this reason, VMS imaging is expected to provide improved image quality by reducing beam-hardening artifacts.

  20. Virtual scatter modulation for X-ray CT scatter correction using primary modulator.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hewei; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2017-05-31

    A new scatter estimation algorithm with a concept of virtual scatter modulation for X-ray scatter correction using primary modulator is proposed to reduce the aliasing errors in the estimated scatter. Virtual scatter modulation can be realized through dividing the measured primary-modulated image by the measured modulation function. After the division, the aggravation of the aliasing of primary due to the non-uniformity of the modulation function is largely transferred to that of scatter. Since scatter in general has less high frequencies than primary does, the aggravation of its aliasing is expected to be weaker, and therefore the overall aliasing can be reduced. A CatPhan©600 phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom are scanned on a tabletop X-ray cone-beam computed tomography system to validate our proposed algorithm. On the Catphan phantom, the oscillations that are clearly observed in the central region of the Catphan scatter profile estimated using the original primary-modulation algorithm, are mostly eliminated with the proposed scatter modulation algorithm, leading to less residual artifacts and better CT number uniformity in the reconstructed image. Compared with 38.9 HU of CT nonuniformity in a selected uniform region when the primary-modulation algorithm is used, the new algorithm significantly reduces it to 4.5 HU, reaching the same level of uniformity as the ground truth reference. On the thorax phantom, overall better CT number uniformity is also achieved.

  1. Semi-automated virtual unfolded view generation method of stomach from CT volumes.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masahiro; Suito, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Ryoji; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Iinuma, Gen; Misawa, Kazunari; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-01-01

    CT image-based diagnosis of the stomach is developed as a new way of diagnostic method. A virtual unfolded (VU) view is suitable for displaying its wall. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated method for generating VU views of the stomach. Our method requires minimum manual operations. The determination of the unfolding forces and the termination of the unfolding process are automated. The unfolded shape of the stomach is estimated based on its radius. The unfolding forces are determined so that the stomach wall is deformed to the expected shape. The iterative deformation process is terminated if the difference of the shapes between the deformed shape and expected shape is small. Our experiments using 67 CT volumes showed that our proposed method can generate good VU views for 76.1% cases.

  2. Implication of CT table sag on geometrical accuracy during virtual simulation.

    PubMed

    Zullo, John R; Kudchadker, Rajat; Wu, Richard; Lee, Andrew; Prado, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are used in hospitals worldwide for radiation oncology treatment simulation. It is critical that the process very accurately represents the patient positioning to be used during the administration of radiation therapy to minimize the dose delivery to normal tissue. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. One problem is that some degree of vertical displacement, or sag, occurs when the table is extended from its base when under a clinical weight load, a problem resulting from mechanical limitations of the CT table. In an effort to determine the extent of the problem, we measured and compared the degree of table sag for various CT scanner tables at our institution. A clinically representative weight load was placed on each table, and the amount of table sag was measured for varying degrees of table extension from its base. Results indicated that the amount of table sag varied from approximately 0.7 to 6.6 mm and that the amount of table sag varied not only between tables from different manufacturers but also between tables of the same model from the same manufacturer. Failure to recognize and prevent this problem could lead to incorrectly derived isocenter localization and subsequent patient positioning errors. Treatment site-specific and scanner-based laser offset correction should be implemented for each patient's virtual simulation procedure. In addition, the amount of sag should be measured under a clinically representative weight load upon CT-simulator commissioning.

  3. Implication of CT Table Sag on Geometrical Accuracy During Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, John R. Kudchadker, Rajat; Wu, Richard; Lee, Andrew; Prado, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are used in hospitals worldwide for radiation oncology treatment simulation. It is critical that the process very accurately represents the patient positioning to be used during the administration of radiation therapy to minimize the dose delivery to normal tissue. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. One problem is that some degree of vertical displacement, or sag, occurs when the table is extended from its base when under a clinical weight load, a problem resulting from mechanical limitations of the CT table. In an effort to determine the extent of the problem, we measured and compared the degree of table sag for various CT scanner tables at our institution. A clinically representative weight load was placed on each table, and the amount of table sag was measured for varying degrees of table extension from its base. Results indicated that the amount of table sag varied from approximately 0.7 to 6.6 mm and that the amount of table sag varied not only between tables from different manufacturers but also between tables of the same model from the same manufacturer. Failure to recognize and prevent this problem could lead to incorrectly derived isocenter localization and subsequent patient positioning errors. Treatment site-specific and scanner-based laser offset correction should be implemented for each patient's virtual simulation procedure. In addition, the amount of sag should be measured under a clinically representative weight load upon CT-simulator commissioning.

  4. Bronchoscopy during noninvasive ventilation: indications and technique.

    PubMed

    Murgu, Septimiu D; Pecson, Jocelyn; Colt, Henri G

    2010-05-01

    Diagnostic or therapeutic flexible bronchoscopy is often necessary in severely ill patients. These patients often have comorbidities that increase the risk of bronchoscopy-related complications. Noninvasive ventilation might decrease the risk of these complications in patients with severe refractory hypoxemia, postoperative respiratory distress, or severe emphysema, and in pediatric patients. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent hypoventilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome who require bronchoscopy, and may assist in the bronchoscopic evaluation of patients with expiratory central-airway collapse. We describe the indications, contraindications, and technique of flexible bronchoscopy during noninvasive ventilation.

  5. A Five-Year Analysis of Airway Foreign Body Management: Toward a Better Understanding of Negative Bronchoscopies.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ellen M; Anthony, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    To identify characteristics in patients who undergo positive and negative bronchoscopy for a suspected airway foreign body (AFB). Review medical records between 2008 and 2012. There were 145 patients who went to the operating room with the pre-bronchoscopy diagnosis of suspected AFB during the study period. There was an overall negative bronchoscopy rate of an average of 37%, with an annual range between 21% and 50%. The findings of history or suspicion of choking, asymmetric breath sounds, and wheezing were statistically more common in patients with an AFB. Chest roentograms (CXR) had a sensitivity and specificity of 62% and 57%. Twenty patients had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan, and 100% were clinically significant. Four CT scans were diagnostic of an AFB, and 16 patients avoided bronchoscopy after negative CT. In current clinical practice, it is difficult to identify patients with an AFB without performing bronchoscopy. This results in a significant number of negative bronchoscopes. Certain elements in the history and physical exam were more common in patients who were found to have an AFB. Our preliminary data suggest that chest CT scans may be useful to decrease the number of negative bronchoscopies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Recent advances in diagnostic bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Philip G.; Debiane, Labib G.

    2016-01-01

    The field of diagnostic bronchoscopy has been revolutionized in the last decade primarily with the advent of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) but also with the addition of multiple different techniques for “guided-bronchoscopy”. These advances have had a substantial impact in the management of lung cancer with bronchoscopy now providing both diagnosis and mediastinal staging in a single procedure. EBUS has, in fact, become the first choice for staging of the mediastinum over cervical mediastinoscopy (CM). Although EBUS is now a well-established technique, there are continuous efforts from the scientific community to improve its diagnostic performance, and these will be reviewed in this manuscript. The term “guided-bronchoscopy” was recently coined to describe a myriad of techniques that guide our bronchoscopes or bronchoscopic tools into the periphery of the lungs in addition to our conventional fluoroscopy. Electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic navigation, thin and ultrathin scopes, as well as radial-probe EBUS have collectively increased our yield for smaller peripheral lung lesions and continue to evolve. Despite this improved diagnostic yield, there is still ample room for improvement and newer techniques are under way. With new therapies available for patients with interstitial lung disease, achieving a specific histologic diagnosis is now of paramount importance. Given the high morbidity and mortality of surgical biopsies, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is being rapidly adopted as a safer and effective alternative, and it is likely going to play a major role in the management of these diseases in the near future. This manuscript we will focus on recent advances in EBUS, guided-bronchoscopy, and the use of cryobiopsy. PMID:28149581

  7. Accelerated idioventricular rhythm during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeat, A.; Chiolero, R.; Mosimann, B.; Freeman, J.

    1987-03-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed severe hypoxemia and an unusual arrhythmia, accelerated idioventricular rhythm, during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Coronary artery disease was subsequently suspected despite an unremarkable history and physical examination, and confirmed by a thallium 201 imaging. The appearance of accelerated idioventricular rhythm during fiberoptic bronchoscopy should raise the possibility of underlying coronary artery disease.

  8. Same-Day Computed Tomographic Chest Imaging for Pulmonary Nodule Targeting with Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy May Decrease Unnecessary Procedures.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Roy W; Lee, Hans J; Feller-Kopman, David; Lerner, Andrew D; Mallow, Christopher M; Thiboutot, Jeffrey; Arias, Sixto A; Yarmus, Lonny B

    2016-12-01

    Bronchoscopy is commonly used for the diagnosis of suspicious pulmonary nodules discovered on computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the chest. Procedural CT imaging for bronchoscopy planning is often completed weeks to months before the date of a scheduled bronchoscopy, which may not allow discovery of a decrease in nodule size or resolution before the bronchoscopic procedure. To determine whether same-day CT imaging of the chest discovers partial or total resolution of some lung nodules and thereby reduces unnecessary bronchoscopic procedures. We performed a prospective case series study of patients undergoing navigational bronchoscopy using a new technology requiring same-day preprocedural CT imaging at one university teaching hospital. Patients scheduled to undergo bronchoscopy who were found to have partial or complete resolution of their lesion on the same-day CT exam leading to the cancellation of their procedure were identified and further characterized. From January 2015 to June 2016, 116 patients were scheduled for navigational bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of a pulmonary lesion. Of the 116 patients scheduled, 8 (6.9%) had a decrease in size or resolution of their lesion, leading to the cancellation of their procedure. The number needed to screen to prevent one unnecessary procedure was 15. For cancelled cases, the average time from initial CT prompting referral for bronchoscopy to the day of procedure scan was 53 days. Time from initial imaging to day of procedure is variable, occasionally allowing enough time for lesions to resolve, thereby obviating the need for biopsy. Same-day imaging may decrease unnecessary procedural risk.

  9. Micro-CTvlab: A web based virtual gallery of biological specimens using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT)

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Michalakis, Nikitas; Filiopoulou, Irene; Minadakis, Nikos; Panteri, Emmanouela; Perantinos, George; Gougousis, Alexandros; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background During recent years, X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) has seen an increasing use in biological research areas, such as functional morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary biology and developmental research. Micro-CT is a technology which uses X-rays to create sub-micron resolution images of external and internal features of specimens. These images can then be rendered in a three-dimensional space and used for qualitative and quantitative 3D analyses. However, the online exploration and dissemination of micro-CT datasets are rarely made available to the public due to their large size and a lack of dedicated online platforms for the interactive manipulation of 3D data. Here, the development of a virtual micro-CT laboratory (Micro-CTvlab) is described, which can be used by everyone who is interested in digitisation methods and biological collections and aims at making the micro-CT data exploration of natural history specimens freely available over the internet. New information The Micro-CTvlab offers to the user virtual image galleries of various taxa which can be displayed and downloaded through a web application. With a few clicks, accurate, detailed and three-dimensional models of species can be studied and virtually dissected without destroying the actual specimen. The data and functions of the Micro-CTvlab can be accessed either on a normal computer or through a dedicated version for mobile devices. PMID:27956848

  10. Micro-CTvlab: A web based virtual gallery of biological specimens using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT).

    PubMed

    Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Michalakis, Nikitas; Filiopoulou, Irene; Minadakis, Nikos; Panteri, Emmanouela; Perantinos, George; Gougousis, Alexandros; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) has seen an increasing use in biological research areas, such as functional morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary biology and developmental research. Micro-CT is a technology which uses X-rays to create sub-micron resolution images of external and internal features of specimens. These images can then be rendered in a three-dimensional space and used for qualitative and quantitative 3D analyses. However, the online exploration and dissemination of micro-CT datasets are rarely made available to the public due to their large size and a lack of dedicated online platforms for the interactive manipulation of 3D data. Here, the development of a virtual micro-CT laboratory (Micro-CTvlab) is described, which can be used by everyone who is interested in digitisation methods and biological collections and aims at making the micro-CT data exploration of natural history specimens freely available over the internet. The Micro-CTvlab offers to the user virtual image galleries of various taxa which can be displayed and downloaded through a web application. With a few clicks, accurate, detailed and three-dimensional models of species can be studied and virtually dissected without destroying the actual specimen. The data and functions of the Micro-CTvlab can be accessed either on a normal computer or through a dedicated version for mobile devices.

  11. Electronic cleansing for dual-energy CT colonography based on material decomposition and virtual monochromatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Rie; Näppi, Janne J.; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    CT colonography (CTC) uses orally administered fecal-tagging agents to enhance retained fluid and feces that would otherwise obscure or imitate polyps on CTC images. To visualize the complete region of colon without residual materials, electronic cleansing (EC) can be used to perform virtual subtraction of the tagged materials from CTC images. However, current EC methods produce subtraction artifacts and they can fail to subtract unclearly tagged feces. We developed a novel multi-material EC (MUMA-EC) method that uses dual-energy CTC (DE-CTC) and machine-learning methods to improve the performance of EC. In our method, material decomposition is performed to calculate wateriodine decomposition images and virtual monochromatic (VIM) images. Using the images, a random forest classifier is used to label the regions of lumen air, soft tissue, fecal tagging, and their partial-volume boundaries. The electronically cleansed images are synthesized from the multi-material and VIM image volumes. For pilot evaluation, we acquired the clinical DE-CTC data of 7 patients. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed MUMA-EC method is effective and that it minimizes the three types of image artifacts that were present in previous EC methods.

  12. Multidetector CT and postprocessing in planning and assisting in minimally invasive bronchoscopic airway interventions.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arjun; Godoy, Myrna C; Holden, Emma L; Madden, Brendan P; Chua, Felix; Ost, David E; Roos, Justus E; Naidich, David P; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    A widening spectrum of increasingly advanced bronchoscopic techniques is available for the diagnosis and treatment of various bronchopulmonary diseases. The evolution of computed tomography (CT)-multidetector CT in particular-has paralleled these advances. The resulting development of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing techniques has complemented axial CT interpretation in providing more anatomically familiar information to the pulmonologist. Two-dimensional techniques such as multiplanar recontructions and 3D techniques such as virtual bronchoscopy can provide accurate guidance for increasing yield in transbronchial needle aspiration and transbronchial biopsy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Sampling of lesions located deeper within the lung periphery via bronchoscopic pathways determined at virtual bronchoscopy are also increasingly feasible. CT fluoroscopy for real-time image-guided sampling is now widely available; electromagnetic navigation guidance is being used in select centers but is currently more costly. Minimally invasive bronchoscopic techniques for restoring airway patency in obstruction caused by both benign and malignant conditions include mechanical strategies such as airway stent insertion and ablative techniques such as electrocauterization and cryotherapy. Multidetector CT postprocessing techniques provide valuable information for planning and surveillance of these treatment methods. In particular, they optimize the evaluation of dynamic obstructive conditions such as tracheobronchomalacia, especially with the greater craniocaudal coverage now provided by wide-area detectors. Multidetector CT also provides planning information for bronchoscopic treatment of bronchopleural fistulas and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for carefully selected patients with refractory emphysema.

  13. Comparison of virtual unenhanced CT images of the abdomen under different iodine flow rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongrui; Li, Ye; Jackson, Alan; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ning; Guo, Chunjie; Zhang, Huimao

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of varying iodine flow rate (IFR) and iodine concentration on the quality of virtual unenhanced (VUE) images of the abdomen obtained with dual-energy CT. 94 subjects underwent unenhanced and triphasic contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, including arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delayed phase using dual-energy CT. Patients were randomized into 4 groups with different IFRs or iodine concentrations. VUE images were generated at 70 keV. The CT values, image noise, SNR and CNR of aorta, portal vein, liver, liver lesion, pancreatic parenchyma, spleen, erector spinae, and retroperitoneal fat were recorded. Dose-length product and effective dose for an examination with and without plain phase scan were calculated to assess the potential dose savings. Two radiologists independently assessed subjective image quality using a five-point scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used first to test for normal distribution. Where data conformed to a normal distribution, analysis of variance was used to compare mean HU values, image noise, SNRs and CNRs for the 4 image sets. Where data distribution was not normal, a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by stepwise step-down comparisons) was used. The significance level for all tests was 0.01 (two-sided) to allow for type 2 errors due to multiple testing. The CT numbers (HU) of VUE images showed no significant differences between the 4 groups (p > 0.05) or between different phases within the same group (p > 0.05). VUE images had equal or higher SNR and CNR than true unenhanced images. VUE images received equal or lower subjective image quality scores than unenhanced images but were of acceptable quality for diagnostic use. Calculated dose-length product and estimated dose showed that the use of VUE images in place of unenhanced images would be associated with a dose saving of 25%. VUE images can replace conventional unenhanced images. VUE images are not affected by varying iodine

  14. Deep ensemble learning of virtual endoluminal views for polyp detection in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Kensuke; Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Regge, Daniele; Ishida, Takayuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Robust training of a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) requires a very large number of annotated datasets that are currently not available in CT colonography (CTC). We previously demonstrated that deep transfer learning provides an effective approach for robust application of a DCNN in CTC. However, at high detection accuracy, the differentiation of small polyps from non-polyps was still challenging. In this study, we developed and evaluated a deep ensemble learning (DEL) scheme for reviewing of virtual endoluminal images to improve the performance of computer-aided detection (CADe) of polyps in CTC. Nine different types of image renderings were generated from virtual endoluminal images of polyp candidates detected by a conventional CADe system. Eleven DCNNs that represented three types of publically available pre-trained DCNN models were re-trained by transfer learning to identify polyps from the virtual endoluminal images. A DEL scheme that determines the final detected polyps by a review of the nine types of VE images was developed by combining the DCNNs using a random forest classifier as a meta-classifier. For evaluation, we sampled 154 CTC cases from a large CTC screening trial and divided the cases randomly into a training dataset and a test dataset. At 3.9 falsepositive (FP) detections per patient on average, the detection sensitivities of the conventional CADe system, the highestperforming single DCNN, and the DEL scheme were 81.3%, 90.7%, and 93.5%, respectively, for polyps ≥6 mm in size. For small polyps, the DEL scheme reduced the number of false positives by up to 83% over that of using a single DCNN alone. These preliminary results indicate that the DEL scheme provides an effective approach for improving the polyp detection performance of CADe in CTC, especially for small polyps.

  15. Detection of Bone Marrow Edema in Nondisplaced Hip Fractures: Utility of a Virtual Unenhanced Dual-Energy CT Application.

    PubMed

    Kellock, Trenton T; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kim, Sandra S Y; Al-Busaidi, Sultan; Louis, Luck J; O'Connell, Tim W; Ouellette, Hugue A; McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2017-03-16

    Purpose To quantify the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium images in the detection of nondisplaced hip fractures and to assess whether obtaining these images as a complement to bone reconstructions alters sensitivity, specificity, or diagnostic confidence. Materials and Methods The clinical research ethics board approved chart review, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively identified 118 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center emergency department and who underwent dual-energy CT for suspicion of a nondisplaced traumatic hip fracture. Clinical follow-up was the standard of reference. Three radiologists interpreted virtual noncalcium images for traumatic bone marrow edema. Bone reconstructions for the same cases were interpreted alone and then with virtual noncalcium images. Diagnostic confidence was rated on a scale of 1 to 10. McNemar, Fleiss κ, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Twenty-two patients had nondisplaced hip fractures and 96 did not have hip fractures. Sensitivity with virtual noncalcium images was 77% and 91% (17 and 20 of 22 patients), and specificity was 92%-99% (89-95 of 96 patients). Sensitivity increased by 4%-5% over that with bone reconstruction images alone for two of the three readers when both bone reconstruction and virtual noncalcium images were used. Specificity remained unchanged (99% and 100%). Diagnostic confidence in the exclusion of fracture was improved with combined bone reconstruction and virtual noncalcium images (median score: 10, 9, and 10 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively) compared with bone reconstruction images alone (median score: 9, 8, and 9). Conclusion When used as a supplement to standard bone reconstructions, dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium images increased sensitivity for the detection of nondisplaced traumatic hip fractures and improved diagnostic confidence in

  16. Virtual colonoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  17. Deep monocular 3D reconstruction for assisted navigation in bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Sugiura, Takamasa; Kaneko, Toshimitsu; Koto, Shinichiro

    2017-07-01

    In bronchoschopy, computer vision systems for navigation assistance are an attractive low-cost solution to guide the endoscopist to target peripheral lesions for biopsy and histological analysis. We propose a decoupled deep learning architecture that projects input frames onto the domain of CT renderings, thus allowing offline training from patient-specific CT data. A fully convolutional network architecture is implemented on GPU and tested on a phantom dataset involving 32 video sequences and [Formula: see text]60k frames with aligned ground truth and renderings, which is made available as the first public dataset for bronchoscopy navigation. An average estimated depth accuracy of 1.5 mm was obtained, outperforming conventional direct depth estimation from input frames by 60%, and with a computational time of [Formula: see text]30 ms on modern GPUs. Qualitatively, the estimated depth and renderings closely resemble the ground truth. The proposed method shows a novel architecture to perform real-time monocular depth estimation without losing patient specificity in bronchoscopy. Future work will include integration within SLAM systems and collection of in vivo datasets.

  18. Deep transfer learning of virtual endoluminal views for the detection of polyps in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Regge, Daniele; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Proper training of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) requires large annotated image databases that are currently not available in CT colonography (CTC). In this study, we employed a deep transfer learning (DETALE) scheme to circumvent this problem in automated polyp detection for CTC. In our method, a DCNN that had been pre-trained with millions of non-medical images was adapted to identify polyps using virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates prompted by a computer-aided detection (CADe) system. For evaluation, 154 CTC cases with and without fecal tagging were divided randomly into a development set and an external validation set including 107 polyps >=6 mm in size. A CADe system was trained to detect polyp candidates using the development set, and the virtual endoluminal images of the polyp candidates were labeled manually into true-positive and several false-positive (FP) categories for transfer learning of the DCNN. Next, the trained CADe system was used to detect polyp candidates from the external validation set, and the DCNN reviewed their images to determine the final detections. The detection sensitivity of the standalone CADe system was 93% at 6.4 FPs per patient on average, whereas the DCNN reduced the number of FPs to 2.0 per patient without reducing detection sensitivity. Most of the remaining FP detections were caused by untagged stool. In fecal-tagged CTC cases, the detection sensitivity was 94% at only 0.78 FPs per patient on average. These preliminary results indicate that DETALE can yield substantial improvement in the accuracy of automated polyp detection in CTC.

  19. Algorithm for video summarization of bronchoscopy procedures.

    PubMed

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj I; Duplaga, Mariusz

    2011-12-20

    The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts) of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. The paper focuses on the challenge of generating summaries of

  20. Scaphoid fracture: Bone marrow edema detected with dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium images and confirmed with MRI.

    PubMed

    Dareez, Nazeer M; Dahlslett, Kristine H; Engesland, Eirin; Lindland, Elisabeth S

    2017-07-29

    We aimed to determine whether bone marrow edema (BME) in acute traumatic scaphoid fracture could be demonstrated with dual-energy CT (DECT) using MRI as the gold standard. In recent years, virtual non-calcium (VNCa) images have been used to demonstrate BME in trauma cases, for example, in vertebral compression fractures, hip trauma to detect occult fractures and knee fractures. We present three cases of acute scaphoid trauma. Two patients had subtle or invisible fractures on x-ray and conventional CT images, while DECT VNCa images clearly visualized the BME, which was confirmed by MRI. One patient had negative findings on both VNCa and MRI images. The DECT VNCa algorithm is a promising technique to demonstrate BME in scaphoid fractures, with potential for increasing the diagnostic value of CT in this type of injury.

  1. Comparison of virtual monoenergetic and polyenergetic images reconstructed from dual-layer detector CT angiography of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Victor; Große Hokamp, Nils; Abdullayev, Nuran; Maus, Volker; Kabbasch, Christoph; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Maintz, David; Borggrefe, Jan

    2017-10-10

    To compare the image quality of virtual monoenergetic images and polyenergetic images reconstructed from dual-layer detector CT angiography (DLCTA). Thirty patients who underwent DLCTA of the head and neck were retrospectively identified and polyenergetic as well as virtual monoenergetic images (40 to 120 keV) were reconstructed. Signals (± SD) of the cervical and cerebral vessels as well as lateral pterygoid muscle and the air surrounding the head were measured to calculate the CNR and SNR. In addition, subjective image quality was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test were used to determine statistical significance. Compared to polyenergetic images, although noise increased with lower keV, CNR (p < 0.02) and SNR (p > 0.05) of the cervical, petrous and intracranial vessels were improved in virtual monoenergetic images at 40 keV and virtual monoenergetic images at 45 keV were also rated superior regarding vascular contrast, assessment of arteries close to the skull base and small arterial branches (p < 0.0001 each). Compared to polyenergetic images, virtual monoenergetic images reconstructed from DLCTA at low keV ranging from 40 to 45 keV improve the objective and subjective image quality of extra- and intracranial vessels and facilitate assessment of vessels close to the skull base and of small arterial branches. • Virtual monoenergetic images greatly improve attenuation, while noise only slightly increases. • Virtual monoenergetic images show superior contrast-to-noise ratios compared to polyenergetic images. • Virtual monoenergetic images significantly improve image quality at low keV.

  2. Complications of bronchoscopy: A concise synopsis

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, David L; Richard, Kathleen M; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Flexible and rigid bronchoscopes are used in diagnosis, therapeutics, and palliation. While their use is widespread, effective, and generally safe; there are numerous potential complications that can occur. Mechanical complications of bronchoscopy are primarily related to airway manipulations or bleeding. Systemic complications arise from the procedure itself, medication administration (primarily sedation), or patient comorbidities. Attributable mortality rates remain low at < 0.1% for fiberoptic and rigid bronchoscopy. Here we review the complications (classified as mechanical or systemic) of both rigid and flexible bronchoscopy in hope of making practitioners who are operators of these tools, and those who consult others for interventions, aware of potential problems, and pitfalls in order to enhance patient safety and comfort. PMID:26557489

  3. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph-A new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    with a Gaussian distribution were introduced. Furthermore, simulation of a virtual PET system provided a standard imaging system with clearly defined properties to which the real PET systems were to be matched. A Hann window served as the modulation transfer function for the virtual PET. The Hann's apodization properties suppressed high spatial frequencies above a certain critical frequency, thereby fulfilling the above-mentioned boundary conditions. The determined point spread functions were subsequently used by the novel Transconvolution algorithm to match different PET/CT systems onto the virtual PET system. Finally, the theoretically elaborated Transconvolution method was validated transforming phantom images acquired on two different PET systems to nearly identical data sets, as they would be imaged by the virtual PET system. Results: The proposed Transconvolution method matched different PET/CT-systems for an improved and reproducible determination of a normalized activity concentration. The highest difference in measured activity concentration between the two different PET systems of 18.2% was found in spheres of 2 ml volume. Transconvolution reduced this difference down to 1.6%. In addition to reestablishing comparability the new method with its parameterization of point spread functions allowed a full characterization of imaging properties of the examined tomographs. Conclusions: By matching different tomographs to a virtual standardized imaging system, Transconvolution opens a new comprehensive method for cross calibration in quantitative PET imaging. The use of a virtual PET system restores comparability between data sets from different PET systems by exerting a common, reproducible, and defined partial volume effect.

  4. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph--a new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET∕CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Prenosil, George A; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    distribution were introduced. Furthermore, simulation of a virtual PET system provided a standard imaging system with clearly defined properties to which the real PET systems were to be matched. A Hann window served as the modulation transfer function for the virtual PET. The Hann's apodization properties suppressed high spatial frequencies above a certain critical frequency, thereby fulfilling the above-mentioned boundary conditions. The determined point spread functions were subsequently used by the novel Transconvolution algorithm to match different PET∕CT systems onto the virtual PET system. Finally, the theoretically elaborated Transconvolution method was validated transforming phantom images acquired on two different PET systems to nearly identical data sets, as they would be imaged by the virtual PET system. The proposed Transconvolution method matched different PET∕CT-systems for an improved and reproducible determination of a normalized activity concentration. The highest difference in measured activity concentration between the two different PET systems of 18.2% was found in spheres of 2 ml volume. Transconvolution reduced this difference down to 1.6%. In addition to reestablishing comparability the new method with its parameterization of point spread functions allowed a full characterization of imaging properties of the examined tomographs. By matching different tomographs to a virtual standardized imaging system, Transconvolution opens a new comprehensive method for cross calibration in quantitative PET imaging. The use of a virtual PET system restores comparability between data sets from different PET systems by exerting a common, reproducible, and defined partial volume effect.

  5. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  6. Reliability of implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone beam CT data and surgical (guide) templates.

    PubMed

    Nickenig, Hans-Joachim; Eitner, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the reliability of implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone-beam CT data and surgical guide templates. A total of 102 patients (250 implants, 55.4% mandibular; mean patient age, 40.4 years) who had undergone implant treatment therapy in an armed forces dental clinic (Cologne, Germany) between July 1, 2005 and December 1, 2005. They were treated with a system that allows transfer of virtual planning to surgical guide templates. Only in eight cases the surgical guides were not used because a delayed implant placement was necessary. In four posterior mandibular cases, handling was limited because of reduced interocclusal distance, requiring 50% shortening of the drill guides. The predictability of implant size was high: only one implant was changed to a smaller diameter (because of insufficient bone). In all cases, critical anatomical structures were protected and no complications were detected in postoperative panoramic radiographs. In 58.1% (147) of the 250 implants, a flapless surgery plan was realized. Implant placement after virtual planning of implant positions using cone beam CT data and surgical templates can be reliable for preoperative assessment of implant size, position, and anatomical complications. It is also indicative of cases amenable to flapless surgery.

  7. Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vikas

    2012-11-01

    The main aim of the research was to get the knowledge of present trends and technologies used in it field. Virtualization Allows multiple applications to run in isolation within virtual machines on the same physical machine. Virtualization provides direct access to the hardware resources to give you much greater performance than software emulation. VMware provides hardware virtualization that presents a complete x86 platform to the virtual machine. By doing this project we get an opportunity to learn about an emerging field of IT Sector. They also gave us the details of project like 'Storage Vmmotioní on which HP is currently working.

  8. Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy and accessory techniques.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, J

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the most important diagnostic procedures implemented by means of flexible bronchoscopy, including bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and biopsy, transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration. We reviewed the tools, techniques and potential complications of this examination. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule’s location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (Mea{{n}RHD} , ST{{D}RHD} and C{{V}RHD}{) }~ of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of the CT-derived and

  10. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT.

    PubMed

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-08-22

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule's location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation Assisted by Real-Time Virtual Sonography and CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undetectable by Conventional Sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Motoki Sato, Morio; Sahara, Shinya; Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Kimura, Masashi; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2009-01-15

    Real-time virtual sonography (RVS) is a diagnostic imaging support system, which provides the same cross-sectional multiplanar reconstruction images as ultrasound images on the same monitor screen in real time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) assisted by RVS and CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undetectable with conventional sonography. Subjects were 20 patients with 20 HCC nodules not detected by conventional sonography but detectable by CT or MRI. All patients had hepatitis C-induced liver cirrhosis; there were 13 males and 7 females aged 55-81 years (mean, 69.3 years). RFA was performed in the CT room, and the tumor was punctured with the assistance of RVS. CT was performed immediately after puncture, and ablation was performed after confirming that the needle had been inserted into the tumor precisely. The mean number of punctures and success rates of the first puncture were evaluated. Treatment effects were evaluated with dynamic CT every 3 months after RFA. RFA was technically feasible and local tumor control was achieved in all patients. The mean number of punctures was 1.1, and the success rate of the first puncture was 90.0%. This method enabled safe ablation without complications. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 month (range, 9-18 months). No local recurrence was observed at the follow-up points. In conclusion, RFA assisted by RVS and CT is a safe and efficacious method of treatment for HCC undetectable by conventional sonography.

  12. Multimodal 3D PET/CT system for bronchoscopic procedure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Higgins, William E.

    2013-02-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) / computed-tomography (CT) scanners give 3D multimodal data sets of the chest. Such data sets offer the potential for more complete and specific identification of suspect lesions and lymph nodes for lung-cancer assessment. This in turn enables better planning of staging bronchoscopies. The richness of the data, however, makes the visualization and planning process difficult. We present an integrated multimodal 3D PET/CT system that enables efficient region identification and bronchoscopic procedure planning. The system first invokes a series of automated 3D image-processing methods that construct a 3D chest model. Next, the user interacts with a set of interactive multimodal graphical tools that facilitate procedure planning for specific regions of interest (ROIs): 1) an interactive region candidate list that enables efficient ROI viewing in all tools; 2) a virtual PET-CT bronchoscopy rendering with SUV quantitative visualization to give a "fly through" endoluminal view of prospective ROIs; 3) transverse, sagittal, coronal multi-planar reformatted (MPR) views of the raw CT, PET, and fused CT-PET data; and 4) interactive multimodal volume/surface rendering to give a 3D perspective of the anatomy and candidate ROIs. In addition the ROI selection process is driven by a semi-automatic multimodal method for region identification. In this way, the system provides both global and local information to facilitate more specific ROI identification and procedure planning. We present results to illustrate the system's function and performance.

  13. Simulation-based bronchoscopy training: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Cassie C; Maldonado, Fabien; Cook, David A

    2013-07-01

    Simulation-based bronchoscopy training is increasingly used, but effectiveness remains uncertain. We sought to perform a comprehensive synthesis of published work on simulation-based bronchoscopy training. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, and Scopus for eligible articles through May 11, 2011. We included all original studies involving health professionals that evaluated, in comparison with no intervention or an alternative instructional approach, simulation-based training for flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. Study selection and data abstraction were performed independently and in duplicate. We pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. From an initial pool of 10,903 articles, we identified 17 studies evaluating simulation-based bronchoscopy training. In comparison with no intervention, simulation training was associated with large benefits on skills and behaviors (pooled effect size, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.82-1.60]; n=8 studies) and moderate benefits on time (0.62 [95% CI, 0.12-1.13]; n=7). In comparison with clinical instruction, behaviors with real patients showed nonsignificant effects favoring simulation for time (0.61 [95% CI, -1.47 to 2.69]) and process (0.33 [95% CI, -1.46 to 2.11]) outcomes (n=2 studies each), although variation in training time might account for these differences. Four studies compared alternate simulation-based training approaches. Inductive analysis to inform instructional design suggested that longer or more structured training is more effective, authentic clinical context adds value, and animal models and plastic part-task models may be superior to more costly virtual-reality simulators. Simulation-based bronchoscopy training is effective in comparison with no intervention. Comparative effectiveness studies are few.

  14. Optimization of kiloelectron volt settings in cerebral and cervical dual-energy CT angiography determined with virtual monoenergetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Apfaltrer, Paul; Sudarski, Sonja; Nance, John W; Haubenreisser, Holger; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers various fields of application, especially in angiography using virtual monoenergetic imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate objective image quality indices of calculated low-kiloelectron volt monoenergetic DECT angiographic cervical and cerebral data sets compared to virtual 120-kV polyenergetic images. Forty-one patients (21 men, mean age 58 ± 14) who underwent DECT angiography of the cervical (n = 7) or cerebral vessels (n = 34) were retrospectively included in this study. Data acquired with the 80 and 140 kVp tube using dual-source CT technology were subsequently used to calculate low-kiloelectron volt monoenergetic image data sets ranging from 120 to 40 keV (at 10-keV intervals per patient). Vessel and soft tissue attenuation and image noise were measured in various regions of interest, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was subsequently calculated. Differences in image attenuation and CNR were compared between the different monoenergetic data sets and virtual 120-kV polyenergetic images. For cervical angiography, 60-keV monoenergetic data sets resulted in the greatest improvements in vessel attenuation and CNR compared to virtual 120-kV polyenergetic data sets (+40%, +16%; all P < .01). Also for cerebral vessel assessment, 60-keV monoenergetic data sets provided the greatest improvement in vessel attenuation and CNR (+40%, +9%; all P < .01) compared to virtual 120-kV polyenergetic data sets. 60-keV monoenergetic image data significantly improve vessel attenuation and CNR of cervical and cerebral DECT angiographic studies. Future studies have to evaluate whether the technique can lead to an increased diagnostic accuracy or should be used for dose reduction of iodinated contrast material. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated incision line determination for virtual unfolded view generation of the stomach from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Tomoaki; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iinuma, Gen; Misawa, Kazunari; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated incision line determination method for virtual unfolded view generation of the stomach from 3D abdominal CT images. The previous virtual unfolding methods of the stomach required a lot of manual operations such as determination of the incision line, which heavily tasks an operator. In general, an incision line along the greater curvature of the stomach is used for making pathological specimen. In our method, an incision line is automatically determined by projecting a centerline of the stomach onto the gastric surface from a projection line. The projection line is determined by using positions of the cardia and the pylorus, that can be easily specified by two mouse clicks. The process of our method is performed as follows. We extract the stomach region using a thresholding and a labeling processes. We apply a thinning process to the stomach region, and then we extract the longest line from the result of the thinning process. We obtain a centerline of the stomach region by smoothing the longest line by using a Bezier curve. The incision line is calculated by projecting the centerline onto the gastric surface from the projection line. We applied the proposed method to 19 cases of CT images. We automatically determined incision lines. Experimintal results showed our method was able to determine incision lines along the greater curvature for most of 19 cases.

  16. A virtual clinical trial using projection-based nodule insertion to determine radiologist reader performance in lung cancer screening CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lifeng; Hu, Qiyuan; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Levin, David L.; Johnson, Tucker F.; Hora, Megan J.; Dirks, Shane; Chen, Baiyu; McMillan, Kyle; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, J. G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2017-03-01

    Task-based image quality assessment using model observers is promising to provide an efficient, quantitative, and objective approach to CT dose optimization. Before this approach can be reliably used in practice, its correlation with radiologist performance for the same clinical task needs to be established. Determining human observer performance for a well-defined clinical task, however, has always been a challenge due to the tremendous amount of efforts needed to collect a large number of positive cases. To overcome this challenge, we developed an accurate projection-based insertion technique. In this study, we present a virtual clinical trial using this tool and a low-dose simulation tool to determine radiologist performance on lung-nodule detection as a function of radiation dose, nodule type, nodule size, and reconstruction methods. The lesion insertion and low-dose simulation tools together were demonstrated to provide flexibility to generate realistically-appearing clinical cases under well-defined conditions. The reader performance data obtained in this virtual clinical trial can be used as the basis to develop model observers for lung nodule detection, as well as for dose and protocol optimization in lung cancer screening CT.

  17. A virtual clinical trial using projection-based nodule insertion to determine radiologist reader performance in lung cancer screening CT

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Hu, Qiyuan; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Levin, David L.; Johnson, Tucker F.; Hora, Megan J.; Dirks, Shane; Chen, Baiyu; McMillan, Kyle; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, JG; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2017-01-01

    Task-based image quality assessment using model observers is promising to provide an efficient, quantitative, and objective approach to CT dose optimization. Before this approach can be reliably used in practice, its correlation with radiologist performance for the same clinical task needs to be established. Determining human observer performance for a well-defined clinical task, however, has always been a challenge due to the tremendous amount of efforts needed to collect a large number of positive cases. To overcome this challenge, we developed an accurate projection-based insertion technique. In this study, we present a virtual clinical trial using this tool and a low-dose simulation tool to determine radiologist performance on lung-nodule detection as a function of radiation dose, nodule type, nodule size, and reconstruction methods. The lesion insertion and low-dose simulation tools together were demonstrated to provide flexibility to generate realistically-appearing clinical cases under well-defined conditions. The reader performance data obtained in this virtual clinical trial can be used as the basis to develop model observers for lung nodule detection, as well as for dose and protocol optimization in lung cancer screening CT. PMID:28392614

  18. Should patients undergoing a bronchoscopy be sedated?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; De-La-Rosa-Ramirez, I; Maldonado-Hernandez, A; Dominguez-Cherit, G

    2003-04-01

    The techniques, drugs and depth of sedation for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is controversial, and several reports consider that the routine use of sedation is not a prerequisite. We evaluate whether the addition of sedation with propofol improves patient tolerance, compared to local anesthesic of the airway only. Eighteen patients with pneumonia undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy were included in a randomized, single blind, prospective controlled study. The non-sedation group received airway topical anesthesia, whereas the sedation group received topical anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. The degree of pain, cough, sensation of asphyxiation, degree of amnesia, global tolerance and acceptance of another bronchoscopy in the future were noted. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and saturation of oxygen by pulse oximetry were also evaluated. The patients in sedation group had less cough (P < 0.05), pain (P < 0.01) and sensation of asphyxiation (P < 0.001). Global tolerance to the procedure was significantly better in the group under sedation (P < 0.01). These patients had total amnesia to the procedure (P < 0.0001), thus is more probable that will accept another bronchoscopy in the future (P < 0.01). There was a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure in the patients without sedation. There were no differences in oxygen saturation (P = 0.75). Our results show that if we administer propofol for sedation, in addition to local anesthesia of the airway, the tolerance to the procedure is much better. Also it appears that sedation with propofol is safe if we carefully select and monitor the patient.

  19. Percutaneous transthoracic localization of pulmonary nodules under C-arm cone-beam CT virtual navigation guidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Min; McAdams, H Page; Kim, Young Tae; Goo, Jin Mo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe our initial experience with percutaneous transthoracic localization (PTL) of pulmonary nodules using a C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) virtual navigation guidance system. From February 2013 to March 2014, 79 consecutive patients (mean age, 61±10 years) with 81 solid or ground-glass nodules (mean size, 12.36±7.21 mm; range, 4.8-25 mm) underwent PTLs prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) excision under CBCT virtual navigation guidance using lipiodol (mean volume, 0.18±0.04 mL). Their procedural details, radiation dose, and complication rates were described. All 81 target nodules were successfully localized within 10 mm (mean distance, 2.54±3.24 mm) from the lipiodol markings. Mean number of CT acquisitions was 3.2±0.7, total procedure time was 14.6±5.14 min, and estimated radiation exposure during the localization was 5.21±2.51 mSv. Postprocedural complications occurred in 14 cases (17.3%); complications were minimal pneumothorax (n=10, 12.3%), parenchymal hemorrhage (n=3, 3.7%), and a small amount of hemoptysis (n=1, 1.2%). All target nodules were completely resected; pathologic diagnosis included invasive adenocarcinoma (n=53), adenocarcinoma-in-situ (n=10), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (n=4), metastasis (n=7), and benign lesions (n=7). PTL procedures can be performed safely and accurately under the guidance of a CBCT virtual navigation system.

  20. Performance of today’s dual energy CT and future multi energy CT in virtual non-contrast imaging and in iodine quantification: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Faby, Sebastian Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc; Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Lell, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To study the performance of different dual energy computed tomography (DECT) techniques, which are available today, and future multi energy CT (MECT) employing novel photon counting detectors in an image-based material decomposition task. Methods: The material decomposition performance of different energy-resolved CT acquisition techniques is assessed and compared in a simulation study of virtual non-contrast imaging and iodine quantification. The material-specific images are obtained via a statistically optimal image-based material decomposition. A projection-based maximum likelihood approach was used for comparison with the authors’ image-based method. The different dedicated dual energy CT techniques are simulated employing realistic noise models and x-ray spectra. The authors compare dual source DECT with fast kV switching DECT and the dual layer sandwich detector DECT approach. Subsequent scanning and a subtraction method are studied as well. Further, the authors benchmark future MECT with novel photon counting detectors in a dedicated DECT application against the performance of today’s DECT using a realistic model. Additionally, possible dual source concepts employing photon counting detectors are studied. Results: The DECT comparison study shows that dual source DECT has the best performance, followed by the fast kV switching technique and the sandwich detector approach. Comparing DECT with future MECT, the authors found noticeable material image quality improvements for an ideal photon counting detector; however, a realistic detector model with multiple energy bins predicts a performance on the level of dual source DECT at 100 kV/Sn 140 kV. Employing photon counting detectors in dual source concepts can improve the performance again above the level of a single realistic photon counting detector and also above the level of dual source DECT. Conclusions: Substantial differences in the performance of today’s DECT approaches were found for the

  1. Performance of today's dual energy CT and future multi energy CT in virtual non-contrast imaging and in iodine quantification: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Faby, Sebastian; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Sawall, Stefan; Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-07-01

    To study the performance of different dual energy computed tomography (DECT) techniques, which are available today, and future multi energy CT (MECT) employing novel photon counting detectors in an image-based material decomposition task. The material decomposition performance of different energy-resolved CT acquisition techniques is assessed and compared in a simulation study of virtual non-contrast imaging and iodine quantification. The material-specific images are obtained via a statistically optimal image-based material decomposition. A projection-based maximum likelihood approach was used for comparison with the authors' image-based method. The different dedicated dual energy CT techniques are simulated employing realistic noise models and x-ray spectra. The authors compare dual source DECT with fast kV switching DECT and the dual layer sandwich detector DECT approach. Subsequent scanning and a subtraction method are studied as well. Further, the authors benchmark future MECT with novel photon counting detectors in a dedicated DECT application against the performance of today's DECT using a realistic model. Additionally, possible dual source concepts employing photon counting detectors are studied. The DECT comparison study shows that dual source DECT has the best performance, followed by the fast kV switching technique and the sandwich detector approach. Comparing DECT with future MECT, the authors found noticeable material image quality improvements for an ideal photon counting detector; however, a realistic detector model with multiple energy bins predicts a performance on the level of dual source DECT at 100 kV/Sn 140 kV. Employing photon counting detectors in dual source concepts can improve the performance again above the level of a single realistic photon counting detector and also above the level of dual source DECT. Substantial differences in the performance of today's DECT approaches were found for the application of virtual non-contrast and iodine

  2. Evaluation of a CT-based technique to measure the transfer accuracy of a virtually planned osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dobbe, J G G; Kievit, A J; Schafroth, M U; Blankevoort, L; Streekstra, G J

    2014-08-01

    Accurate transfer of a preoperatively planned osteotomy plane to the bone is of significance for corrective surgery, tumor resection, implant positioning and evaluation of new osteotomy techniques. Methods for comparing a preoperatively planned osteotomy plane with a surgical cut exist but the accuracy of these techniques are either limited or unknown. This paper proposes and evaluates a CT-based technique that enables comparing virtual with actual osteotomy planes. The methodological accuracy and reproducibility of the technique is evaluated using CT-derived volume data of a cadaver limb, which serves to plan TKA osteotomies in 3-D space and to simulate perfect osteotomies not hampered by surgical errors. The methodological variability of the technique is further investigated with repeated CT scans after actual osteotomy surgery of the same cadaver specimen. Plane displacement (derr) and angulation errors in the sagittal and coronal plane (βerr, γerr) are measured with high accuracy and reproducibility (derr=-0.11±0.06mm; βerr=0.08±0.04°, γerr=-0.03±0.03°). The proposed method for evaluating an osteotomy plane position and orientation has a high intrinsic accuracy and reproducibility. The method can be of great value for measuring the transfer accuracy of new techniques for positioning and orienting a surgical cut in 3-D space.

  3. Gesture analysis and immersive visualization for virtual endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; Bruening, Roland; Scheidler, Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian

    2001-05-01

    To improve diagnosis and therapy planning with additional information in an easy to use and fast way a virtual endoscopy system was developed. From a technical viewpoint, virtual endoscopy can be generated using image sequencies acquired with CT or MRI. It requires appropriate software for image processing and endoluminal visualization and hardware capabilities for immersive virtual reality. This includes that firstly the intuitive user interaction is supported by data gloves, position tracking systems and stereo display devices. Secondly the virtual environment requires real time visualization supported by high end graphic engines to enable the continuous operation and interaction. To enable the endoluminal view, the precise segmentation of the inner lumina like tracheobronchial tree, inner ear or vessels is necessary. In addition to this pathological findings must be defined. We use automatic segmentation techniques like volume growing as well as semiautomatic techniques like deformable models in a virtual environment. After that the surfaces of the segmented volume are reconstructed. This is the basis for our multidimensional display system which visualizes volumes, surfaces and computation results simultaneously. Our developed method of virtual endoscopy enables the interactive, immersive and endoluminal inspection of complex anatomical structures. It is based on intensive image processing like 3D-segmentation and a so called hybrid technique which displays all the information by volume and surface rendering. The system was applied on virtual bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, angioscopy as well as endoluminal representation of the inner ear.

  4. Evaluation of Bronchoscopy Complications in a Tertiary Health Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Fazlalizadeh, Helenaz; Adimi, Parisa; Kiani, Arda; Jabardarjani, Hamid Reza; Soltaninejad, Forough; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study was performed to determine the complications of bronchoscopy in a tertiary health-care center. Materials and Methods This study had as descriptive cross sectional design. Four hundred adult patients between 16 to 85 years, who underwent bronchoscopy with a same method and same device and had no underlying disease, were consecutively enrolled. Results Bronchoscopy complications were seen in 13 patients (3.25%) including bleeding (four cases), pneumothorax (three cases), collapse (four cases), and infection (two cases). There was no association between complications and age, sex, bronchoscopy indications and findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it may be concluded that bronchoscopy can be performed safely whenever indicated. Complications occurred were minor and self limiting. PMID:25852761

  5. Evaluation of bronchoscopy complications in a tertiary health care center.

    PubMed

    Fazlalizadeh, Helenaz; Adimi, Parisa; Kiani, Arda; Malekmohammad, Majid; Jabardarjani, Hamid Reza; Soltaninejad, Forough; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study was performed to determine the complications of bronchoscopy in a tertiary health-care center. This study had as descriptive cross sectional design. Four hundred adult patients between 16 to 85 years, who underwent bronchoscopy with a same method and same device and had no underlying disease, were consecutively enrolled. Bronchoscopy complications were seen in 13 patients (3.25%) including bleeding (four cases), pneumothorax (three cases), collapse (four cases), and infection (two cases). There was no association between complications and age, sex, bronchoscopy indications and findings (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, it may be concluded that bronchoscopy can be performed safely whenever indicated. Complications occurred were minor and self limiting.

  6. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions: Living and dead subjects.

    PubMed

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-09-01

    Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events. This procedure is demonstrated in two victims of gunshot injuries. Case #1 was a man showing three perforating gunshot wounds, who died due to the injuries of the incident. Whole-body PMCT was performed and 3D reconstructions of bones, relevant internal organs and bullet paths were generated. Using 3ds Max software and a human anatomy 3D model, a virtual animated body was built and probable ante-mortem postures visualized. Case #2 was a man presenting three perforating gunshot wounds, who survived the incident: one in the left arm and two in the thorax. Only CT scans of the thorax, abdomen and the injured arm were provided by the hospital. Therefore, a whole-body 3D model reflecting the anatomical proportions of the patient was made combining the actual bones of the victim with those obtained from the human anatomy 3D model. The resulted 3D model was used for the animation process. Several probable postures were also visualized in this case. It has be shown that in Case #1 the lesions and the bullet path were not consistent with an upright standing position; instead, the victim was slightly bent forward, i.e. he was sitting or running when he was shot. In Case #2, one of the bullets could have passed through the arm and continued into the thorax. In conclusion, specialized 3D modelling and animation techniques allow for the reconstruction of ante-mortem postures based on both PMCT and clinical CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Sudden death after chest pain: feasibility of virtual autopsy with postmortem CT angiography and biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Steffen G; Thali, Michael J; Bolliger, Stephan; Germerott, Tanja; Ruder, Thomas D; Flach, Patricia M

    2012-07-01

    To determine the potential of minimally invasive postmortem computed tomographic (CT) angiography combined with image-guided tissue biopsy of the myocardium and lungs in decedents who were thought to have died of acute chest disease and to compare this method with conventional autopsy as the reference standard. The responsible justice department and ethics committee approved this study. Twenty corpses (four female corpses and 16 male corpses; age range, 15-80 years), all of whom were reported to have had antemortem acute chest pain, were imaged with postmortem whole-body CT angiography and underwent standardized image-guided biopsy. The standard included three biopsies of the myocardium and a single biopsy of bilateral central lung tissue. Additional biopsies of pulmonary clots for differentiation of pulmonary embolism and postmortem organized thrombus were performed after initial analysis of the cross-sectional images. Subsequent traditional autopsy with sampling of histologic specimens was performed in all cases. Thereafter, conventional histologic and autopsy reports were compared with postmortem CT angiography and CT-guided biopsy findings. A Cohen κ coefficient analysis was performed to explore the effect of the clustered nature of the data. In 19 of the 20 cadavers, findings at postmortem CT angiography in combination with CT-guided biopsy validated the cause of death found at traditional autopsy. In one cadaver, early myocardial infarction of the papillary muscles had been missed. The Cohen κ coefficient was 0.94. There were four instances of pulmonary embolism, three aortic dissections (Stanford type A), three myocardial infarctions, three instances of fresh coronary thrombosis, three cases of obstructive coronary artery disease, one ruptured ulcer of the ascending aorta, one ruptured aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, one case of myocarditis, and one pulmonary malignancy with pulmonary artery erosion. In seven of 20 cadavers, CT-guided biopsy

  8. Holter ECG monitoring of sympathovagal fluctuation during bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdellah Hamed Khalil; Toba, Hiroaki; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yamamoto, Ryo; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The changes of autonomic nervous activity during bronchoscopic procedures are closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications. We aimed to evaluate the changes of autonomic nervous activity during bronchoscopic procedures using R-R interval variability from electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained during diagnostic bronchoscopy. Twenty-four patients who underwent bronchoscopy were included. Continuous ECG was recorded prior to, during and after the bronchoscopic procedure. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability were performed. Heart rate increased significantly after pre-medication compared with that before pre-medication and increased further during bronchoscopy. The coefficient of variation (CVRR ) values after pre-medication and during bronchoscopy were significantly higher than those before pre-medication (P = 0.031 and P = 0.041, respectively). The low frequency (LF) power decreased during bronchoscopy. LF powers obtained after bronchoscopy were significantly lower than those obtained before bronchoscopy (P < 0.041). The high-frequency (HF) power was found to be decreased during bronchoscopy. In particular, HF powers obtained after bronchoscopy were significantly lower than those obtained before bronchoscopy (P < 0.019). Although the LF/HF ratios increased after pre-medication, they decreased temporarily during the bronchoscope insertion. This study shows for the first time that Holter ECG monitoring during diagnostic bronchoscopy was associated with activation of cardiac sympathetic and withdrawal of cardiac parasympathetic regulation, which may contribute to the occurrence of cardiac events during bronchoscopic procedures. So, Holter ECG monitoring during bronchoscopic procedures may confer reduction in cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Virtual non-contrast dual-energy CT compared to single-energy CT of the urinary tract: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Margareta; Lidén, Mats; Magnuson, Anders; Mohammed, Ahmed Abdulilah; Geijer, Håkan; Andersson, Torbjörn; Persson, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been shown to be useful for subtracting bone or calcium in CT angiography and gives an opportunity to produce a virtual non-contrast-enhanced (VNC) image from a series where contrast agents have been given intravenously. High noise levels and low resolution have previously limited the diagnostic value of the VNC images created with the first generation of DECT. With the recent introduction of a second generation of DECT, there is a possibility of obtaining VNC images with better image quality at hopefully lower radiation dose compared to the previous generation. To compare the image quality of the single-energy series to a VNC series obtained with a two generations of DECT scanners. CT of the urinary tract was used as a model. Thirty patients referred for evaluation of hematuria were examined with an older system (Somatom Definition) and another 30 patients with a new generation (Somatom Definition Flash). One single-energy series was obtained before and one dual-energy series after administration of intravenous contrast media. We created a VNC series from the contrast-enhanced images. Images were assessed concerning image quality with a visual grading scale evaluation of the VNC series with the single-energy series as gold standard. The image quality of the VNC images was rated inferior to the single-energy variant for both scanners, OR 11.5-67.3 for the Definition and OR 2.1-2.8 for the Definition Flash. Visual noise and overall quality were regarded as better with Flash than Definition. Image quality of VNC images obtained with the new generation of DECT is still slightly inferior compared to native images. However, the difference is smaller with the new compared to the older system.

  10. Determinants of Detection of Stones and Calcifications in the Hepatobiliary System on Virtual Nonenhanced Dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xuan; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Sun, Hao; Chen, Yu; He, Yong-Lan

    2016-06-20

    Objective To retrospectively determine the features of stones and calcifications in hepatobiliary system on virtual nonenhanced (VNE) dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and to evaluate the possibility of VNE images in diagnosis for those lesions.Methods A total of 128 gall stones and calcifications of the liver found in 110 patients were examined with triple phase abdominal CT scan from July 2007 to December 2011, in which true nonenhanced (TNE) phase and arterial phase were performed with single-energy CT (120 kVp) and portal venous phase was performed with dual-energy CT (100 kVp and 140 kVp). VNE images were generated from the portal venous phase dual-energy CT data sets by using commercially VNC software. The mean CT values for the stone, liver, bile and paraspinal muscle, mean lesion density and size in area dimension, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of lesion to the liver or bile, and image noise were assessed and compared between VNE and TNE images. The effective dose and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were also calculated.Results The mean CT values of the lesions measured on VNE images declined significantly compared with those measured on TNE images (164.51±102.13 vs. 290.72±197.80 HU, P<0.001), so did the lesion-to-liver CNR (10.80±11.82 vs.18.81±17.06, P<0.001) and the lesion-to-bile CNR (17.24±14.41 vs. 21.32±17.31, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in size of lesions area between VNE and TNE images (0.69±0.88 vs. 0.72±0.85 cm(2), P=0.062). Compared to the 128 lesions found in TNE images, VNE images showed the same density in 30 (23.4%) lesions, lighter density in 88 (68.8%) lesions, while failed to show 10 (7.8%) lesions, and showed the same size in 61 (47.7%) lesions and smaller size in 57 (44.5%) lesions. The CT cutoff values of lesion and size were 229.21 HU and 0.15 cm(2), respectively. The total effective dose for triple phase scan protocol with TNE images was 19.51±7.03 mSv, and the SSDE was 39.84±11.10 mGy. The

  11. Incidence of complications in bronchoscopy. Multicentre prospective study of 20,986 bronchoscopies.

    PubMed

    Facciolongo, N; Patelli, M; Gasparini, S; Lazzari Agli, L; Salio, M; Simonassi, C; Del Prato, B; Zanoni, P

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency of complications in bronchoscopy from data compiled between 1/2/2002 to 1/2/2003. Nineteen Italian centres of thoracic endoscopy participated in the study, for a total of 20,986 bronchoscopies (FBS), including 10,658 explorative bronchoscopies (EB) (50.79%), 5,520 bronchial biopsies (BB) (26.30%), 1,660 transbronchial biopsies (TBB) (7.91%), 1,127 broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL) (5.37%), 930 transbronchial needle-aspirates (TBNA) (4.43%), 1.091 therapeutic bronchoscopies (TB), comprising ND-YAG Laser, argon-plasma, electrocautery knife, stent insertion (5.20%). 82.4% of the procedures involved the use of a flexible bronchoscope, 16.3% were carried out using a rigid bronchoscope and 1.3% using the mixed technique. The total number of complications recorded was 227 (1.08% of the cases examined), including 20 (0.09%) during local anesthesia and pre-medication, 195 (0.92%) during the endoscopic procedures and 12 (0.05%) in the two hours following FBS. The total number of deaths was 4 (0.02%), due to cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, delayed respiratory failure and shock in pre-medication, respectively. 68.28% of the complications were treated medically, 25.99% by means of endoscopy and 5.72% with surgery. The healing percentage was 98.2%. This study has shown that bronchoscopy is a safe method with low incidence of mortality and complications. The preparation, experience and continuous training of the operators of the medical and nursing team seem to play a fundamental role in reducing the incidence of complications at least in certain procedures such as BB and TBB.

  12. TU-EF-204-12: Quantitative Evaluation of Spectral Detector CT Using Virtual Monochromatic Images: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, X; Guild, J; Arbique, G; Anderson, J; Dhanantwari, A; Yagil, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate the image quality and spectral information of a spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner using virtual monochromatic (VM) energy images. Methods The SDCT scanner (Philips Healthcare) was equipped with a dual-layer detector and spectral iterative reconstruction (IR), which generates conventional 80–140 kV polychromatic energy (PE) CT images using both detector layers, PE images from the low-energy (upper) and high-energy (lower) detector layers and VM images. A solid water phantom with iodine (2.0–20.0 mg I/ml) and calcium (50.0–600.0 mg Ca/ml) rod inserts was used to evaluate effective energy estimate (EEE) and iodine contrast to noise ratio (CNR). The EEE corresponding to an insert CT number in a PE image was calculated from a CT number fit to the VM image set. Since PE image is prone to beam-hardening artifact EEE may underestimate the actual energy separation from two layers of the detector. A 30-cm-diameter water phantom was used to evaluate noise power spectrum (NPS). The phantoms were scanned at 120 and 140 kV with the same CTDIvol. Results The CT number difference for contrast inserts in VM images (50–150 keV) was 1.3±6% between 120 and 140 kV scans. The difference of EEE calculated from low- and high-energy detector images was 11.5 and 16.7 keV for 120 and 140 kV scans, respectively. The differences calculated from 140 and 100 kV conventional PE images were 12.8, and 20.1 keV from 140 and 80 kV conventional PE images. The iodine CNR increased monotonically with decreased keV. Compared to conventional PE images, the peak of NPS curves from VM images were shifted to lower frequency. Conclusion The EEE results indicates that SDCT at 120 and 140 kV may have energy separation comparable to 100/140 kV and 80/140 kV dual-kV imaging. The effects of IR on CNR and NPS require further investigation for SDCT. Author YY and AD are Philips Healthcare employees.

  13. THE ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE INDUCED BY BRONCHOSCOPY WITH LAVAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoscopy has been used to evaluate the inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. The procedure may affect acute inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. We reviewed consecutive bronchoscopies done in normal healthy non-smokers between April, 1998 and April, 2004. The...

  14. THE ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE INDUCED BY BRONCHOSCOPY WITH LAVAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoscopy has been used to evaluate the inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. The procedure may affect acute inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. We reviewed consecutive bronchoscopies done in normal healthy non-smokers between April, 1998 and April, 2004. The...

  15. Dual-energy CT with virtual monochromatic images and metal artifact reduction software for reducing metallic dental artifacts.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Ha Youn; Park, Gyeong Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Metallic dental prostheses may degrade image quality on head and neck computed tomography (CT). However, there is little information available on the use of dual-energy CT (DECT) and metal artifact reduction software (MARS) in the head and neck regions to reduce metallic dental artifacts. Purpose To assess the usefulness of DECT with virtual monochromatic imaging and MARS to reduce metallic dental artifacts. Material and Methods DECT was performed using fast kilovoltage (kV)-switching between 80-kV and 140-kV in 20 patients with metallic dental prostheses. CT data were reconstructed with and without MARS, and with synthesized monochromatic energy in the range of 40-140-kiloelectron volt (keV). For quantitative analysis, the artifact index of the tongue, buccal, and parotid areas was calculated for each scan. For qualitative analysis, two radiologists evaluated 70-keV and 100-keV images with and without MARS for tongue, buccal, parotid areas, and metallic denture. The locations and characteristics of the MARS-related artifacts, if any, were also recorded. Results DECT with MARS markedly reduced metallic dental artifacts and improved image quality in the buccal area ( P < 0.001) and the tongue ( P < 0.001), but not in the parotid area. The margin and internal architecture of the metallic dentures were more clearly delineated with MARS ( P < 0.001) and in the higher-energy images than in the lower-energy images ( P = 0.042). MARS-related artifacts most commonly occurred in the deep center of the neck. Conclusion DECT with MARS can reduce metallic dental artifacts and improve delineation of the metallic prosthesis and periprosthetic region.

  16. Cadaver-specific CT scans visualized at the dissection table combined with virtual dissection tables improve learning performance in general gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Paech, Daniel; Giesel, Frederik L; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Kuner, Thomas; Doll, Sara

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefit of the incorporation of radiologic anatomy (RA), in terms of student training in RA seminars, cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables on the learning success in general anatomy. Three groups of a total of 238 students were compared in a multiple choice general anatomy exam during first-year gross anatomy: (1) a group (year 2015, n 1 = 50) that received training in radiologic image interpretation (RA seminar) and additional access to cadaver CT scans (CT + seminar group); (2) a group (2011, n 2 = 90) that was trained in the RA seminar only (RA seminar group); (3) a group (2011, n 3 = 98) without any radiologic image interpretation training (conventional anatomy group). Furthermore, the students' perception of the new curriculum was assessed qualitatively through a survey. The average test score of the CT + seminar group (21.8 ± 5.0) was significantly higher when compared to both the RA seminar group (18.3 ± 5.0) and the conventional anatomy group (17.1 ± 4.7) (p < 0.001). The incorporation of cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables significantly improved the performance of medical students in general gross anatomy. Medical imaging and virtual dissection should therefore be considered to be part of the standard curriculum of gross anatomy. • Students provided with cadaver CT scans achieved 27 % higher scores in anatomy. • Radiological education integrated into gross anatomy is highly appreciated by medical students. • Simultaneous physical and virtual dissection provide unique conditions to study anatomy.

  17. Hemodynamic Changes Caused by Flow Diverters in Rabbit Aneurysm Models: Comparison of Virtual and Realistic FD Deployments Based on Micro-CT Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yibin; Yu, Ying; Cheng, Jiyong; Wang, Shengzhang; Wang, Kuizhong; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qinghai

    2013-01-01

    Adjusting hemodynamics via flow diverter (FD) implantation is emerging as a novel method of treating cerebral aneurysms. However, most previous FD-related hemodynamic studies were based on virtual FD deployment, which may produce different hemodynamic outcomes than realistic (in vivo) FD deployment. We compared hemodynamics between virtual FD and realistic FD deployments in rabbit aneurysm models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. FDs were implanted for aneurysms in 14 rabbits. Vascular models based on rabbit-specific angiograms were reconstructed for CFD studies. Real FD configurations were reconstructed based on micro-CT scans after sacrifice, while virtual FD configurations were constructed with SolidWorks software. Hemodynamic parameters before and after FD deployment were analyzed. According to the metal coverage (MC) of implanted FDs calculated based on micro-CT reconstruction, 14 rabbits were divided into two groups (A, MC >35%; B, MC <35%). Normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS), relative residence time (RRT), inflow velocity, and inflow volume in Group A were significantly different (P<0.05) from virtual FD deployment, but pressure was not (P>0.05). The normalized mean WSS in Group A after realistic FD implantation was significantly lower than that of Group B. All parameters in Group B exhibited no significant difference between realistic and virtual FDs. This study confirmed MC-correlated differences in hemodynamic parameters between realistic and virtual FD deployment. PMID:23823503

  18. Hemodynamic Changes Caused by Flow Diverters in Rabbit Aneurysm Models: Comparison of Virtual and Realistic FD Deployments Based on Micro-CT Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyu; Deng, Benqiang; Fang, Yibin; Yu, Ying; Cheng, Jiyong; Wang, Shengzhang; Wang, Kuizhong; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qinghai

    2013-01-01

    Adjusting hemodynamics via flow diverter (FD) implantation is emerging as a novel method of treating cerebral aneurysms. However, most previous FD-related hemodynamic studies were based on virtual FD deployment, which may produce different hemodynamic outcomes than realistic (in vivo) FD deployment. We compared hemodynamics between virtual FD and realistic FD deployments in rabbit aneurysm models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. FDs were implanted for aneurysms in 14 rabbits. Vascular models based on rabbit-specific angiograms were reconstructed for CFD studies. Real FD configurations were reconstructed based on micro-CT scans after sacrifice, while virtual FD configurations were constructed with SolidWorks software. Hemodynamic parameters before and after FD deployment were analyzed. According to the metal coverage (MC) of implanted FDs calculated based on micro-CT reconstruction, 14 rabbits were divided into two groups (A, MC >35%; B, MC <35%). Normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS), relative residence time (RRT), inflow velocity, and inflow volume in Group A were significantly different (P<0.05) from virtual FD deployment, but pressure was not (P>0.05). The normalized mean WSS in Group A after realistic FD implantation was significantly lower than that of Group B. All parameters in Group B exhibited no significant difference between realistic and virtual FDs. This study confirmed MC-correlated differences in hemodynamic parameters between realistic and virtual FD deployment.

  19. [Delayed convulsion after lidocaine instillation for bronchoscopy].

    PubMed

    Gaïes, E; Jebabli, N; Lakhal, M; Klouz, A; Salouage, I; Trabelsi, S

    2016-05-01

    Lidocaine toxicity usually appears rapidly and is directly correlated with plasma concentrations of the drug. We report a case of a late neurologic toxicity occurring after instillation of lidocaine during fibre-optic bronchoscopy. A patient with bronchiolitis obliterans underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. She received multiples instillations of Xylocaine(®) 2% (lidocaine). Three and a half hours later, she had a tonic-clonic seizure. Seven hours later, this recurred. Lidocaine plasma levels were in the toxic range at the time of the first seizure (18.32μg/mL) with a significant decrease in the concentration noted 24hours later. The slow absorption of lidocaine into the blood from the bronchial tree explains the delayed neurologic toxicity. Our observation is a reminder that complications can occur due to high doses of lidocaïne administrated by instillation. Thus, if the recommended dose of lidocaine is exceeded, it is essential to monitor patients closely for a prolonged period, especially those with fibrosing lung disease in order to avoid possible late toxicity. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fibreoptic bronchoscopy on pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, A J; Benson-Mitchell, R; Godfrey, R

    1990-01-01

    Several studies have shown that after fibreoptic bronchoscopy there may be a deterioration in lung function but it is not known whether this is due to the premedication, the topical anaesthetic, or the obstruction produced by the bronchoscope. The effects of each part of the procedure on spirometric measurements were studied in patients with lung disease and in normal non-smokers. Measurements were made after premedication (papaveretum and atropine) in seven patients and after topical anaesthesia of the bronchial tree (340 mg lignocaine) with and without the bronchoscope in the trachea in 21 patients and 10 control subjects. Premedication had no effect. In the normal subjects lignocaine produced significant falls in FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and insertion of the bronchoscope caused further falls that were also significant. In the patients, however, although anaesthesia produced significant falls in FEV1, FVC, PEF, and PIF of similar magnitude to those found in the normal subjects, there was no further important decrease when the bronchoscope was inserted. It is concluded that the major effect of bronchoscopy on lung function is due to topical lignocaine in the airways, and in patients with lung disease (excluding asthma or a central obstructing carcinoma) the insertion of the bronchoscope causes little additional obstruction. PMID:2321176

  1. Effects of bronchoscopy on lung function in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Christina; Bleecker, Eugene R; Peters, Stephen; Pascual, Rodolfo; Krings, Jeffrey; Smith, Regina; Hastie, Annette T; Moore, Wendy C

    2017-01-05

    To better understand the changes in pulmonary physiology related to asthma severity following bronchoscopy, we performed scheduled pre- and post-procedure spirometry on subjects undergoing bronchoscopy in our research program. Control subjects and asthma subjects were recruited for bronchoscopy. On the day of bronchoscopy, subjects underwent spirometry pre-bronchoscopy and then up to three sets within 2 hour following the completion of bronchoscopy. A subset of patients had a second bronchoscopy after 2 weeks of treatment with oral prednisolone (40mg daily). A total of 92 subjects had at least one bronchoscopy (12 control subjects, 56 nonsevere asthma (NSA), 24 severe asthma (SA)). The SA and NSA groups had similar decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (-20±13% vs.-19±16%, p = 0.92) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (-20±12% vs.-20±14%, p = 0.80), but no change in FEV1/FVC ratio. The control and NSA group had more rapid recovery of both FEV1 and FVC by 2 hour compared to the SA group (p = 0.01). In the subset of 36 subjects (22 NSA, 14 SA) who underwent a second bronchoscopy following the administration of oral prednisolone for 14 days, steroids resulted in more rapid recovery of lung function (p < 0.04). Following bronchoscopy the lung function of NSA subjects recovered more quickly than SA subjects. Treatment with oral corticosteroids was associated with a quicker recovery of FEV1 which suggests an inflammatory mechanism for these changes in lung compliance.

  2. Safety of investigative bronchoscopy in the Severe Asthma Research Program.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy C; Evans, Michael D; Bleecker, Eugene R; Busse, William W; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Erzurum, Serpil C; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A; Gaston, Benjamin; Hew, Mark; Israel, Elliot; Mayse, Martin L; Pascual, Rodolfo M; Peters, Stephen P; Silveira, Lori; Wenzel, Sally E; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2011-08-01

    Investigative bronchoscopy was performed in a subset of participants in the Severe Asthma Research Program to gain insights into the pathobiology of severe disease. We evaluated the safety aspects of this procedure in this cohort with specific focus on patients with severe asthma. To evaluate prospectively changes in lung function and the frequency of adverse events related to investigative bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy was performed by using a common manual of procedures. A subset of very severe asthma was defined by severe airflow obstruction, chronic oral corticosteroid use, and recent asthma exacerbations. Subjects were monitored for changes in lung function and contacted by telephone for 3 days after the procedure. A total of 436 subjects underwent bronchoscopy (97 normal, 196 not severe, 102 severe, and 41 very severe asthma). Nine subjects were evaluated in hospital settings after bronchoscopy; 7 of these were respiratory-related events. Recent emergency department visits, chronic oral corticosteroid use, and a history of pneumonia were more frequent in subjects who had asthma exacerbations after bronchoscopy. The fall in FEV₁ after bronchoscopy was similar in the severe and milder asthma groups. Prebronchodilator FEV₁ was the strongest predictor of change in FEV₁ after bronchoscopy with larger decreases observed in subjects with better lung function. Bronchoscopy in subjects with severe asthma was well tolerated. Asthma exacerbations were rare, and reduction in pulmonary function after the procedure was similar to that in subjects with less severe asthma. With proper precautions, investigative bronchoscopy can be performed safely in severe asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry.

    PubMed

    Dullin, Christian; Ufartes, Roser; Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases.

  4. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases. PMID:28178293

  5. Development of virtual patient models for permanent implant brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations: interdependence of CT image artifact mitigation and tissue assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksys, N.; Xu, C.; Beaulieu, L.; Thomson, R. M.

    2015-08-01

    This work investigates and compares CT image metallic artifact reduction (MAR) methods and tissue assignment schemes (TAS) for the development of virtual patient models for permanent implant brachytherapy Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Four MAR techniques are investigated to mitigate seed artifacts from post-implant CT images of a homogeneous phantom and eight prostate patients: a raw sinogram approach using the original CT scanner data and three methods (simple threshold replacement (STR), 3D median filter, and virtual sinogram) requiring only the reconstructed CT image. Virtual patient models are developed using six TAS ranging from the AAPM-ESTRO-ABG TG-186 basic approach of assigning uniform density tissues (resulting in a model not dependent on MAR) to more complex models assigning prostate, calcification, and mixtures of prostate and calcification using CT-derived densities. The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is employed to calculate dose distributions. All four MAR methods eliminate bright seed spot artifacts, and the image-based methods provide comparable mitigation of artifacts compared with the raw sinogram approach. However, each MAR technique has limitations: STR is unable to mitigate low CT number artifacts, the median filter blurs the image which challenges the preservation of tissue heterogeneities, and both sinogram approaches introduce new streaks. Large local dose differences are generally due to differences in voxel tissue-type rather than mass density. The largest differences in target dose metrics (D90, V100, V150), over 50% lower compared to the other models, are when uncorrected CT images are used with TAS that consider calcifications. Metrics found using models which include calcifications are generally a few percent lower than prostate-only models. Generally, metrics from any MAR method and any TAS which considers calcifications agree within 6%. Overall, the studied MAR methods and TAS show promise for further retrospective MC dose

  6. SU-D-BRA-06: Dual-Energy Chest CT: The Effects of Virtual Monochromatic Reconstructions On Texture Analysis Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J; Duran, C; Stingo, F; Wei, W; Rao, A; Zhang, L; Court, L; Erasmus, J; Godoy, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of virtual monochromatic reconstructions on several commonly used texture analysis features in DECT of the chest. Further, to assess the effect of monochromatic energy levels on the ability of these textural features to identify tissue types. Methods: 20 consecutive patients underwent chest CTs for evaluation of lung nodules using Siemens Somatom Definition Flash DECT. Virtual monochromatic images were constructed at 10keV intervals from 40–190keV. For each patient, an ROI delineated the lesion under investigation, and cylindrical ROI’s were placed within 5 different healthy tissues (blood, fat, muscle, lung, and liver). Several histogram- and Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM)-based texture features were then evaluated in each ROI at each energy level. As a means of validation, these feature values were then used in a random forest classifier to attempt to identify the tissue types present within each ROI. Their predictive accuracy at each energy level was recorded. Results: All textural features changed considerably with virtual monochromatic energy, particularly below 70keV. Most features exhibited a global minimum or maximum around 80keV, and while feature values changed with energy above this, patient ranking was generally unaffected. As expected, blood demonstrated the lowest inter-patient variability, for all features, while lung lesions (encompassing many different pathologies) exhibited the highest. The accuracy of these features in identifying tissues (76% accuracy) was highest at 80keV, but no clear relationship between energy and classification accuracy was found. Two common misclassifications (blood vs liver and muscle vs fat) accounted for the majority (24 of the 28) errors observed. Conclusion: All textural features were highly dependent on virtual monochromatic energy level, especially below 80keV, and were more stable above this energy. However, in a random forest model, these commonly used features were

  7. Interventional bronchoscopy in the management of thoracic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hardavella, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Educational Aims To highlight the various methods of interventional bronchoscopy. To inform about the indications for palliation and curative bronchoscopy in lung cancer. Interventional bronchoscopy is a rapidly expanding field in respiratory medicine offering minimally invasive therapeutic and palliative procedures for all types of lung neoplasms. This field has progressed over the last couple of decades with the application of new technology. The HERMES European curriculum recommendations include interventional bronchoscopy skills in the modules of thoracic tumours and bronchoscopy [1]. However, interventional bronchoscopy is not available in all training centres and consequently, not all trainees will obtain experience unless they rotate to centres specifically offering such training. In this review, we give an overview of interventional bronchoscopic procedures used for the treatment and palliation of thoracic malignancy. These can be applied either with flexible or rigid bronchoscopy or a combination of both depending on the anatomical location of the tumour, the complexity of the case, bleeding risk, the operator’s expertise and preference as well as local availability. Specialised anaesthetic support and appropriately trained endoscopy staff are essential, allowing a multimodality approach to meet the high complexity of these cases. PMID:26632425

  8. Assessment of 70-keV virtual monoenergetic spectral images in abdominal CT imaging: A comparison study to conventional polychromatic 120-kVp images.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Negin; Chalian, Hamid; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Dhanantwari, Amar; Landeras, Luis

    2017-04-18

    To evaluate the image quality of 70-keV virtual monoenergetic (monoE) abdominal CT images compared to 120-kVp polychromatic images generated from a spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. This prospective study included generation of a 120-kVp polychromatic dataset and a 70-keV virtual monoE dataset after a single contrast-enhanced CT acquisition on a SDCT scanner (Philips Healthcare) during portal venous phase. The attenuation values (HU), noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, aorta, portal vein, and muscle. The subjective image quality including noise, soft tissue contrast, sharpness, and overall image quality were graded on a 5-point Likert scale by two radiologists independently (1-worst image quality, 5-best image quality). Statistical analysis was performed using paired sample t test and Fleiss's Kappa. Fifty-five patients (54.3 ± 16.8 y/o; 28 M, 27 F) were recruited. The noise of target organs was significantly lower in virtual monoE images in comparison to polychromatic images (p < 0.001). The SNR and CNR were significantly higher in virtual monoE images (p < 0.001 for both). Subjective image quality of 70-keV virtual monoE images was significantly better (p < 0.001) for all evaluated parameters. Median scores for all subjective parameters were 3.0 versus 4.0 for polychromatic vs virtual monoE images, respectively. The inter-reader agreement for overall image quality was good (Kappa were 0.767 and 0.762 for polychromatic and virtual monoE images, respectively). In abdominal imaging, 70-keV virtual monoE CT images demonstrated significantly better noise, SNR, CNR, and subjective score compared to conventional 120-kVp polychromatic images.

  9. Evaluation of patient dose using a virtual CT scanner: Applications to 4DCT simulation and Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarco, J. J.; McNitt-Gray, M. F.; Cagnon, C. H.; Angel, E.; Agazaryan, N.; Zankl, M.

    2008-02-01

    This work evaluates the effects of patient size on radiation dose from simulation imaging studies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT). 4DCT studies are scans that include temporal information, frequently incorporating highly over-sampled imaging series necessary for retrospective sorting as a function of respiratory phase. This type of imaging study can result in a significant dose increase to the patient due to the slower table speed as compared with a conventional axial or helical scan protocol. Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging is a relatively new imaging technique that requires an on-board kilovoltage x-ray tube and a flat-panel detector. Instead of porting individual reference fields, the kV tube and flat-panel detector are rotated about the patient producing a cone-beam CT data set (kV-CBCT). To perform these investigations, we used Monte Carlo simulation methods with detailed models of adult patients and virtual source models of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. The GSF family of three-dimensional, voxelized patient models, were implemented as input files using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The adult patient models represent a range of patient sizes and have all radiosensitive organs previously identified and segmented. Simulated 4DCT scans of each voxelized patient model were performed using a multi-detector CT source model that includes scanner specific spectra, bow-tie filtration, and helical source path. Standard MCNPX tally functions were applied to each model to estimate absolute organ dose based upon an air-kerma normalization measurement for nominal scanner operating parameters.

  10. Optical Colonoscopy and Virtual Colonoscopy Numbers after Initiation of a CT Colonography Program: Long Term Data

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Mark; Pier, Jeff; Kraft, Sally; Kim, David; Pickhardt, Perry; Weiss, Jennifer; Gopal, Deepak; Reichelderfer, Mark; Pfau, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The effect of CT colonography (CTC) screening on colonoscopy is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a CTC screening program on the number of screening, therapeutic and total colonoscopies performed. Methods We compared the quarterly mean numbers of colonoscopic examinations performed for 50-79 year olds undergoing colorectal cancer screening in 2003, before initiation of a CTC program, to 2011, seven years after the CTC program began at our academic tertiary care facility. Results The CTC program began in 2004 with a peak number of 387 CTC examinations performed in the 3rd quarter of 2005 and 275 examinations in the final quarter of 2011. Screening colonoscopies increased from 555 mean/quarter in 2003 to 1460 in 2011 (P < 0.001). The mean/quarter number of total colonoscopies performed increased from 1104 in 2003 to 2382 in 2011 (P < 0.001). The number of overall colon cancer screening examinations (Colonoscopy + CTC) increased from 555/quarter in 2003 to 1736 in 2011 (P < 0.001). Conclusions Since the initiation of CTC screening at our institution, the overall number of total colorectal cancer screening examinations (CTC + colonoscopy) has greatly increased. The initiation of a CTC screening program did not lead to a reduction in the number of colonoscopic examinations performed. Conversely, a significant increase in the number of screening and total colonoscopies completed was observed. PMID:23256122

  11. Three-Dimensional Visualization and Imaging of the Entry Tear and Intimal Flap of Aortic Dissection Using CT Virtual Intravascular Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Ma, Xiangxing; Wang, Qing; Yu, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Conventional computed tomography (CT) approaches provides limited visualization of the entire endoluminal changes of aortic dissection (AD), which is essential for its treatment. As an important supplement, three-dimensional CT virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) can show relevant details. This study aims to determine the value of VIE in displaying the entry tear and intimal flap of AD. Methods and Results Among 127 consecutive symptomatic patients with suspected AD who underwent CT angiography (CTA), 84 subjects were confirmed to have AD and were included in the study. Conventional CT and VIE images were observed and evaluated. From the 92 entry tears revealed via conventional CT, 88 (95.7%) tears appeared on VIE with round (n = 26), slit-shaped (n = 9), or irregular (n = 53) shapes, whereas the intimal flaps were sheetlike (n = 34), tubular (n = 34), wavelike (n = 13), or irregular (n = 7) in shape. The VIE also showed the spatial relationship between the torn flap and adjacent structures. Among 58 entry tears with multiple-line type flap shown on conventional CT, 41 (70.7%) appeared with an irregular shape on VIE, whereas among 30 tears with single-line type flap, 17 (56.7%) appeared as round or slit-shaped on VIE. These results demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05). The poor display of tears on VIE was related to the low CT attenuation values in lumen or in neighboring artifacts (P < 0.01). Conclusion CT VIE presents the complete configurations and details of the intimal tears and flaps of AD better than conventional CT approaches. Accordingly, it should be recommended as a necessary assessment tool for endovascular therapy and as part of strategy planning in pre-surgical patients. PMID:27760170

  12. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jennifer; Tieu, Brandon H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopy of the airway is a valuable tool for the evaluation and management of airway disease. It can be used to evaluate many different bronchopulmonary diseases including airway foreign bodies, tumors, infectious and inflammatory conditions, airway stenosis, and bronchopulmonary hemorrhage. Traditionally, options for evaluation were limited to flexible and rigid bronchoscopy. Recently, more sophisticated technology has led to the development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB). These technological advances, combined with increasing provider experience have resulted in a higher diagnostic yield with endoscopic biopsies. This review will focus on the role of bronchoscopy, including EBUS, ENB, and rigid bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary diseases. In addition, it will cover the anesthetic considerations, equipment, diagnostic yield, and potential complications. PMID:28149583

  13. "The black bronchoscopy": a case of airway soot deposition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla; Guimarães, Miguel; Antunes, Ana; Oliveira, Ana; Neves, Sofia; Almeida, José; Moura E Sá, João

    2013-07-01

    The term "black bronchoscopy" is used to describe the black pigmentation of the airways. It is a rare condition with multiple etiologies. We describe a case of a "black bronchoscopy" due to severe soot deposition as a result of smoke inhalation during a household fire in a 71-year-old woman. Early flexible bronchoscopy allowed for a precise diagnosis of severe inhalation injury, and bronchial lavage was carried out to remove soot casts to reduce complications. Any patient suspected of having smoke inhalation injury should undergo early bronchoscopy to allow for a precise diagnosis, staging, and more aggressive treatment measures as the mortality among patients exposed to smoke with inhalation airway injury is high.

  14. Cerebral arterial gas embolism following diagnostic bronchoscopy: delayed treatment with hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wherrett, Chris G; Mehran, Reza J; Beaulieu, Marc-Andre

    2002-01-01

    To describe a clinical scenario consistent with the diagnosis of cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) acquired during an outpatient bronchoscopy. Our discussion explores the mechanisms and diagnosis of CAGE and the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. A diagnostic bronchoscopy was performed on a 70-yr-old man who had had a lobectomy for bronchogenic carcinoma three months earlier. During the direct insufflation of oxygen into the right middle lobe bronchus, the patient became unresponsive and developed subcutaneous emphysema. Immediately, an endotracheal tube and bilateral chest tubes were placed with resultant improvement in his oxygen saturation. However, he remained unresponsive with extensor and flexor responses to pain. Later, in the intensive care unit, he exhibited seizure activity requiring anticonvulsant therapy. Sedation was utilized only briefly to facilitate controlled ventilation. Investigations revealed a negative computerized tomography (CT) scan of the head, a normal cerebral spinal fluid examination, a CT chest that showed evidence of barotrauma, and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Fifty-two hours after the event, he was treated for presumed CAGE with hyperbaric oxygen using a modified United States Navy Table 6. Twelve hours later he had regained consciousness and was extubated. He underwent two more hyperbaric treatments and was discharged from hospital one week after the event, fully recovered. A patient with presumed CAGE made a complete recovery following treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy even though it was initiated after a significant time delay.

  15. Bronchial anatomy of left lung: a study of multi-detector row CT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinya; Ju, Yuanrong; Liu, Cheng; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Min; Sun, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2009-02-01

    Familiarity with prevailing pattern and variations in the bronchial tree is not only essential for the anatomist to explain bronchial variation in bronchial specimens, but also useful for guiding bronchoscopy and instructing pulmonary segmental resection. The purpose of this study was designed to demonstrate various branching patterns of left lung with 3D images, with special attention given to identify the major types at transverse thin-section CT. Two hundred and sixteen patients with routine thorax scans were enrolled. The images of bronchial tree, virtual bronchoscopy were reconstructed using post-processing technique of multi-detector row CT. We attempted to classify the segmental bronchi by interpreting the post-processing images, and identified them in transverse thin-section CT. Our results showed that the segmental bronchial ramifications of the left superior lobe were classified into three types mainly, i.e., common stem of apical and posterior segmental bronchi (64%, 138/216); trifurcation (23%, 50/216); common stem of apical and anterior segmental bronchi (10%, 22/216), and they could be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. There were two major types in left basal segmental bronchi, i.e., bifurcation (75%, 163/216), trifurcation (18%, 39/216), and they could also be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. In conclusion, our study have offered simplified branching patterns of bronchi and demonstrated various unusual bronchial branching patterns perfectly with 3D images, and have also revealed how to identify the main branching patterns in transverse thin-section CT.

  16. [Flexible bronchoscopy in children: Indications and general considerations].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, E; Barrio Gómez De Agüero, M I

    2004-04-01

    There is considerable interhospital variability in the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. The present report aims to provide some recommendations that are supported by the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists. We review the indications, contraindications, equipment, setting and personnel involved in flexible bronchoscopy, as well as the pre-procedure preparation of the patient, medications, post-procedure monitoring, complications, care and maintenance of instruments, and informed consent. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  17. Anaesthesia for bronchoscopy: examination of a standard technique1

    PubMed Central

    Newell, John P; Collis, John M

    1980-01-01

    An anaesthetic technique for bronchoscopy is described, based on increments of methohexitone given in strict relation to body weight and time, suxamethonium being used to produce relaxation. There was no awareness in the 75 patients studied, while the recovery was rapid and unrelated to the duration of bronchoscopy. The efficacy of small aliquots of lignocaine in reducing injection pain was the same whether given before, or mixed with, the initial methohexitone injection. Other sequelae relating to the anaesthetic technique were minimal. PMID:7241441

  18. Reduction of dental filling metallic artifacts in CT-based attenuation correction of PET data using weighted virtual sinograms optimized by a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Alireza; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Zaidi, Habib

    2010-12-01

    The presence of metallic dental fillings is prevalent in head and neck PET/CT imaging and generates bright and dark streaking artifacts in reconstructed CT images. The resulting artifacts would propagate to the corresponding PET images following CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC). This would cause over- and/or underestimation of tracer uptake in corresponding regions thus leading to inaccurate quantification of tracer uptake. The purpose of this study is to improve our recently proposed metal artifact reduction (MAR) approach and to assess its performance in a clinical setting. The proposed MAR algorithm is performed in the virtual sinogram space to overcome the challenges associated with manipulating raw CT data. The corresponding bins of the virtual sinogram affected by metallic objects are obtained by forward projection of segmented metallic objects in the original CT image. These bins are then substituted by weighted values of three estimates: the affected bins in the original sinogram, the bins in the corrected sinogram using spline interpolation, and the sinogram bins in the neighboring column of the sinogram matrix. The optimized weighting factors (alpha, beta, and gamma) were estimated using a genetic algorithm (GA). The optimized combination of weighting coefficients was obtained using the GA applied to 24 clinical CT data sets. The proposed MAR method was then applied to 12 clinical head and neck PET/CT data sets containing dental artifacts. Analysis of the results was performed using Bland and Altman plots and a method allowing analysis in the absence of gold standard called regression without truth (RWT). The proposed method was also compared to an image-based MAR method. Optimization of the weighting coefficients using the GA resulted in an optimum combination of parameters of alpha=0.26, beta=0.67, and gamma=0.07. According to Bland and Altman plots generated for both CT and PET images of the clinical data, the proposed MAR algorithm is efficient

  19. Reduction of dental filling metallic artifacts in CT-based attenuation correction of PET data using weighted virtual sinograms optimized by a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Alireza; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Zaidi, Habib

    2010-12-01

    The presence of metallic dental fillings is prevalent in head and neck PET/CT imaging and generates bright and dark streaking artifacts in reconstructed CT images. The resulting artifacts would propagate to the corresponding PET images following CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC). This would cause over- and/or underestimation of tracer uptake in corresponding regions thus leading to inaccurate quantification of tracer uptake. The purpose of this study is to improve our recently proposed metal artifact reduction (MAR) approach and to assess its performance in a clinical setting. The proposed MAR algorithm is performed in the virtual sinogram space to overcome the challenges associated with manipulating raw CT data. The corresponding bins of the virtual sinogram affected by metallic objects are obtained by forward projection of segmented metallic objects in the original CT image. These bins are then substituted by weighted values of three estimates: the affected bins in the original sinogram, the bins in the corrected sinogram using spline interpolation, and the sinogram bins in the neighboring column of the sinogram matrix. The optimized weighting factors (α, β, and γ) were estimated using a genetic algorithm (GA). The optimized combination of weighting coefficients was obtained using the GA applied to 24 clinical CT data sets. The proposed MAR method was then applied to 12 clinical head and neck PET/CT data sets containing dental artifacts. Analysis of the results was performed using Bland and Altman plots and a method allowing analysis in the absence of gold standard called regression without truth (RWT). The proposed method was also compared to an image-based MAR method. Optimization of the weighting coefficients using the GA resulted in an optimum combination of parameters ofα=0.26, β=0.67, and γ=0.07. According to Bland and Altman plots generated for both CT and PET images of the clinical data, the proposed MAR algorithm is efficient for reduction of

  20. Endoleaks after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: Improved detection with noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon S; Wichmann, Julian L; Weyer, Hendrik; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Leithner, Doris; Spandorfer, Adam; Bodelle, Boris; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J; Albrecht, Moritz H

    2017-09-01

    To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of a noise-optimized algorithm to reconstruct virtual monoenergetic images (VMI+) for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). Seventy-five patients (42 men; 66.2±11.7years) underwent DE-CTA following EVAR. Arterial phase images were acquired in dual-energy mode for the reconstruction of standard linearly-blended M_0.5, VMI+ and traditional monoenergetic images (VMI) at 40-100keV in 10-keV intervals. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for the area of leakage in patients with endoleaks. Diagnostic accuracy for endoleak detection was evaluated by three blinded radiologists using the objectively best series for each reconstruction technique. Thirty-four out of 75 patients showed endoleaks. Quantitative image parameters were highest at 40-keV VMI+ (CNR, 21.3±11.1), compared to M_0.5 (CNR, 10.9±5.5) and all VMI series that showed highest values at 70keV (CNR, 13.5±6.6; all P<0.001). ROC analysis for endoleak detection revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.992 for 40-keV VMI+ series, which was significantly higher (P≤0.039) compared to 70-keV VMI (0.914) and M_0.5 series (0.916). Noise-optimized VMI+ series at 40keV improve diagnostic accuracy for the detection and rule-out of endoleaks after EVAR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intra-individual comparison between abdominal virtual mono-energetic spectral and conventional images using a novel spectral detector CT

    PubMed Central

    Wybranski, Christian; Byrtus, Jonathan; Houbois, Christian; Hauger, Myriam; Heneweer, Carola; Siedek, Florian; Hickethier, Tilman; Große Hokamp, Nils; Maintz, David; Haneder, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To quantitatively and qualitatively assess abdominal arterial and venous phase contrast-enhanced spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) virtual mono-energetic (MonoE) datasets in comparison to conventional CT reconstructions provided by the same system. Materials and methods Conventional and MonoE images at 40–120 kilo-electron volt (keV) levels with a 10 keV increment as well as 160 and 200 keV were reconstructed in abdominal SDCT datasets of 55 patients. Attenuation, image noise, and contrast- / signal-to-noise ratios (CNR, SNR) of vessels and solid organs were compared between MonoE and conventional reconstructions. Two readers assessed contrast conditions, detail visualization, overall image quality and subjective image noise with both, fixed and adjustable window settings. Results Attenuation, CNR and SNR of vessels and solid organs showed a stepwise increase from high to low keV reconstructions in both contrast phases while image noise stayed stable at low keV MonoE reconstruction levels. Highest levels were found at 40 keV MonoE reconstruction (p<0.001), respectively. Solid abdominal organs showed a stepwise decrease from low to high energy levels in regard to attenuation, CNR and SNR with significantly higher values at 40 and 50 keV, compared to conventional images. The 70 keV MonoE was comparable to conventional poly-energetic reconstruction (p≥0.99). Subjective analysis displayed best image quality for the 70 keV MonoE reconstruction level in both phases at fixed standard window presets and at 40 keV if window settings could be adjusted. Conclusion SDCT derived low keV MonoE showed markedly increased CNR and SNR values due to constantly low image noise values over the whole energy spectrum from 40 to 200 keV. PMID:28837641

  2. Robust augmented reality registration method for localization of solid organs' tumors using CT-derived virtual biomechanical model and fluorescent fiducials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Haouchine, Nazim; Soares, Renato; Klymchenko, Andrey; Andreiuk, Bohdan; Marques, Bruno; Shabat, Galyna; Piechaud, Thierry; Diana, Michele; Cotin, Stéphane; Marescaux, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is the fusion of computer-generated and real-time images. AR can be used in surgery as a navigation tool, by creating a patient-specific virtual model through 3D software manipulation of DICOM imaging (e.g., CT scan). The virtual model can be superimposed to real-time images enabling transparency visualization of internal anatomy and accurate localization of tumors. However, the 3D model is rigid and does not take into account inner structures' deformations. We present a concept of automated AR registration, while the organs undergo deformation during surgical manipulation, based on finite element modeling (FEM) coupled with optical imaging of fluorescent surface fiducials. Two 10 × 1 mm wires (pseudo-tumors) and six 10 × 0.9 mm fluorescent fiducials were placed in ex vivo porcine kidneys (n = 10). Biomechanical FEM-based models were generated from CT scan. Kidneys were deformed and the shape changes were identified by tracking the fiducials, using a near-infrared optical system. The changes were registered automatically with the virtual model, which was deformed accordingly. Accuracy of prediction of pseudo-tumors' location was evaluated with a CT scan in the deformed status (ground truth). In vivo: fluorescent fiducials were inserted under ultrasound guidance in the kidney of one pig, followed by a CT scan. The FEM-based virtual model was superimposed on laparoscopic images by automatic registration of the fiducials. Biomechanical models were successfully generated and accurately superimposed on optical images. The mean measured distance between the estimated tumor by biomechanical propagation and the scanned tumor (ground truth) was 0.84 ± 0.42 mm. All fiducials were successfully placed in in vivo kidney and well visualized in near-infrared mode enabling accurate automatic registration of the virtual model on the laparoscopic images. Our preliminary experiments showed the potential of a biomechanical model with fluorescent

  3. Selection of optimal tube potential settings for dual-energy CT virtual mono-energetic imaging of iodine in the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Gregory; Grimes, Joshua; Fletcher, Joel; Halaweish, Ahmed; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia

    2017-04-01

    To determine the appropriate tube potential settings for dual-source, dual-energy data acquisition across a range of phantom sizes, and to determine the optimal photon energies for virtual mono-energetic imaging. Water phantoms (15-50-cm wide) containing an iodine test object were scanned on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner using all available tube potential pairs. Virtual mono-energetic images at 40, 50, 60, and 70 keV were produced using Mono-energetic Plus. To determine the practical operating parameters for the evaluated CT system, data exclusions were made based on water CT number accuracy, artifacts, and using a noise constraint. Image quality metrics were measured and compared. Excluded tube potential pairs were identified; these were generally at low tube potentials for the low-energy beam and low photon energies. For non-excluded conditions, the highest CNR was obtained using the 70/150Sn setting in phantoms ≤35 cm at 40 keV. 70/150Sn provided optimal iodine CNR below 40 cm lateral phantom width at 40 keV, while 90/150Sn allowed acceptable image quality in phantoms >40-cm wide at or above 60 keV.

  4. Dual-Energy CT in Enhancing Subdural Effusions that Masquerade as Subdural Hematomas: Diagnosis with Virtual High-Monochromatic (190-keV) Images.

    PubMed

    Bodanapally, U K; Dreizin, D; Issa, G; Archer-Arroyo, K L; Sudini, K; Fleiter, T R

    2017-10-01

    Extravasation of iodinated contrast into subdural space following contrast-enhanced radiographic studies results in hyperdense subdural effusions, which can be mistaken as acute subdural hematomas on follow-up noncontrast head CTs. Our aim was to identify the factors associated with contrast-enhancing subdural effusion, characterize diffusion and washout kinetics of iodine in enhancing subdural effusion, and assess the utility of dual-energy CT in differentiating enhancing subdural effusion from subdural hematoma. We retrospectively analyzed follow-up head dual-energy CT studies in 423 patients with polytrauma who had undergone contrast-enhanced whole-body CT. Twenty-four patients with enhancing subdural effusion composed the study group, and 24 randomly selected patients with subdural hematoma were enrolled in the comparison group. Postprocessing with syngo.via was performed to determine the diffusion and washout kinetics of iodine. The sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy CT for the diagnosis of enhancing subdural effusion were determined with 120-kV, virtual monochromatic energy (190-keV) and virtual noncontrast images. Patients with enhancing subdural effusion were significantly older (mean, 69 years; 95% CI, 60-78 years; P < .001) and had a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (P = .001). Peak iodine concentration in enhancing subdural effusions was reached within the first 8 hours of contrast administration with a mean of 0.98 mg/mL (95% CI, 0.81-1.13 mg/mL), and complete washout was achieved at 38 hours. For the presence of a hyperdense subdural collection on 120-kV images with a loss of hyperattenuation on 190-keV and virtual noncontrast images, when considered as a true-positive for enhancing subdural effusion, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 85.75%-100%) and the specificity was 91.67% (95% CI, 73%-99%). Dual-energy CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating enhancing subdural effusion from subdural hematoma. Hence, dual

  5. Cocaine balloon aspiration: successful removal with bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cobaugh, D J; Schneider, S M; Benitez, J G; Donahoe, M P

    1997-09-01

    Ingestion of balloons containing illicit substances along with the potential toxic sequelae associated with these ingestions have been described in the literature. This report describes the successful bronchoscopic retrieval of a cocaine balloon after aspiration. A 39-year-old man was witnessed swallowing several balloons that were thought to contain heroin. Shortly after ingestion, the patient became unconscious and required nasotracheal intubation. Before intubation, several balloons were removed from the oropharynx. Naloxone 4 mg was administered en route to the emergency department (ED). Following naloxone, the patient awoke and became agitated and combative. On arrival in the ED, midazolam, succinylcholine, and vecuronium were required to manage his combativeness. Vital signs were: heart rate, 130 beats/min; blood pressure, 128/86 mm Hg; respirations, 12 breaths/min; temperature, 96.5 degrees F. A balloon and balloon tip were removed during lavage. Whole bowel irrigation with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution was initiated. A right upper lobe infiltrate was identified on chest X-ray and aspiration of a balloon was suspected. At bronchoscopy, a small yellow, intact balloon visualized in the basilar segment of the right lower lobe was removed. Toxicologic analysis of the balloon contents found cocaine. The rest of the patient's hospital course was unremarkable and he was discharged 5 days after admission. This case brings to light the potential concerns, such as respiratory compromise, associated with aspiration of small balloons in the body stuffer. Additionally, the potential for the development of toxicity if the balloon ruptures and toxin absorption occurs through through the lungs should be considered. Emergency physicians and toxicologists should be aware of this significant complication of packet ingestion in the body packer or stuffer and be prepared to intervene early during the course of the patient's treatment.

  6. [Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in childhood endobronchial tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Tagarro García, A; Barrio Gómez de Agüero, María I; Martínez Carrasco, C; Antelo Landeira, C; Díez Dorado, R; del Castillo, F; García de Miguel, María J

    2004-10-01

    Endobronchial tuberculosis is a classical manifestation of primary tuberculosis in childhood. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) is an ancillary diagnostic tool, but its utility and indications are not well established. To analyze the FB performed over 11 years (1992-2003) in children with a diagnosis of tuberculosis and to review the literature. A further aim was to establish the current usefulness of FB in children with tuberculosis and propose criteria to determine the indications for FB in this population. We report a retrospective series (n 5 16). FB was indicated in children who showed any of the following findings in chest roentgenogram: a) persistent parenchymal consolidation; b) lymphadenopathy and consolidation; c) hyperinsufflation (emphysema); d) atelectasias, and e) airway narrowing caused by lymphadenopathies. Published series on the topic were reviewed and six studies were suitable for comparison with our own. Endobronchial tuberculosis was found in seven children (43 %) and extrinsic compression was found in three (18 %). The microbiological results obtained from FB samples were not superior to those obtained from classical diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of the proposed criteria for suspicion of endobronchial tuberculosis was 71 %. Endoscopic findings justified a change in therapy in 50 % of the children (addition of corticoids or surgery) and this percentage was similar to that reported in other series. FB does not usually improve microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis but can be useful when choosing the most appropriate therapy in children with suspected endobronchial tuberculosis. In some cases, computed tomography may make FB unnecessary, but in others this procedure can be therapeutic (obstruction due to caseum, atelectasias). Establishing the indications for FB in childhood tuberculosis is difficult, but the proposed criteria may be an acceptable guide to identifying which patients could benefit most from this procedure. Not all children

  7. CT Colonography (Virtual Colonoscopy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  8. Oxygen supplementation is required in healthy volunteers during bronchoscopy with lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypoxemia can complicate bronchoscopy. Common causes of hypoxemia during bronchoscopy include preexisting lung disease, upper airway obstruction, pneumothorax and bleeding secondary to either transbronchial lung biopsy or another interventional bronchoscopic procedure, hypoventil...

  9. Oxygen supplementation is required in healthy volunteers during bronchoscopy with lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypoxemia can complicate bronchoscopy. Common causes of hypoxemia during bronchoscopy include preexisting lung disease, upper airway obstruction, pneumothorax and bleeding secondary to either transbronchial lung biopsy or another interventional bronchoscopic procedure, hypoventil...

  10. Central airway tumors: interventional bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of central airway tumors is usually challenging because of the vague presentations. Advances in visualization technology in bronchoscopy aid early detection of bronchial lesion. Cryotechnology has great impact on endobronchial lesion sampling and provides better diagnostic yield. Airway tumor involvements result in significant alteration in life quality and lead to poor life expectancy. Timely and efficiently use ablation techniques by heat or cold energy provide symptoms relief for central airway obstruction. Prostheses implantation is effective in maintaining airway patency after ablative procedure or external compression. Combined interventional bronchoscopy modalities and other adjunctive therapies have improvement in quality of life and further benefit in survival. This review aims to provide a diagnostic approach to central airway tumors and an overview of currently available techniques of interventional bronchoscopy in managing symptomatic central airway obstruction. PMID:27867582

  11. Complications and discomfort of bronchoscopy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify bronchoscopy-related complications and discomfort, meaningful complication rates, and predictors. Method We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed on 8 February 2016, using a search strategy including the PICO model, on complications and discomfort related to bronchoscopy and related sampling techniques. Results The search yielded 1,707 hits, of which 45 publications were eligible for full review. Rates of mortality and severe complications were low. Other complications, for instance, hypoxaemia, bleeding, pneumothorax, and fever, were usually not related to patient characteristics or aspects of the procedure, and complication rates showed considerable ranges. Measures of patient discomfort differed considerably, and results were difficult to compare between different study populations. Conclusion More research on safety aspects of bronchoscopy is needed to conclude on complication rates and patient- and procedure-related predictors of complications and discomfort. PMID:27839531

  12. [Value of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy under local anesthesia in infants].

    PubMed

    Bodart, E; De Lange, M; Vliers, A

    1993-06-01

    From October 1991 through April 1992, 16 infants aged 5 to 25 months (mean age 14.3 months) underwent bronchoscopy with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, under local anesthesia. The technique is described in detail. Reasons for bronchoscopy included recurrent or persistent pneumonia (n = 4), persistent atelectasia (n = 4), lymphadenopathy and/or airway compression (n = 2), suspected foreign body (n = 2), bronchoalveolar lavage to investigate diffuse interstitial lung disease (n = 2), and severe recurrent wheezing (n = 2). The procedure established the accurate diagnosis in 14 cases. Adverse events (32%) were minor (transient hypoxia, n = 3; moderate fever, n = 1; and laryngospasm, n = 1) and resolved completely. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy under local anesthesia is a simple procedure which is safe in patients under 30 months of age when performed by a experienced operator in an adequate facility. This method is useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a broad spectrum of conditions.

  13. Rate of new findings in diagnostic office bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Liuba; DeSilva, Brad W; Matrka, Laura A

    2017-06-01

    Awake Flexible Tracheobronchoscopy (FTB) is an alternative to rigid bronchoscopy or sedated flexible bronchoscopy and allows an awake examination of the tracheobronchial tree. We hypothesized that the ability to perform office bronchoscopy as the need arises during a clinic visit would lead to a high rate of previously undiagnosed and clinically relevant findings. This study reports the rate and nature of such findings for this procedure at our institution. Retrospective chart review. The records of 127 adult patients evaluated at the voice and swallowing disorders clinic between June of 2012 and January of 2015 were reviewed. New findings were defined as new pathology visualized during FTB exam that was not previously diagnosed by means of other diagnostic modalities. A total of 233 scope procedures (84 transnasal bronchoscopies and 149 tracheoscopies) were reviewed, 232 of which were completed and one of which was incomplete due to severe subglottic stenosis. New, clinically relevant findings were seen in 57% of transnasal bronchoscopies (48 of 84) and 21% of tracheoscopies (32 of 149). All of these findings provided additional information directing workup or resulted in a change in patient management. Office-based evaluation of the tracheobronchial tree yields a high rate of new findings. In our study, office bronchoscopy had a 57% rate of new findings and was performed without complications. The utility of tracheoscopy was also apparent in its ability to quickly and safely examine the trachea, with a 21% rate of new findings. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1376-1380, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Noise-Optimized Virtual Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT Improves Diagnostic Accuracy for the Detection of Active Arterial Bleeding of the Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon S; Wichmann, Julian L; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Leithner, Doris; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Weyer, Hendrik; Booz, Christian; Lenga, Lukas; Vogl, Thomas J; Albrecht, Moritz H

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique for detection of active arterial abdominal bleeding on dual-energy (DE) CT angiography compared with standard image reconstruction. DE CT angiography data sets of 71 patients (46 men; age 63.6 y ± 13.3) with suspected arterial bleeding of the abdomen or pelvis were reconstructed with standard linearly blended (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV increments from 40 to 100 keV. Attenuation measurements were performed in the descending aorta, area of hemorrhage, and feeding artery to calculate contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) in patients with active arterial bleeding. Based on quantitative image quality results, the best series for each reconstruction technique were chosen to analyze the diagnostic performance of 3 blinded radiologists. DE CT angiography showed acute arterial bleeding in 36 patients. Mean CNR was superior in 40-keV VMI+ compared with VMI series (all P < .001), which showed highest CNRs in 70-keV VMI and F_0.5 (21.6 ± 7.9, 12.9 ± 4.7, and 10.4 ± 3.6) images. Area under the curve analysis for detection of arterial bleeding showed significantly superior (P < .001) results for 40-keV VMI+ (0.963) compared with 70-keV VMI (0.775) and F_0.5 (0.817) series. Diagnostic accuracy in patients with active arterial bleeding of the abdomen can be significantly improved using VMI+ reconstructions at 40 keV compared with standard linearly blended and traditional VMI series in DE CT angiography. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection using spectral multidetector CT for the assessment of renal cell carcinoma conspicuity and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lin; Zeng, Hong; Sun, Changjiang; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Mengchao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose and renal cell carcinoma conspicuity with virtual unenhanced images and split-bolus injection from spectral multidetector CT (MDCT). This prospective study was approved by the Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained. Ninety suspected patients of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and CEUS were randomly divided into two groups by a radiographer. Patients of the first group underwent spectral MDCT with virtual unenhanced imaging and split-bolus injection, while patients in the second group underwent conventional unenhanced as well as tri-phasic enhanced CT. Group A (split-bolus spectral MDCT group): The contrast material was administered at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s, with a ratio of 7 to 5 before the CT scan with an interval of 60 seconds. Virtual unenhanced images were generated using a standard three-material decomposition algorithm, and the best mono-energy (keV) was calculated to show the tumour, renal artery and renal vein. Group B (conventional tri-phasic enhanced CT group): the contrast agent was injected with a dose of 1.5 mL/kg body weight at a flow rate of 4 mL/s. The corticomedullary phase scanning was performed once the arterial CT value reached 100 HU; the nephrographic phase was scanned 60 seconds later. And the excretory phase was scanned 5 min after onset of contrast injection. The LKR (lesion kidney ratio), CNR, and CT value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase were measured. The opacification of the renal collection system (including calices, infundibula and renal pelvis) was scored. The radiation dose was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and k statistics. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, sex and body mass index (BMI), but there was significant difference in treatment methods

  16. Narrow-band imaging bronchoscopy in tracheobronchial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fernández, Martha L; Alvarez-Maldonado, Pablo; Aristi-Urista, Gerardo; Valero-Gómez, Alfredo; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl; Redondo, Carlos Núñez-Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis (TBA) is a rare disease characterized by extracellular focal or diffuse submucosal deposits of amyloid proteins. Various types of endobronchial lesions have been described in TBA when bronchoscopy is performed using white light. Narrow-band imaging bronchoscopy has been mainly employed for detecting preneoplastic and neoplastic endobronchial lesions as it provides more detailed images of the microvasculature reflective of an altered angiogenesis process. Here, we describe bronchoscopic findings with white light and narrow-band imaging in 2 patients presenting with central airway obstructive disease later confirmed as having primary TBA.

  17. [THE DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC BRONCHOSCOPY IN CARDIAC PATIENTS UNDERGOING MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Titova, I V; Khrustaleva, M V; Eremenko, A A; Babaev, M A

    2016-01-01

    The review presents an analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the use of bronchoscopy in patients with obstructive respiratory failure in the ICU. Separately considered the issue of additional research when performing bronchoscopy and create an algorithmfor the application of diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy in cardiac surgical patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  18. Initial evaluation of virtual un-enhanced imaging derived from fast kVp-switching dual energy contrast enhanced CT for the abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Mendonca, P.; Okerlund, D.; Lamb, P.; Kulkarni, N.; Pinho, D.; Sahani, D.; Bhotika, R.

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility and utility of creating virtual un-enhanced images from contrast enhanced data acquired using a fast switching dual energy CT acquisition, is explored. Utilizing projection based material decomposition data, monochromatic images are generated and a Multi-material decomposition technique is applied. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation is performed to assess the equivalence of Virtual Un-Enhanced (VUE) and True Un-enhanced (TUE) for multiple tissue types and different organs in the abdomen. Ten patient cases were analyzed where a TUE and a subsequent Contrast Enhanced (CE) acquisition were obtained using fast kVp-switching dual energy CT utilizing Gemstone Spectral Imaging. Quantitative measurements were made by placing multiple Regions of Interest on the different tissues and organs in both the TUE and the VUE images. The absolute Hounsfield Unit (HU) differences in the mean values between TUE & VUE were calculated as well as the differences of the standard deviations. Qualitative analysis was done by two radiologists for overall image quality, presence of residual contrast, appearance of pathology, appearance and contrast of normal tissues and organs in comparison to the TUE. There is a very strong correlation between the TUE and VUE images.

  19. Improvement of Image Quality in Unenhanced Dual-Layer CT of the Head Using Virtual Monoenergetic Images Compared With Polyenergetic Single-Energy CT.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Victor; Abdullayev, Nuran; Große Hokamp, Nils; Pahn, Gregor; Kabbasch, Christoph; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Maintz, David; Borggrefe, Jan

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to compare virtual monoenergetic images and polyenergetic images reconstructed from unenhanced dual-layer detector computed tomography (DLCT) of the head and to determine kiloelectron volt levels that optimize image quality, particularly the gray-white matter contrast, and reduce beam hardening artifacts caused by the skull. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Forty patients that received DLCT were included in this retrospective study; of these patients, 22 were women and 18 were men. The average age was 61.5 ± 14.3 years. Virtual monoenergetic images were reconstructed from spectral base images at 40 keV to 120 keV. To calculate signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio, attenuation and standard deviation of supratentorial gray and white matter were measured in virtual monoenergetic and polyenergetic images. Beam hardening artifacts were detected close to the calvarium and in the posterior fossa. Two radiologists rated the assessment of gray-white matter differentiation and of the subcalvarial space, as well as the artifacts caused by the skull and image noise. Student t test and Wilcoxon test were used to determine significance. Compared with polyenergetic images, superior signal-to-noise ratio and superior contrast-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter were observed in virtual monoenergetic images at low kiloelectron volt levels (P < 0.0001). Subcalvarial artifacts were significantly lower at 120 keV (P < 0.02). Artifacts measured in the posterior fossa were generally lower at high kiloelectron volt levels; however, no statistical significance was detected. Virtual monoenergetic images were rated superior to polyenergetic images in regard to all 4 criteria (P < 0.0001). The observers reported an optimal radiological assessment of gray-white matter differentiation at 65 keV and optimal assessment of subcalvarial space at 120 keV. In comparison to polyenergetic images, virtual monoenergetic images reconstructed

  20. Role of post-mapping computed tomography in virtual-assisted lung mapping.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaaki; Nagayama, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Hideki; Nitadori, Jun-Ichi; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Background Virtual-assisted lung mapping is a novel bronchoscopic preoperative lung marking technique in which virtual bronchoscopy is used to predict the locations of multiple dye markings. Post-mapping computed tomography is performed to confirm the locations of the actual markings. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of marking locations predicted by virtual bronchoscopy and elucidate the role of post-mapping computed tomography. Methods Automated and manual virtual bronchoscopy was used to predict marking locations. After bronchoscopic dye marking under local anesthesia, computed tomography was performed to confirm the actual marking locations before surgery. Discrepancies between marking locations predicted by the different methods and the actual markings were examined on computed tomography images. Forty-three markings in 11 patients were analyzed. Results The average difference between the predicted and actual marking locations was 30 mm. There was no significant difference between the latest version of the automated virtual bronchoscopy system (30.7 ± 17.2 mm) and manual virtual bronchoscopy (29.8 ± 19.1 mm). The difference was significantly greater in the upper vs. lower lobes (37.1 ± 20.1 vs. 23.0 ± 6.8 mm, for automated virtual bronchoscopy; p < 0.01). Despite this discrepancy, all targeted lesions were successfully resected using 3-dimensional image guidance based on post-mapping computed tomography reflecting the actual marking locations. Conclusions Markings predicted by virtual bronchoscopy were dislocated from the actual markings by an average of 3 cm. However, surgery was accurately performed using post-mapping computed tomography guidance, demonstrating the indispensable role of post-mapping computed tomography in virtual-assisted lung mapping.

  1. Technician-free system for image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Rahul; Bascom, Rebecca; Higgins, William E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that guidance systems improve accuracy and reduce skill variation among physicians during bronchoscopy. However, most of these systems suffer from one or more of the following limitations: 1) an attending technician must carefully keep the system position synchronized with the bronchoscope position during the procedure; 2) extra bronchoscope tracking hardware may be required; 3) guidance cannot take place in real time; 4) the guidance system is unable to detect and correct faulty bronchoscope maneuvers; and 5) a resynchronization procedure must be followed after adverse events such as patient cough or dynamic airway collapse. Here, we propose an image-based system for technician-free bronchoscopy guidance that relies on two features. First, our system precomputes a guidance plan that suggests natural bronchoscope maneuvers at every bifurcation leading toward a region of interest (ROI). Second, our system enables bronchoscope position verification that relies on a global-registration algorithm to establish the global bronchoscope position and, thus, provide the physician with updated navigational information during bronchoscopy. The system can handle general navigation to an ROI, as well as adverse events, and is directly controlled by the physician by a foot pedal. Guided bronchoscopy results using airway-tree phantoms and human cases demonstrate the efficacy of the system.

  2. [Interventional Bronchoscopy for the Treatment of Pulmonary Sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Zhang, Nan; Li, Dongmei; Zou, Hang; Zhang, Jieli; Zhou, Yunzhi; Bai, Xiuyun

    2016-09-20

    Pulmonary sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor in soft tissues. Resection is the preferred option to treat this tumor. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of interventional bronchoscopies in the treatment of pulmonary sarcoma if the patient is inoperable. Sixteen cases with pulmonary sarcoma were retrospectively reviewed in our hospital from November 2008 to July 2014. The mean age was (53.1±5.4) years old. Rigid bronchoscopy was applied for the first procedure with general anesthesia, and electronic bronchoscopy was used for the second procedure or slight patients. Sixteen cases, which include 10 sarcomatoid carcinoma, 2 fibrosarcoma, 2 sarcoma, 1 fibromucoid sarcoma, and 1 spindle cell synovial sarcoma, were collected in this study. Eleven cases (68.8%) were peripheral and mainly located in the right upper lobe and left lower lobe. Five cases (31.2%) were central. Of these cases, 82% (9/11) were mixed and primary tumors in pulmonary tumor. Meanwhile, 56% (9/16) were intraluminal and 69% (11/16) were metastatic in central airway. All of the four cases with whole atelectasis were completely relieved through postbronchoscopic interventions. Three of the seven cases with segment atelectasis were completely reopened; two of them were partially relieved; and the remaining two had no response. The obstructive degree, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and shortness of breathless score improved significantly after the treatment. Interventional bronchoscopy could rapidly and efficiently remove endobronchial tumor, relieve airway obstruction, and improve clinical symptoms.

  3. Computer-based route-definition system for peripheral bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael W; Gibbs, Jason D; Higgins, William E

    2012-04-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners produce high-resolution images of the chest. Given a patient's MDCT scan, a physician can use an image-guided intervention system to first plan and later perform bronchoscopy to diagnostic sites situated deep in the lung periphery. An accurate definition of complete routes through the airway tree leading to the diagnostic sites, however, is vital for avoiding navigation errors during image-guided bronchoscopy. We present a system for the robust definition of complete airway routes suitable for image-guided bronchoscopy. The system incorporates both automatic and semiautomatic MDCT analysis methods for this purpose. Using an intuitive graphical user interface, the user invokes automatic analysis on a patient's MDCT scan to produce a series of preliminary routes. Next, the user visually inspects each route and quickly corrects the observed route defects using the built-in semiautomatic methods. Application of the system to a human study for the planning and guidance of peripheral bronchoscopy demonstrates the efficacy of the system.

  4. [Early treatment of atelectasis by bronchoscopy in craniotomy patients].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yan-ping; Chen, Yong-ju; Song, Rong-rong; Wang, Gang; Guan, Jian-jun; Ni, Hao-liang; Ji, Yong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the safety and effects of early bronchoscopy on atelectasis of the ventilation patients, whom had experienced craniotomy for severe cranial trauma and hemorrhage. Fifty-five patients suffered from severe cranial trauma and hemorrhage with Glascow coma scores (GCS) less than 8 complicated by atelectasis after craniotomy were early given sputum suction by bronchoscope via extratracheal intubation and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) during tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. During the treatment, patients' consciousness, vital signs and arterial blood gas were closely monitored. The relevant data, before, during (5, 10, and 25 minutes), bronchoscopy treatment completed and 30 minutes after bronchoscopy, were recorded and analyzed. Eighty-two time of bronchoscopies and 111 time of local BALs in 55 patients were completed and were effective for atelectasis. The patient's GCS (5.6±2.5 vs. 5.4±2.6, P>0.05), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood oxygenous saturation (SaO(2)) were not deteriorated during bronchoscopy. Compared with pre-bronchoscopy, the HR and SBP decreased (HR: 88.2±14.2 bpm vs. 98.2±18.3 bpm, SBP: 110.6±18.2 mm Hg vs. 118.4±18.5 mm Hg, both P<0.05), and SaO(2) increased (0.982±0.022 vs. 0.945±0.035, P<0.05), pH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) had no significant changes during bronchoscopy. There was obviously increased in PaO(2) (84.5±14.4 mm Hg, 81.6±18.2 mm Hg vs. 76.2±15.4 mm Hg, both P<0.05), and decreased in PaCO(2) (27.0±12.8 mm Hg, 29.3±18.2 mm Hg vs. 36.5±11.6 mm Hg, both P<0.05) respectively, significantly decreased in alveolar arterial pressure of oxygen difference [P ((A-a))O(2)] at 10 minutes and 25 minutes, and at the time bronchoscopy treatment completed and the time 30 minutes after compared with before bronchoscopy (36.1±4.7 mm Hg, 32.4±6.2 mm Hg, 32.5±5.2 mm Hg, 31.2±7.2 mm Hg vs. 38.5

  5. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Hou, Xin-Yi; Xue, Hua-Dan; Li, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Qian, Jia-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Hua-Dong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from 'Liver VNC' software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P>0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P<0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P>0.05). The active GIB source was identified in 84 patients, 83 (83/84, 98.8%) of which were confirmed by one or more reference standard. The AUC was 0.935±0.027 and 0.947±0.026 for protocols 1 and 2, respectively. There was no significant difference between protocols 1 and 2 for diagnostic performance (Z=1.672, P>0.05). The radiation dose reduction achieved by omitting the TNE acquisition was (30.11±6.32)%. DSDECTA with arterial phase with single-source mode, portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode and

  6. CT imaging of wet specimens from a pathology museum: How to build a "virtual museum" for radiopathological correlation teaching.

    PubMed

    Chhem, R K; Woo, J K H; Pakkiri, P; Stewart, E; Romagnoli, C; Garcia, B

    2006-01-01

    X-rays and CT have been used to examine specimens such as human remains, mummies and formalin-fixed specimens. However, CT has not been used to study formalin-fixed wet specimens within their containers. The purpose of our study is firstly to demonstrate the role of CT as a non-destructive imaging method for the study of wet pathological specimens and secondly to use the CT data as a method for teaching pathological and radiological correlation. CT scanning of 31 musculoskeletal specimens from a pathology museum was carried out. Images were reconstructed using both soft-tissue and bone algorithms. Further processing of the data produced coronal and sagittal reformats of each specimen. The container and storage solution were manually removed using Volume Viewer Voxtool software to produce a 3D reconstruction of each specimen. Photographs of each specimen (container and close-up) were displayed alongside selected coronal, sagittal, 3D reconstructions and cine sequences in a specially designed computer program. CT is a non-destructive imaging modality for building didactic materials from wet specimens in a Pathology Museum, for teaching radiological and pathological correlation.

  7. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    PubMed

    Swennen, G R J; Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Lamoral, P; Neyt, N; Casselman, J; Schutyser, F

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface. The impressions of the dental arches and the wax bite wafer were scanned for ten patient separately using a high resolution standardized CBCT scanning protocol. Surface-based rigid registration using ICP (iterative closest points) was used to fit the virtual models on the wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point-based registration of the wax bite wafer on the patient scan was performed to implement the digital virtual dental arches into the patient's skull model. Probability error histograms showed errors of < or =0.22 mm (25% percentile), < or =0.44 mm (50% percentile) and < or =1.09 mm (90% percentile) for ICP surface matching. The mean registration error for automatic point-based rigid registration was 0.18+/-0.10 mm (range 0.13-0.26 mm). The results show the potential for a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to set-up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  8. 2D/3D registration for X-ray guided bronchoscopy using distance map classification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Xu, Sheng; Herzka, Daniel A; Yung, Rex C; Bergtholdt, Martin; Gutierrez, Luis F; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2010-01-01

    In X-ray guided bronchoscopy of peripheral pulmonary lesions, airways and nodules are hardly visible in X-ray images. Transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lesions is often carried out blindly, resulting in degraded diagnostic yield. One solution of this problem is to superimpose the lesions and airways segmented from preoperative 3D CT images onto 2D X-ray images. A feature-based 2D/3D registration method is proposed for the image fusion between the datasets of the two imaging modalities. Two stereo X-ray images are used in the algorithm to improve the accuracy and robustness of the registration. The algorithm extracts the edge features of the bony structures from both CT and X-ray images. The edge points from the X-ray images are categorized into eight groups based on the orientation information of their image gradients. An orientation dependent Euclidean distance map is generated for each group of X-ray feature points. The distance map is then applied to the edge points of the projected CT images whose gradient orientations are compatible with the distance map. The CT and X-ray images are registered by matching the boundaries of the projected CT segmentations to the closest edges of the X-ray images after the orientation constraint is satisfied. Phantom and clinical studies were carried out to validate the algorithm's performance, showing a registration accuracy of 4.19(± 0.5) mm with 48.39(± 9.6) seconds registration time. The algorithm was also evaluated on clinical data, showing promising registration accuracy and robustness.

  9. Value of flexible bronchoscopy for the preoperative assessment of NSCLC diagnosed using percutaneous core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kyung-Wook; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Yong-Hee; Park, Seung-Il; Choi, Se Hoon; Choi, Chang-Min

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the value of routine flexible bronchoscopy (FB) for the preoperative assessment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosed using percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB). We enrolled 688 NSCLC patients who were treated at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2012 and who met the following criteria: (1) early-stage lung cancer (stage I or II); (2) lung cancer had been diagnosed using PCNB; and (3) no evidence of endobronchial disease in the airways other than the primary cancer site on both chest computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT). All NSCLC patients were from the same tertiary referral center, where FB is routinely performed preoperatively for this disease, and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 688 patients included in the study, 451 (65.6%) were male and the median age was 65 years. Pathology analysis revealed that adenocarcinoma was the most frequently observed cell type (516/688, 75.0%). The distribution of preoperative clinical staging for the 688 patients was (1) IA (54.5%, 375/688); (2) IB (22.1%, 152/688); (3) IIA (18.2%, 125/688); and (4) IIB (5.2%, 36/688). The majority of these patients (95.2%, 655/688) underwent surgical resection. Unsuspected malignant endobronchial lesion on FB was found in only two cases (0.3%), and the surgical strategy had to be modified for both of these patients. Preoperative FB is not beneficial for screening the airways of almost any patient with early-stage NSCLC, provided that neither PET-CT nor CT reveal any evidence of endobronchial malignant involvement other than at the primary cancer site. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A multimodal image guiding system for Navigated Ultrasound Bronchoscopy (EBUS): A human feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Amundsen, Tore; Langø, Thomas; Bakeng, Janne Beate Lervik; Leira, Håkon Olav

    2017-01-01

    Background Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the endoscopic method of choice for confirming lung cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes. Precision is crucial for correct staging and clinical decision-making. Navigation and multimodal imaging can potentially improve EBUS-TBNA efficiency. Aims To demonstrate the feasibility of a multimodal image guiding system using electromagnetic navigation for ultrasound bronchoschopy in humans. Methods Four patients referred for lung cancer diagnosis and staging with EBUS-TBNA were enrolled in the study. Target lymph nodes were predefined from the preoperative computed tomography (CT) images. A prototype convex probe ultrasound bronchoscope with an attached sensor for position tracking was used for EBUS-TBNA. Electromagnetic tracking of the ultrasound bronchoscope and ultrasound images allowed fusion of preoperative CT and intraoperative ultrasound in the navigation software. Navigated EBUS-TBNA was used to guide target lymph node localization and sampling. Navigation system accuracy was calculated, measured by the deviation between lymph node position in ultrasound and CT in three planes. Procedure time, diagnostic yield and adverse events were recorded. Results Preoperative CT and real-time ultrasound images were successfully fused and displayed in the navigation software during the procedures. Overall navigation accuracy (11 measurements) was 10.0 ± 3.8 mm, maximum 17.6 mm, minimum 4.5 mm. An adequate sample was obtained in 6/6 (100%) of targeted lymph nodes. No adverse events were registered. Conclusions Electromagnetic navigated EBUS-TBNA was feasible, safe and easy in this human pilot study. The clinical usefulness was clearly demonstrated. Fusion of real-time ultrasound, preoperative CT and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy provided a controlled guiding to level of target, intraoperative overview and procedure documentation. PMID:28182758

  11. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source and dual-energy CT for visualization of acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hidetake; Muraishi, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo; Satoh, Hitoshi; Abe, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    We have recently developed a phantom that simulates acute ischemic stroke. We attempted to visualize an acute-stage cerebral infarction by using dual-energy Computed tomography (DECT) to obtain virtual monochromatic images of this phantom. Virtual monochromatic images were created by using DECT voltages from 40 to 100 keV in steps of 10 keV and from 60 to 80 keV in steps of 1 keV, under three conditions of the tube voltage with thin (Sn) filters. Calculation of the CNR values allowed us to evaluate the visualization of acute-stage cerebral infarction. The CNR value of a virtual monochromatic image was the highest at 68 keV under 80 kV / Sn 140 kV, at 72 keV under 100 kV / Sn 140 kV, and at 67 keV under 140 kV / 80 kV. The CNR values of virtual monochromatic images at voltages between 65 and 75 keV were significantly higher than those obtained for all other created images. Therefore, the optimal conditions for visualizing acute ischemic stroke were achievable.

  12. Safety and ethics of bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy in difficult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Payne, D; McKenzie, S; Stacey, S; Misra, D; Haxby, E; Bush, A

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the safety of bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy in children with difficult asthma, and discuss the ethical issues associated with the procedure.
METHODS—A three year prospective observational study was performed in two tertiary paediatric respiratory centres specialising in the management of children with difficult asthma. A total of 48children with difficult asthma and 35 non-asthmatic children were studied.
RESULTS—Flexible bronchoscopy was performed under general anaesthesia in 38 children with difficult asthma, and rigid bronchoscopy was performed in 10, following a two week course of prednisolone. Endobronchial biopsy was performed in 47 patients. Perioperative complications occurred in one asthmatic undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (desaturation) and in two undergoing rigid bronchoscopy (desaturation in one, and bronchospasm and desaturation in one). There were no cases of significant bleeding or pneumothorax among the asthmatics. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed in 35 non-asthmatic patients with a variety of clinical indications. The total number of perioperative complications was greater in the non-asthmatics undergoing flexible bronchoscopy than in the asthmatics (17 complications in 35 children versus one in 38). Fever requiring hospital admission was documented in two asthmatics following bronchoscopy. Four asthmatics reported an increase in symptoms in the week following bronchoscopy.
CONCLUSIONS—Bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy under general anaesthesia can be performed safely in children with difficult asthma, when the bronchoscopist and anaesthetist are suitably trained. The procedure is acceptable to the families involved.

 PMID:11316690

  13. Jet Ventilation during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Adults: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Putz, Laurie; Mayné, Alain; Dincq, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma. High frequency jet ventilation allows adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal even in cases of tracheal stenosis up to frequencies of around 150 min(-1); however, in an in vivo animal model, high frequency jet ventilation along with normal frequency jet ventilation (superimposed high frequency jet ventilation) has been shown to improve oxygenation by increasing lung volume and carbon dioxide removal by increasing tidal volume across a large spectrum of frequencies without increasing barotrauma. General anesthesia with a continuous, intravenous, short-acting agent is safe and effective during rigid bronchoscopy procedures.

  14. Ultrathin flexible bronchoscopy in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    de Blic, J; Delacourt, C; Scheinmann, P

    1991-01-01

    Thirty seven flexible bronchoscopies were performed in 33 infants in a neonatal intensive care unit, using a 2.2 mm flexible ultrathin bronchoscope. Twenty eight procedures were performed via an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy and nine in spontaneously breathing infants. Indications for endoscopy included persistent atelectasis and/or emphysema (n = 21), unexplained acute respiratory distress (n = 10), stridor (n = 3), assessment of congenital abnormalities of the tracheobronchial tree (n = 2), and follow up of an endobronchial granuloma during the course of corticosteroid treatment (n = 1). Abnormal airway dynamics and/or abnormal structure were seen in 23 of 37 cases. In 54% of the procedures, the results of bronchoscopy had a direct effect on further management. The procedure was well tolerated and completed in less than two minutes. Our results suggest that the ultrathin flexible bronchoscope improves airway exploration and the understanding of respiratory disorders during the first months of life, particularly in ventilated infants. PMID:1776881

  15. The role of preoperative CT scan in patients with tracheoesophageal fistula: a review.

    PubMed

    Garge, Saurabh; Rao, K L N; Bawa, Monika

    2013-09-01

    The morbidity and mortality associated with esophageal atresia with or without a fistula make it a challenging congenital abnormality for the pediatric surgeon. Anatomic factors like inter-pouch gap and origin of fistula are not taken into consideration in various prognostic classifications. The preoperative evaluation of these cases with computerized tomography (CT) has been used by various investigators to delineate these factors. We reviewed these studies to evaluate the usefulness of this investigation in the intra operative and post operative period. A literature search was done on all peer-reviewed articles published on preoperative computed tomography (CT) in cases of tracheoesophageal fistula using the PUBMED and MEDLINE search engines. Key words included tracheoesophageal fistula, computerized tomography, virtual bronchoscopy, and 3D computerized tomography reconstruction. Further, additional articles were selected from the list of references obtained from the retrieved publications. A total of 8 articles were selected for analysis. In most of the studies, comprising 96 patients, observations noted in preoperative CT were confirmed during surgery. In a study by Mahalik et al [Mahalik SK, Sodhi KS, Narasimhan KL, Rao KL. Role of preoperative 3D CT reconstruction for evaluation of patients with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 2012 Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print

  16. C-Arm Cone-Beam CT Virtual Navigation-Guided Percutaneous Mediastinal Mass Biopsy: Diagnostic Accuracy and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Min; Goo, Jin Mo

    2015-12-01

    To assess the usefulness of C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal mass biopsy in terms of diagnostic accuracy and complication rates. Seventy-eight CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal mass biopsies were performed in 75 patients (M:F, 38:37; mean age, 48.55 ± 18.76 years). The procedural details, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and complication rate were investigated. Mean lesion size was 6.80 ± 3.08 cm, skin-to-target distance was 3.67 ± 1.80 cm, core needle biopsy rate was 96.2 % (75/78), needle indwelling time was 9.29 ± 4.34 min, total procedure time was 13.26 ± 5.29 min, number of biopsy specimens obtained was 3.13 ± 1.02, number of CBCTs performed was 3.03 ± 0.68, rate of lesion border discrimination from abutting mediastinal structures on CBCT was 26.9 % (21/78), technical success rate was 100 % (78/78), estimated effective dose was 5.33 ± 4.99 mSv, and the dose area product was 12,723.68 ± 10,665.74 mGy⋅cm(2). Among the 78 biopsies, 69 were malignant, 7 were benign and 2 were indeterminate. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancies were 97.1 % (67/69), 100 % (7/7) and 97.4 % (74/76), respectively, with a complication rate of 3.85 % (3/78), all of which were small pneumothoraces. CBCT virtual navigation-guided biopsy is a highly accurate and safe procedure for the evaluation of mediastinal lesions. • CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal biopsy is highly accurate • CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal biopsy is a safe procedure • Mediastinal vascular injury can be avoided under CBCT virtual navigation guidance.

  17. [Emergency fiberoptic bronchoscopy for diagnostics and treatment of lung atelectasis].

    PubMed

    Mironov, A V; Pinchuk, T P; Selina, I E; Kosolapov, D A

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with results of fiberoptic bronchoscopy using during treating of patients suffering atelectasis. According to the research atelectasis is likely to advance in the first three days after serious patients have been admitted to the intensive therapy unit or after operative treatment. Left-sided atelectasis is half as widespread again the right-sided one. The research highlights the effectiveness of atelectasis X-ray diagnosis. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in almost all the cases allowed diagnosing the degree of tracheobronchial tree obstruction and its causes. Single suction fiberoptic bronchoscopy leads to normalization and encouraged positive dynamics in 76% of all the cases (57 patients). Repeated endoscopic sanation in the first two days was necessary for 25 patients (25.3%) with unresolved or reoccurring atelectasis. The effectiveness of second research was to 84%. It's important to add that mostly patients with serious chest injury were subjected to unresolved or reoccurring atelectasis. And mainly in these cases blood was seen through the tracheobronchial tree lumen.

  18. The effect of music during bronchoscopy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wilson W S; Lo, Kenneth K H; Hui, David S C

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is considered a stressful procedure performed on patients. Hence, the use of music to ease the anxiety of patients has been examined in various studies, but the results have been inconclusive. The aim of this review is to synthesize the findings of previous studies on the effects of music therapy on the physiological outcomes of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. An electronic database search was performed to identify the literature. Random-effects model was used to combine the results, and meta-regression was used to explore the heterogeneity. Seven studies with 829 subjects were included. Results showed that the combined mean differences (95% confidence interval) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -11.99 (-15.82, -6.57) and -4.84 (-7.78, -1.90) mm Hg, respectively, whereas that for heart rate was -10.57 (-16.63, -4.51) beats per minute. In conclusion, listening to music reduced blood pressure and heart rate among patients undergoing bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of nebulized and sprayed topical anaesthesia for fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Keane, D; McNicholas, W T

    1992-10-01

    We compared the efficacy of nebulized (N) and sprayed (S) topical anaesthesia prior to fibreoptic bronchoscopy in a blinded study involving 54 patients aged 57 +/- 26 yrs (mean +/- SD). Cough frequency, recorded on cassette tape, was the index of efficacy. All patients received 100 mg lignocaine sprayed into the pharynx, or nebulized in random order prior to bronchoscopy, and all received intravenous diazepam sedation. Each patient received a further 100 mg of lignocaine solution through the bronchoscope onto the vocal cords and major airways during the procedure. No significant difference was found in overall cough frequency between N and S groups (8.7 +/- 6.9 coughs.min-1 N vs 10.5 +/- 6.0 S), and cough frequency was also similar between N and S during the periods above and below the vocal cords. Furthermore, no differences were found in cough frequency between N and S among smokers, patients with asthma and COPD, and patients who had a biopsy procedure, although a trend was seen in all comparisons towards a lower cough frequency with the nebulized route. Most patients in the S group found the spray unpleasant, whereas only one in the N group complained. We conclude that nebulized and sprayed lignocaine have similar efficacy as topical anaesthetics in fibreoptic bronchoscopy, but patient preference favours the nebulized route.

  20. Virtual monoenergetic reconstruction of contrast-enhanced dual energy CT at 70keV maximizes mural enhancement in acute small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Darras, Kathryn E; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Kang, Heejun; Black, Brian; Walshe, Triona; Chang, Silvia D; Harris, Alison C; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2016-05-01

    In patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO), it is challenging to detect early ischemia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative benefits of virtual monoenergetic image (VMI) reconstruction in the assessment of small bowel mural enhancement on dual source dual energy computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen. Institutional review board approval was obtained, for this retrospective analysis. 72 consecutive patients with acute SBO were scanned using a second generation 128-slice dual source, CT system. Images were reconstructed at VMI energy levels from 40 to 110keV in 10keV increments and were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR) and signal to noise ratios (SNR) for mural enhancement were recorded for all VMI datasets and compared to conventional polychromatic images (PCI) at 120kVp. Subjective analysis of mural enhancement on VMI and PCI was performed by 3 blinded readers. Optimal CNR values for small intestinal mural enhancement were observed at 70keV. Qualitative assessment revealed that there was no statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy between VMI and PCI. All readers reported improved confidence when assessing the contrast enhancement on the 70keV VMI dataset and in our series, 2 additional cases of ischemia were identified on this reconstruction. Contrast-enhanced dual source dual energy CT with VMI reconstruction at 70keV maximizes the CNR of small bowel mural enhancement and increases the overall diagnostic confidence in assessing mural enhancement in patients with SBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of cryoprobe for removal of a large tracheobronchial foreign body during flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) inhalation in the tracheobronchial tree is an infrequently encountered event in adults. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of a clinical history of aspiration and the presence of respiratory symptoms. Management involves confirmation by flexible bronchoscopy, which may be both diagnostic as well as therapeutic. However, in certain situations including those with large FB, FB embedded in granulation tissue or FB with very smooth margins, rigid bronchoscopy may be superior to flexible bronchoscopy in the retrieval of the FB. An alternative to rigid bronchoscopy in such situations may be the use of a cryoprobe. Herein, we describe a patient with a large tracheobronchial FB causing a complete collapse of the left lung and hypoxemia. The FB was successfully extracted using a cryoprobe during flexible bronchoscopy, obviating the need for rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:27625452

  2. Prospective Comparison of Reduced-Iodine-Dose Virtual Monochromatic Imaging Dataset From Dual-Energy CT Angiography With Standard-Iodine-Dose Single-Energy CT Angiography for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mukta D; Oliveira, George R; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Pinho, Daniella F; Arellano, Ronald S; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of reduced-iodine-dose single-source dual-energy CT angiography (CTA) with that of standard-iodine-dose single-energy CTA in examinations of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and to assess the effect of the concentration of iodinated contrast medium on intravascular enhancement and image quality of reduced-iodine-dose CTA. In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 66 consecutively registered patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who had previously undergone single-energy CTA (30-37 g I) underwent follow-up CTA at a reduced dose (21-27 g I) of iodinated contrast medium of either 270 mg I/mL (n = 33) or 320 mg I/mL (n = 33). Two readers independently evaluated virtual monochromatic imaging datasets (40-140 keV) and single-energy CTA images for image quality and noise and their preference for optimal energy virtual monochromatic imaging dataset. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All 66 dual-energy CTA examinations were rated diagnostic with mean image quality and image noise scores of 4.8 and 4.5 for reader 1 and 3.8 and 3.4 for reader 2 compared with single-energy CTA results of 4.5 and 4.2 for reader 1 and 4.5 and 4.1 for reader 2. Low-energy virtual monochromatic images (40-60 keV) from reduced-iodine-dose (28%) dual-energy CTA had significantly higher intravascular aortic attenuation (26-185%) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (20-25%) than standard-iodine-dose single-energy CTA images (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found between patients who received 270 and those who received 320 mg I/mL with respect to intravascular aortic attenuation (p = 0.6331) or CNR (p = 0.9775). Low-energy virtual monochromatic imaging datasets from reduced-iodine (24 g I) single-source dual-energy CTA of the abdomen provide up to 185% higher attenuation and 25% higher CNR than standard-iodine-dose (33.3 g I) single-energy CTA while offering a wide range of energy settings

  3. 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductoscopy of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with casting type calcifications using refraction-based X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami; Maksimenko, Anton; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Eiko; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Mori, Kensaku; Arai, Yoshinori; Endo, Tokiko

    2008-01-01

    Stereomicroscopic observations of thick sections, or three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions from serial sections, have provided insights into histopathology. However, they generally require time-consuming and laborious procedures. Recently, we have developed a new algorithm for refraction-based X-ray computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study is to apply this emerging technology to visualize the 3-D structure of a high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) of the breast. The high-resolution two-dimensional images of the refraction-based CT were validated by comparing them with the sequential histological sections. Without adding any contrast medium, the new CT showed strong contrast and was able to depict the non-calcified fine structures such as duct walls and intraductal carcinoma itself, both of which were barely visible in a conventional absorption-based CT. 3-D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy revealed that the high-grade DCIS was located within the dichotomatous branches of the ducts. Multiple calcifications occurred in the necrotic core of the continuous DCIS, resulting in linear and branching (casting type) calcifications, a hallmark of high-grade DCIS on mammograms. In conclusion, refraction-based X-ray CT approaches the low-power light microscopic view of the histological sections. It provides high quality slice data for 3-D reconstruction and virtual ductosocpy.

  4. Role of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in pulmonary nodule management

    PubMed Central

    Dahagam, Chanukya; Breen, David P.; Sarkar, Saiyad

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer is rising. Some of this increase in incidence is due to improved pick up by newer imaging modalities. However, the goal is to diagnose these lesion, many of which are located in the periphery, by safe and relatively non-invasive methods. This has led to the emergence of numerous techniques such as electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB). Current evidence supports a role for these techniques in the diagnostic pathway. However, numerous factor influence the diagnostic accuracy. Thus despite significant advances, more research needs to be undertaken to further improve the currently available diagnostic technologies. PMID:27606080

  5. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  6. Cryotherapy: A viable tool to remove broncholiths under flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sabrina N; Lala, Deepa; Rubio, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    Broncholithiasis is the presence of calcific material within the tracheobronchial tree. Asymptomatic patients can be managed with observation only, whereas symptomatic disease requires surgery, rigid or flexible bronchoscopic removal. Recent reports have shown that flexible bronchoscopy can be a safe and effective option for removal of loose in addition to partially imbedded broncholiths. We present a case of a 65-yearold man with chronic cough that underwent successful cryotherapy assisted bronchoscopic removal of an imbedded broncholith. We will also review current literature regarding the management broncholithiasis.

  7. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Pu Jiantao; Gu Suicheng; Liu Shusen; Zhu Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M.; Gur, David

    2012-05-15

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  8. CT based computerized identification and analysis of human airways: a review.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiantao; Gu, Suicheng; Liu, Shusen; Zhu, Shaocheng; Wilson, David; Siegfried, Jill M; Gur, David

    2012-05-01

    As one of the most prevalent chronic disorders, airway disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to understand its underlying mechanisms and to enable assessment of therapeutic efficacy of a variety of possible interventions, noninvasive investigation of the airways in a large number of subjects is of great research interest. Due to its high resolution in temporal and spatial domains, computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practices for studying the normal and abnormal manifestations of lung diseases, albeit there is a need to clearly demonstrate the benefits in light of the cost and radiation dose associated with CT examinations performed for the purpose of airway analysis. Whereas a single CT examination consists of a large number of images, manually identifying airway morphological characteristics and computing features to enable thorough investigations of airway and other lung diseases is very time-consuming and susceptible to errors. Hence, automated and semiautomated computerized analysis of human airways is becoming an important research area in medical imaging. A number of computerized techniques have been developed to date for the analysis of lung airways. In this review, we present a summary of the primary methods developed for computerized analysis of human airways, including airway segmentation, airway labeling, and airway morphometry, as well as a number of computer-aided clinical applications, such as virtual bronchoscopy. Both successes and underlying limitations of these approaches are discussed, while highlighting areas that may require additional work.

  9. Summary of the British Thoracic Society guideline for diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy in adults.

    PubMed

    Du Rand, I A; Blaikley, J; Booton, R; Chaudhuri, N; Gupta, V; Khalid, S; Mandal, S; Martin, J; Mills, J; Navani, N; Rahman, N M; Wrightson, J M; Munavvar, M

    2013-08-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is an essential, established and expanding tool in respiratory medicine. Its practice, however, needs to be safe, effective and for the right indications to maximise clinical utility. This guideline is based on the best available evidence and is a revised update of the British Thoracic Society guideline on diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy.

  10. SU-E-J-167: Improvement of Time-Ordered Four Dimensional Cone-Beam CT; Image Mosaicing with Real and Virtual Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M; Kida, S; Masutani, Y; Shiraki, T; Yamamoto, K; Shiraishi, K; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the previous study, we developed time-ordered fourdimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) technique to visualize nonperiodic organ motion, such as peristaltic motion of gastrointestinal organs and adjacent area, using half-scan reconstruction method. One important obstacle was that truncation of projection was caused by asymmetric location of flat-panel detector (FPD) in order to cover whole abdomen or pelvis in one rotation. In this study, we propose image mosaicing to extend projection data to make possible to reconstruct full field-of-view (FOV) image using half-scan reconstruction. Methods: The projections of prostate cancer patients were acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging system (XVI, version 4.5) on Synergy linear accelerator system (Elekta, UK). The XVI system has three options of FOV, S, M and L, and M FOV was chosen for pelvic CBCT acquisition, with a FPD panel 11.5 cm offset. The method to produce extended projections consists of three main steps: First, normal three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction which contains whole pelvis was implemented using real projections. Second, virtual projections were produced by reprojection process of the reconstructed 3D image. Third, real and virtual projections in each angle were combined into one extended mosaic projection. Then, 4D CBCT images were reconstructed using our inhouse reconstruction software based on Feldkamp, Davis and Kress algorithm. The angular range of each reconstruction phase in the 4D reconstruction was 180 degrees, and the range moved as time progressed. Results: Projection data were successfully extended without discontinuous boundary between real and virtual projections. Using mosaic projections, 4D CBCT image sets were reconstructed without artifacts caused by the truncation, and thus, whole pelvis was clearly visible. Conclusion: The present method provides extended projections which contain whole pelvis. The presented reconstruction method also enables time-ordered 4D CBCT

  11. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis and management of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest clinical form of childhood TB occurring in approximately 80% of cases. Traditionally, bronchoscopy in pediatric TB suspects was used to collect specimens for mycobacterial culture using especially bronchoalveolar lavage. New data have described the role of bronchoscopy as a more comprehensive instrument for the diagnosis and management of pulmonary TB in children. Flexible bronchoscopy is an important intervention to evaluated airways disease, collect samples for culture, relieve critical threatening airway obstruction and aid in the management of complicated pulmonary TB disease in children. Airway involvement in children suspected of pulmonary TB has been described in 41-63% of cases. The commonest airways involved are bronchus intermedius, left main bronchus and the trachea. Bronchoscopy is safe in children with severe airway obstruction. As bronchoscope images improve, the working channel size increases new applications for bronchoscopy will be developed making them more applicable in small children.

  12. [Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in children with persistent atelectasis: a case series report].

    PubMed

    Talamoni, Hernán Lucio; Pisapia, Néstor Daniel; Buendía, Jefferson Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Most patients with pulmonary atelectasis have complete resolution with medical therapy. In patients with persistent atelectasis, endoscopic treatment has proven to be an effective therapy. To describe our experience using flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children with persistent atelectasis. This is a case series report of children treated with flexible bronchoscopy between January 2005 and December 2013, at the Pediatric Pulmonology Section of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. From a total of 106 bronchoscopies performed, 32 of the patients had a diagnosis of persistent atelectasis. Mean age, 5 years. Laryngeal mask airway was the most common route for flexible bronchoscopy. In 28/32 patients, the procedure was therapeutically useful (complete or partial re-expansion). The procedure was well tolerated and presented only mild complications. Flexible bronchoscopy proved to be a safe and effective tool for the treatment of children with persistent atelectasis.

  13. The role bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of airway disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Tutku

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is endoscopic examination of airways that allows both diagnostic and interventional procedures in the evaluation of airway disease in children. It can be performed with either rigid or flexible instruments, depending on the particular needs of patients and skills of bronchoscopist. In addition to visualization of airways, bronchoscopy enables to obtain specimens from lungs and distal airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) yields samples from surfaces of the alveoli and aids differential diagnosis of various pulmonary disease. Foreign body removal and examination of anatomy and dynamics of airways are also common indications of bronchoscopy in children. Improvement in the technology, endoscopic instrumentation allows detailed evaluation and interventional manipulation of airway lesions in small children. Although bronchoscopy is considered as a safe procedure, obstruction of airway may challenge and require special endoscopic skills with appropriate instrumentation. This review is aimed to outline the role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis airway disease in children. PMID:28066622

  14. Toward a simulation and assessment method for the practice of camera-guided rigid bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Salud, Lawrence H; Peniche, Alec R; Salud, Jonathan C; de Hoyos, Alberto L; Pugh, Carla M

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a way to measure performance during a camera-guided rigid bronchoscopy using manikin-based simulation. In an effort to measure contact pressures within the airway during a rigid bronchoscopy, we instrumented pressure sensors in a commercially available bronchoscopy task trainer. Participants were divided into two groups based on self-reported levels of expertise: novice (none to minimal experience in rigid bronchoscopy) and experts (moderate to extensive experience). There was no significant difference between experts and novices in the time taken to complete the rigid bronchoscopy. However, novices touched a greater number of areas than experts, showing that novices induce a higher number of unnecessary soft-tissue contact compared to experts. Moreover, our results show that experts exert significantly less soft tissue pressure compared to novices.

  15. Three-dimensional display modes for CT colonography: conventional 3D virtual colonoscopy versus unfolded cube projection.

    PubMed

    Vos, Frans M; van Gelder, Rogier E; Serlie, Iwo W O; Florie, Jasper; Nio, C Yung; Glas, Afina S; Post, Frits H; Truyen, Roel; Gerritsen, Frans A; Stoker, Jaap

    2003-09-01

    The authors compared a conventional two-directional three-dimensional (3D) display for computed tomography (CT) colonography with an alternative method they developed on the basis of time efficiency and surface visibility. With the conventional technique, 3D ante- and retrograde cine loops were obtained (hereafter, conventional 3D). With the alternative method, six projections were obtained at 90 degrees viewing angles (unfolded cube display). Mean evaluation time per patient with the conventional 3D display was significantly longer than that with the unfolded cube display. With the conventional 3D method, 93.8% of the colon surface came into view; with the unfolded cube method, 99.5% of the colon surface came into view. Sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between the two methods. Agreements between observers were kappa = 0.605 for conventional 3D display and kappa = 0.692 for unfolded cube display. Consequently, the latter method enhances the 3D endoluminal display with improved time efficiency and higher surface visibility.

  16. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the evaluation of lung abscesses.

    PubMed

    Sosenko, A; Glassroth, J

    1985-04-01

    To define the results of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) in patients with lung abscess and to characterize those patients most likely to have an underlying carcinoma, we retrospectively studied the records of 52 consecutive patients undergoing FFB at our institution between 1975 and 1982. Nineteen patients (36.5 percent) had an associated bronchogenic carcinoma (group 1); 33 (63.5 percent) had no malignancy (group 2). The FFB aided in diagnosing 73.7 percent of group 1 patients, but added no information in group 2 patients. Group 1 and 2 patients differed significantly with respect to prevalence of systemic symptoms (15.8 percent vs 51.5 percent, p less than 0.01); predisposition to aspiration pneumonia (26.3 percent vs 60.6 percent, p less than 0.01); mean presenting white blood cell count (10.9 vs 14.2, p less than 0.05); mean oral temperature at presentation (37.5 vs 38.3 degrees C, p less than 0.05); and the prevalence of extensive infiltrates on the initial chest roentgenogram (17.0 percent vs 83.6 percent, p less than 0.05). Based on these data, we believe that by carefully considering the available clinical information, it is possible to identify those patients whose lung abscesses are likely to be related to bronchogenic carcinoma. Such individuals should be promptly evaluated. It is not necessary, however, to routinely order bronchoscopy for all patients with lung abscess.

  17. Jet Ventilation during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Adults: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Mayné, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma. High frequency jet ventilation allows adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal even in cases of tracheal stenosis up to frequencies of around 150 min−1; however, in an in vivo animal model, high frequency jet ventilation along with normal frequency jet ventilation (superimposed high frequency jet ventilation) has been shown to improve oxygenation by increasing lung volume and carbon dioxide removal by increasing tidal volume across a large spectrum of frequencies without increasing barotrauma. General anesthesia with a continuous, intravenous, short-acting agent is safe and effective during rigid bronchoscopy procedures. PMID:27847813

  18. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  19. Integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guibert, Nicolas; Mazieres, Julien; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Rouviere, Damien; Didier, Alain; Hermant, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Tracheal or bronchial proximal stenoses occur as complications in 20-30% of lung cancers, resulting in a dramatic alteration in quality of life and poor prognosis. Bronchoscopic management of these obstructions is based on what are known as "thermal" techniques for intraluminal stenosis and/or placement of tracheal or bronchial prostheses for extrinsic compressions, leading to rapid symptom palliation in the vast majority of patients. This invasive treatment should only be used in cases of symptomatic obstructions and in the presence of viable bronchial tree and downstream parenchyma. This review aims to clarify 1) the available methods for assessing the characteristics of stenoses before treatment, 2) the various techniques available including their preferred indications, outcomes and complications, and 3) the integration of interventional bronchoscopy in the multidisciplinary management of proximal bronchial cancers and its synergistic effects with the other specific treatments (surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy).

  20. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

  1. Disinfecting endoscopes: how not to transmit Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bronchoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Leers, W D

    1980-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the bronchial washings of two patients who underwent bronchoscopy consecutively with the same bronchoscope. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was later confirmed in the first patient, whereas the second patient had clinical and serologic evidence of infection with respiratory syncytial virus. The bronchoscope had been cleaned with an iodophor disinfectant, which had not destroyed the tubercle bacilli. The agent recommended for chemical disinfection of fibreoptic bronchoscopes is 2% glutaraldehyde solution; the instrument should be immersed in it for 10 to 30 minutes. Five hours' exposure to ethylene oxide is recommended for sterilization of instruments. These procedures must be preceded by adequate mechanical cleaning. Then transmission of pathogenic organisms during endoscopy, which can result in nosocomial disease, misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment, will be avoided. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6790150

  2. Vascular Air Embolism During Bronchoscopy Procedures- Incidence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kanchustambham, Venkatkiran; Saladi, Swetha; Mehta, Kris; Mwangi, John; Jamkhana, Zafar

    2017-01-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of invasive medical or surgical procedures. It is a very rare complication of bronchoscopy and is most frequently reported with therapeutic bronchoscopy with Argon plasma coagulation (APC) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. Despite being rare, as a result of its high chance of mortality and morbidity, it is imperative that physicians have high clinical suspicion to allow for early recognition and treatment. In this article, we provide a concise review of the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis management and outcomes of air embolism during bronchoscopy procedures. PMID:28405537

  3. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in the immunocompromised host in northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Crocket, Jennifer A; Chaput, Michelle R; Lien, Dale C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic utility of bronchoscopy in a population of immunocompromised hosts in northern Alberta. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Results from bronchoscopy in 86 immunocompromised patients who underwent a total of 101 procedures were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 57% with the highest yield in patients on immunosuppressive drug therapy (80%) and the lowest yield in the group of bone marrow transplant patients (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy is a valuable tool for the evaluation of pulmonary disease in the immunocompromised host. Overall diagnostic yield of 57% is comparable with that reported in the literature. PMID:22550406

  4. Dual-energy CT of the brain: Comparison between DECT angiography-derived virtual unenhanced images and true unenhanced images in the detection of intracranial haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Matteo; Lombardo, Fabio; Zamboni, Giulia A; Pernter, Patrizia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Bonatti, Giampietro

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images in detecting intracranial haemorrhages (ICHs). Sixty-seven consecutive patients with and 67 without ICH who underwent unenhanced brain CT and DECT angiography were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated VNC and true non-contrast (TNC) images for ICH presence and type. Inter-observer agreement for VNC and TNC image evaluation was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of VNC images for ICH detection were calculated using Fisher's exact test. VNC and TNC images were compared for ICH extent (qualitatively and quantitatively) and conspicuity assessment. On TNC images 116 different haemorrhages were detected in 67 patients. Inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.98-1.00 for TNC images and from 0.86-1.00 for VNC images. VNC sensitivity ranged from 0.90-1, according to the different ICH types, and specificity from 0.97-1. Qualitatively, ICH extent was underestimated on VNC images in 11.9% of cases. Haemorrhage volume did not show statistically significant differences between VNC and TNC images. Mean haemorrhage conspicuity was significantly lower on VNC images than on TNC images for both readers (p < 0.001). VNC images are accurate for ICH detection. Haemorrhages are less conspicuous on VNC images and their extent may be underestimated. • VNC images represent a reproducible tool for detecting ICH. • ICH can be identified on VNC images with high sensitivity and specificity. • Intracranial haemorrhages are less conspicuous on VNC images than on TNC images. • Intracranial haemorrhages extent may be underestimated on VNC images.

  5. Airway Segmentation and Centerline Extraction from Thoracic CT – Comparison of a New Method to State of the Art Commercialized Methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynisson, Pall Jens; Scali, Marta; Smistad, Erik; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Leira, Håkon Olav; Lindseth, Frank; Nagelhus Hernes, Toril Anita; Amundsen, Tore; Sorger, Hanne; Langø, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our motivation is increased bronchoscopic diagnostic yield and optimized preparation, for navigated bronchoscopy. In navigated bronchoscopy, virtual 3D airway visualization is often used to guide a bronchoscopic tool to peripheral lesions, synchronized with the real time video bronchoscopy. Visualization during navigated bronchoscopy, the segmentation time and methods, differs. Time consumption and logistics are two essential aspects that need to be optimized when integrating such technologies in the interventional room. We compared three different approaches to obtain airway centerlines and surface. Method CT lung dataset of 17 patients were processed in Mimics (Materialize, Leuven, Belgium), which provides a Basic module and a Pulmonology module (beta version) (MPM), OsiriX (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) and our Tube Segmentation Framework (TSF) method. Both MPM and TSF were evaluated with reference segmentation. Automatic and manual settings allowed us to segment the airways and obtain 3D models as well as the centrelines in all datasets. We compared the different procedures by user interactions such as number of clicks needed to process the data and quantitative measures concerning the quality of the segmentation and centrelines such as total length of the branches, number of branches, number of generations, and volume of the 3D model. Results The TSF method was the most automatic, while the Mimics Pulmonology Module (MPM) and the Mimics Basic Module (MBM) resulted in the highest number of branches. MPM is the software which demands the least number of clicks to process the data. We found that the freely available OsiriX was less accurate compared to the other methods regarding segmentation results. However, the TSF method provided results fastest regarding number of clicks. The MPM was able to find the highest number of branches and generations. On the other hand, the TSF is fully automatic and it provides the user with both segmentation of the

  6. Rigid bronchoscopy and silicone stents in the management of central airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    The field of interventional pulmonology has grown significantly over the past several decades now including the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of complex airway disease. Rigid bronchoscopy is an invaluable tool in the diagnosis and management of several malignant and non-malignant causes of central airway obstruction (CAO) and has become integral after the inception of airway stenting. The management of CAO can be a complicated endeavor with significant risks making the understanding of basic rigid bronchoscopy techniques, ablative technologies, anesthetic care and stenting of utmost importance in the care of these complex patients. This review article will focus on the history of rigid bronchoscopy, the technical aspects of performing a rigid bronchoscopy as well as the use of silicone stents their indications, complications and placement techniques. PMID:26807283

  7. Successful removal of a 12 year long intrabronchial fishbone through fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tong, M; Kang, X; Sakakibara, H; Suetsugu, S

    1997-12-01

    We report a 54 year old male with an intrabronchial fishbone that had been impacted for 12 years and presented as recurrent pneumonia of the right lower lobe. The fishbone was successfully removed by fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

  8. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Alveolar Hemorrhage Confirmed by Clinical, Laboratory, Computed Tomography, and Bronchoscopy Findings: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Shihai; Guo, Weina; Li, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Zhongliang; Han, Jie; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Propylthiouracil (PTU) is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and can induce antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Although this is a rare side effect, ANCA-associated vasculitis can progress to severe disease if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Presentation A 43-year-old woman with Graves’ disease developed pulmonary vasculitis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with ANCA against myeloperoxidase and proteinase-3 that was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy and treated with PTU. The symptoms and signs of alveolar hemorrhage were rapidly resolved after PTU withdrawal and treatment with corticosteroids. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient maintained complete ANCA-negative clinical remission status, as confirmed by normal CT and bronchoscopy findings. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of bronchoscopic comparison of PTU-induced DAH before and after steroid treatment. Conclusions Patients treated with PTU should be closely monitored and followed up, even if the drug has been used for several years. When patients develop progressive dyspnea with alveolar opacities on chest imaging that cannot be explained otherwise, alveolar hemorrhage should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. Early diagnosis and prompt discontinuation of the PTU treatment are essential for improving patient outcomes. PMID:27257510

  9. The multivariate analysis of indications of rigid bronchoscopy in suspected foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Divarci, E; Toker, B; Dokumcu, Z; Musayev, A; Ozcan, C; Erdener, A

    2017-09-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) could be a serious life-threatening condition in children. Patients usually underwent bronchoscopy with suspicious of FBA alone. In this study, we aimed to determine which patients need to go to bronchoscopy based on pre-operative findings. Retrospective analysis of patients underwent bronchoscopy between 1999 and 2015 was performed. Clinical symptoms, witnessed aspiration event (WAE), physical examination findings (PEFs) and radiological findings (RFs) were analyzed by multivariate analysis to evaluate the indications of bronchoscopy. 431 patients (266M, 165F) underwent bronchoscopy with a median age of 2 years (7 months-16 years). A foreign body was detected in 68% of the patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that wheeze was the sole distinctive clinical symptom for detection of FBA (p<0.001). The rates of positive WAE, PEFs and RFs were 83%, 71.7% and 36.9%, respectively. All of them were identified as independent predictive parameters in the detection of FBA by univariate analysis (p = 0.003&p<0.001&p = 0.015). Multivariate analysis was performed with considering the association between them. The rate of positive bronchoscopy was 91.3% in patients with positive WAE, PEFs and RFs together(84/92). In patients with a positive WAE alone who had not got PEFs and RFs, the rate of positive bronchoscopy was 34.2% (25/73). A foreign body was detected in 84% of the patients who had not got a WAE but positive PEFs and RFs together(21/25). Bronchial laceration was occurred in one patient during bronchoscopy. Pneumothorax was not seen in any of the other patients. The rate of mortality was 0.4% in the overall group (2 patients). The indications of bronchoscopy in suspected FBA are usually based on clinical suspicious. The definition of " suspicous" could be a WAE or positive PEFs and RFs. The association of these factors increase the rate of positive bronchoscopies. In the light of our study, the classical indication for suspected FBA

  10. Application of Quantitative Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy Image Analysis Method in Identifying Bronchopulmonary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Xiong, Hongkai; Li, Yong; Han, Baohui; Sun, Jiayuan

    2017-08-01

    Autofluorescence bronchoscopy shows good sensitivity and poor specificity in detecting dysplasia and cancer of the bronchus. Through quantitative analysis on the target area of autofluorescence bronchoscopy image, determine the optimal identification index and reference value for identifying different types of diseases and explore the value of autofluorescence bronchoscopy in diagnosis of lung cancer. Patients with 1 or more preinvasive bronchial lesions were enrolled and followed up by white-light bronchoscope and autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Color space quantitative image analysis was conducted on the lesion shown in the autofluorescence image using MATLAB image measurement software. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 218 cases with 1208 biopsies. One hundred seventy-three cases were diagnosed as positive, which included 151 true-positive cases and 22 false-positive cases. White-light bronchoscope associated with autofluorescence bronchoscopy was able to differentiate between benign and malignant lesion with a high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (92.1%, 59.3%, 87.3%, and 71.1%, respectively). Taking 1.485 as the cutoff value of receiver operating characteristic of red-to-green value to differentiate benign and malignant diseases, the diagnostic sensitivity reached 82.3% and the specificity reached 80.5%. U values could differentiate invasive carcinoma and other groups well. Quantitative image analysis method of autofluorescence bronchoscopy provided effective scientific basis for the diagnosis of lung cancer and precancerous lesions.

  11. Reduction of artifacts caused by orthopedic hardware in the spine in spectral detector CT examinations using virtual monoenergetic image reconstructions and metal-artifact-reduction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Große Hokamp, Nils; Neuhaus, V; Abdullayev, N; Laukamp, K; Lennartz, S; Mpotsaris, A; Borggrefe, J

    2017-09-21

    Aim of this study was to assess the artifact reduction in patients with orthopedic hardware in the spine as provided by (1) metal-artifact-reduction algorithms (O-MAR) and (2) virtual monoenergetic images (MonoE) as provided by spectral detector CT (SDCT) compared to conventional iterative reconstruction (CI). In all, 28 consecutive patients with orthopedic hardware in the spine who underwent SDCT-examinations were included. CI, O-MAR and MonoE (40-200 keV) images were reconstructed. Attenuation (HU) and noise (SD) were measured in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of paravertebral muscle and spinal canal. Subjective image quality was assessed by two radiologists in terms of image quality and extent of artifact reduction. O-MAR and high-keV MonoE showed significant decrease of hypodense artifacts in terms of higher attenuation as compared to CI (CI vs O-MAR, 200 keV MonoE: -396.5HU vs. -115.2HU, -48.1HU; both p ≤ 0.001). Further, artifacts as depicted by noise were reduced in O-MAR and high-keV MonoE as compared to CI in (1) paravertebral muscle and (2) spinal canal-CI vs. O-MAR/200 keV: (1) 34.7 ± 19.0 HU vs. 26.4 ± 14.4 HU, p ≤ 0.05/27.4 ± 16.1, n.s.; (2) 103.4 ± 61.3 HU vs. 72.6 ± 62.6 HU/60.9 ± 40.1 HU, both p ≤ 0.001. Subjectively both O-MAR and high-keV images yielded an artifact reduction in up to 24/28 patients. Both, O-MAR and high-keV MonoE reconstructions as provided by SDCT lead to objective and subjective artifact reduction, thus the combination of O-MAR and MonoE seems promising for further reduction.

  12. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy-guided fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Odronic, Shelley I; Gildea, Thomas R; Chute, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Many peripheral lung lesions are beyond the reach of conventional bronchoscopes, and require percutaneous CT-guided or open surgical biopsy, which carry increased risks to the patient. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a relatively new technique, which uses an image guided localization system to direct steerable bronchoscopic tools to predetermined points within the bronchial tree. This technology allows improved access to peripheral lesions in particular. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of ENB-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of lung lesions. All ENB-guided FNAs performed at one institution were included in the study. The superDimension i-Logic System™ was used in all cases. Pathologic reports of the ENB-guided FNAs, as well as all other pulmonary sampling performed simultaneously with the FNA and within 1 year of the ENB-guided FNA were reviewed. Patients with a positive ENB-guided FNA or malignancy within the same lobe within the follow-up period were considered positive for malignancy. Patients with an atypical diagnosis but no definitive malignancy were considered negative for malignancy for statistical purposes. Ninety-one patients underwent 95 ENB-guided FNAs over a 3-year period. Thirty-five patients (38%) were positive for malignancy. ENB-guided FNA had a sensitivity of 63% for the detection of malignancy. The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy using all ENB-guided sampling methods, including FNA, bronchoscopic biopsy, and bronchial brushing was 83%. Pathologists and cytotechnologists should be aware of ENB-guided FNA as an emerging technology with a relatively high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions.

  13. Virtual landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  14. Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localization of carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Profio, A E; Doiron, D R; Balchum, O J; Huth, G C

    1983-01-01

    A fluorescence bronchoscope system has been developed for imaging lung tumors by fluorescence of a previously injected, tumor-specific agent hematoporphyrin derivative. Carcinoma in situ has been localized, but there are too many false positives and negatives. A new system has been implemented which allows rapid switching between viewing of fluorescence, and viewing of the same area under white light illumination as in conventional bronchoscopy. The excitation source is a violet krypton ion laser coupled to a fused quartz fiber light conductor, with a diverging microlens to spread the light uniformly. A third-generation, microchannel plate image intensifier amplifies the weak fluorescence for viewing and video display, recording, and analysis. A movable mirror and periscope bypasses the intensifier for normal color viewing and video display and recording, with the laser shutter closed and the white light shutter open. This facilitates accurate localization, comparison of the color and fluorescence images, and precise sampling during biopsy. The improved system should reduce the false positive rate due to biopsy sampling error, and together with the video analyzer should reduce indeterminate results.

  15. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy-guided fiducial markers for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy: analysis of safety, feasibility, and interfraction stability.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Nima; Zhang, Junan; Elliott, David A; Tanyi, James A; Thomas, Charles R; Fuss, Martin; Deffebach, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Embolization coils as fiducial markers for pulmonary stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are perceived to be the optimal marker type, given their ability to conform and anchor within the small airways. The aim of our study was to assess retention, placement, migration, feasibility, and safety of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB)-guided embolization coil markers throughout courses of SBRT. Thirty-one patients with 34 nodules underwent ENB-guided fiducial placement of several 4 mm fibered platinum embolization coils before SBRT. Patient and nodule positioning was confirmed with daily pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fiducial positional characteristics were analyzed utilizing radiation treatment-planning software comparing the simulation CT with daily CBCTs. Of 105 fiducials placed, 103 were identifiable on simulation CT (retention rate: 98.1%). Incidence of asymptomatic pneumothoraces was 6%. One patient experienced hemoptysis requiring hospitalization. Eighty-six percent of fiducials were placed within 1 cm of the nodule, with 52% of fiducials placed directly on the nodule surface. Throughout a 5-fraction SBRT course, fiducial displacement was <7, 5, and 2 mm in 98%, 96%, and 67% of pretreatment CBCTs. ENB placement of embolization coils as fiducials for lung SBRT image guidance is associated with a low rate of iatrogenic pneumothoraces, and resulted in reliable placement of the fiducials in close proximity to the lung nodule. Embolization coils retained their relative position to the nodule throughout the course of SBRT, and provide an excellent alternative to linear gold seeds.

  16. [Application of flexible bronchoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of 104 children with pulmonary atelectasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dai-jia; Zhao, De-yu; Liang, Hui; Tian, Man; Han, Qing

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the value of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary atelectasis in children. Totally 104 patients with pulmonary atelectasis, who were admitted to this department, received flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy from January 2006 to May 2010, were enrolled in a retrospective analysis. The analysis on causes of pulmonary atelectasis showed that 76 cases (73%) of the 104 patients had sputum obstructions, which was the main cause of atelectasis. Thirteen cases (13%) had bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 9 cases among these were infants. Twelve cases (12%) had foreign body aspiration, 8 cases among these were under the age of 3-year. After flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, 100 cases got expansion of pulmonary atelectasis. Sixty-five of the sputum obstruction cases got atelectasis reexpansion after one time of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Eight of the sputum obstruction cases got atelectasis reexpansion after two times of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Two of the sputum obstruction cases got atelectasis reexpansion after three times of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The rate of atelectasis reexpansion after one time of alveolus lavement was higher in the cases whose courses of disease were under 3 weeks, than in the cases whose courses of disease were beyond 3 weeks. Etiology of pulmonary atelectasis varied at different age. The morbidity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was high in infants. Foreign body aspiration was the common cause of pulmonary atelectasis in children from 1 to 3-year of age. Sputum obstruction was the main cause of pulmonary atelectasis in over 3-year-old children. Most cases got atelectasis reexpansion after alveolar lavage. The patients who had shorter course of disease might have higher rate of atelectasis reexpansion after alveolar lavage once. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary atelectasis.

  17. Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy: comparison of adjuvant propofol and ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Umutoglu, Tarik; Gundogdu, Gokhan; Ilce, Zekeriya; Elicevik, Mehmet; Kaya, Guner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laryngoscopy and stimuli inside the trachea cause an intense sympatho-adrenal response. Remifentanil seems to be the optimal opioid for rigid bronchoscopy due to its potent and short-acting properties. The purpose of this study was to compare bolus propofol and ketamine as an adjuvant to remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty children under 12 years of age who had been scheduled for a rigid bronchoscopy were included in this study. After midazolam premedication, a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion was started, and patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol (Group P) or ketamine (Group K) as well as mivacurium for muscle relaxation. Anesthesia was maintained with a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion and bolus doses of propofol or ketamine. After the rigid bronchoscopy, 0.05 µg/kg/min of remifentanil was maintained until extubation. Hemodynamic parameters, emergence characteristics, and adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: The demographic variables were comparable between the two groups. The decrease in mean arterial pressure from baseline values to the lowest values during rigid bronchoscopy was greater in Group P (p = 0.049), while the reduction in the other parameters and the incidence of adverse events were comparable between the two groups. The need for assisted or controlled mask ventilation after extubation was higher in Group K. CONCLUSION: Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or ketamine as an adjuvant drug along with controlled ventilation is a viable technique for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Ketamine does not provide a definite advantage over propofol with respect to hemodynamic stability during rigid bronchoscopy, while propofol seems more suitable during the recovery period. PMID:24964299

  18. Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy: comparison of adjuvant propofol and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Umutoglu, Tarik; Gundogdu, Gokhan; Ilce, Zekeriya; Elicevik, Mehmet; Kaya, Guner

    2014-06-01

    Laryngoscopy and stimuli inside the trachea cause an intense sympatho-adrenal response. Remifentanil seems to be the optimal opioid for rigid bronchoscopy due to its potent and short-acting properties. The purpose of this study was to compare bolus propofol and ketamine as an adjuvant to remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Forty children under 12 years of age who had been scheduled for a rigid bronchoscopy were included in this study. After midazolam premedication, a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion was started, and patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol (Group P) or ketamine (Group K) as well as mivacurium for muscle relaxation. Anesthesia was maintained with a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion and bolus doses of propofol or ketamine. After the rigid bronchoscopy, 0.05 µg/kg/min of remifentanil was maintained until extubation. Hemodynamic parameters, emergence characteristics, and adverse events were evaluated. The demographic variables were comparable between the two groups. The decrease in mean arterial pressure from baseline values to the lowest values during rigid bronchoscopy was greater in Group P (p = 0.049), while the reduction in the other parameters and the incidence of adverse events were comparable between the two groups. The need for assisted or controlled mask ventilation after extubation was higher in Group K. Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or ketamine as an adjuvant drug along with controlled ventilation is a viable technique for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Ketamine does not provide a definite advantage over propofol with respect to hemodynamic stability during rigid bronchoscopy, while propofol seems more suitable during the recovery period.

  19. Flexible bronchoscopy-induced massive bleeding: A 12-year multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Wu; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Yu-Chao; Huang, Hai-Dong; Hu, Chengping; Sun, Jiayuan; Jin, Faguang; Gu, Ye; Li, Qiang; Li, Shiyue

    2016-07-01

    Although massive bleeding is the most life-threatening complication caused by flexible bronchoscopy, data on flexible bronchoscopy-induced massive bleeding are scarce, and the associated clinical characteristics and prognostic factors are unknown. This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy in 33 tertiary hospitals from January 2001 to June 2013. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and analysed. A total of 194 patients with massive bleeding were identified among 520 343 patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy. The average blood loss reached up to 378 mL. The overall incidence and mortality were 0.037% and 0.004%, respectively, and the overall fatality was 10.8%. The risk of massive bleeding induced by therapeutic bronchoscopies was significantly higher than that induced by diagnostic bronchoscopies (incidence: 0.059% vs 0.031%, P < 0.001; mortality: 0.012% vs 0.003%, P < 0.001; fatality: 20% vs 8.4%, P = 0.068). Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥65 years, tracheal bleeding, blood loss ≥500 mL and occurrence of shock were independent factors predicting poor outcome, while emergency surgery was an independent protective factor. Re-bleeding occurred in six patients, resulting in three deaths within a month. Flexible bronchoscopy-induced massive bleeding is rare but life-threatening. Age, bleeding location, bleeding volume, circulation condition and emergency surgery were independent prognostic factors. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Admission Chest CT Complements Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in Prediction of Adverse Outcomes in Thermally Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Society of America.25 If the culture grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus or common skin flora , the illness was not considered pneumonia. ALI and ARDS...to achieve a urine output of 30 to 50 ml/hr. Albumin (5% in normal saline) was administered during hours 24 to 48 postburn. (It was started 12...Figure 1). The total score for each slice was then summed for the entire Table 1. RADS scoring Finding Score Normal 0 Increased interstitial markings

  1. Evaluation of discomfort and tolerability to bronchoscopy according to different sedation procedures with midazolam

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMOTO, TAKESHI; OTSUKA, KOJIRO; KATO, RYOJI; SHIMIZU, RYOKO; OTOSHI, TAKEHIRO; FUJIMOTO, DAICHI; KAWAMURA, TAKAHISA; TAMAI, KOJI; NAGATA, KAZUMA; OTSUKA, KYOKO; NAKAGAWA, ATSUSHI; TOMII, KEISUKE

    2015-01-01

    Patients frequently experience great discomfort during a bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of lung neoplasms. Sedation is generally recommended during bronchoscopy; however, few studies have evaluated the discomfort and tolerability of patients to a bronchoscopy with regard to the administration procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discomfort and tolerability of patients undergoing a bronchoscopy using different sedation procedures with midazolam. The retrospective survey of sedation during bronchoscopy involved the comparison of two periods: January-March 2012 (first period) and July-September 2012 (second period). A numerical rating score, which ranged between 1 (best) and 5 (worst) according to the subjective view of the patients, was used to rate patient discomfort, pain, sensation, time and tolerability to the bronchoscopy. In the first period, 2.5 mg midazolam was administered prior to the initiation of surgery, and additional doses of midazolam was added in 2.5-mg increments whenever the patient deviated from the target sedation level. In the second period, 2.0 or 3.0 mg midazolam was administered prior to the initiation of surgery, and additional midazolam doses were administered in 1.0-mg increments until the patients were sedated to the target sedation level. In total, 60 and 68 valid responses were obtained in the first and second periods, respectively. The patients in the second period exhibited significantly improved discomfort and pain scores during the bronchoscopy and higher rates of consent to re-examination, as compared with the patients in the first period (1.89±1.40 vs. 2.78±1.52, P<0.001; 1.48±1.13 vs. 2.00±1.37, P=0.005; 2.45±1.62 vs. 3.13±1.47, P=0.013, respectively). The amount of midazolam administered was significantly higher in the second period. There were no fatal complications during the bronchoscopy in either period. In conclusion, the present study observed that the administration of additional midazolam in

  2. Bronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration and effects of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination

    PubMed Central

    Akcora, Bulent; Celikkaya, Mehmet Emin; Ozer, Cahit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A foreign body aspiration in the tracheobronchial tree is a dangerous medical condition in the childhood period. Although rigid bronchoscopy is a safe procedure, it may cause complications. The aim of this study was to present our bronchoscopy experience and to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination for reducing intra-operative complications in foreign body aspirated cases. Methods: In this retrospective study our pediatric cases in which a foreign body was removed from tracheobronchial tree in last 8 years were analyzed. After excluding the patients who needed emergent and negative bronchoscopies, the remaining clinically stable 84 patients were compared for the effects of preoperative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination on bronchoscopy complications. Results: There were 51 boys (60.3%) and 33 girls (39.7%). There were 38 children in the non-nebulized group and 46 children in the nebulized group. We found that the combined albuterol and budesonide nebulization decrease complications such as arterial oxygen desaturation (p<0.05), and bronchospasm (p<0.05) during the bronchoscopic intervention. Conclusion: Preoperative nebulization of albuterol and budesonide combination may decrease perioperative complications of bronchoscopy. PMID:28367177

  3. Perceptions of Research Bronchoscopy in Malawian Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Wezzie; Khoo, Saye H.; Sloan, Derek J.; Mwandumba, Henry C.; Desmond, Nicola; Davies, Geraint R.

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is an established research tool in Malawi, enabling collection of pulmonary samples for immunological, pharmacological, and microbiological studies. It is, however, an invasive clinical procedure that offers no direct benefit to volunteering participants when used in a research capacity alone, and thus informed consent is essential. This study aimed to explore TB patients’ understanding of research bronchoscopy, what would motivate them to participate in research bronchoscopy, and their concerns, in order to inform consenting processes for future clinical studies. We used a qualitative research design. Two focus group discussions were conducted with community members and TB patients to understand their perceptions of bronchoscopy. Transcripts were coded by multiple co-authors and thematic content analysis was used to analyse main findings. We found that Malawian patients with pulmonary TB were willing to participate in a study using research bronchoscopy for health assessment and access to improved healthcare. We identified information of value to potential participants when consenting to that may lessen some of the anxieties expressed by participants. Patient and public involvement is essential to improve informed consent and institutional trust. PMID:27792765

  4. [Neonatal bronchoscopy: a retrospective analysis of 67 cases and a review of their indications].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, J A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Clington, A; Serelha, M

    2004-01-01

    The availability of newer, more sophisticated and versatile bronchoscopes has expanded the spectrum and scope of the indications for bronchoscopy in the newborn infant both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of the bronchoscopies performed on newborn infants, and to review the indications of this procedure in this age group. Sixty-three patients were submitted to 67 bronchoscopies in a period of 13 years, allowing the diagnosis of 45 anomalies and malformations of the tracheo-bronchial tree, and the performance of 24 bronchoalveolar lavages. In six cases, endoscopic removal of secretions helped to resolve resistant atelectasia, while in another case, with esophageal atresia, intra-operative definition of the fistula tract was possible through catheterisation of the fistula with the bronchoscope. The flexible bronchoscope was preferred for diagnosis by direct visualisation, and the rigid bronchoscope for some diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Stridor, unexplained cyanosis, hemoptysis, persistent or recurrent pulmonary images, difficulties in the intubation or extubation, and persistent disturbances in ventilation are among the main indications for bronchoscopy in the newborn infant. Bronchoscopy also allows the performance of subsidiary techniques, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and laser therapy.

  5. Subglottic granuloma after aortic replacement: resection via flexible bronchoscopy after an emergency tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Naohiro; So, Tetsuya; Sekimura, Atsushi; Miyata, Takeaki; Yoshimatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    A subglottic granuloma is one of the late-phase complications that can occur after intubation. It can cause a life-threatening airway obstruction; therefore, a rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is necessary. A 62-year-old male had undergone an emergency total arch replacement for acute aortic dissection. Postoperative ventilation support had been performed until the 15th postoperative day (POD). He was discharged from the hospital on POD 30. On POD 50, he was brought to our hospital by an ambulance with severe dyspnea. A large subglottic granuloma occupying the trachea was identified by flexible bronchoscopy. After an emergency tracheostomy, resection of the granuloma with argon plasma coagulation via flexible bronchoscopy was performed safely. Physicians should suspect a post-intubation subglottic granuloma when patients who have undergone intubation report feeling throat discomfort. Resection via flexible bronchoscopy after tracheostomy is a safe and feasible procedure that may shorten the duration of therapy and hospital stay. PMID:25180216

  6. Rigid Bronchoscopy in Airway Foreign Bodies: Value of the Clinical and Radiological Signs

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Kunjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Foreign body in airway is a common emergency in ENT practice. As we know, Rigid Bronchoscopy is the method of choice for removing it, although at times it leads to specialists performing unnecessary bronchoscopy, exposing patients to hazards of general anesthesia. Objective  The objective of my study is to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, odds ratio from the clinical and radiological signs, comparing with the gold standard, the rigid bronchoscope procedure. Method  This is a prospective analytical study designed at University Teaching Hospital and conducted over a period of 18 months, from March 2011 to August 2012. Data collection was broadly classified into three different categories: (1) Symptomatology, such as presence or absence of choking, cyanosis, and difficulty in breathing; (2) Clinical signs, such as the presence or absence of air entry, crackles, and rhonchi 3. Chest X-ray findings were suggestive of a foreign body. Results  There were a total of 40 rigid bronchoscopies performed under general anesthesia for the diagnosis and therapeutic reasons. Among 40 patients who underwent rigid bronchoscopy, 32 (80%) were found to have varieties of foreign bodies in their airway while 8 patients (20%) had negative bronchoscopy. The history of choking is the only clinical symptoms which came out to be statistically Significant (p = 0.043) with odds ratio of 5. Conclusion  Rigid bronchoscopy is the gold standard technique for diagnosis and procedure of choice to remove FB from airway. Regardless, it still presents a small chance of negative result, especially when there is no history of aspiration. PMID:27413398

  7. [Bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy. A safe technique in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Maldonado, Pablo; Pérez-Rosales, Abel; Núñez-Pérez Redondo, Carlos; Cueto-Robledo, Guillermo; Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    When compared with conventional surgery, bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy has demonstrated some advantages. We compare the results obtained with bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy performed by Intensive Care Unit personnel with those of conventional surgery. Prospective and descriptive cohort of patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit from March 2010 to March 2012. A total of 510 patients were admitted to the respiratory Intensive Care Unit. Tracheostomy was performed in 51 (10%); of which, 27 (53%) underwent bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, and 24(47%) underwent tracheostomy by conventional surgery. There were no differences between bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy and conventional surgery groups in age (52 ± 16 vs 53 ± 18 years, p = 0.83). Simplified Acute Physiology Score-3 differed among groups (59.4 ± 11.2 vs 51.5 ± 14.3, p = 0.03). Indications for performing tracheostomy were prolonged intubation (74.1% vs 62.5%, p = 0.55), neurologic impairment (22.2% vs 16.6%, p = 0.88), and laryngeal disease (3.7% vs 20.8%, p 0.14). Mean time between intubation and tracheostomy was 13.3 days (range 4-45) vs 13.4 days (range 2-40). There were three minor complications in bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy patients, transient bigeminism in one, and moderate bleeding in two, and one minor complication of moderate bleeding in one patient in the conventional surgery group, p = 0.68. Bronchoscopy-guided percutaneous tracheostomy is a versatile and safe alternative for conventional tracheostomy when performed in Intensive Care Unit by personnel with expertise and appropriate training.

  8. A prospective randomised controlled trial of capnography vs. bronchoscopy for Blue Rhino percutaneous tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Mallick, A; Venkatanath, D; Elliot, S C; Hollins, T; Nanda Kumar, C G

    2003-09-01

    A crucial step for successful percutaneous tracheostomy is the introduction of the needle and guide wire into the trachea. Capnography has recently been proposed as one way to confirm tracheal needle placement. In this randomised controlled study, we used capnography in 26 patients and bronchoscopy in 29 patients to confirm needle placement for percutaneous tracheostomy using Blue Rhino kit. The operating times and the incidence of peri-operative complications were similar for both groups. Capnography proved to be as effective as bronchoscopy in confirming correct needle placement.

  9. Complete subglottic tracheal stenosis managed with rigid bronchoscopy and T-tube placement

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kuruswamy Thurai; Dhooria, Sahajal; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Surgery is the preferred treatment modality for benign tracheal stenosis. Interventional bronchoscopy is used as a bridge to surgery or in instances when surgery is not feasible or has failed. Stenosis in the subglottic trachea is particularly a treatment challenge, in view of its proximity to the vocal cords. Herein, we describe a patient with complete tracheal stenosis in the subglottic region, which developed after prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. The patient developed recurrent stenosis despite multiple surgical and endoscopic procedures. We were able to manage the patient successfully with rigid bronchoscopy and Montgomery T-tube placement. PMID:27890997

  10. Applying microCT and 3D visualization to Jurassic silicified conifer seed cones: A virtual advantage over thin-sectioning1

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Carole T.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As an alternative to conventional thin-sectioning, which destroys fossil material, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (also called microtomography or microCT) integrated with scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3D) image segmentation, size analysis, and computer animation is explored as a nondestructive method of imaging the internal anatomy of 150-million-year-old conifer seed cones from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and of recent and other fossil cones. • Methods: MicroCT was carried out on cones using a General Electric phoenix v|tome|x s 240D, and resulting projections were processed with visualization software to produce image stacks of serial single sections for two-dimensional (2D) visualization, 3D segmented reconstructions with targeted structures in color, and computer animations. • Results: If preserved in differing densities, microCT produced images of internal fossil tissues that showed important characters such as seed phyllotaxy or number of seeds per cone scale. Color segmentation of deeply embedded seeds highlighted the arrangement of seeds in spirals. MicroCT of recent cones was even more effective. • Conclusions: This is the first paper on microCT integrated with 3D segmentation and computer animation applied to silicified seed cones, which resulted in excellent 2D serial sections and segmented 3D reconstructions, revealing features requisite to cone identification and understanding of strobilus construction. PMID:25202495

  11. Evaluation of the CT Parameters to Suppress Renal Cysts Pseudoenhancement Effect: Influence of the Virtual Monochromatic Spectral Images, the Model-based Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm and the Aperture Size in Phantom Model.

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, Koichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Minamishima, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the virtual monochromatic spectral images (VMSI) and the model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) images, to evaluate the influence of the aperture size (40- and 20-mm beam) on renal pseudoenhancement (PE) compared with the filtered back projection (FBP) images. The renal compartment-CT phantom was filled with iodinated contrast material diluted to the attenuation of 180 Hounsfield units (HU) at 120 kV. The water-filled spherical structures, which simulate cyst, were inserted into the renal compartment. Those diameters were 7, 15 and 25 mm. These were scanned by conventional mode (helical scan, 120 kV-FBP) and dual energy mode. 70 keV-VMSI were reconstructed from the dual energy mode, and MBIR images were reconstructed from conventional mode at 40- and 20-mm aperture. Additionally, the phantom was scanned using non-helical mode with 20-mm aperture, and FBP images were reconstructed. The CT value of the PE for cyst areas was measured for these images. The CT values of the cysts were 20.0-14.3 HU on the FBP images, 12.8-12.7 HU on the 70 keV-VMSI (PE-inhibition ratio was 36.0-11.2%) and 16.2-14.0 HU on the MBIR images (19.0-2.1%), respectively, at 40-mm aperture. The PE-inhibition ratio scanned by 20-mm aperture was improved by 28.0% with FBP, 32.8% with 70 keV-VMSI and 29.6% with MBIR compared with 40-mm aperture. One of the FBP images with non-helical mode was 11.6 HU. The best CT technique to minimize PE was the combination of 70 keV-VMSI and 20-mm aperture.

  12. What is the diagnostic value of flexible bronchoscopy in the initial investigation of children with suspected foreign body aspiration?

    PubMed

    Righini, Christian A; Morel, Nils; Karkas, Alexandre; Reyt, Emile; Ferretti, Katarina; Pin, Isabelle; Schmerber, Sebastien

    2007-09-01

    The diagnosis and early bronchoscopic extraction of a foreign body (Fb) in children are life-saving measures. Many studies have described the manifestation of foreign body aspiration (FbA); however, only a few analyzed the role of flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of FbA. The aim of this work is to define the indications of flexible bronchoscopy in the management algorithm of suspected FbA. This study was conducted at a tertiary referral University Medical Center with an outpatient clinic and a 20-bed pediatric emergency unit. Between January 2002 and July 2006 children referred with suspected FbA were included in this prospective study. Children with asphyxiating FbA requiring immediate rigid bronchoscopy, were excluded. If there was no convincing evidence of FbA, a diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy was performed under local anesthesia. In the case where a Fb was actually found, extraction was always performed by rigid bronchoscopy. Seventy cases (median age: 2 years, males: 44/females: 26) were analyzed. Among the 19 children who underwent flexible bronchoscopy first, 7 (37%) had a Fb. Among the 51 who underwent rigid bronchoscopy first, 43 had a Fb and 8 (16%) had a negative first rigid bronchoscopy. Predictive signs of a bronchial Fb were a radiopaque Fb, foreign body aspiration syndrome (FbAS) associated with unilaterally decreased breath sounds or localized wheezing and obstructive emphysema or atelectasis. In case of suspected FbA in children, the following management algorithm is suggested: rigid bronchoscopy should be performed solely in case of asphyxia, finding of a radiopaque Fb, or in the presence FbAS associated with unilaterally decreased breath sounds, localized wheezing and obstructive radiological emphysema, or atelectasis. In all other cases, flexible bronchoscopy should be performed first for diagnostic purposes.

  13. Postmortem virtual volumetry of the heart and lung in situ using CT data for investigating terminal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    Postmortem CT (PM-CT) is useful to investigate the viscera in situ before opening the body cavity at autopsy. The present study investigated heart and lung volumes in situ with regard to the cause of death as possible indexes of terminal cardiopulmonary dysfunction by means of PM-CT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases within 3 days postmortem (n=70). Estimated heart volume was larger in sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10) and fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=5) than in other groups, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), drowning (n=11), acute alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8), fire fatality (n=12), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=6). Estimated combined lung volume was larger in drowning, smaller in fire fatality due to carbon monoxide intoxication and SCD, and intermediate in other groups. Volume ratio of the lung to heart was higher in drowning, lower in SCD, and intermediate or varied in other groups; high and low ratios can indicate predominant/antecedent pulmonary and cardiac dysfunctions, respectively. These findings provide quantitative data that are not available at conventional autopsy or by routine two-dimensional CT morphology to assess three-dimensional gross heart and lung morphologies for interpreting terminal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, detecting significant difference between SCD and other causes of death, especially mechanical asphyxiation and drowning.

  14. [Clinical analysis of interventional bronchoscopy for the treatment of malignant obstructive atelectasis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Nan; Zou, Hang; Zhou, Yunzhi; Li, Jing; Liang, Sujuan

    2011-08-01

    Obstructive atelectasis is frequently accompanied by pulmonary infection and hypoxia. The key to treating this condition is by directly reopening the obstructive airway. The aim of the present study is to explore the safety and efficacy of interventional bronchoscopy for the treatment of malignant obstructive atelectasis. A total of 120 cases with pathology-proved malignant obstructive atelectasis were retrospectively analyzed for the treatment of argon plasma coagulation and cryosurgery under bronchoscopy. Patients' age is between 5 and 90 years old. A total of 120 cases had 187 atelectasis originating from 98 lesions with primary airway tumors and 89 with metastases. The most common location of atelectasis was in the upper lobe in the primary group and in the single lung in the metastasis group. Although there was no significant difference in tumor debulging between the two groups, the reopening rate of atelectasis was lower in the primary group than that in the metastasis group. The Karnofsky physical score significantly increased, and shortbreath scale decreased after interventional bronchoscopy. Among the patients, 3/4 had hypoxemia and 3.4% had severe bleeding, which caused the death of 1 patient during a procedure. The mean survival time was 6 months, and the survival rate of 1 year was 27.1%. Bronchoscopy can rapidly and effectively debulge the airway tumor and reopen the atelectasis.

  15. Distributed practice. The more the merrier? A randomised bronchoscopy simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Bjerrum, Anne Sofie; Eika, Berit; Charles, Peder; Hilberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The distribution of practice affects the acquisition of skills. Distributed practice has shown to be more effective for skills acquisition than massed training. However, it remains unknown as to which is the most effective distributed practice schedule for learning bronchoscopy skills through simulation training. This study compares two distributed practice schedules: One-day distributed practice and weekly distributed practice. Method Twenty physicians in training were randomly assigned to one-day distributed or weekly distributed bronchoscopy simulation practice. Performance was assessed with a pre-test, a post-test after each practice session, and a 4-week retention test using previously validated simulator measures. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Results No interaction was found between group and test (F(4,72) <1.68, p>0.16), except for the measure ‘percent-segments-entered’, and no main effect of group was found for any of the measures (F(1,72)< 0.87, p>0.36), which indicates that there was no difference between the learning curves of the one-day distributed practice schedule and the weekly distributed practice schedule. Discussion We found no difference in effectiveness of bronchoscopy skills acquisition between the one-day distributed practice and the weekly distributed practice. This finding suggests that the choice of bronchoscopy training practice may be guided by what best suits the clinical practice. PMID:27172423

  16. [Fiber bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with asthma. A description of the method].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, B; Dahl, R

    1989-11-27

    Fiber bronchoscopy under local anaesthesia is an examination procedure frequently employed in the remainder of Scandinavia, Europe and USA. It requires only few resources and the costs are considerably less than fiber bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in connection with fiber bronchoscopy is rapidly undertaken but analysis of the material obtained requires considerable time. A method of induction of local anaesthesia, performance of BAL and preparation of the washings obtained is described. Fiber bronchoscopy and BAL are considered to be safe examination procedures in patients with mild asthma in a stable phase. The examination is only associated with slight discomfort for the patients, who will frequently accept repeated investigations, and complications are rare. BAL is a valuable examination procedure in research and the results have increased the knowledge of mechanisms in a series of interstitial pulmonary diseases. Future investigations of the humoral and cellular components in BAL fluid in asthmatic patients will contribute to increase knowledge of the pathological mechanisms in asthmatic disease.

  17. AB046. The limitations in the diagnosis of mesenchymal neoplasms in bronchoscopy biopsy material—a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cheva, Angeliki; Kilmpasani, Maria; Karafoulidou, Ioanna; Pastelli, Nikoleta; Rampiadou, Christina; Tryfon, Stavros; Papaemmanouil, Styliani

    2016-01-01

    Background The case of a male patient, 68, who presented with one week’s history of cough, dyspnoe and hemosputum. Chest X-ray showed a shadow near the hilum of the right-sided lung. Furthtermore, CT scan of the thorax demonstrated a right middle lobe mass with signs of peripheral obstructive pneumonitis. Bronchoscopy revealed a stenosis of the right middle lobe, of which biopsy material was taken for microscopic examination. Methods The bioptic material consisted of seven pale-white tissue specimens, 0.2–0.3 cm in greatest diameter. Results The material contained blood clots, fibrin, and mucin, as well as superficial mucosal specimens. The submucosa of the latter was infiltrated by mainly medium-sized, neoplastic cells with crush artifacts and degenerative changes. These cells showed increased pleomorphy and atypia, with enlarged, abnormal nuclei and distinct nucleoli. Among the immunohistochemical stains, Vimentin, Desmin and Calponin were positively expressed, a fact that implies the mesenchymal origin of the neoplasm. On the other hand, SMA, Caldesmon, MyOD1, CD56, AE1/AE3, CK8/18, CK7, CK5/6, TTF-1, p63, CD45, HMB-45, S-100 and CD34 were negative. The proliferation marker (Ki67) was expressed in 80% of the neoplastic cells. Given the above findings, the diagnosis referred to a mesenchymal neoplasm (sarcoma) of myogenic origin, with high-grade malignancy. The patient received a platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Conclusions The microscopic examination of bronchoscopy biopsy material usually leads to the diagnosis of a variety of pulmonary diseases. Immunohistochemistry has significantly expanded the pathologist’s diagnostic abilities. However, in some cases, due to the rarity of the disease or the inappropriacy of the biopsy material, there can only be a rough estimation of the origin of the malignant neoplasm. In this case, the differential diagnosis would include, among else, a leiomyosarcoma, a synovial sarcoma, a fibrosarcoma, the spindle-cell variant

  18. [Exposure of the pediatric surgeon to inhalation-anesthetic during pediatric bronchoscopy procedures].

    PubMed

    Westphal, K; Lischke, V; Aybeck, T; Kessler, P

    1997-12-01

    General anaesthetic agents are frequently used for paediatric bronchoscopy. A disadvantage of this open system anaesthesia seems to be the contamination of the working environment. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure of the endoscopist during paediatric bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia in different working environments and to compare these measurements with the currently valid international threshold limit values. 25 children (ASA I-III) scheduled for diagnostic bronchoscopy were included in the study. After inhalational induction all children were intubated with a nonflexible bronchoscope and manually ventilated through a side arm of the bronchoscope. Maintenance of anaesthesia was achieved with sevoflurane (2-3 vol%) in 80% oxygen. Trace concentrations were measured every 90 seconds in the breathing zones of the paediatrician by means of a highly sensitive direct-reading instrument (Brüel & Kjaer 1302). The lower detection limit was 0.02 ppm. The investigation was done in an OT with and without air conditioning and scavening system. The mean age of the children was 50.3 months (range: 3-109 months). Ventilation and oxygenation were stable throughout the bronchoscopic procedure. Mean exposure of the paediatrician without air-conditioning and scavening system to sevoflurane was over 50 ppm for the endoscopist. All international threshold limit values were exceeded. Peak concentrations higher than 100 ppm sevoflurane were detected repeatedly in 40% of anaesthesias. During bronchoscopy in the operating room equipped with laminar air flow (20.2 air exchanges per hour) and narcotic gas evacuation (30 l/min) the mean exposure of the paediatrician was 26.4 ppm sevoflurane. The main finding of the present study is that under inhalation anaesthesia with sevoflurane for paediatric bronchoscopy occupation exposure is higher than the limits stated in all known health regulation guidelines. Therefore, in case of such working conditions, the use of total

  19. Prospective study of percutaneous tracheostomy: Role of bronchoscopy and surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Tanel; Jakobson, Eero; Sarana, Bruno; Sarapuu, Silver; Vahtramäe, Jüri; Raag, Mait

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Percutaneous tracheostomy is a common procedure but varies considerably in approach. The aim of our study was to evaluate the need for intraoperative bronchoscopy and to compare various surgical techniques. Methods: During 1 year all percutaneous tracheostomies in three intensive care units were prospectively documented according to a unified protocol. In one unit, bronchoscopy was used routinely and in others only during the study. Results: A total of 111 subjects (77 males) with median age 64 (range, 18–86) years and body mass index 25.4 (range, 15.9–50.7) were included. In unit A, tracheal wall was directly exposed; in unit B, limited dissection to enable tracheal palpation was made. In both units, bronchoscopy was used to check the location of an already inserted guiding needle; needle position required correction in 8% and 12% of cases, respectively. In unit C, in tracheostomies without pretracheal tissue dissection, bronchoscopy was used to guide needle insertion; needle position required correction in 66% of cases. Median duration of operations performed by thoracic surgeons and residents was 10 (range, 3–37) min and by intensive care doctors and residents was 16.5 (range, 3–63) min (p < 0.001). Time from the beginning of preparations for tracheostomy until the end of the whole procedure was median 32 min for bedside tracheostomies and 64 min for operations in the operating theatre (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Limited pretracheal tissue dissection enabled proper guiding needle insertion and bronchoscopy was rarely needed. Percutaneous tracheostomies performed by thoracic surgeons took less time, and duration of the whole procedure was remarkably shorter when performed at bedside. PMID:27708779

  20. Prospective study of percutaneous tracheostomy: Role of bronchoscopy and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Tanel; Jakobson, Eero; Sarana, Bruno; Sarapuu, Silver; Vahtramäe, Jüri; Raag, Mait

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous tracheostomy is a common procedure but varies considerably in approach. The aim of our study was to evaluate the need for intraoperative bronchoscopy and to compare various surgical techniques. During 1 year all percutaneous tracheostomies in three intensive care units were prospectively documented according to a unified protocol. In one unit, bronchoscopy was used routinely and in others only during the study. A total of 111 subjects (77 males) with median age 64 (range, 18-86) years and body mass index 25.4 (range, 15.9-50.7) were included. In unit A, tracheal wall was directly exposed; in unit B, limited dissection to enable tracheal palpation was made. In both units, bronchoscopy was used to check the location of an already inserted guiding needle; needle position required correction in 8% and 12% of cases, respectively. In unit C, in tracheostomies without pretracheal tissue dissection, bronchoscopy was used to guide needle insertion; needle position required correction in 66% of cases. Median duration of operations performed by thoracic surgeons and residents was 10 (range, 3-37) min and by intensive care doctors and residents was 16.5 (range, 3-63) min (p < 0.001). Time from the beginning of preparations for tracheostomy until the end of the whole procedure was median 32 min for bedside tracheostomies and 64 min for operations in the operating theatre (p < 0.001). Limited pretracheal tissue dissection enabled proper guiding needle insertion and bronchoscopy was rarely needed. Percutaneous tracheostomies performed by thoracic surgeons took less time, and duration of the whole procedure was remarkably shorter when performed at bedside.

  1. A noise-optimized virtual monochromatic reconstruction algorithm improves stent visualization and diagnostic accuracy for detection of in-stent re-stenosis in lower extremity run-off CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Stefanie; De Cecco, Carlo N; Schoepf, U Joseph; Yamada, Ricardo T; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C; Caruso, Damiano; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Todoran, Thomas M; Wichmann, Julian L

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI+) on stent visualization and accuracy for in-stent re-stenosis at lower extremity dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). We evaluated third-generation dual-source DE-CTA studies in 31 patients with prior stent placement. Images were reconstructed with linear blending (F_0.5) and VMI+ at 40-150 keV. In-stent luminal diameter was measured and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated. Diagnostic confidence was determined using a five-point scale. In 21 patients with invasive catheter angiography, accuracy for significant re-stenosis (≥50 %) was assessed at F_0.5 and 80 keV-VMI+ chosen as the optimal energy level based on image-quality analysis. At CTA, 45 stents were present. DSA was available for 28 stents whereas 12 stents showed significant re-stenosis. CNR was significantly higher with ≤80 keV-VMI+ (17.9 ± 6.4-33.7 ± 12.3) compared to F_0.5 (16.9 ± 4.8; all p < 0.0463); luminal stent diameters were increased at ≥70 keV (5.41 ± 1.8-5.92 ± 1.7 vs. 5.27 ± 1.8, all p < 0.001) and diagnostic confidence was highest at 70-80 keV-VMI+ (4.90 ± 0.48-4.88 ± 0.63 vs. 4.60 ± 0.66, p = 0.001, 0.0042). Sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy for re-stenosis were higher with 80 keV-VMI+ (100, 100, 96.4 %) than F_0.5 (90.9, 94.1, 89.3 %). 80 keV-VMI+ improves image quality, diagnostic confidence and accuracy for stent evaluation at lower extremity DE-CTA. • The impact of noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging on stent visualization was assessed. • Virtual monochromatic imaging significantly improves stent lumen visualization and diagnostic confidence. • At 80 keV diagnostic performance for detection of in-stent restenosis was increased. • 80 keV virtual monochromatic images are recommended for stent evaluation of lower extremity vasculature.

  2. Going Off Road: The First Case Reports of the Use of the Transbronchial Access Tool With Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Anciano, Carlos; Brown, Craig; Bowling, Mark

    2016-12-21

    The ability to reach the peripheral pulmonary nodule/mass with bronchoscopy has improved greatly over the past several years with the use of Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy; however, many of these lesions are unable to be adequately sampled due to their location outside the bronchial airways. We report the first use of the transbronchial access tool that creates a pathway from the bronchial airway through the lung parenchyma into the targeted lung abnormality.

  3. Pulmonary mucormycosis (Cunninghamella bertholletiae) with cavitation diagnosed using ultra-thin fibre-optic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shin-Ichi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Obase, Yasushi; Yoshida, Koichiro; Miyauchi, Ayaka; Kawasaki, Kouzou; Soda, Hiroshi; Oka, Mikio

    2008-03-01

    Recently, ultra-thin bronchoscopy has made it possible to observe smaller bronchi not visualized using standard techniques. We describe a case of pulmonary mucormycosis with cavitation, diagnosed using an ultra-thin bronchoscope. A 15-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukaemia had taken oral prednisolone, 60 mg/day, for graft versus host disease after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. She was admitted to our hospital with fever and a large cavitary lesion in the right hilum. Using an ultra-thin bronchoscope, the interior of the cavity in the superior segment of the right lower lobe was observed. The bronchoscopic findings revealed debris adhering to the cavity wall with a small volume of effusion. Cunninghamella bertholletiae was isolated from the effusion specimen obtained using the bronchoscope. Pulmonary mucormycosis (C. bertholletiae) complicating an immunocompromised state was diagnosed. Ultra-thin bronchoscopy is useful to diagnose complex pulmonary infections and more research is needed to verify its clinical indications and utility.

  4. Autofluorescence imaging bronchoscopy as a novel approach to the management of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Hitomi; Tajima, Manabu; Harada, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Uekusa, Toshimasa; Nagaoka, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is not only rare but also presents highly varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. Consequently, the management and treatment strategies remain unclear. An accurate evaluation tool is important for the management of individual patients in the absence of standard guidelines. Although bronchoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, it cannot satisfactorily detect the treatment response and disease progression because subtle mucosal changes can go undetected. Therefore, improved techniques that can detect subtle mucosal changes associated with TO are desirable. Autofluorescence imaging bronchoscopy (AFI) is a recently introduced advanced endoscopic technology that can detect subtle mucosal changes with the aid of different colors. Here we report the first case, to the best of our knowledge, involving a 42-year-old man with TO in whom tracheal involvement was evaluated by AFI and detected as the appearance of a magenta color. PMID:27867586

  5. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy: clinical utility in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seijo, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is one of several technological advances which have broadened the indications for bronchoscopy in the diagnostic workup of lung cancer. The technique facilitates bronchoscopic sampling of peripheral pulmonary nodules as well as mediastinal lymph nodes, although wide availability and expertise in endobronchial ultrasonography has limited its application in routine clinical practice to the former. ENB in this setting is quite versatile and may be considered an established alternative to more invasive techniques, especially in selected patients with underlying pulmonary disease or comorbidities at high risk for complications from computer topography-guided fine needle aspiration or surgical resection. Nodule sampling may be performed with a variety of instruments, including forceps, cytology brushes, and transbronchial needles. Although samples are generally small, they are often suitable for molecular analysis. PMID:28210167

  6. In vivo electrical bioimpedance characterization of human lung tissue during the bronchoscopy procedure. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Benjamin; Vandersteen, Gerd; Martin, Irene; Castillo, Diego; Torrego, Alfons; Riu, Pere J; Schoukens, Johan; Bragos, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Lung biopsies form the basis for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, in a significant number of cases bronchoscopic lung biopsies fail to provide useful information, especially in diffuse lung disease, so more aggressive procedures are required. Success could be improved using a guided electronic biopsy based on multisine electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a technique which is evaluated in this paper. The theoretical basis of the measurement method and the instrument developed are described, characterized and calibrated while the performance of the instrument is assessed by experiments to evaluate the noise and nonlinear source of errors from measurements on phantoms. Additional preliminary results are included to demonstrate that it is both feasible and safe to monitor in vivo human lung tissue electrical bioimpedance (EBI) during the bronchoscopy procedure. The time required for performing bronchoscopy is not extended because the bioimpedance measurements, present no complications, tolerance problems or side effects among any of the patients measured.

  7. Robust 3-D airway tree segmentation for image-guided peripheral bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael W; Gibbs, Jason D; Cornish, Duane C; Higgins, William E

    2010-04-01

    A vital task in the planning of peripheral bronchoscopy is the segmentation of the airway tree from a 3-D multidetector computed tomography chest scan. Unfortunately, existing methods typically do not sufficiently extract the necessary peripheral airways needed to plan a procedure. We present a robust method that draws upon both local and global information. The method begins with a conservative segmentation of the major airways. Follow-on stages then exhaustively search for additional candidate airway locations. Finally, a graph-based optimization method counterbalances both the benefit and cost of retaining candidate airway locations for the final segmentation. Results demonstrate that the proposed method typically extracts 2-3 more generations of airways than several other methods, and that the extracted airway trees enable image-guided bronchoscopy deeper into the human lung periphery than past studies.

  8. The influence of airway supporting maneuvers on glottis view in pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Umutoglu, Tarik; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Daskaya, Hayrettin; Ozturk, Erdogan; Cakir, Erkan; Salihoglu, Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Flexible fiber optic bronchoscopy is a valuable intervention for evaluation and management of respiratory diseases in both infants, pediatric and adult patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the airway supporting maneuvers on glottis view during pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. In this randomized, controlled, crossover study; patients aged between 0 and 15 years who underwent flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy procedure having American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II risk score were included. Patients having risk of difficult intubation, intubated or patients with tracheostomy, and patients with reduced neck mobility or having cautions for neck mobility were excluded from this study. After obtaining best glottic view at the neutral position, patients were positioned jaw trust with open mouth, jaw trust with teeth prottution, head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers and best glottis scores were recorded. Total of 121 pediatric patients, 57 girls and 64 boys, were included in this study. Both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers improved the glottis view compared with neutral position (p<0.05), but we did not observe any difference between jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers (p>0.05). Head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers improved glottis view when compared with both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers and neutral position (p<0.05); however we found no differences between head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers (p>0.05). All airway supporting maneuvers improved glottic view during pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy; however head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers were found to be the most effective maneuvers. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. [The influence of airway supporting maneuvers on glottis view in pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy].

    PubMed

    Umutoglu, Tarik; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Daskaya, Hayrettin; Ozturk, Erdogan; Cakir, Erkan; Salihoglu, Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Flexible fiber optic bronchoscopy is a valuable intervention for evaluation and management of respiratory diseases in both infants, pediatric and adult patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the airway supporting maneuvers on glottis view during pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. In this randomized, controlled, crossover study; patients aged between 0 and 15 years who underwent flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy procedure having American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II risk score were included. Patients having risk of difficult intubation, intubated or patients with tracheostomy, and patients with reduced neck mobility or having cautions for neck mobility were excluded from this study. After obtaining best glottic view at the neutral position, patients were positioned jaw trust with open mouth, jaw trust with teeth prottution, head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers and best glottis scores were recorded. Total of 121 pediatric patients, 57 girls and 64 boys, were included in this study. Both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers improved the glottis view compared with neutral position (p<0.05), but we did not observe any difference between jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers (p>0.05). Head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers improved glottis view when compared with both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers and neutral position (p<0.05); however we found no differences between head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers (p>0.05). All airway supporting maneuvers improved glottic view during pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy; however head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers were found to be the most effective maneuvers. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions with radial probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) is a challenging task for pulmonologists. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) has been developed to enhance diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of R-EBUS in the diagnosis of PPLs. A retrospective study was conducted on 174 patients diagnosed with PPLs who underwent EBUS-guided bronchoscopy. Histological examination of specimens obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and cytological examinations of brushing smear, brush rinse fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated for the diagnosis. The mean diameter of the PPLs was 25.1 ± 10.7 mm. The final diagnoses included 129 malignancies and 45 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 79.9%. Neither size nor etiology of the PPLs influenced the diagnostic performance of EBUS-guided bronchoscopy (82.9% vs. 74.6% for PPLs>20mm and PPLs≤20mm; p=0.19, and 82.9% vs. 71.1% for malignancy and benign diseases; p=0.09). TBLB rendered the highest yield among these specimens (69.0%, 50.6%, 42.0%, and 44.3% for TBLB, brushing smear, brush rinse fluid, and BALF, respectively; p<0.001). The combination of TBLB, brush smear, and BALF provided the greatest diagnostic yield, while brush rinse fluid did not add benefits to the outcomes. R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy is a useful technique in the diagnosis of PPLs. To achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBLB, brushing smear and bronchoalveolar lavage should be performed together. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of early lung cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Rossella; Capozzi, Rosanna; Liparulo, Valeria; Puma, Francesco; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17% after diagnoses. Indeed many patients tend to have a very poor prognosis, due to being diagnosed at an advanced stage. Conversely patients who are diagnosed at an early stage have a 5-year survival >70%, indicating that early detection of lung cancer is crucial to improve survival. Although flexible bronchoscopy is a relatively non-invasive procedure for patients suspected of having lung cancer, only 29% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 69% of microinvasive tumors were detectable using white light bronchoscopy (WLB) alone. As a result, in the past two decades, new bronchoscopic techniques have been developed to increase the yield and diagnostic accuracy, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), narrow band imaging (NBI) and high magnification bronchovideoscopy (HMB). However, due to the low specificity and the limitation to detect only proximal bronchial tree, new probe-based technologies have been introduced: radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). To date, although tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malignant/premalignant airway disease and some techniques are still investigational, bronchoscopic technologies can be considered the safest and most accurate tools to evaluate both central and distal airway mucosa. PMID:28066614

  12. Web-based versus traditional lecture: are they equally effective as a flexible bronchoscopy teaching method?

    PubMed Central

    Sterse Mata, Caio Augusto; Hirotoshi Ota, Luiz; Suzuki, Iunis; Telles, Adriana; Miotto, Andre; Eduardo Vilaça Leão, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the traditional live lecture to a web-based approach in the teaching of bronchoscopy and evaluates the positive and negative aspects of both methods. We developed a web-based bronchoscopy curriculum, which integrates texts, images and animations. It was applied to first-year interns, who were later administered a multiple-choice test. Another group of eight first-year interns received the traditional teaching method and the same test. The two groups were compared using the Student's t-test. The mean scores (±SD) of students who used the website were 14.63 ± 1.41 (range 13–17). The test scores of the other group had the same range, with a mean score of 14.75 ± 1. The Student's t-test showed no difference between the test results. The common positive point noted was the presence of multimedia content. The web group cited as positive the ability to review the pages, and the other one the role of the teacher. Web-based bronchoscopy education showed results similar to the traditional live lecture in effectiveness. PMID:22108938

  13. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient with a large tracheal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lei; Feng, Yan-Hua; Ma, Hai-Chun; Dong, Su

    2015-04-01

    In the event of a high degree of airway obstruction, endotracheal intubation can be impossible and even dangerous, because it can cause complete airway obstruction, especially in patients with high tracheal lesions. However, a smaller endotracheal tube under the guidance of a bronchoscope can be insinuated past obstructive tumor in most noncircumferential cases. Here we report a case of successful fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient undergoing surgical resection of a large, high tracheal tumor causing severe tracheal stenosis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with dyspnea, intermittent irritable cough, and sleep deprivation for one and a half years. X-rays and computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an irregular pedunculated soft tissue mass within the tracheal lumen. The mass occupied over 90% of the lumen and caused severe tracheal stenosis. Endotracheal intubation was done to perform tracheal tumor resection under general anesthesia. After several failed conventional endotracheal intubation attempts, fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation was successful. The patient received mechanical ventilation and then underwent tumor resection and a permanent tracheostomy. This case provides evidence of the usefulness of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation technique in management of an anticipated difficult airway and suggests that tracheal intubation can be performed directly in patients with a tracheal tumor who can sleep in the supine position, even if they have occasional sleep deprivation and severe tracheal obstruction as revealed by imaging techniques.

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Pseudo-outbreak at a University Hospital Bronchoscopy Unit in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ece, G; Erac, B; Limoncu, MH; Baysak, A; Oz, AT; Ceylan, KC

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen found predominantly in the enviroment and hospital setting. Invasive procedures and treatment methods, instruments used for diagnosis and irrational antibiotic use play major roles in the spread of this pathogen. The study aimed to evaluate consecutive S maltophilia isolation from bronchoalveolar lavage samples during bronchoscopy procedure during a week. Methods: Four patients consecutively had S maltophilia isolated during bronchoscopy between September 8 and 15, 2012. The identification of the isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility were studied by automated Vitek version 2.0 (Biomerieux, France) system. The clonal relationship between the isolates was studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Four consecutive S maltophilia isolates had identical band patterns and showed clonal relatedness. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is a common invasive procedure that is utilized in chest diseases departments and intensive care units (ICUs). Contamination may take place due to inappropiate use and cause spread of infectious pathogens. In the current study, we detected consecutive S maltophilia strains with identical band patterns isolated within a week. After appropiate disinfection and cleaning procedures, no further isolation was detected. PMID:25303196

  15. Topical Lidocaine Does Not Exaggerate Laryngomalacia in Infants During Flexible Bronchoscopy Under Propofol Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S; Trachsel, Daniel; Zhang, Guicheng; Erb, Thomas O; Hammer, Jürg

    2016-07-01

    Topical lidocaine has been found to result in overestimation of the severity of laryngomalacia in infants undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under conscious sedation with midazolam and nalbuphine. This effect has never been confirmed and may depend on the level of sedation and the drugs used. We assessed the effect of topical lidocaine on laryngomalacia in infants undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under general anesthesia with propofol. Thirteen infants with congenital stridor referred to diagnostic flexible video-bronchoscopy were studied under propofol anesthesia before and 3 minutes after topical lidocaine administration to the larynx at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. Laryngomalacia was scored using 60 seconds video recordings of the larynx before and after lidocaine administration in random order by 2 independent blinded observers using the previously described arytenoid score (AS), epiglottis score (ES), and the total score (TS=AS+ES). No significant differences in AS, ES, and laryngomalacia score were found between the prelidocaine and postlidocaine assessments by the 2 raters. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.995 (95% confidence interval, 0.986-0.998) and 0.975 (0.930-0.991) and 0.989 (0.971-996) for AS, ES, and TS, respectively. The assessment of laryngomalacia is not affected by topical lidocaine under propofol anesthesia. The lidocaine effect on laryngomalacia may vary depending on the medication regime used and the depth of procedural sedation.

  16. Flexible bronchoscopy with moderate sedation in COPD: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Grendelmeier, Peter; Tamm, Michael; Jahn, Kathleen; Pflimlin, Eric; Stolz, Daiana

    2017-01-01

    Background Flexible bronchoscopy is increasingly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to examine the safety of flexible bronchoscopy with moderate sedation in patients with COPD. Methods This study is a prospective, longitudinal, case–control, single-center study including 1,400 consecutive patients. After clinical and lung function assessments, patients were dichotomized in COPD or non-COPD groups. The primary end point was the combined incidence of complications. Results The incidence of complications was similar in patients with and without COPD and independent of forced expiratory volume in the first second % predicted. Patients with COPD more frequently required insertion of a naso- or oropharyngeal airway; however, this difference was no longer significant after adjustment for age, gender, and duration of the procedure. Hypotension was significantly more common among patients with COPD. The number of episodes of hypoxemia ≤90% did not differ between the groups. However, patients with COPD had a lower mean and nadir transcutaneous oxygen saturation. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) change over the time course was similar in both groups, but both peak PtcCO2 and time on PtcCO2 >45 mmHg were higher in the COPD group. There were no differences in patient-reported outcomes. Conclusion The safety of flexible bronchoscopy is similar in patients with and without COPD. This finding confirms the suitability of the procedure for both clinical and research indications. PMID:28115841

  17. Vocal cord function and bispectral index in pediatric bronchoscopy patients emerging from propofol anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Schroeck, Hedwig; Fecho, Karamarie; Abode, Kathleen; Bailey, Ann

    2010-05-01

    In children undergoing bronchoscopy for evaluation of stridor or respiratory symptoms, movement of the vocal cords is routinely assessed at the conclusion of flexible bronchoscopy with children still anesthetized. The effect of anesthesia on vocal cord function is not well described. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between depth of propofol anesthesia, as measured by Bispectral Index (BIS), and vocal cord movement in pediatric patients. Children between 6 months and 12 years of age presenting for diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Anesthesia was maintained with a propofol infusion which was discontinued upon completion of the lower airway evaluation. An independent observer recorded the BIS score every 15 sec from discontinuation of propofol whereas the pulmonologist continued to observe vocal cord motion. BIS scores were also recorded for each observed clinical endpoint (paradoxical and normal vocal cord movement, complete vocal cord closure, and volitional movement). Data were analyzed for 47 subjects. The BIS values increased significantly from the conclusion of the lower airway evaluation with return of normal vocal cord movement, complete vocal cord closure, and volitional movement (P < 0.0005). BIS readings were higher for patients younger than 2 years. Paradoxical vocal cord movement was documented in 10.6% of subjects, but resolved in all subjects. Our findings suggest that return of vocal cord function during emergence from propofol anesthesia is related to decreasing anesthetic depth with complete vocal cord closure occurring at BIS values near those associated with volitional movement.

  18. Prospective pilot trial of dexmedetomidine sedation for awake diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keat; Orme, Ruari; Williams, Daryl; Segal, Reny

    2010-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine has the favorable properties of sedation, sympatholysis, analgesia, and a low risk of apnea. These properties suggest that dexmedetomidine may be useful in procedural sedation. In view of this, we conducted a pilot trial to determine the feasibility of using dexmedetomidine as a sole agent for providing sedation during awake diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Patients presenting for awake diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy consented to participate in a trial of dexmedetomidine sedation for the procedure. In addition to local anesthetic topicalization of the airways, dexmedetomidine was infused at 0.5 μg/kg over 10 minutes followed by an infusion of 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg/h titrating to a Ramsay Sedation Scale score of 3. Hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure), oxygenation status (pulse oximetry), adverse events, use of rescue sedation, and patient and proceduralist satisfaction were recorded during the trial. Five of 9 recruited patients required rescue sedation to allow the procedure to proceed. Dexmedetomidine as a sole agent at an infusion of 0.5 μg/kg over 10 minutes followed by an infusion of 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg/h is unable to provide adequate sedation for awake diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy without the need for rescue sedation in a large proportion of patients.

  19. Web-based versus traditional lecture: are they equally effective as a flexible bronchoscopy teaching method?

    PubMed

    Mata, Caio Augusto Sterse; Ota, Luiz Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Iunis; Telles, Adriana; Miotto, Andre; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Vilaça

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the traditional live lecture to a web-based approach in the teaching of bronchoscopy and evaluates the positive and negative aspects of both methods. We developed a web-based bronchoscopy curriculum, which integrates texts, images and animations. It was applied to first-year interns, who were later administered a multiple-choice test. Another group of eight first-year interns received the traditional teaching method and the same test. The two groups were compared using the Student's t-test. The mean scores (± SD) of students who used the website were 14.63 ± 1.41 (range 13-17). The test scores of the other group had the same range, with a mean score of 14.75 ± 1. The Student's t-test showed no difference between the test results. The common positive point noted was the presence of multimedia content. The web group cited as positive the ability to review the pages, and the other one the role of the teacher. Web-based bronchoscopy education showed results similar to the traditional live lecture in effectiveness.

  20. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of early lung cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Marco; Potenza, Rossella; Capozzi, Rosanna; Liparulo, Valeria; Puma, Francesco; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17% after diagnoses. Indeed many patients tend to have a very poor prognosis, due to being diagnosed at an advanced stage. Conversely patients who are diagnosed at an early stage have a 5-year survival >70%, indicating that early detection of lung cancer is crucial to improve survival. Although flexible bronchoscopy is a relatively non-invasive procedure for patients suspected of having lung cancer, only 29% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 69% of microinvasive tumors were detectable using white light bronchoscopy (WLB) alone. As a result, in the past two decades, new bronchoscopic techniques have been developed to increase the yield and diagnostic accuracy, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), narrow band imaging (NBI) and high magnification bronchovideoscopy (HMB). However, due to the low specificity and the limitation to detect only proximal bronchial tree, new probe-based technologies have been introduced: radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). To date, although tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malignant/premalignant airway disease and some techniques are still investigational, bronchoscopic technologies can be considered the safest and most accurate tools to evaluate both central and distal airway mucosa.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of low- and high-fidelity bronchoscopy simulation for training in conventional transbronchial needle aspiration and user preferences.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mohsen; Wahidi, Momen M; Zamanian Rohani, Nazanin; Colt, Henri G

    2010-01-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) can be learned using high-fidelity virtual-reality platforms and low-fidelity models comprised of molded silicone or excised animal airways. The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions and preferences of learners and instructors regarding the comparative effectiveness of low-fidelity and high-fidelity bronchoscopy simulation for training in TBNA. During the 2008 annual CHEST conference, a prospective randomized crossover design was used to train study participants in three methods of conventional TBNA using low- and high-fidelity models. Likert style questions were administered to learners and instructors in order to elicit preferences and opinions regarding educational effectiveness of the models. Results were tabulated and depicted in graphic format, with medians calculated. Learners felt that the models were equally enjoyable (13-13) and enthusiasm generating (low 17-high 15). There was preference for low-fidelity in terms of realism (23-17), ease of learning (20-6), and learning all three TBNA methods (31-7 for hub-against-wall, 31-6 for jabbing, 29-6 for piggyback). Low-fidelity was preferred as an ideal model overall (19-11). Instructors thought that low-fidelity was more useful in teaching TBNA (9-0 for all three methods). Instructors perceived the low-fidelity model overall as an ideal tool for learning TBNA (8-0) and a more effective teaching instrument (8-0). Based on learner and instructor perceptions, a low-fidelity model is superior to a high-fidelity platform for training in three methods of conventional TBNA. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Post-bronchoscopy pneumonia in patients suffering from lung cancer: Development and validation of a risk prediction score.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kazuki; Sato, Masako; Horio, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Jun; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Takihara, Takahisa; Niimi, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Masuda, Ryota; Aoki, Takuya; Urano, Tetsuya; Iwazaki, Masayuki; Asano, Koichiro

    2017-05-01

    The incidence, risk factors, and consequences of pneumonia after flexible bronchoscopy in patients with lung cancer have not been studied in detail. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 237 patients with lung cancer who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy between April 2012 and July 2013 (derivation sample) and 241 patients diagnosed between August 2013 and July 2014 (validation sample) in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan. A score predictive of post-bronchoscopy pneumonia was developed in the derivation sample and tested in the validation sample. Pneumonia developed after bronchoscopy in 6.3% and 4.1% of patients in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Patients who developed post-bronchoscopy pneumonia needed to change or cancel their planned cancer therapy more frequently than those without pneumonia (56% vs. 6%, p<0.001). Age ≥70 years, current smoking, and central location of the tumor were independent predictors of pneumonia, which we added to develop our predictive score. The incidence of pneumonia associated with scores=0, 1, and ≥2 was 0, 3.7, and 13.4% respectively in the derivation sample (p=0.003), and 0, 2.9, and 9.7% respectively in the validation sample (p=0.016). The incidence of post-bronchoscopy pneumonia in patients with lung cancer was not rare and associated with adverse effects on the clinical course. A simple 3-point predictive score identified patients with lung cancer at high risk of post-bronchoscopy pneumonia prior to the procedure. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon S; Albrecht, Moritz H; Wichmann, Julian L; Hüsers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W; Metzger, Sarah C; Vogl, Thomas J; Lehnert, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p < 0.001) superior to all VMI series, which showed highest values at 70 keV (SNR, 18.5 ± 7.6; CNR, 16.0 ± 7.4), as well as linearly-blended F_0.5 series (SNR, 16.8 ± 7.3; CNR, 13.6 ± 6.9). Highest subjective image quality scores were observed for 40, 50, and 60 keV VMI+ reconstructions (all p > 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. • VMI+ combines increased contrast with reduced image noise. • VMI+ shows substantially less image noise than traditional VMI. • 40-keV reconstructions show highest SNR/CNR of the aortic and iliofemoral access route. • Observers overall prefer 60 keV VMI+ images. • VMI+ DECT imaging helps improve image quality for TAVR planning.

  4. Advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic dual-energy CT angiography of the abdomen: optimization of kiloelectron volt settings to improve image contrast.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Moritz H; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Hüsers, Kristina; Beeres, Martin; Bucher, Andreas M; Kaup, Moritz; Martin, Simon S; Fischer, Sebastian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J; Wichmann, Julian L

    2016-06-01

    To compare quantitative image quality parameters in abdominal dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DE-CTA) using an advanced image-based (Mono+) reconstruction algorithm for virtual monoenergetic imaging and standard DE-CTA. Fifty-five patients (36 men; mean age, 64.2 ± 12.7 years) who underwent abdominal DE-CTA were retrospectively included. Mono + images were reconstructed at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 keV levels and as standard linearly blended M_0.6 images (60 % 100 kV, 40 % 140 kV). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the common hepatic (CHA), splenic (SA), superior mesenteric (SMA) and left renal arteries (LRA) were objectively measured. Mono+ DE-CTA series showed a statistically superior CNR for 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 keV (P < 0.031) compared to M_0.6 images for all investigated arteries except SMA at 80 keV (P = 0.08). CNR at 40 keV revealed a mean relative increase of 287.7 % compared to linearly blended images among all assessed arteries (P < 0.001). SNR of Mono+ images was consistently significantly higher at 40, 50, 60 and 70 keV compared to M_0.6 for CHA and SA (P < 0.009). Compared to linearly blended images, Mono+ reconstructions at low keV levels of abdominal DE-CTA datasets significantly improve quantitative image quality. • Mono+ combines increased attenuation with reduced image noise compared to standard DE-CTA. • Mono+ shows superior contrast-to-noise ratios at low keV compared to linearly-blended images. • Contrast-to-noise ratio in monoenergetic DE-CTA peaks at 40 keV. • Mono+ reconstructions significantly improve quantitative image quality at low keV levels.

  5. Trans-nasal flexible bronchoscopy in wheezing children: Diagnostic yield, impact on therapy, and prevalence of laryngeal cleft.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Richard P; Baughn, Julie M; Cofer, Shelagh A; Balakrishnan, Karthik

    2017-09-14

    Persistent or recurrent wheezing is a common indication for flexible bronchoscopy, as anatomic and infectious or inflammatory changes are highly prevalent. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of anatomic, infectious, and inflammatory disease in a cohort of children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy for wheezing or poorly controlled asthma. We retrospectively reviewed all children <18 years old who underwent flexible bronchoscopy at our center from October 29, 2012-December 31, 2016 for the primary or secondary indication of wheezing (persistent, frequently recurring, or atypical) or poorly controlled asthma. A total of 101 procedures were identified in 94 patients, aged 3 months to 18 years. Potential anatomic causes for wheezing identified in 45.7% of patients and inflammatory changes in 49.5% of procedures. This included the identification of a laryngeal cleft in 17% for which half required medical or surgical management. Tracheobronchomalacia was the most commonly identified anatomic lesion. Thirty children from this cohort had poorly controlled asthma. Among this subgroup, 54% had increased neutrophils on BAL and 30% had an anatomic contributor to wheezing, including one with a laryngeal cleft. Based on findings from flexible bronchoscopy, management changes made in 63.8% of patients. This included medication changes in 54 and surgical intervention in 9. We conclude that transnasal flexible bronchoscopy has high yield in children with recurrent, persistent, or atypical wheezing and those with poorly controlled asthma. Laryngeal cleft has a reasonably high prevalence that warrants specific evaluation in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongquan; Fang, Baojun; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible bronchoscopy has been more and more used for diagnosis and management diseases of respiratory system in pediatrics. Previous studies have reported that remifentanil (RF) and propofol are safe and effective for flexible bronchoscopy in adults, however, there have no trials evaluate the efficacy of DEX-RF versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. We divided 123 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF or dexmedetomidine-propofol into 2 groups: Group DR (n = 63, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1 h−1; RF infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg−1 min−1), Group DP (n = 60, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg−1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1 h−1; propofol infusion at 10 μg kg−1 for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.1 μg kg−1 min−1). Ramsay sedation scale of the 2 groups was maintained at 3. Anesthesia onset time; total number of intraoperative patient movements; hemodynamics; total cumulative dose of DEX; amount of and time to first-dose rescue midazolam and lidocaine; postoperative recovery time; adverse events; and bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded. Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DP (8.22 ± 2.48 vs 12.25 ± 6.43 minutes, respectively, for DP, DR, P = 0.015). The perioperative hemodynamic profile was more stable in DR than DP group. More children moved during flexible bronchoscopy in DP group (P = 0.009). Total dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly higher in DR than in DP (P < 0.001). Similarly, the time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly longer in DP than in DR (P < 0.001). Total cumulative dose of DEX was more in DR than DP group (P < 0.001). The time to recovery for discharge from the postanesthesia care unit

  7. Analogosedation during flexible bronchoscopy using a combination of midazolam, propofol and fentanyl - A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias; Thümmel, Kristina; Cornelissen, Christian G; Krüger, Stefan; Dreher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    According to current guidelines flexible bronchoscopy is usually performed under sedation. Previously it has been demonstrated that combined sedation with e. g. the combination of midazolam and propofol or an opioid might have several advantages over sedation with just one sedative drug. However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of combined sedation with midazolam, fentanyl and propofol (MFP) compared to sedation with midazolam and fentanyl (MF) or midazolam and propofol (MP). We carried out a retrospective analysis of bronchoscopies performed under triple (MFP) or double sedation (MF and MP) in an academic hospital. 1392 procedures were analyzed (MFP: n = 824; MF: n = 272; MP: n = 296). In particular, we compared the occurrence of complications and the dosage of administered sedative drugs between the groups. The occurrence of adverse events (MFP vs. MF: odds ratio (OR) 1.116 [95% CI 0.7741 to 1.604]; MFP vs. MP: OR 0.8296 [95% CI 0.5939 to 1.16] and severe adverse events (MFP vs. MF: OR 1.581 [95% CI 0.5594 to 4.336]; MFP vs. MP: OR 3.47 [95% CI 0.908 to 15.15]; all p>0.05) was similar in all groups. The dosage of midazolam was lower in the MFP compared to the MF or MP group (MFP vs. MF: Cohen's d 0.075; MFP vs. MP: Cohen's d 0.225; all p<0.001). In addition patients in the MFP group received significantly less propofol compared to the MP group (Cohen's d 1.22; p<0.001). In summary we were able to demonstrate that triple sedation can safely be administered during flexible bronchoscopy and is associated with a reduced dosage of midazolam and propofol.

  8. Safety of performing fiberoptic bronchoscopy in critically ill hypoxemic patients with acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Cracco, Christophe; Fartoukh, Muriel; Prodanovic, Hélène; Azoulay, Elie; Chenivesse, Cécile; Lorut, Christine; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Bui, Hoang Nam; Taille, Camille; Brochard, Laurent; Demoule, Alexandre; Maitre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety of fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in nonintubated critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure have not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to measure the incidence of intubation and need to increase ventilatory support following FOB and to identify predictive factors of this event. Methods A prospective multicenter observational study was carried out in 8 French adult intensive care units. 169 FOB performed in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio equal or less than 300 were analyzed. Our main end point was intubation rate. The secondary end point was rate of increased ventilatory support defined as greater than a 50% increase in oxygen requirement, the need to start non invasive-positive pressure ventilation (NI-PPV) or increase NI-PPV support. Results Within 24 hours, an increase in ventilatory support was required following 59 (35%) bronchoscopies, of which 25 (15%) led to endotracheal intubation. The existence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR:5.2 [1.6–17.8], p=0.007) or immunosuppression (OR : 5.4 [1.7–17.2], p=0.004) were significantly associated with the need for intubation in multivariable analysis. None of the baseline physiological parameters including the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was associated with intubation. Conclusion Bronchoscopy is often followed by an increase in ventilatory support in hypoxemic critically ill patients, but less frequently by the need for intubation. COPD, immunosuppression are associated with a need for invasive ventilation in the following 24 hours. PMID:23070123

  9. Low kV versus dual-energy virtual monoenergetic CT imaging for proven liver lesions: what are the advantages and trade-offs in conspicuity and image quality? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G Jay; Michalak, Gregory J; Childs, Robert; McCollough, Brian; Kurup, Anil N; Hough, David M; Frye, Judson M; Fidler, Jeff L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Harmsen, W Scott; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, J G

    2017-10-05

    Single-energy low tube potential (SE-LTP) and dual-energy virtual monoenergetic (DE-VM) CT images both increase the conspicuity of hepatic lesions by increasing iodine signal. Our purpose was to compare the conspicuity of proven liver lesions, artifacts, and radiologist preferences in dose-matched SE-LTP and DE-VM images. Thirty-one patients with 72 proven liver lesions (21 benign, 51 malignant) underwent full-dose contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT (DECT). Half-dose images were obtained using single tube reconstruction of the dual-source SE-LTP projection data (80 or 100 kV), and by inserting noise into dual-energy projection data, with DE-VM images reconstructed from 40 to 70 keV. Three blinded gastrointestinal radiologists evaluated half-dose SE-LTP and DE-VM images, ranking and grading liver lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence (4-point scale) on a per-lesion basis. Image quality (noise, artifacts, sharpness) was evaluated, and overall image preference was ranked on per-patient basis. Lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was compared between techniques. Mean lesion size was 1.5 ± 1.2 cm. Across the readers, the mean conspicuity ratings for 40, 45, and 50 keV half-dose DE-VM images were superior compared to other half-dose image sets (p < 0.0001). Per-lesion diagnostic confidence was similar between half-dose SE-LTP compared to half-dose DE-VM images (p ≥ 0.05; 1.19 vs. 1.24-1.32). However, SE-LTP images had less noise and artifacts and were sharper compared to DE-VM images less than 70 keV (p < 0.05). On a per-patient basis, radiologists preferred SE-LTP images the most and preferred 40-50 keV the least (p < 0.0001). Lesion CNR was also higher in SE-LTP images than DE-VM images (p < 0.01). For the same applied dose level, liver lesions were more conspicuous using DE-VM compared to SE-LTP; however, SE-LTP images were preferred more than any single DE-VM energy level, likely due to lower noise and artifacts.

  10. Optimizing cerebral perfusion pressure during fiberoptic bronchoscopy in severe head injury: effect of hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Previgliano, I J; Ripoll, P I; Chiappero, G; Galíndez, F; Germani, L; González, D H; Ferrari, N; Hlavnicka, A; Purvis, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if Hyperventilation (HV) could avoid the Intracranial Pressure (ICP) peak that occurs during Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (FB) in severely head injured patients. A Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) > 75 mmHg was maintained in 34 patients, with a subgroup randomized to receive controlled HV during FB. Measurements were done before the procedure, during maximum ICP values and 30 minutes after FB. The HV group had minor ICP values after FB, without differences in CPP and ICP peak values.

  11. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  12. Development and Assessment of a Low-Cost 3D-printed Airway Model for Bronchoscopy Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Timothy; Yong, Sarah A; Steinfort, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    We report upon the techniques used to create a plastic 3-dimensional-printed bronchoscopy trainer from an actual patient computed tomography scan. The formatting methods to create the printable file, using free open access software, are outlined. The resulting high anatomic fidelity part-task trainer is described, as well as experienced bronchoscopists' perception of its realism and utility as a training tool. A discussion of the current state of knowledge about the role of simulation in bronchoscopy training, as well as the potential contribution of this device, is presented.

  13. Emergency bronchoscopy for foreign-body aspiration in a child with type I mucopolysaccharidosis: a challenging airway management experience.

    PubMed

    Kendigelen, Pinar; Tunali, Yusuf; Tutuncu, Ayse; Ashyralyyeva, Gulruh; Emre, Senol; Kaya, Guner

    2016-08-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a rare lysosomal storage disease. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) accumulate in musculoskeletal system, connective tissues. Enlarged tongue, short immobile neck, and limited mobility of the cervical spine and temporomandibular joints render the airway management potentially risky. MPS children have high anesthetic risks, especially in airway management of emergency situations. The foreign-body aspiration requiring intervention with rigid bronchoscopy is an urgent and risky clinical situation. We present our experience with a challenging airway management with a three-year-old child with MPS who needed emergency bronchoscopy due to peanut aspiration.

  14. Pseudo-outbreak of legionnaires disease among patients undergoing bronchoscopy - Arizona, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-08-14

    Legionnaires disease (LD) is a potentially fatal form of pneumonia acquired by inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella is a common cause of health-care--associated pneumonia, particularly in settings with hematopoietic stem-cell or solid-organ transplant recipients. On July 25, 2008, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) notified CDC of four patients who had Legionella cultured from specimens obtained during bronchoscopies performed at a medical center in Arizona. To characterize transmission and identify the source, ADHS and CDC began an investigation on August 1. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the patients did not have LD and that nonsterile ice used to cool saline-filled syringes for bronchoalveolar lavage was the likely source of Legionella contamination of these clinical specimens. Ice was supplied by two ice machines, which became contaminated by heavy Legionella colonization within the center's potable water supply during a 6-month period (February--July 2008). Findings from the investigation underscore the importance of adherence to recommended infection control practices and surveillance for LD in health-care settings. Clinicians and endoscopy technicians should ensure that nonsterile items are not introduced during bronchoscopy procedures.

  15. Infections causing central airway obstruction: role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Keshishyan, Sevak; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Hammoud, Kassem; Avagyan, Arpine; Assallum, Hussein; Harris, Kassem

    2017-06-01

    Central airway obstructive infections (CAOI) are challenging medical conditions that may represent an advanced and complicated process of ongoing infections. The epidemiology of CAOI is unknown as well as the pathophysiology and the mechanism of development. This is due to sparse data in the literature that consists mainly of case reports and retrospective case series. CAOI can be caused by fungal, bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. Most patients with CAOI can be diagnosed clinically and with chest imaging, which demonstrate obstruction of the central airways. However, bronchoscopy is commonly used to confirm and obtain a specific diagnosis to guide specific therapy. In recent years, interventional pulmonology (IP) is becoming widely available and offer a minimally invasive approach for the management of central airway diseases such as cancers, benign strictures, and other conditions. Various bronchoscopic modalities are used to treat central airway obstruction (CAO), such as mechanical debulking, endobronchial laser therapy, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, and airway stenting. In patients with CAOI, the role of therapeutic bronchoscopy is not clearly defined, but many isolated reports in the literature described bronchoscopic intervention in combination with medical therapy as the initial management approach. In this paper, we present cases of CAOI that underwent bronchoscopic intervention as part of their management. We described the infectious etiology, locations, bronchoscopic findings and bronchoscopic modalities for airway management.

  16. Flexible bronchoscopy may decrease respiratory muscle strength: premedicational midazolam in focus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is a procedure accepted to be safe in general, with low complication rates reported. On the other hand, it is known that patients with pre-existing respiratory failure have developed hypoventilation following FB. In this study the effects of FB on respiratory muscle strength were investigated by measuring maximum respiratory pressures. Methods One hundred and forty patients, aged between 25 and 90 years, who had undergone diagnostic bronchoscopy between February 2012 and May 2012, were recruited to the study. Pre- and post-procedure maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were measured. A correlation between the MIP and MEP changes and patient characteristics and FB variables were investigated. Results Significant decreases in both MIP and MEP values were observed following FB (p < 0.001 for both). Decreases were attributed to the midazolam used for sedation. Significant decreases in respiratory muscle strengths were observed especially in the high-dose midazolam group, compared to both low-dose and non-midazolam groups. Conclusions It was determined that respiratory muscle weakness may arise post-procedure in patients who have undergone FB, and this is constitutively related to midazolam premedication. Respiratory muscle weakness might play a role in potential hypoventilation in critical patients who undergo FB. PMID:23009348

  17. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets.

  18. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  19. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets. PMID:26733735

  20. Using Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy and Dye Injection to Aid in Video-Assisted Lung Resection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jordan; Lee, Thomas J; Joiner, Theresa; Wrightson, William

    2016-11-01

    Small (2 cm) peripheral lung lesions and ground glass opacities remain a difficult subset of lung lesions for the diagnosis and management of lung cancer. Surgical biopsy is more difficult for these lesions because intraoperative localization has to be made without the aid of direct visualization or manual palpation. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be used in the operating room to identify a small peripheral lesion and marked using an injection of methylene blue, which can be seen on the visceral pleura of the lung. We present our initial experience using this technique. The sample was eight patients who had peripheral lesions with an average size of 19 mm. Surgical wedge biopsy was diagnostic in all cases, with an average procedure time of 28 minutes. There were no complications from this procedure. In conclusion, these data suggest that electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy can be performed safely with high diagnostic accuracy by the operating thoracic surgeon, but further data are needed to establish its utility and safety.

  1. Cost minimization analysis for combinations of sampling techniques in bronchoscopy of endobronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Roth, Kjetil; Hardie, Jon Andrew; Andreassen, Alf Henrik; Leh, Friedemann; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind

    2009-06-01

    The choice of sampling techniques in bronchoscopy with sampling from a visible lesion will depend on the expected diagnostic yields and the costs of the sampling techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the most economical combination of sampling techniques when approaching endobronchial visible lesions. A cost minimization analysis was performed. All bronchoscopies from 2003 and 2004 at Haukeland university hospital, Bergen, Norway, were reviewed retrospectively for diagnostic yields. 162 patients with endobronchial disease were included. Potential sampling techniques used were biopsy, brushing, endobronchial needle aspiration (EBNA) and washings. Costs were estimated based on registration of equipment costs and personnel costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine threshold values. The combination of biopsy, brushing and EBNA was the most economical strategy with an average cost of Euro 893 (95% CI: 657, 1336). The cost of brushing had to be below Euro 83 and it had to increase the diagnostic yield more than 2.2%, for biopsy and brushing to be more economical than biopsy alone. The combination of biopsy, brushing and EBNA was more economical than biopsy and brushing when the cost of EBNA was below Euro 205 and the increase in diagnostic yield was above 5.2%. In the current study setting, biopsy, brushing and EBNA was the most economical combination of sampling techniques for endobronchial visible lesions.

  2. Robust bronchoscope motion tracking using sequential Monte Carlo methods in navigated bronchoscopy: dynamic phantom and patient validation.

    PubMed

    Luó, Xióngbiāo; Feuerstein, Marco; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and robust estimates of camera position and orientation in a bronchoscope are required for navigation. Fusion of pre-interventional information (e.g., CT, MRI, or US) and intra-interventional information (e.g., bronchoscopic video) were incorporated into a navigation system to provide physicians with an augmented reality environment for bronchoscopic interventions. Two approaches were used to predict bronchoscope movements by incorporating sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) simulation including (1) image-based tracking techniques and (2) electromagnetic tracking (EMT) methods. SMC simulation was introduced to model ambiguities or uncertainties that occurred in image- and EMT-based bronchoscope tracking. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features were employed to overcome the limitations of image-based motion tracking methods. Validation was performed on five phantom and ten human case datasets acquired in the supine position. For dynamic phantom validation, the EMT-SMC simulation method improved the tracking performance of the successfully registered bronchoscopic video frames by 12.7% compared with a hybrid-based method. In comparisons between tracking results and ground truth, the accuracy of the EMT-SMC simulation method was 1.51 mm (positional error) and 5.44° (orientation error). During patient assessment, the SIFT-SMC simulation scheme was more stable or robust than a previous image-based approach for bronchoscope motion estimation, showing 23.6% improvement of successfully tracked frames. Comparing the estimates of our method to ground truth, the position and orientation errors are 3.72 mm and 10.2°, while those of our previous image-based method were at least 7.77 mm and 19.3°. The computational times of our EMT- and SIFT-SMC simulation methods were 0.9 and 1.2 s per frame, respectively. The SMC simulation method was developed to model ambiguities that occur in bronchoscope tracking. This method more stably and accurately predicts the

  3. The safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xue; Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Yanuo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible bronchoscopy is more and more used for diagnosis and management of various pulmonary diseases in pediatrics. As poor coordination of children, the procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous or controlled ventilation to increase children and bronchoscopists’ safety and comfort. Previous studies have reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could be safely and effectively used for flexible bronchoscopy in both adulate and children. However, there is no trial to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DEX-RF) in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of DEX-RF in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. One hundred thirty-five children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF were divided into 3 groups: Group DR1 (n = 47, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 0.5 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR2 (n = 43, DEX infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1), Group DR3 (n = 45, DEX infusion at 1.5 μg kg–1 for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5–0.7 μg kg–1 h–1; RF infusion at 1 μg kg–1 for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05–0.2 μg kg–1 min–1). Ramsay sedation scale of the 3 groups was maintained 3. Anesthesia onset time, total number of intraoperative children movements, hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate), total cumulative dose of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil, the amount of midazolam and lidocaine, time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine, postoperative recovery time, adverse events, bronchoscopist satisfaction

  4. The effect of general anesthesia versus intravenous sedation on diagnostic yield and success in electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Mark R; Kohan, Matthew W; Walker, Paul; Efird, Jimmy; Ben Or, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Navigational bronchoscopy is utilized to guide biopsies of peripheral lung nodules and place fiducial markers for treatment of limited stage lung cancer with stereotactic body radiotherapy. The type of sedation used for this procedure remains controversial. We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the differences of diagnostic yield and overall success of the procedure based on anesthesia type. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy was performed using the superDimension software system. Once the targeted lesion was within reach, multiple tissue samples were obtained. Statistical analysis was used to correlate the yield with the type of sedation among other factors. A successful procedure was defined if a diagnosis was made or a fiducial marker was adequately placed. Navigational bronchoscopy was performed on a total of 120 targeted lesions. The overall complication rate of the procedure was 4.1%. The diagnostic yield and success of the procedure was 74% and 87%, respectively. Duration of the procedure was the only significant difference between the general anesthesia and IV sedation groups (mean, 58 vs. 43 min, P=0.0005). A larger tumor size was associated with a higher diagnostic yield (P=0.032). All other variables in terms of effect on diagnostic yield and an unsuccessful procedure did not meet statistical significance. Navigational bronchoscopy is a safe and effective pulmonary diagnostic tool with relatively low complication rate. The diagnostic yield and overall success of the procedure does not seem to be affected by the type of sedation used.

  5. Effect of Verbal Empathy and Touch on Anxiety Relief in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy: Can Empathy Reduce Patients' Anxiety?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy usually experience anxiety before and during the procedure. We performed this study to investigate whether verbal empathy and intentional touch from a bronchoscopist could reduce anxiety in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. We conducted a prospective randomized trial in a university-affiliated hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: a control group, a verbal empathy group, or a verbal empathy and touch group. The staff pulmonologist performing bronchoscopy expressed verbal empathy and used touch by speaking to the patient (using predefined short statements) and making eye contact, and by laying his/her left hand on the patient's right shoulder. We assessed the level of patient anxiety with a visual analog scale before and after the intervention. Participants were 267 patients with a median age of 65 years; 62.2% were men. Although there were no differences in changes in anxiety between the three groups, subgroup analysis of the visual analog scale including participants with higher baseline anxiety (empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥60 mm; empathy group and empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥70 mm) showed a larger reduction in anxiety than the control group. Verbal empathy and touch given by a bronchoscopist before bronchoscopy reduced anxiety in patients with high baseline anxiety levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The role of codeine phosphate premedication in fibre-optic bronchoscopy under insufficient local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation.

    PubMed

    Tsunezuka, Y; Sato, H; Tsukioka, T; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, Y

    1999-06-01

    Midazolam is widely used as a sedative agent to produce amnesia in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. However, if a patient does not receive sufficient local anaesthesia, continuous severe cough and physical movement may interrupt the procedure and reduce its safety. We therefore examined whether codeine phosphate is a useful premedication for bronchoscopy. The study design was a randomized comparison between codeine phosphate and a placebo in patients undergoing light local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. We used low dose local anaesthesia (5 ml of nebulized 2% xylocaine) on the assumption of insufficient local anaesthesia. Patients were allocated to receive codeine phosphate 0.4 mg kg-1 or a saline placebo 60 min before they were sedated with i.v. midazolam. If the patients exhibited severe cough during bronchoscopy, intrabronchial supplemental local anaesthesia (2% xylocaine solution in 1 ml increments) was instilled via a bronchoscope to the trachea and segmental bronchi to suppress the cough. The dose of supplemental xylocaine was assessed and the requirements were significantly lower in the codeine group compared to the placebo group: 36.4 +/- 10.2 mg vs. 95.1 +/- 24.6 mg, respectively. After bronchoscopy, patients were interviewed by a doctor to assess their willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if one was clinically indicated, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups. If local anaesthesia is insufficient, midazolam together with codeine phosphate premedication is useful for both the patient and the bronchoscopist.

  7. Improving patient safety after rigid bronchoscopy in adults: laryngeal mask airway versus face mask - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nisi, Fulvio; Galzerano, Antonio; Cicchitto, Gaetano; Puma, Francesco; Peduto, Vito Aldo

    2015-01-01

    There are still no clear guidelines in the literature on per procedural bronchoscopic management for anesthesiologists, and few relevant datasets are available. To obtain rapid recovery from anesthesia, it is often necessary to keep patients in the recovery room for several hours until they become clinically stable. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) enables better respiratory and hemodynamic recovery than the oxygen face mask (FM) in patients undergoing rigid bronchoscopy. Twenty-one patients undergoing elective bronchoscopy of the upper airway were randomized to ventilation assistance with FM or LMA after a rigid bronchoscopy procedure under general anesthesia. The primary endpoint was duration of post-surgical recovery and the secondary endpoints were postoperative hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Assessment of the study endpoints was performed by an intensive care specialist blinded to the method of ventilation used. The statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's Exact test for nominal data and the Student's t-test for continuous data. There was no statistically significant difference in post-procedural time between the two groups (P=0.972). The recovery parameters were significantly better in the LMA group than in the FM group, with significantly fewer desaturation, hypotensive, and bradycardic events (P<0.05). We conclude that the LMA may be safer and more comfortable than the FM in patients undergoing rigid bronchoscopy.

  8. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  9. Virtual volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  10. Virtual Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AuD-A278 294 1993 Executive Research Project S12 Virtul Reality Lieutenant Colonel James F. Dailey U.S. Air Force Faculty Research Advisor Dr. C...until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED "VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous

  11. Virtual Congresses

    PubMed Central

    Lecueder, Silvia; Manyari, Dante E.

    2000-01-01

    A new form of scientific medical meeting has emerged in the last few years—the virtual congress. This article describes the general role of computer technologies and the Internet in the development of this new means of scientific communication, by reviewing the history of “cyber sessions” in medical education and the rationale, methods, and initial results of the First Virtual Congress of Cardiology. Instructions on how to participate in this virtual congress, either actively or as an observer, are included. Current advantages and disadvantages of virtual congresses, their impact on the scientific community at large, and future developments and possibilities in this area are discussed. PMID:10641960

  12. PreOp endoscopic simulator: a PC-based immersive training system for bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bro-Nielsen, M; Tasto, J L; Cunningham, R; Merril, G L

    1999-01-01

    The high cost of simulators that offer adequate realism for training has been a major challenge for the simulation community. The cost of the computers alone has been too high for most training institutions to afford. We have met this challenge by developing the PreOp Endoscopic Simulator, our second generation of low-cost medical simulators. The PreOp system integrates multimedia, 3D graphics simulation, and force feedback technology on a PC. This paper discusses the challenges of this project and the trade-offs and solutions that we developed to overcome them. We discuss our process of analyzing and prioritizing the medical tasks necessary to correctly perform flexible bronchoscopy. In addition, we illustrate how we blended together simulation and multimedia technology to ensure adequate immersion and training efficacy, while keeping the system cost to a minimum.

  13. Detection and Localization of Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Invasive Carcinoma Using Fluorescence-Reflectance Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Edell, Eric; Lam, Stephen; Pass, Harvey; Miller, York E.; Sutedja, Thomas; Kennedy, Timothy; Loewen, Gregory; Keith, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the benefit of using a new fluorescence-reflectance imaging system, Onco-LIFE, for the detection and localization of intraepitheal neoplasia and early invasive squamous cell carcinoma. A secondary objective was to evaluate the potential use of quantitative image analysis with this device for objective classification of abnormal sites. Design This study was a prospective, multicenter, comparative, single arm trial. Subjects for this study were aged 45 to 75 years and either current or past smokers of more than 20 pack-years with airflow obstruction, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity less than 75%, suspected to have lung cancer based on either sputum atypia, abnormal chest roentgenogram/chest computed tomography, or patients with previous curatively treated lung or head and neck cancer within 2 years. Materials and Methods The primary endpoint of the study was to determine the relative sensitivity of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) plus autofluorescence-reflectance bronchoscopy compared with WLB alone. Bronchoscopy with Onco-LIFE was carried out in two stages. The first stage was performed under white light and mucosal lesions were visually classified. Mucosal lesions were classified using the same scheme in the second stage when viewed with Onco-LIFE in the fluorescence-reflectance mode. All regions classified as suspicious for moderate dysplasia or worse were biopsied, plus at least one nonsuspicious region for control. Specimens were evaluated by the site pathologist and then sent to a reference pathologist, each blinded to the endoscopic findings. Positive lesions were defined as those with moderate/severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS), or invasive carcinoma. A positive patient was defined as having at least one lesion of moderate/severe dysplasia, CIS, or invasive carcinoma. Onco-LIFE was also used to quantify the fluorescence-reflectance response (based on the proportion

  14. Two Cases of Diagnosis and Removal of Endobronchial Hamartoma by Cryotherapy via Flexible Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae Kyeom; Choi, Jong Hyun; Oh, Jee Youn; Cho, Jae Young; Moon, Eul Sun; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Byung Hyun; Park, Min Seon; Hur, Gyu Young; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Although endobronchial hamartoma is a rare benign tumor, most patients with endobronchial hamartoma have respiratory symptoms such as obstructive pneumonia, hemoptysis, cough, or dyspnea due to bronchial obstruction. It can cause irreversible post-obstructive pulmonary destruction, thus early diagnosis and treatment is very important. Recently, there have been cases of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and electrocautery procedures for bronchoscopic treatment of malignant or benign central airway obstruction with comparable therapeutic efficacy and few complications. Bronchoscopic cryotherapy is a newly developed technique for management of central airway obstruction. Moreover, it provides diagnostic methods with improving diagnostic yield and safety. We report two cases of endobronchial hamartoma, each diagnosed and definitively treated with bronchoscopic techniques. Endobronchial biopsy and removal was successfully performed by cryotherapy via flexible bronchoscopy without notable complications. Follow-up bronchoscopic examinations excluded residual or recurrent disease. PMID:24734103

  15. Evaluation of chronic atelectasis in children using chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wong, K S; Lin, T Y; Lan, R S

    1996-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of 11 children with atelectasis persisting longer than one month were investigated for the causes using chest computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscope. Four young infants had right upper lobe (RUL) posterior segmental atelectasis simulating RUL lobar collapse in plain chest films; all had only two visible segmental bronchi by bronchoscopic examination. Intraluminal obstruction in the central airway was not a common cause of pediatric chronic atelectasis in this small series of patients. Only one obstructive atelectasis caused by dilated pulmonary arteries was detected in this study. Two patients with pre-existing neuromuscular diseases showed multiple atelectasis. The atelectatic lobes do not spontaneously re-inflate following flexible bronchoscopy. Investigations involving a larger number of cases are needed to substantiate the etiologies and to guide specific therapy for those children with chronic atelectasis.

  16. Fiber optic bronchoscopy-assisted percutaneous tracheostomy: a decade of experience at a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Carlos M.; Cornejo, Rodrigo; Tobar, Eduardo; Gálvez, Ricardo; Luengo, Cecilia; Estuardo, Nivia; Neira, Rodolfo; Navarro, José Luis; Abarca, Osvaldo; Ruiz, Mauricio; Berasaín, María Angélica; Neira, Wilson; Arellano, Daniel; Llanos, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous tracheostomy by means of single-step dilation with fiber optic bronchoscopy assistance in critical care patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods Between the years 2004 and 2014, 512 patients with indication of tracheostomy according to clinical criteria, were prospectively and consecutively included in our study. One-third of them were high-risk patients. Demographic variables, APACHE II score, and days on mechanical ventilation prior to percutaneous tracheostomy were recorded. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated according to an execution success rate and based on the necessity of switching to an open surgical technique. Safety was evaluated according to post-operative and operative complication rates. Results The mean age of the group was 64 ± 18 years (203 women and 309 males). The mean APACHE II score was 21 ± 3. Patients remained an average of 11 ± 3 days on mechanical ventilation before percutaneous tracheostomy was performed. All procedures were successfully completed without the need to switch to an open surgical technique. Eighteen patients (3.5%) presented procedure complications. Five patients experienced transient desaturation, 4 presented low blood pressure related to sedation, and 9 presented minor bleeding, but none required a transfusion. No serious complications or deaths associated with the procedure were recorded. Eleven patients (2.1%) presented post-operative complications. Seven presented minor and transitory bleeding of the percutaneous tracheostomy stoma, 2 suffered displacement of the tracheostomy cannula, and 2 developed a superficial infection of the stoma. Conclusion Percutaneous tracheostomy using the single-step dilation technique with fiber optic bronchoscopy assistance seems to be effective and safe in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation when performed by experienced intensive care specialists using a standardized procedure. PMID:26340151

  17. Relationship Between Lung Cancer and Mycobacterium Avium Complex Isolated Using Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Atsuhisa; Hebisawa, Akira; Kusaka, Kei; Hirose, Takashi; Suzuki, Junko; Yamane, Akira; Nagai, Hideaki; Fukami, Takeshi; Ohta, Ken; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-positive respiratory specimen cultures and MAC lung disease (MACLD) is increasing worldwide. This retrospective study aimed to assess the association between MAC culture-positive bronchoscopy specimens and lung cancer. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 1382 untreated lung cancer patients between 2003 and 2011 were collected using our hospital database. Of them, records for 1258 that had undergone bronchoscopy together with sampling for mycobacterial culture were reviewed. Patient characteristics were compared between those with MAC-positive/other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-negative bronchial washings and those with MAC-negative/other NTM-negative bronchial washings. Patients with MAC-positive lung cancer were cross-sectionally divided into MACLD and non-MACLD groups, and their features were assessed. Follow-up data for patients with lung cancer but without MACLD were reviewed for subsequent development of MACLD. Results: Of the 1258 patients with lung cancer, 25 (2.0%) had MAC-positive/other NTM-negative bronchial washings. The proportion of women (52% vs 30%; P = 0.0274) and patient age (72 years vs 69 years; P = 0.0380) were significantly higher in the MAC-positive/other NTM-negative lung cancer group (n = 25) than in the MAC-negative/other NTM-negative lung cancer group (n = 1223). There were 10 patients with lung cancer and MACLD and 15 without MACLD; significant differences in patient characteristics were not found between the two groups, and none of the 15 patients without MACLD subsequently developed MACLD. Conclusion: MAC culture-positive bronchial washing is positively associated with lung cancer. Female sex and advanced age, but not lung cancer characteristics, were found to be associated with MAC infection in patients with lung cancer. PMID:27335625

  18. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  19. Physical priors in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaz, Hassan; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Liang, Jianming

    2009-02-01

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to remove the contrast agent from the CT abdominal images so that a virtual model of the colon can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy requires either liquid or solid preparation of the colon before CT imaging. This paper has two parts to address ECC in both preparation methods. In the first part, meniscus removal in the liquid preparation is studied. The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. Left on the colon wall, the meniscus can decrease the sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy. We state the differential equation that governs the profile of the meniscus and propose an algorithm for calculating the boundary of the contrast agent. We compute the surface tension of the liquid-colon wall contact using in-vivo CT data. Our results show that the surface tension can be estimated with an acceptable degree of uncertainty. Such an estimate, along with the meniscus profile differential equation will be used as an a priori knowledge to aid meniscus segmentation. In the second part, we study ECC in solid preparation of colon. Since the colon is pressurized with air before acquisition of the CT images, a prior on the shape of the colon wall can be obtained. We present such prior and investigate it using patient data. We show the shape prior is held in certain parts of the colon and propose a method that uses this prior to ease pseudoenhancement correction.

  20. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  1. Virtual Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokki, Tapio; Savioja, Lauri

    The term virtual acoustics is often applied when sound signal is processed to contain features of a simulated acoustical space and sound is spatially reproduced either with binaural or with multichannel techniques. Therefore, virtual acoustics consists of spatial sound reproduction and room acoustics modeling.

  2. Virtually Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

  3. Virtually Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

  4. Hybrid DynaCT-guided electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic biopsy†.

    PubMed

    Ng, Calvin S H; Yu, Simon C H; Lau, Rainbow W H; Yim, Anthony P C

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy-guided biopsy of small pulmonary nodules can be challenging. Navigational error of the system and movement of the biopsy tool during its deployment adversely affect biopsy success. Furthermore, conventional methods to confirm navigational success such as fluoroscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound become less useful for the biopsy of small lesions. A hybrid operating theatre can provide unparalleled real-time imaging through DynaCT scan to guide and confirm successful navigation and biopsy of difficult-to-reach or small lesions. We describe our technique for DynaCT image-guided electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic biopsy of a small pulmonary nodule in the hybrid operating theatre. The advantages, disadvantages and special considerations in adopting this approach are discussed.

  5. Virtual cancer image data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Oyama, H; Wakao, F; Mishina, T; Lu, Y; Honjo, A

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a system with which we have created more than 100 virtual cancer images from CT or MR data of individual patients with cancer (Cancer Edutainment Virtual Reality Theater: CEVRT). These images can be used to help explain procedures, findings, etc. to the patient, to obtain informed consent, to simulate surgery, and to estimate cancer invasion to surrounding organs. We recently developed a web-based object-oriented database both to access these cancer images and to register medical images at international research sites via the Internet. In this report, we introduce an international medical VR data warehouse created using an object-oriented database.

  6. Virtual seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, H. Roice

    1997-06-01

    A virtual seminar (SM) is an economic and effective instructional tool for teaching students who are at a distance from their instructor. Like conventional class room teaching, a virtual seminar requires an instructor, a student, and a method of communication. Teleconferencing, video conferencing, intranets and the Internet give learners in a Virtual Seminar the ability to interact immediately with their mentors and receive real and relevant answers. This paper shows how industry and academia can benefit from using methods developed and experience gained in presenting the first virtual seminars to academic and petroleum industry participants in mid-1996. The information explosion in industry means that business or technical information is worthless until it is assimilated into a corporate knowledge management system. A search for specific information often turns into a filtering exercise or an attempt to find patterns and classify retrieved material. In the setting of an interactive corporate information system, virtual seminars meet the need for a productive new relationship between creative people and the flux of corporate knowledge. Experience shows that it is more efficient to circulate timesensitive and confidential information electronically through a virtual seminar. Automating the classification of information and removing that task from the usual work load creates an electronic corporate memory and enhances the value of the knowledge to both users and a corporation. Catalogued benchmarks, best-practice standards, and Knowledge Maps (SM) of experience serve as key aids to communicating knowledge through virtual seminars and converting that knowledge into a profit-making asset.

  7. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  8. CT Enterography

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ...

  9. Virtual Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyori, Ladislao Pablo

    1996-01-01

    Presents a manifesto proposing the creation of a new kind of poetry--virtual poetry--that exists only in electronic space and computer networks. States that this new poetry is interactive, animated, hyper-linked, and navigational. (PA)

  10. Virtual Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  11. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  12. Diagnostic Yield and Complications of Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Lung Lesions. Results of the AQuIRE Registry.

    PubMed

    Ost, David E; Ernst, Armin; Lei, Xiudong; Kovitz, Kevin L; Benzaquen, Sadia; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Greenhill, Sara; Toth, Jennifer; Feller-Kopman, David; Puchalski, Jonathan; Baram, Daniel; Karunakara, Raj; Jimenez, Carlos A; Filner, Joshua J; Morice, Rodolfo C; Eapen, George A; Michaud, Gaetane C; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa M; Rafeq, Samaan; Grosu, Horiana B; Ray, Cynthia; Gilbert, Christopher R; Yarmus, Lonny B; Simoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Advanced bronchoscopy techniques such as electromagnetic navigation (EMN) have been studied in clinical trials, but there are no randomized studies comparing EMN with standard bronchoscopy. To measure and identify the determinants of diagnostic yield for bronchoscopy in patients with peripheral lung lesions. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic yield of different sampling techniques, complications, and practice pattern variations. We used the AQuIRE (ACCP Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education) registry to conduct a multicenter study of consecutive patients who underwent transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) for evaluation of peripheral lesions. Fifteen centers with 22 physicians enrolled 581 patients. Of the 581 patients, 312 (53.7%) had a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Unadjusted for other factors, the diagnostic yield was 63.7% when no radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS) and no EMN were used, 57.0% with r-EBUS alone, 38.5% with EMN alone, and 47.1% with EMN combined with r-EBUS. In multivariate analysis, peripheral transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), larger lesion size, nonupper lobe location, and tobacco use were associated with increased diagnostic yield, whereas EMN was associated with lower diagnostic yield. Peripheral TBNA was used in 16.4% of cases. TBNA was diagnostic, whereas TBBx was nondiagnostic in 9.5% of cases in which both were performed. Complications occurred in 13 (2.2%) patients, and pneumothorax occurred in 10 (1.7%) patients. There were significant differences between centers and physicians in terms of case selection, sampling methods, and anesthesia. Medical center diagnostic yields ranged from 33 to 73% (P = 0.16). Peripheral TBNA improved diagnostic yield for peripheral lesions but was underused. The diagnostic yields of EMN and r-EBUS were lower than expected, even after adjustment.

  13. Use of a helium-oxygen mixture to facilitate ventilation during bronchoscopy through a laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Puangsuvan, Neesann; Tobias, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy may be performed in infants and children for various diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In infants and children, general anesthesia may be used to facilitate the procedure. When general anesthesia is used, a laryngeal mask may be used to control the airway. However, as the passage of the bronchoscope decreases the cross-sectional airway inside the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for gas exchange, increases in respiratory resistance may occur. We present our experience with the use of a helium-oxygen mixture to facilitate bronchoscopy through an LMA during general anesthesia in infants and children. We retrospectively reviewed changes in tidal volume, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TC-CO(2)) during 3 phases of general anesthetic care. Phase 1 was pressure support breathing of an air-oxygen mixture through an LMA during sevoflurane anesthesia prior to the start of bronchoscopy, phase 2 was with the bronchoscope inserted through the LMA during pressure support ventilation of sevoflurane in an air-oxygen mixture, and phase 3 was with the bronchoscope inserted through the LMA during pressure support breathing of sevoflurane in a helium-oxygen mixture. The study cohort included 6 patients, ranging in age from 14 to 49 months. There was a statistically significant increase in respiratory rate, increase in TC-CO(2), and decrease in tidal volume with the insertion of the bronchoscope through the LMA when compared to baseline values (phase 2 vs phase 1). These values returned to values that were comparable to the baseline values when a helium-oxygen mixture was administered (phase 1 vs phase 3). A helium-oxygen mixture decreases resistance to gas flow during bronchoscopy through an LMA in infants and children receiving general anesthesia with sevoflurane and pressure support ventilation.

  14. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  15. Predictive value of bronchoscopy in assessing the severity of inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Michael J; Pham, Tam N; Park, David R; Simmons, Jill; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation injury is associated with severe pulmonary complications as inhaled products of combustion cause lung inflammation and loss of natural defenses. A bronchoscopic grading for inhalation injury has been proposed but has not yet been validated in burn patients. In this study, the authors evaluated whether bronchoscopic grading of injury clinically correlated with indices of gas exchange over the first 72 hours or predicted differences in hospitalization outcomes. They conducted a single-center retrospective review of all mechanically ventilated adults with suspected inhalation injury and thermal injury over an 18-month period. All recorded bronchoscopy examinations were reviewed and categorized injury according to the published abbreviated injury score (AIS 0: no injury, 1: mild, 2: moderate, 3: severe, and 4: massive injury). They also compared changes in oxygenation, airway pressures, chest radiograph findings, fluid administration, and early development of pneumonia and organ failure, by severity of inhalation injury according to the AIS. Thirty-two adult patients met inclusion criteria over the study period. This cohort was 69% male with a mean age of 44.5 ± 14 years and a mean % TBSA burn of 33.9 ± 17%. Of these 32 patients, 11 patients (34%) were classified as grade 0, 9 patients (28%) were classified as grade 1, 7 patients (22%) were classified as grade 2, and 5 patients (16%) were classified as grade 3. Measured carboxyhemoglobin levels increased significantly with higher AIS grade. Oxygenation indices were worse as grade worsened by 24, 48, and 72 hours. The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome increased by grade of injury: 0, 22, 57, and 80%, respectively, at 24 hours (P < .01), and remained statistically different at 48 and 72 hours. After adjustment for age, % TBSA burn, and full-thickness component, severe inhalation injury (grades 2 and 3) was associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome at 24 and 72

  16. Use of serial rigid bronchoscopy in the treatment of plastic bronchitis in children.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Tutku; Yalcin, Şule; Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Yilmaz, Ebru Arik; Soyer, Ozge; Orhan, Diclehan; Doğru, Deniz; Sekerel, Bülent Enis; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit

    2016-10-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare disorder characterized by formation of bronchial casts (BC) in the tracheobronchial tree with partial or complete airway obstruction. Although lysis of casts with several fibrinolytic agents has been reported, removal of BC with bronchoscope provides better clearance of airways. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the use of serial rigid bronchoscopy (RB) in the treatment of PB in children. Between 2011 and 2015, children with partial or complete airway obstruction with PB were evaluated for age, gender, underlying disease, clinical findings, results of bronchoscopic interventions and histopathologic findings. Five patients with 14 RB interventions were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 7.8years (min: 3years - max: 14years) and male-female ratio was 4:1. All of the patients were diagnosed as asthma and none of them had underlying cardiac disease. Suction of mucus plaques and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed in all patients with flexible bronchoscopy. Also, aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator was used in two patients. During follow-up serial RB was indicated in patients with persistent atelectasis and severe airway obstruction. The most common localization of BC was left main stem bronchus and bilateral cast formation was detected in 7 interventions. Although, removal of BC was challenging in two patients because of cast friability and fragmentation, most of the plugs were successfully removed with optical forceps and rigid suctioning. Two patients underwent repeated RB (min: 3 - max: 8) for recurrent symptoms. Histopathologic evaluation of BC revealed Charcot-Leyden crystals with inflammatory cells in all patients. The time interval between RB interventions was one to five months. BC are tenacious mucus plugs which are firmly wedged to the tracheobronchial tree. The use of optical forceps with rigid suction provides adequate removal of BC during RB. Because of underlying disease, it is difficult to

  17. Midazolam sedation to produce complete amnesia for bronchoscopy: 2 years' experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Bowie, P E

    1999-05-01

    Patients may find bronchoscopy without sedation unpleasant. There is some evidence that patient satisfaction correlates with amnesia for the procedure. For several years we have used doses of midazolam sufficient to put patients lightly asleep hoping to produce complete amnesia. We looked at practical aspects of this technique over a 2-year period. We studied 337 consecutive patients. They were 219 men and 118 women of mean age 63 +/- 12.4 (SD). Sixty-seven patients were aged 75 years or over and the eldest was 86. Sixty-three patients were already hospital inpatients but the remainder were seen as day cases. Midazolam was given by slow i.v. injection over several minutes until the patient was judged to be lightly asleep. Patients were given supplemental oxygen (3 l min-1) and monitored by ECG and pulse oximetry. A note was made of the time at which they awakened, defined as when nursing staff felt the patients were awake enough to have a cup of tea and toast. Patients were asked if they had any memory of the procedure both on awakening and when seen a few days later to discuss the results. The procedures were carried out in a well-staffed Day Case Unit with a recovery area. The mean dose of midazolam used was 10.8 mg (mean +/- SD = 0.16 +/- 0.095 mg kg-1). The midazolam was given over a median of 4 min (range 1-15 min). Patients took 59 +/- 45 min (mean +/- SD) to wake up. Twenty-eight patients were given flumazanil to reverse the sedation (11 for concern over bleeding following biopsies, three for desaturation during and three after procedure, four as they were frail, two as they were restless, two as they were hypotensive after procedure and three for miscellaneous reasons). Only nine patients could remember any part of the procedure. Incremental doses of midazolam given slowly until patients are lightly asleep almost invariably produce complete amnesia for bronchoscopy. This is a safe technique but patients need careful monitoring and may require reversal of

  18. Additional role of second washing specimen obtained during single bronchoscopy session in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hongseok; Song, Jae-Uk; Koh, Won-Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Nam Yong; Woo, Sookyoung; Park, Hye Yun

    2013-09-02

    Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 174 patients [sputum smear-negative, n = 95 (55%); lack of sputum specimen, n = 79 (45%)] who received flexible bronchoscopy with two bronchial washing specimens with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in Samsung Medical Center, between January, 2010 and December, 2011. Pulmonary TB was diagnosed by first bronchial washing specimen in 141 patients (81%) out of 174 enrolled patients, and an additional bronchial washing specimen established diagnosis exclusively in 22 (13%) patients. Smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 46 patients (26%) for the first bronchial washing specimen. Thirteen patients (7%) were positive only on smear of an additional bronchial washing specimen. Combined smear positivity of the first and second bronchial washing specimens was significantly higher compared to first bronchial washing specimen alone [Total cases: 59 (34%) vs. 46 (26%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 25 (26%) vs. 18 (19%), p = 0.016; cases for poor expectoration: 34 (43%) vs. 28 (35%), p = 0.031]. The diagnostic yield determined by culture was also significantly higher in combination of the first and second bronchial washing specimens compared to the first bronchial washing. [Total cases: 163 (94%) vs. 141 (81%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 86 (91%) vs. 73 (77%), p < 0.001; cases for poor expectoration: 77 (98%) vs. 68 (86%), p = 0.004]. Obtaining an additional

  19. Endotracheal intubation with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with abnormal anatomic conditions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Elizondo, Eduardo; Navarro, Francisco; Pérez-Romo, Alfredo; Ortega, Concepción; Muñoz, Heberto; Cicero, Raúl

    2007-11-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the indications for endotracheal intubation via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients who were scheduled for surgery or who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of our 1100-bed, tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed 9201 clinical records of anesthetic procedures during which endotracheal intubation had been performed from January to December 2002. We identified 66 patients who had been intubated with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. On preanesthetic examination, 61 of these patients had been found to be poor candidates for conventional laryngoscopic intubation-51 because of abnormal head and neck anatomy and 10 because of reduced visual access to the airway (Mallampati class IV). The remaining 5 patients were intubated via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy after conventional intubation had failed during emergency surgery. Our study emphasizes (1) the importance of the preanesthetic examination of surgical patients, to identify those in whom conventional intubation would likely be problematic, and (2) the need to have fiberoptic bronchoscopes and an anesthesiologist or bronchoscopist skilled in their use available in operating suites and intensive care units.

  20. [Development and design of a new sonography rigid bronchoscopy and corollary vacuum-assisted biopsy device system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiangdong; Tan, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Ruixiang; Dong, Fuwen

    2014-02-01

    The present study was to develop and design a new sonography rigid bronchoscopy and corollary vacuum-assisted biopsy device system with less injury and complication. The system combined ultrasonic-probe with ultrasound catheter, a new medical ultrasound technique, and rigid bronchoscopy (RB) which is improved with an auxiliary vacuum-assisted biopsy device. The principle of the device is vacuum suction and rotary knife. The reduced outer diameter of the RB led to less pain and lower complications for the patient. With the help of ultrasonic-probe (30 MHz), lesions and blood vessels can be identified clearly and unintentional puncture and damage to blood vessels can be avoided. Plenty of lesions can be obtained quickly through the vacuum-assisted biopsy device without getting puncture needle in and out repeatedly. The novel endobronchial sonography rigid bronchoscopy and matched vacuum-assisted biopsy device has many remarkable advantages. It can enlarge the applied range of the RB from endobronchial to mediastinal lesions, avoiding unintentional puncture of vessels. Obtaining multiple samples with a higher accuracy rate than that by other sampling techniques, minimizing operation time, alleviating pain and decreasing the complication rate, the system makes up the technical deficiency for the diagnosis and treatment of the mediastinal lesions, to a certain degree.

  1. Virtual Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  2. Community and Virtual Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)

  3. Development of an Innovative 3D Printed Rigid Bronchoscopy Training Model.

    PubMed

    Al-Ramahi, Jehad; Luo, Huiping; Fang, Rui; Chou, Adriana; Jiang, Jack; Kille, Tony

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 3D printed airway model simulating the size and mechanical properties of various age groups for foreign body removal training. Three-dimensional printing technology was used to print the anatomically correct airway from rubber-like translucent material, simulating the mechanical properties of human airway tissue. The model's effectiveness in trainee education was evaluated by otolaryngology residents with varying levels of experience. As part of an Airway Emergencies course, a rigid bronchoscopy procedure was performed on the 3D printed model as well as a porcine model. The participants completed surveys comparing the validity of the 2 models and the effectiveness of the overall training experience. The 3D printed model, which is accurate in terms of anatomy and mechanical properties, was found to be comparable to a porcine model in regards to participant satisfaction as well as face validity. The 3D printed airway model is able to be accurately scaled to various sizes and simulate the mechanical properties of the desired age group. The 3D printed model provides an excellent alternative to animal models in terms of practicality, logistics of use, and anatomical accuracy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) who were suspected of having PTB. Results Of 126 patients who had negative sputum AFB smears but were suspected of having PTB, 54 patients were confirmed as having active PTB. Hemoptysis was negatively correlated with active PTB. Tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT was significantly associated with active PTB. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FOB alone was 75.9%, 97.2%, 95.3%, and 84.3%, respectively, for the rapid diagnosis of active PTB. The combination of FOB and HRCT improved the sensitivity to 96.3% and the NPV to 96.2%. Conclusions FOB is a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of active PTB with a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in sputum smear-negative PTB-suspected patients. HRCT improves the sensitivity of FOB when used in combination with FOB in sputum smear-negative patients suspected of having PTB. PMID:22726571

  5. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Judge, Eoin P; Hughes, J M Lynne; Egan, Jim J; Maguire, Michael; Molloy, Emer L; O'Dea, Shirley

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  6. Diagnostic utility of peripheral endobronchial ultrasound with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy in peripheral lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Chee, Alex; Stather, David R; Maceachern, Paul; Martel, Simon; Delage, Antoine; Simon, Mathieu; Dumoulin, Elaine; Tremblay, Alain

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of peripheral endobronchial ultrasound (pEBUS) followed by as-needed electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) for sampling peripheral lung nodules. The study was a single-arm, prospective cohort study of patients with peripheral lung nodules. Peripheral lung lesion localization was initially performed using a pEBUS probe with guide sheath. If localization failed with pEBUS alone, ENB was used to help identify the lesion. Transbronchial biopsy, bronchial brush, transbronchial needle aspiration and bronchial washings were performed. Sixty patients were enrolled with average lesion size of 27 mm and mean pleural distance of 20 mm. Lesions were found with pEBUS alone in 75% of cases. The addition of ENB improved lesion localization to 93%. However, diagnostic yield for pEBUS alone and pEBUS with ENB were 43% and 50%, respectively. Factors predicting need for ENB use included smaller lesion size and absence of an air bronchus sign on computed tomography. ENB improves localization of lung lesions after unsuccessful pEBUS but is often not sufficient to ensure confirmation of a specific diagnosis. Technical improvements in sampling methods could improve the diagnostic yield. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients.

    PubMed

    Zavala, D C

    1975-07-01

    Six hundred patients underwent diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB). The two diseases most frequently encountered were bronchogenic carcinoma in 330 patients (55 percent) and bacterial infection in 94 (16 percent). A positive cytology on biopsy material was obtained in 279 of 330 patients (85 percent) with primary lung cancer. Fluoroscopy was a valuable aid in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma, since 42 percent of the tumors were not visible endoscopically and required fluoroscopic control for placement of the biopsy instrument. Of the 55 patients with hemoptysis and negative chest x-ray films, nine (15 percent) had fiberoptically visible endobronchial carcinomas! In addition, two patients with carcinoma of the larynx and one with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were discovered. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) in 68 patinets with diffuse and localized disease achieved an overall 69 percent diagnostic success, including a correct diagnosis in each of four patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Brush biopsy provided additional valuable laboratory data in bacterial, mycobacterial and cytomegalovirsu infectious but had a poor yield in Pneumocystis infection. Complications as a result of forceps biopsy were minimal, except for brisk bleeding in six patients.

  8. The bovine lung in biomedical research: visually guided bronchoscopy, intrabronchial inoculation and in vivo sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Prohl, Annette; Ostermann, Carola; Lohr, Markus; Reinhold, Petra

    2014-07-03

    There is an ongoing search for alternative animal models in research of respiratory medicine. Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. Working with large animals also offers the opportunity to sample the same animal repeatedly over a certain course of time, which allows long-term studies without sacrificing the animals. The aim was to establish in vivo sampling methods for the use in a bovine model of a respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection. Sampling should be performed at various time points in each animal during the study, and the samples should be suitable to study the host response, as well as the pathogen under experimental conditions. Bronchoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in human and veterinary medicine. It is a safe and minimally invasive procedure. This article describes the intrabronchial inoculation of calves as well as sampling methods for the lower respiratory tract. Videoendoscopic, intrabronchial inoculation leads to very consistent clinical and pathological findings in all inoculated animals and is, therefore, well-suited for use in models of infectious lung disease. The sampling methods described are bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and transbronchial lung biopsy. All of these are valuable diagnostic tools in human medicine and could be adapted for experimental purposes to calves aged 6-8 weeks. The samples obtained were suitable for both pathogen detection and characterization of the severity of lung inflammation in the host.

  9. CT enterography.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Giulia A; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2010-04-01

    Conventional radiologic and endoscopic evaluations of the small bowel are often limited by the length, caliber, and motility of the small bowel loops. The development of new multidetector-row CT scanners, with faster scan times and isotropic spatial resolution, allows high-resolution multiphasic and multiplanar assessment of the bowel, bowel wall, and lumen. CT Enterography (CTE) is a variant of routine abdominal scanning, geared toward more sustained bowel filling with oral contrast material, and the use of multiplanar images, that can enhance gastrointestinal (GI) tract imaging. This article examines the techniques and clinical applications of CTE in comparison with CT enteroclysis, focusing on Crohn disease, obscure GI bleeding, GI tumors, acute abdominal pain, and bowel obstruction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Virtual Violence.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers.

  11. Virtual Tower

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  12. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. ||; Papp, A.L. III |

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  13. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Cancer Center, Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Davis, CA ); Papp, A.L. III Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  14. Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvetkovic, Dragan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The first chapter provides an overview of the popular systems for distance learning. In the second chapter, a review of all major social and economic activities in order to improve the system of virtual learning is given. The third chapter deals with the influence of technology in the management of educational institutions. The fourth chapter…

  15. Virtualize Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  16. Virtualize Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  17. Virtually There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Jaron

    2001-01-01

    Describes tele-immersion, a new medium for human interaction enabled by digital technologies. It combines the display and interaction techniques of virtual reality with new vision technologies that transcend the traditional limitations of a camera. Tele-immersion stations observe people as moving sculptures without favoring a single point of view.…

  18. Virtually There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Jaron

    2001-01-01

    Describes tele-immersion, a new medium for human interaction enabled by digital technologies. It combines the display and interaction techniques of virtual reality with new vision technologies that transcend the traditional limitations of a camera. Tele-immersion stations observe people as moving sculptures without favoring a single point of view.…

  19. Flexible bronchoscopy during non-invasive positive pressure mechanical ventilation: are two better than one?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI). Some clinical scenarios represent contraindications for these techniques such as severe ARF in spontaneous breathing patients for FBO and accumulated tracheo-bronchial secretions in patients with depressed cough for NIPPV. In these contexts, the decision of performing ETI should carefully consider the risk of CMV-correlated complications. An increasing amount of published data suggested the use of FBO during NIPPV in ARF in order to avoid/reduce the need of ETI. Despite a strong rationale for the combined use of the two techniques, there is not still enough evidence for a large-scale application of this strategy in all different clinical scenarios. The majority of the available data are in favor of the "help" given by NIPPV to diagnostic FBO in high-risk spontaneously breathing patients with severe hypoxemia. Preliminary findings report the successful "help" given by early FBO to NIPPV in patients with hypoxemic-hypercapnic ARF who are likely to fail because of hypersecretion. Synergy of FBO and NIPPV application is emerging also to perform ETI in challenging situations, such as predicted difficult laringoscopy and NPPV failure in severely hypoxemic patients. This combined approach should be performed only in centers showing a wide experience with both NIPPV and FBO, where close monitoring and ETI facilities are promptly available.

  20. Safety and discomfort during bronchoscopy performed under sedation with fentanyl and midazolam: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Watanabe, Hiromi; Ninomiya, Takashi; Kubo, Toshio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Sato, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    Although sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopic examination is widely accepted in the USA and Europe, it is not routine practice in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopy. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled prospectively between November 2014 and July 2015 at Okayama University Hospital. Fentanyl (20 μg) was administered to the patients just before the examination, and fentanyl (10 μg) and midazolam (1 mg) were added as needed during the procedure. A questionnaire was administered 2 hours after the examination. In the questionnaire, patient satisfaction was scored using a visual analog scale as follows: great (1 point), good (2 points), normal (3 points), uncomfortable (4 points) and very uncomfortable (5 points). An additional question ('Do you remember the bronchoscopic examination?') was also used. Predefined matters for investigation (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and complications) were recorded. The enrolled patients included 13 males and 24 females; the median age was 67 (range: 31-87) years. The patients received a median dose of fentanyl of 45.4 μg (range: 30-100 μg) and midazolam of 2.56 mg (range: 1-10 mg). Twenty-six patients (70.2%) agreed to undergo a second bronchoscopic examination, and the average levels of discomfort and re-examination were 2.02 points for each. Only 37.8% of the patients remembered the bronchoscopic examination. No severe complications were reported. Sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopic examination should be recommended for use in Japan. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Kinomic Profiling of Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy Specimens: A New Approach for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Minnich, Douglas J.; Dobelbower, M. Christian; Denton, Alexander J.; Dussaq, Alex M.; Gilbert, Ashley N.; Rohrbach, Timothy D.; Arafat, Waleed; Welaya, Karim; Bonner, James A.; Willey, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Researchers are currently seeking relevant lung cancer biomarkers in order to make informed decisions regarding therapeutic selection for patients in so-called “precision medicine.” However, there are challenges to obtaining adequate lung cancer tissue for molecular analyses. Furthermore, current molecular testing of tumors at the genomic or transcriptomic level are very indirect measures of biological response to a drug, particularly for small molecule inhibitors that target kinases. Kinase activity profiling is therefore theorized to be more reflective of in vivo biology than many current molecular analysis techniques. As a result, this study seeks to prove the feasibility of combining a novel minimally invasive biopsy technique that expands the number of lesions amenable for biopsy with subsequent ex vivo kinase activity analysis. Methods Eight patients with lung lesions of varying location and size were biopsied using the novel electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) technique. Basal kinase activity (kinomic) profiles and ex vivo interrogation of samples in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, crizotinib, and lapatinib were performed by PamStation 12 microarray analysis. Results Kinomic profiling qualitatively identified patient specific kinase activity profiles as well as patient and drug specific changes in kinase activity profiles following exposure to inhibitor. Thus, the study has verified the feasibility of ENB as a method for obtaining tissue in adequate quantities for kinomic analysis and has demonstrated the possible use of this tissue acquisition and analysis technique as a method for future study of lung cancer biomarkers. Conclusions We demonstrate the feasibility of using ENB-derived biopsies to perform kinase activity assessment in lung cancer patients. PMID:25549342

  2. In vitro tests of electromagnetic interference of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy to implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Andrea; Matheoud, Roberta; Brambilla, Marco; Valzano, Serena; Occhetta, Eraldo; Marino, Paolo; Balbo, Piero

    2012-07-01

    To characterize the electromagnetic field emitted by the electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) superDimension(®) Bronchus system (SDBS) and to determine whether current implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems are suitable for use in conjunction with SDBS. The electromagnetic emission of the SDBS location board were measured using a field strength meter connected to a low-frequency (5 Hz-100 kHz) electric and magnetic field analyser; the static magnetic field was measured using a three-axis Tesla meter. A human torso simulator was used in the in vitro experiment: a polyethylene plastic box (61 cm length × 43 cm depth × 16.5 cm height) was filled with a semisolid gel and a 0.45% saline solution to provide electric conductance similar to tissue. The ICDs were immersed 1 cm into the gel and connected with a dual-coil integrated bipolar pacing/sensing/shock lead. Tip and right ventricular coil of the lead were connected to an arrhythmia simulator using low-impedance cables. The system transmits electromagnetic waves of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 kHz frequency. The maximum magnetic fields measured were B = 53 and 12 µT at location board plane and at ICD plane, respectively. Corresponding figures for the electric field were E = 16.6 and 4.4 V/m. None of the tested ICDs recorded any noise signal during the period in which the location board was switched-on. Stored electrogram analysis confirmed the correct detection of simulated tachyarrhythmia and therapy delivery by every tested ICD. The results of this study demonstrated that tested ICDs are compatible with ENB performed with SDBS. They also suggest that these results may be extended to all ICDs manufactured in compliance with current EN regulations.

  3. Multicenter experience with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kurt W; Hsia, David W; Seijo, Luis M; Feller-Kopman, David J; Lamb, Carla; Berkowitz, David; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Musani, Ali I

    2012-07-01

    Physicians are increasingly encountering lung nodules in their practice, and tissue diagnosis is often required. Conventional bronchoscopic sampling yields a range from 14% to 69% depending on the nodule size and location within the lung. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) in multiple centers and to determine what factors affect the yield of ENB. A retrospective analysis of 92 consecutive ENB procedures at 5 centers was carried out. Data were collected on patient demographics, nodule characteristics, complications, type of samples obtained, diagnosis, and follow-up studies. Variables were analyzed to determine as to which factors had an impact on the diagnostic yield with multiple logistic regression analysis. Ninety-two patients underwent EMB at 5 centers between December 2008 and October 2009. The average nodule size was 2.61 cm (SD 1.42) at a distance of 1.81 cm (SD 1.32) from the pleural surface. The overall yield for ENB-guided sampling of pulmonary nodules was 65% (60/92). The ENB yield for nodules ≤2 versus >2 cm in size was significantly less after controlling for the distance from the pleura (50% vs. 76%, respectively; P=0.01). The distance from the pleura did not affect the ENB diagnostic yield after controlling for nodule size (P=0.92). The lobar location of the nodule also did not affect the diagnostic yield (P=0.59). The diagnostic yield of ENB-guided sampling of pulmonary nodules is impacted by the nodule size, but not by the distance from the pleura or the lobar location.

  4. Use of flexible bronchoscopy in pediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip P; Popler, Jonathan; Davis, Joel; Leong, Traci; Piland, Sarah C; Simon, Dawn; Harsch, Alan; Teague, William G; Fortenberry, James D

    2011-11-01

    Critically ill children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support frequently have respiratory complications amenable to evaluation by flexible bronchoscopy (FB). The safety and efficacy of FB in this setting has not been well described in children. Retrospective analysis of 153 FBs in 79 children treated with ECMO at a single institution from 2000 to 2008. Demographic data, clinical findings, and complications were obtained. Chest radiographs reports were evaluated prior to and following FB. Physiologic variables were compared prior to and following FB. Seventy-nine patients underwent FB on ECMO [58 veno-venous (VV) and 21 veno-arterial (VA) ECMO], with 153 total FBs performed. Indications for FB included clearance of tenacious airway secretions (n = 118, 77%), or evaluation of suspected secondary infections with bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 26, 17%). Two patients also had surfactant instillation following secretion removal. FB was performed a median 5 days following cannulation for ECMO (range 2-14 days). Most common findings included thick secretions (n = 77, 50.3%), mucoid secretions (n = 15, 9.8%), and mucopurulent secretions (n = 28, 18.3%). No deterioration in radiographic lung findings was described post-FB. FB was not associated with any significant change in heart rate, systemic blood pressure, or temperature. No significant changes in ECMO pump flow rate or sweep gas flow was seen during or after FB. Cannula dislodgement, inadvertent extubation, fever, pneumothorax, or intraprocedural hypoxemia was not reported. Fifty-three FBs (35%) resulted in blood-tinged secretions from the endotracheal tube post-FB, which resolved spontaneously. Three patients received high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) following FB in association with mild hemorrhage. FB is a well-tolerated and safe procedure in critically ill pediatric patients on ECMO. FB may have a diagnostic as well as therapeutic benefit in such patients

  5. Personal Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  6. Personal Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  7. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy: A retrospective trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongquan; Fang, Baojun; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has been more and more used for diagnosis and management diseases of respiratory system in pediatrics. Previous studies have reported that remifentanil (RF) and propofol are safe and effective for flexible bronchoscopy in adults, however, there have no trials evaluate the efficacy of DEX-RF versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.We divided 123 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF or dexmedetomidine-propofol into 2 groups: Group DR (n = 63, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DP (n = 60, DEX infusion at 1.0 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; propofol infusion at 10 μg kg for 5 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.1 μg kg min). Ramsay sedation scale of the 2 groups was maintained at 3. Anesthesia onset time; total number of intraoperative patient movements; hemodynamics; total cumulative dose of DEX; amount of and time to first-dose rescue midazolam and lidocaine; postoperative recovery time; adverse events; and bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded.Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DP (8.22 ± 2.48 vs 12.25 ± 6.43 minutes, respectively, for DP, DR, P = 0.015). The perioperative hemodynamic profile was more stable in DR than DP group. More children moved during flexible bronchoscopy in DP group (P = 0.009). Total dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly higher in DR than in DP (P < 0.001). Similarly, the time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine was significantly longer in DP than in DR (P < 0.001). Total cumulative dose of DEX was more in DR than DP group (P < 0.001). The time to recovery for discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) was significantly shorter in DP than in DR group (P < 0

  8. Breast CT.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious disease that accounts for approximately 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Unfortunately, there is no known cause of breast cancer, and therefore the best way to prevent mortality is early detection. In the past 15 years, breast cancer mortality has been reduced significantly, which is in part due to screening with film-screen mammography. Nonetheless, conventional mammography lacks sensitivity, especially for certain subgroups of women such as those with dense breast tissue, those under 50 years old, and pre- or perimenopausal women. In addition, mammography has a very poor positive predictive value for biopsy, with 70%-90% of biopsies performed turning out negative. By improving visualization of breast tissue, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) of the breast can potentially provide improvements in diagnostic accuracy over conventional mammography. Owing to recent technological developments in digital detector technology, flat-panel CT imagers dedicated to imaging of the breast are now feasible. A number of academic groups are currently researching dedicated breast CT and prototype systems are currently being evaluated in the clinical setting.

  9. Renal Cyst Pseudoenhancement: Intraindividual Comparison Between Virtual Monochromatic Spectral Images and Conventional Polychromatic 120-kVp Images Obtained During the Same CT Examination and Comparisons Among Images Reconstructed Using Filtered Back Projection, Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction, and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Yamada, Minoru; Sugisawa, Koichi; Akita, Hirotaka; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare renal cyst pseudoenhancement between virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) and conventional polychromatic 120-kVp images obtained during the same abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination and among images reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Our institutional review board approved this prospective study; each participant provided written informed consent. Thirty-one patients (19 men, 12 women; age range, 59–85 years; mean age, 73.2 ± 5.5 years) with renal cysts underwent unenhanced 120-kVp CT followed by sequential fast kVp-switching dual-energy (80/140 kVp) and 120-kVp abdominal enhanced CT in the nephrographic phase over a 10-cm scan length with a random acquisition order and 4.5-second intervals. Fifty-one renal cysts (maximal diameter, 18.0 ± 14.7 mm [range, 4–61 mm]) were identified. The CT attenuation values of the cysts as well as of the kidneys were measured on the unenhanced images, enhanced VMS images (at 70 keV) reconstructed using FBP and ASIR from dual-energy data, and enhanced 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. The results were analyzed using the mixed-effects model and paired t test with Bonferroni correction. The attenuation increases (pseudoenhancement) of the renal cysts on the VMS images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR (least square mean, 5.0/6.0 Hounsfield units [HU]; 95% confidence interval, 2.6–7.4/3.6–8.4 HU) were significantly lower than those on the conventional 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR/MBIR (least square mean, 12.1/12.8/11.8 HU; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–14.5/10.4–15.1/9.4–14.2 HU) (all P < .001); on the other hand, the CT attenuation values of the kidneys on the VMS images were comparable to those on the 120-kVp images. Regardless of the reconstruction algorithm, 70-keV VMS images showed

  10. The role of routine bronchoscopy for early detection of bronchial stump recurrence of lung cancer: 1 year post-surgery.

    PubMed

    Peled, Nir; Flex, Dov; Raviv, Yael; Fox, Benjamin D; Shitrit, David; Refaeli, Yael; Sauté, Milton; Amital, Anat; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2009-09-01

    Local recurrence after complete resection (R(0)) occur in approximately 20% of patients with stage I disease and in up to 50% with stage III. This study focuses on early detection of stump recurrence by a routine bronchoscopy. Prospective analysis 1 year after surgery between April 2006 and April 2008. 104 NSCLC patients (age 69.1+/-9.6 years) participated in the study; 97 underwent lobectomy and 7 pneumonectomy. 61% were stage I, 25% stage II, 10% IIIA, 5% IIIB and 1% stage IV. 66% had N0, 21% had N1 disease, 9% N2 disease and 4% had N3. Bronchoscopy was performed 12.9+/-3.8 months after surgery. Nine percents had stump polyp, 5 (5%) had a suspicious mucosa. Four of the nine polyps were malignant. Nine other patients had squamous metaplasia and two had squamous dysplasia. Malignant stump recurrence was observed in four cases, all had a stump polyp. All had R(0), but two had short (<1.0 cm) tumor-free bronchial margin, two had N1 disease and two N2 disease. Fisher exact analysis showed short bronchus (p=0.003), N2 vs. N0-1 (p=0.012), and N1 vs. N0 (p=0.011) as significant risk factor for stump recurrence. For stump recurrence, one patient underwent completion pneumonectomy and has no evidence for disease (32.2 months), two patients were treated by chemotherapy and one patient died from pneumonia before therapy. Routine bronchoscopy 1 year after thoracic resection for NSCLC is justified in patients who are at high risk for local recurrence, i.e. short free bronchial margins and N2/N1 disease.

  11. Music does not alter anxiety in patients with suspected lung cancer undergoing bronchoscopy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Carsten M.; Larsen, Klaus R.; Rehl, Anne; Bartholdy, Karen; Walsted, Emil S.; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of music to relieve anxiety has been examined in various studies, but the results are inconclusive. Methods From April to October 2015, 160 patients undergoing examination of pulmonary nodules were randomly assigned to MusiCure or no music. MusiCure was administered through earplugs to ensure blinding of the staff and was played from admission to the operating theatre to the end of the bronchoscopy. Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered on admission, immediately before bronchoscopy, and on discharge. Secondary outcomes were p-cortisol, physiological variables, dosage of sedatives, movements measured by Actigraph, bronchoscopy duration, number of re-examinations, and overall perception of the sounds in the operating theatre measured by Visual analogue scale. Results The STAI scores were similar on admission, but after a 10-min wait in the operating theatre, scores varied significantly between patients with and without music, with lower scores in the music group [median (interquartile range, IQR) 35 (18) vs. 43 (25); p=0.03]. Post hoc multiple regression revealed treatment group as insignificant when adjusting for sex and baseline anxiety. However, there was a significantly more positive perception of the sounds in the operating theatre in the music group (median (IQR) 8.2 (1.8) vs. 5.4 (6.8); p<0.0001) and fewer re-examinations in the music group (19.2% vs. 7.7%, p<0.032). Conclusions Ten minutes with MusiCure does not alter anxiety when adjusting for baseline anxiety and sex. The current study indicates that this field of research has many confounders. PMID:27814780

  12. Optimization of window settings for virtual monoenergetic imaging in dual-energy CT of the liver: A multi-reader evaluation of standard monoenergetic and advanced imaged-based monoenergetic datasets.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Carlo N; Caruso, Damiano; Schoepf, U Joseph; Wichmann, Julian L; Ter Louw, Janet R; Perry, Jonathan D; Picard, Melissa M; Schaefer, Amanda R; Parker, Leland W; Hardie, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate optimal window settings for display of virtual monoenergetic reconstructions in third-generation dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of the liver. Twenty-nine subjects were prospectively evaluated with DECT in arterial (AP) and portal venous (PVP) phases. Three reconstructed datasets were calculated: standard linearly-blended (LB120), 70-keV standard virtual monoenergetic (M70), and 50-keV advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic (M50+). Two readers assessed optimal window settings (width and level, W/L), establishing a mean for each reconstruction which was used for a blinded assessment of liver lesions. The optimal W/L for M50+ were significantly higher for both AP (W=429.3 ± 44.6 HU, L=129.4 ± 9.7 HU) and PVP (W=376.1 ± 14.2HU, L=146.6 ± 7.0 HU) than for LB120 (AP, W=215.9 ± 16.9 HU, L=82.3 ± 9.4 HU) (PVP, W=173.4 ± 8.9 HU, L=69.3 ± 6.0 HU) and M70 (AP, W=247.1 ± 22.2 HU, L=72.9 ± 6.8 HU) (PVP, W=232.0 ± 27.9 HU, L=91.6 ± 14.4 HU). Use of the optimal window setting for M50+ vs. LB120 resulted in higher sensitivity (AP, 100% vs. 86%; PVP, 96% vs. 63%). Application of dedicated window settings results in improved liver lesion detection rates in advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic DECT when customized for arterial and portal venous phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Electromagnetic navigated bronchoscopy can be applied for diagnosing peripherally located lung cancer in patients with severely reduced lung function].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Frank; Durakovic, Amal

    2013-05-13

    Electromagnetic navigated (EMN) bronchoscopy is a new diagnostic method, which has been used in Denmark since 2008. It is a safe method for diagnosing lung cancer in patients with severely reduced lung function. The method allows diagnosis of peripherally located tumours. From September 2009 to January 2012, the procedure has been performed in 56 patients. In total, 67 tumour evaluations have been conducted. In 15 patients a cancer diagnosis was made. In two patients, pneumothorax occurred. The risk of pneumothorax as a consequence of the EMN procedure was 3%. This is in line with results and experiences from other studies.

  14. Awake intubation using fast-track laryngeal mask airway as an alternative to fiberoptic bronchoscopy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parnell, J David; Mills, Jeff

    2006-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pose a unique challenge to the anesthetist. The manifestations of RA may include cervical spine instability, limited range of motion, and temperomandibular joint involvement limiting mouth opening. Therefore, securing the airway while maintaining the head and neck in a neutral position is of particular concern to the anesthetist. While this is most commonly accomplished using an awake fiberoptic technique, the following case is presented as a safe and efficient initial alternative to the primary use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the appropriate patient population.

  15. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Chen, Bean T.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Newton, George J.

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency.

  16. Virtual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  17. Virtual Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple-reflection photograph in Fig. 1 was taken in an elevator on board the cruise ship Norwegian Jade in March 2008. Three of the four walls of the elevator were mirrored, allowing me to see the combination of two standard arrangements of plane mirrors: two mirrors set at 90° to each other and two parallel mirrors. Optical phenomena of this complexity are most easily approached by the Method of Virtual Mirrors.

  18. Dual-Energy CT: New Horizon in Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Goo, Jin Mo

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector.

  19. Dual-Energy CT: New Horizon in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Jin Mo

    2017-01-01

    Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning. Dual-energy material-specific imaging methods include virtual monoenergetic or monochromatic imaging, effective atomic number map, virtual non-contrast or unenhanced imaging, virtual non-calcium imaging, iodine map, inhaled xenon map, uric acid imaging, automatic bone removal, and lung vessels analysis. In this review, we focus on dual-energy CT imaging including related issues of radiation exposure to patients, scanning and post-processing options, and potential clinical benefits mainly to improve the understanding of clinical radiologists and thus, expand the clinical use of dual-energy CT; in addition, we briefly describe the current technical limitations of dual-energy CT and the current developments of photon-counting detector. PMID:28670151

  20. Construction of a multimodal CT-video chest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Bronchoscopy enables a number of minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. For example, using the bronchoscope's continuous video stream as a guide, a physician can navigate through the lung airways to examine general airway health, collect tissue samples, or administer a disease treatment. In addition, physicians can now use new image-guided intervention (IGI) systems, which draw upon both three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scans and bronchoscopic video, to assist with bronchoscope navigation. Unfortunately, little use is made of the acquired video stream, a potentially invaluable source of information. In addition, little effort has been made to link the bronchoscopic video stream to the detailed anatomical information given by a patient's 3D MDCT chest scan. We propose a method for constructing a multimodal CT-video model of the chest. After automatically computing a patient's 3D MDCT-based airway-tree model, the method next parses the available video data to generate a positional linkage between a sparse set of key video frames and airway path locations. Next, a fusion/mapping of the video's color mucosal information and MDCT-based endoluminal surfaces is performed. This results in the final multimodal CT-video chest model. The data structure constituting the model provides a history of those airway locations visited during bronchoscopy. It also provides for quick visual access to relevant sections of the airway wall by condensing large portions of endoscopic video into representative frames containing important structural and textural information. When examined with a set of interactive visualization tools, the resulting fused data structure provides a rich multimodal data source. We demonstrate the potential of the multimodal model with both phantom and human data.

  1. [Electrocautery and bronchoscopy as a first step for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Jalilie, Alfredo; Carvajal, Juan Carlos; Aparicio, Rodrigo; Meneses, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Central airway obstruction caused by malignant or benign lesions, associated in some cases with hemoptysis, is a condition with high morbidity and mortality. The use of electrocautery by flexible bronchoscopy is an initial treatment option with immediate improvement of obstruction symptoms. It is as effective as Nd: YAG laser. To describe the usefulness of electrocautery in the management of central obstruction of the airway and hemoptysis. A retrospective, descriptive study of patients referred for management of central airway obstruction or associated hemoptysis. Diagnoses, symptoms (dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis) and radiology before and after the procedures were analyzed. Eighteen patients aged 59 ± 12 years (66% males) were evaluated, registering 25 endoscopic procedures. Three conditions were found: partial or complete airway obstruction, hemoptysis and post lung transplant bronchial stenosis. Seventy two percent presented with dyspnea, 61% with cough and 33% with hemoptysis. Sixty six percent of patients had airway obstruction caused by malignant metastatic lesions. After electrocautery, 17 patients (94.4%) improved their symptoms and achieved complete airway clearing. Three patients had significant bronchial stenosis after lung transplant achieving subsequent clearing after electrocautery. Electrocautery during flexible bronchoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis.

  2. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Provides Superior Patient Comfort and Tolerance Compared to Intravenous Midazolam in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Periyadka Janardhana, Bhavya; Krishna Achar, Shreepathi

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, an α 2 agonist, has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sedative during awake intubation, but its utility in fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is not clear. We evaluated the effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on patient's response to FOB. The patients received either midazolam, 0.02 mg/kg (group M, n = 27), or dexmedetomidine, 1 µg/kg (group D, n = 27). A composite score of five different parameters and a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain intensity and distress were used to assess patient response during FOB. Patients rated the quality of sedation and level of discomfort 24 h after the procedure. Ease of bronchoscopy, rescue medication requirement, and haemodynamic variables were noted. Ideal or acceptable composite score was observed in 15 and 26 patients, respectively, in group M (14.48 ± 3.65) and group D (9.41 ± 3.13), p < 0.001. NRS showed that 11 patients in group M had severe pain and discomfort as compared to one patient with severe pain and two with severe discomfort in group D during the procedure, p < 0.001. Rescue midazolam requirement was significantly higher in group M (p = 0.023). We conclude that during FOB, under topical airway anaesthesia, IV dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) provides superior patient comfort and tolerance as compared to IV midazolam (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:26543645

  3. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    SciTech Connect

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da

    2013-05-06

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  4. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Chen, B.T.; Cheng, Y.S.; Newton, G.J.

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor is described having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent to the inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency. 4 figs.

  5. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  6. The safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy: A retrospective dose-finding trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xue; Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Yanuo

    2017-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy is more and more used for diagnosis and management of various pulmonary diseases in pediatrics. As poor coordination of children, the procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous or controlled ventilation to increase children and bronchoscopists' safety and comfort. Previous studies have reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could be safely and effectively used for flexible bronchoscopy in both adulate and children. However, there is no trial to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DEX-RF) in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.The objective of this study is to evaluate the dose-finding of safety and efficacy of DEX-RF in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.One hundred thirty-five children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF were divided into 3 groups: Group DR1 (n = 47, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 0.5 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DR2 (n = 43, DEX infusion at 1 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min), Group DR3 (n = 45, DEX infusion at 1.5 μg kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.5-0.7 μg kg h; RF infusion at 1 μg kg for 2 minutes, then adjusted to 0.05-0.2 μg kg min). Ramsay sedation scale of the 3 groups was maintained 3. Anesthesia onset time, total number of intraoperative children movements, hemodynamics (heart rate, arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate), total cumulative dose of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil, the amount of midazolam and lidocaine, time to first dose of rescue midazolam and lidocaine, postoperative recovery time, adverse events, bronchoscopist satisfaction score were recorded.Anesthesia onset time was significantly shorter in DR3 group (14.23 ± 5

  7. Virtual screening of virtual libraries.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren V S

    2003-01-01

    Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry

  8. A retrospective study of anesthesia during rigid bronchoscopy for airway foreign body removal in children: propofol and sevoflurane with spontaneous ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jun; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Han, Ning; Wang, Li-Yin; Chen, Wei-Min

    2014-10-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. We analyzed our experience in management of aspirated foreign bodies, including methods of anesthesia used, over a 4-year period. We retrospectively reviewed the records of tracheobronchial foreign body removal by rigid bronchoscopy with spontaneous ventilation in 435 children. All patients had received initial anesthesia with inhaled sevoflurane. One hundred and ninety-seven patients (Group PropRemi) then received intravenous propofol and remifentanyl for maintenance of anesthesia; the remaining 238 patients (Group PropSevo) received propofol and sevoflurane. Tracheobronchial foreign body was found in 405 children (93.1%) and successfully removed from 402 (99.3%) children. Among three patients who failed bronchoscopy, one child suffered cardiac arrest and died during the bronchoscopy, and two required subsequent tracheotomy for foreign body removal. Adverse effects (intraoperative coughing, breath holding, body movement, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm) were significantly more frequent in Group PropRemi than in Group PropSevo. No complications such as bleeding, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or the need for thoracotomy were encountered. Sevoflurane induction followed by a combination of sevoflurane and continuous infusion of propofol resulted in fewer adverse events than sevoflurane induction followed by TIVA with propofol and remifentanyl during rigid bronchoscopy for airway foreign body removal in children with spontaneous ventilation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of standard and detailed risk disclosure prior to bronchoscopy on peri-procedure anxiety and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Uzbeck, M; Quinn, C; Saleem, I; Cotter, P; Gilmartin, J J; O'Keeffe, S T

    2009-03-01

    Deciding what risks to disclose before a procedure is often challenging for clinicians. Consecutive patients undergoing elective fibreoptic bronchoscopy were randomised to receive simple or more detailed written information about the risks of the procedure and the effects on anxiety and satisfaction levels were compared. A 100 mm anxiety visual analogue scale (VAS) and a modified Amsterdam preoperative anxiety (scored 4-20) scale (APAIS) were completed before and after reading the designated information leaflet. Following bronchoscopy, subjects completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Of 142 consecutive patients, 122 (86%) (mean age 57.8 years, 53% male) completed the study. Baseline demographic, clinical and anxiety measures were similar in the two groups. Those who received more detailed risk information had significantly greater increase in anxiety levels than those who received simple information on both the VAS (mean 14.0 (95% CI 10.1 to 17.9) vs 2.5 (95% CI -1.4 to 6.4), p<0.001) and the APAIS (1.73 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.26) vs 0.57 (95% CI 0.05 to 1.10), p<0.001). Almost twice as many of those receiving detailed risk information reported that they felt they had received too much information about complications or that the information they had received about bronchoscopy had been worrying. Provision of more detailed risk information before bronchoscopy may come at the cost of a small but significant increase in anxiety.

  10. Using virtual menus in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Richard H.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual environment interfaces to computer programs in several diverse application areas are currently being developed. The users of virtual environments will require many different methods to interact with the environments and the objects in them. This paper reports on our use of virtual menus as a method of interacting with virtual environments. Several aspects of virtual environments make menu interactions different from interactions with conventional menus. We review the relevant aspects of conventional menus and virtual environments, in order to provide a frame of reference for the design of virtual menus. We discuss the features and interaction methodologies of two different versions of virtual menus which have been developed and used in our lab. We also examine the problems associated with our original version, and the enhancements incorporated into our current version.

  11. Rigid ventilation bronchoscopy under general anesthesia for treatment of pediatric pulmonary atelectasis caused by pneumonia: A review of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Hwa; Lin, Chih-Fu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Chen, Chien-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric pulmonary atelectasis caused by pneumonia is a common disease. If the mucus plugs or secretions occlude the bronchial trees and cannot be cleaned by coughing, suctioning, or vigorous respiratory and physical therapy, is rigid ventilation bronchoscopy (V-B) effective and safe as a therapeutic procedure in such patients? We collected 33 cases of pediatric pulmonary atelectasis that were treated by rigid V-B under general anesthesia for removal of the mucus plugs or foreign bodies. During the rigid V-B with lung lavage performed by experienced bronchoscopists, the oxygen saturation was maintained in good condition. No disastrous complications were noted. Sixty-four percent (21/33) of those with pediatric pulmonary atelectasis had significant improvement in either oxygen saturation or chest radiography within 72 hours. We conclude that when the traditional treatment in pediatric pulmonary atelectasis was ineffective, rigid V-B might be an adequate and safe procedure to remove the mucus plugs and restore pulmonary function.

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alonso; Salazar, Daniela; Acurio, Vilma; Segura, Patricia; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients treated at a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. Of the 611 patients who underwent the procedure, 140 (23%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis based on the analysis of BAL samples. Being young and being male were significantly associated with positive cultures. In addition, 287 patients underwent post-bronchoscopic sputum smear testing for AFB, the results of which increased the diagnostic yield by 22% over that obtained through the analysis of BAL samples alone. We conclude that the analysis of BAL samples and post-bronchoscopic sputum samples provides a high diagnostic yield in smear-negative patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis.

  13. Dual-energy lung perfusion and ventilation CT in children.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-03-01

    Dual-energy thoracic CT provides two key insights into lung physiology, i.e. regional perfusion and ventilation, and has been actively investigated to find clinically relevant applications since the introduction of dual-source CT. This functional information provided by dual-energy thoracic CT is supplementary because high-resolution thoracic anatomy is entirely preserved on dual-energy thoracic CT. In addition, virtual non-contrast imaging can omit pre-contrast scanning. In this respect, dual-energy CT imaging technique is at least dose-neutral, which is a critical requirement for paediatric imaging. In this review, imaging protocols, analysis methods, clinical applications and diagnostic pitfalls of dual-energy thoracic CT for evaluating lung perfusion and ventilation in children are described.

  14. Predictors of low prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among Egyptian health care workers at intensive care and bronchoscopy units

    PubMed Central

    Hefzy, Enas Mamdouh; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Elhefny, Radwa Ahmed; Nasser, Samar Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) contain a significant reservoir for future epidemics. Screening of health care workers (HCWs) in a high-risk tuberculosis (TB) environment is an important strategy in TB control. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTBI among high risk Egyptian HCWs and to assess infection associated risk factors. Methods: Fifty-two HCWs who work at intensive care unit (ICU), bronchoscopy unit, and chest diseases department were tested for LTBI using both tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon TB Gold in-tube test (QFT). Risk factors for infection, knowledge of HCWs towards different aspects of TB infection and agreement between TST and QFT were also evaluated. Results: Prevalence of LTBI in this study was 13.5% by QFT and TST. It was 13.6% by TST alone and 10.3% by QFT alone. There was good concordance between both tests (Kappa=0.713). There was a statistically significant association between prevalence of LTBI and age of staff ≥30 yr (p=0.002), period of working experience (p=0.006) and working at the Bronchoscopy Unit (p=0.001). The total knowledge of HCWs towards different aspects of TB infection was generally good. Conclusion: Although the participants in the current study were among high risk HCWs, the prevalence of LTBI was low. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, young age, short employment duration, good knowledge and a good infection control were the predictors of low risk of contracting TB at our hospitals. The risk of TB infection in resource-limited countries can be reduced with simple continuous educational and administrative infection control programmes. PMID:27777875

  15. Shape similarity of charge-transfer (CT) excitation energy curves in a series of donor-acceptor complexes and its description with a transferable energy of CT orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    A simple nature of charge-transfer (CT) in the prototype complexes Dp -F2 (Dp =NH3 , H2O) manifests itself in a very close shape of their CT excitation energy curves ωCT (R) along the donor-acceptor separation R. It affords a simple orbital description in terms of the CT orbitals (CTOs) obtained with a transformation of the virtual orbitals of the standard local density approximation (LDA). The transferable energy of the relevant CTO as a function of R closely approximates the common shape of ωCT (R) , while the height of the individual curve is determined with the ionization potential of Dp .

  16. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  17. Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or Shouldn't I Get One?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer in smokers of particular ages, CT virtual colonoscopy is as good as colonoscopy in men ... that resemble the disease or condition which in reality would not hurt you, when the test doesn' ...

  18. Bladder carcinoma: MDCT cystography and virtual cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Di Martino, Michele; Bernardo, Silvia; Vergari, Valeria; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor among the low urinary tract, accounting for 90% of cancer cases. Conventional cystoscopy represents the gold standard for diagnosis and local management of bladder carcinoma. As the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma is four-fold greater in men than in women, the endoscopic procedure presents objective difficulties related to the length and bending of male urethra. The most important problems are represented by intense discomfort for the patient and bleeding; furthermore, the high cost, invasivity, and local complications such as infections and mechanical lesions are well-known drawbacks. Additionally, conventional cystoscopy does not provide information about extravescical extensions of the tumor. CT cystography, combined with virtual cystoscopy, is mandatory for TNM staging of the tumor and also is useful when conventional cystoscopy is inconclusive or cannot be performed. We presents the CT cystography findings with virtual endoscopy correlation and bladder carcinoma appearance.

  19. "Virtual unwrapping" of a mummified hand.

    PubMed

    Winder, R J; Glover, W; Golz, T; Wulf, J; McClure, S; Cairns, H; Elliott, M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of medical virtual reality technologies in the investigation of a mummified hand. The Ulster Museum obtained the mummy hand, which originated from Thebes, without any identifying information. The mummified hand was investigated using conventional X-ray and 3D multi-slice Computed Tomography (CT). Imaging revealed a range of fractures of the wrist, metacarpals and phalanges whilst 3D CT demonstrated internal structures using volume rendering. The absence of any features of bone healing at the fracture sites would imply that they occurred just prior to death or in the mummified state possibly during excavation. Conventional X-ray imaging indicated that the hand, although small, was likely to have originated from an adult. Medical imaging and virtual reality display will enable us to produce a rapid prototyped model using fused deposition technology. Therefore, further paleopathological research can be performed on the replica without the need to handle the original specimen.

  20. Rethinking Virtual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Gary; Rippeth, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling has been touted as one of the best ways to meet the needs of at-risk students, but what happens when a district's virtual education program is unsuccessful? That was the problem in Eastern Local School District, a small rural district in Beaver, Ohio. The district contracted virtual school services and used the virtual school for…

  1. Virtual Worlds, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Many children between the ages of four and twelve log in to Web-based virtual play spaces each day, and these virtual worlds are quickly becoming an important aspect of their out-of-school lives. Consequently, educators' challenge is to see how they can leverage virtual spaces, such as the virtual play spaces, for learning and literacy. Over the…

  2. Rethinking Virtual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Gary; Rippeth, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling has been touted as one of the best ways to meet the needs of at-risk students, but what happens when a district's virtual education program is unsuccessful? That was the problem in Eastern Local School District, a small rural district in Beaver, Ohio. The district contracted virtual school services and used the virtual school for…

  3. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  4. [Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research.

  5. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  6. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  7. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods. PMID:25834837

  8. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  9. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of foreign body aspiration in China: the roles played by physician inexperience and lack of bronchoscopy facilities at local treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenyun; Liu, Dabo; Zhong, Jianwen; Zhou, Jing

    2013-12-01

    We examined if lack of on-site bronchoscopy facilities and the inexperience of initial treating physicians contributed to missed or delayed diagnosis of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) in pediatric patients presenting with respiratory distress. The medical records of 340 patients examined by bronchoscopy in our otolaryngology department from January 2009 to August 2012 were reviewed. Age, gender, clinical history, findings on physical examination, facilities at the initial treatment site (bronchoscopy or not), bronchoscopic findings (type and location of the FB), and initial diagnosis, were examined in terms of the delay between initial treatment and bronchoscopy-based diagnosis of FBA. The vast majority of patients (324/340, 95.29%) were 3 years of age or younger and a foreign body was located in 309 (90.88%). Of these 340 cases, 261 had been referred from other facilities (76.76%) whereas 79 had come directly to our hospital (23.24%). The median delay between initial treatment and bronchoscopic diagnosis was significantly shorter in those treated initially in our institution compared to referrals (24 h [1 h to 60 days] vs. 168 h [1 h to 366 days]; P < 0.01). The initial diagnosis was FBA in 135/261 referral cases (51.72%), significantly lower than in cases first treated in our institution (69/79, 87.34%; P < 0.01). Foreign body aspiration was confirmed in 127/135 referral cases (94.07%) and 62/69 directly treated cases (89.86%) (χ(2) = 1.193, P > 0.05). Of the 126 referral cases diagnosed with other conditions before coming to our hospital, FBA was confirmed in 114. Complications were significantly less frequent in cases treated directly than in referrals (24/79, 30.38% vs. 155/261, 59.39%; P < 0.01). Local treatment facilities, most lacking bronchoscopy facilities and physicians who were trained to recognize FBA, misdiagnosed at least 44% of patients with respiratory distress and this led to significant delays in treatment. Greater regional

  10. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xiongbiao

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions: An

  11. Virtual PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

    2006-02-23

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary

  12. Charge-transfer (CT) orbitals for the one-electron description of CT excitations in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    A transformation of the virtual Kohn-Sham orbitals is proposed to a set of charge-transfer orbitals (CTOs) adapted to description of CT excitations. The CTO scheme offers a simple estimate of the CT excitation energy with an orbital energy difference. This estimate reproduces well the reference values of the configuration interaction (CI) method in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations in the paradigmatic He -Be complex. CTO-based orbital energy and shape indices are proposed to assess the suitability of the CT description with virtual orbitals of a given basis set. Both indices yield correct trends for the Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock orbitals.

  13. New approaches to virtual environment surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Twombly, A.; Lee, A. W.; Cheng, R.; Senger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This research focused on two main problems: 1) low cost, high fidelity stereoscopic imaging of complex tissues and organs; and 2) virtual cutting of tissue. A further objective was to develop these images and virtual tissue cutting methods for use in a telemedicine project that would connect remote sites using the Next Generation Internet. For goal one we used a CT scan of a human heart, a desktop PC with an OpenGL graphics accelerator card, and LCD stereoscopic glasses. Use of multiresolution meshes ranging from approximately 1,000,000 to 20,000 polygons speeded interactive rendering rates enormously while retaining general topography of the dataset. For goal two, we used a CT scan of an infant skull with premature closure of the right coronal suture, a Silicon Graphics Onyx workstation, a Fakespace Immersive WorkBench and CrystalEyes LCD glasses. The high fidelity mesh of the skull was reduced from one million to 50,000 polygons. The cut path was automatically calculated as the shortest distance along the mesh between a small number of hand selected vertices. The region outlined by the cut path was then separated from the skull and translated/rotated to assume a new position. The results indicate that widespread high fidelity imaging in virtual environment is possible using ordinary PC capabilities if appropriate mesh reduction methods are employed. The software cutting tool is applicable to heart and other organs for surgery planning, for training surgeons in a virtual environment, and for telemedicine purposes.

  14. New approaches to virtual environment surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Twombly, A.; Lee, A. W.; Cheng, R.; Senger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This research focused on two main problems: 1) low cost, high fidelity stereoscopic imaging of complex tissues and organs; and 2) virtual cutting of tissue. A further objective was to develop these images and virtual tissue cutting methods for use in a telemedicine project that would connect remote sites using the Next Generation Internet. For goal one we used a CT scan of a human heart, a desktop PC with an OpenGL graphics accelerator card, and LCD stereoscopic glasses. Use of multiresolution meshes ranging from approximately 1,000,000 to 20,000 polygons speeded interactive rendering rates enormously while retaining general topography of the dataset. For goal two, we used a CT scan of an infant skull with premature closure of the right coronal suture, a Silicon Graphics Onyx workstation, a Fakespace Immersive WorkBench and CrystalEyes LCD glasses. The high fidelity mesh of the skull was reduced from one million to 50,000 polygons. The cut path was automatically calculated as the shortest distance along the mesh between a small number of hand selected vertices. The region outlined by the cut path was then separated from the skull and translated/rotated to assume a new position. The results indicate that widespread high fidelity imaging in virtual environment is possible using ordinary PC capabilities if appropriate mesh reduction methods are employed. The software cutting tool is applicable to heart and other organs for surgery planning, for training surgeons in a virtual environment, and for telemedicine purposes.

  15. Material Separation Using Dual-Energy CT: Current and Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Patino, Manuel; Prochowski, Andrea; Agrawal, Mukta D; Simeone, Frank J; Gupta, Rajiv; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) offers the opportunity to generate material-specific images on the basis of the atomic number Z and the unique mass attenuation coefficient of a particular material at different x-ray energies. Material-specific images provide qualitative and quantitative information about tissue composition and contrast media distribution. The most significant contribution of DE CT-based material characterization comes from the capability to assess iodine distribution through the creation of an image that exclusively shows iodine. These iodine-specific images increase tissue contrast and amplify subtle differences in attenuation between normal and abnormal tissues, improving lesion detection and characterization in the abdomen. In addition, DE CT enables computational removal of iodine influence from a CT image, generating virtual noncontrast images. Several additional materials, including calcium, fat, and uric acid, can be separated, permitting imaging assessment of metabolic imbalances, elemental deficiencies, and abnormal deposition of materials within tissues. The ability to obtain material-specific images from a single, contrast-enhanced CT acquisition can complement the anatomic knowledge with functional information, and may be used to reduce the radiation dose by decreasing the number of phases in a multiphasic CT examination. DE CT also enables generation of energy-specific and virtual monochromatic images. Clinical applications of DE CT leverage both material-specific images and virtual monochromatic images to expand the current role of CT and overcome several limitations of single-energy CT. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  16. Surfactant therapy of pulmonary conditions excluding those with primary surfactant deficiency and bronchoscopy as delivery method: an overview of Russian patents and publications.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2013-08-01

    Preparations of pulmonary surfactant are used for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in a newborn. Their applicability as a method of routine for lung diseases beyond the neonatal period is questionable. Some publications from the former Soviet Union (SU) have reported on successful surfactant therapy of ARDS in children and adults as well as for inhalation injuries, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Bronchoscopy was used and recommended as a method of surfactant delivery for ARDS, some types of pneumonia and tuberculosis. Manufacturing processes of surfactant preparations from bovine lung and amniotic fluid, described by Russian patents, and bronchoscopy as a delivery mode are discussed here. A concluding point is that some reports from the former SU about administration of exogenous surfactant in pulmonary conditions, excluding those with primary surfactant deficiency, are only partly confirmed by the international literature.

  17. [Analysis of ventilation parameters before and after fiber optic bronchoscopy in patients with atopic bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Bajera, I; Maleszka, P; From, S

    1997-10-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis in a stable period of the disease could be an indication for diagnostic bronchofiberoscopy. The aim of the authors of this article is to assess whether bronchoscopy may be safely used either as diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. 21 patients (age 33-46), 13 with atopic bronchial asthma and 8 with COPD took part in this study. The measurements were carried out one day before and 3 hours after the bronchoscopy. The following parameters: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF25, FEF50, FEF75) and Resistance of Airways (R aw) were taken into consideration. It was shown that bronchofiberoscopy could be performed safely in these patients and did not lead to woersing ventilation parameters. Bronchospasm was not observed during the study. Moreover the increase in FEF50, FEF75 and R aw were observed. This significant decrease of amount of bronchial discharge could serve as an explanation of this phenomenon.

  18. Use of Dual-Energy CT and Iodine Maps in Evaluation of Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fulwadhva, Urvi P; Wortman, Jeremy R; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) relies on material-dependent x-ray absorption behavior from concurrently acquired high- and low-kilovolt peak data and has a range of imaging applications. This article focuses on use of dual-energy CT in assessment of bowel disease. After a summary of relevant dual-energy CT image acquisition and postprocessing principles, the authors describe dual-energy techniques of greatest utility in evaluation of benign and malignant pathologic conditions in the bowel, including neoplastic, vascular, infectious, and inflammatory disorders, as well as in assessment of abdominopelvic trauma. The dual-energy postprocessing techniques of iodine-selective imaging and virtual monochromatic imaging have the broadest applicability in bowel imaging. They may be used for improved visualization of subtle differences in bowel wall enhancement or for quantitative assessment of altered enhancement for evaluation of a neoplasm or bowel ischemia. Iodine images and virtual monochromatic low-kiloelectron volt images are particularly helpful for assessment of a neoplasm, ischemia, infection, or inflammation, while iodine maps paired with virtual nonenhanced images are most helpful to differentiate iodine from other dense materials, as in gastrointestinal bleeding or trauma. In most applications, radiation doses at dual-energy CT are comparable to those at traditional CT. However, dual-energy CT may allow reduction in radiation dose by using virtual nonenhanced images that obviate an additional nonenhanced CT acquisition. Limitations of dual-energy CT are discussed, including potential challenges in acquisition, postprocessing, and interpretation. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  19. White light, autofluorescence and narrow-band imaging bronchoscopy for diagnosing airway pre-cancerous and early cancer lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianrong; Wu, Jieyu; Yang, Yujing; Liao, Hua; Xu, Zhiheng; Hamblin, Lindsey Tristine; Jiang, Long; Depypere, Lieven; Ang, Keng Leong; He, Jiaxi; Liang, Ziyan; Huang, Jun; Li, Jingpei; He, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) and advanced techniques for airway pre-cancerous lesions and early cancer, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), AFB combined with WLB (AFB + WLB) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) bronchoscopy. Methods We searched for eligible studies in seven electronic databases from their date of inception to Mar 20, 2015. In eligible studies, detected lesions should be confirmed by histopathology. We extracted and calculated the 2×2 data based on the pathological criteria of lung tumor, including high-grade lesions from moderate dysplasia (MOD) to invasive carcinoma (INV). Random-effect model was used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results In 53 eligible studies (39 WLB, 39 AFB, 17 AFB + WLB, 6 NBI), diagnostic performance for high-grade lesions was analyzed based on twelve studies (10 WLB, 7 AFB, 7 AFB + WLB, 1 NBI), involving with totally 2,880 patients and 8,830 biopsy specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, DOR and AUC of WLB were 51% (95% CI, 34–68%), 86% (95% CI, 73–84%), 6 (95% CI, 3–13) and 77% (95% CI, 73–81%). Those of AFB and AFB + WLB were 93% (95% CI, 77–98%) and 86% (95% CI, 75–97%), 52% (95% CI, 37–67%) and 71% (95% CI, 56–87%), 15 (95% CI, 4–57) and 16 (95% CI, 6–41), and 76% (95% CI, 72–79%) and 82% (95% CI, 78–85%), respectively. NBI presented 100% sensitivity and 43% specificity. Conclusions With higher sensitivity, advanced bronchoscopy could be valuable to avoid missed diagnosis. Combining strategy of AFB and WLB may contribute preferable diagnosis rather than their alone use for high-grade lesions. Studies of NBI warrants further investigation for precancerous lesions. PMID:28066600

  20. [Application of bronchoalveolar lavage treatment via bronchoscopy in the management of accidental inhalation of liquid and powdery foreign bodies in children].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Ni, Cai-yun; Wang, Huai-lian; Zhang, Zhong-xiao; Ma, Jing; Yan, Xiu-li; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Jun; Li, Juan; Han, Xiao-rong; Meng, Chen

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) through bronchoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of accidental inhalation of liquid and powdery foreign bodies in children. Twenty-one cases of accidental inhalation were classified into the following 4 groups according to the materials inhaled: 3 cases inhaled the lipidic material; 2 cases inhaled chemical material; 15 cases inhaled hydrosoluble materials; 1 case inhaled powdery material. Eighteen cases were hospitalized within 3 days after the accidents, which included 16 cases treated within 1 day in hospital. And 3 cases were hospitalized 3 days after the accident. After hospitalization, all patients were immediately treated with direct aspiration and lavage clearance method through bronchoscopy. The inhaled foreign materials were cleared as soon as possible, which reduced the absorption, stimulation and infection of respiratory mucosa. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by endoscopic findings, clinical manifestation, laboratory examination and chest imaging. At the same time, decision was made on the second BAL and the prognosis was estimated. Twenty-one cases had dyspnea of certain degree. The bronchial mucous membrane of all the 21 cases showed hyperemia, edema and exudate attached. Lavage fluid looked like broth and contained much of the inhaled material. After two to five times treatment, 18 cases were cured (86%), but 3 cases died (14%). One of these 3 cases fell into an oil well, 1 into mosquito repellent solution, another into manure pit. The patients who could not survive had severe airway obstruction, which was difficult to clean and made the problem deteriorated progressively. One of the patients was sent to a hospital 3 days after the accident and another case developed fungal infection, pneumothorax and finally respiratory failure. BAL through bronchoscopy is necessary for children who accidentally inhaled liquid and powdery materials. This treatment is safe and effective in diagnosis and

  1. Comparison of EtView™ tracheoscopic ventilation tube and video-assisted fiberoptic bronchoscopy during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Umutoglu, Tarik; Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Sinan; Idin, Kadir; Alver, Selcuk; Ozturk, Erdogan; Salihoglu, Ziya

    2017-06-01

    Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) via endotracheal tube (ETT) is the most frequent utilized technique for monitoring of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) procedure while maintaining mechanical ventilation. Endoscopic guidance has increased the safety of this procedure; nevertheless, the use of a bronchoscope via ETT potentially may deteriorate ventilation and lead to hypercarbia and/or hypoxia. EtView tracheoscopic ventilation tube (EtView TVT) is a standard endotracheal tube with a camera and light source embedded at the tip. The objectives of this study are to introduce EtView TVT as a monitoring tool during PDT and to compare it with video assisted FOB via ETT. We hypothesized that using EtView TVT during PDT may obtain similar visualization; also may have advantages regarding better mechanical ventilation conditions when compared with video-assisted FOB via ETT. Patients, 18-75 years of age requiring mechanical ventilation scheduled for PDT were randomly allocated into two groups for airway monitorization to guide PDT procedure either with FOB via ETT (Group FOB, n = 12) or EtView TVT (Group EtView, n = 12). After standard anesthesia protocol, alveolar recruitment maneuver was applied and all patients were mechanically ventilated at pressure-controlled ventilation mode with same pressure levels. The primary outcome variable was the reduction in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) values during the procedure. Other respiratory variables and the effectiveness (the visualization and identification of relevant airway structures) of two techniques were the secondary outcome variables. Patients in both groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics and initial respiratory variables. Visualization and identification of relevant airway structures in any steps of the PDT procedure were also comparable. The decrease in minute ventilation in Group FOB was higher when compared with Group EtView (51 ± 4 % vs. 12 ± 7.3 %, p < 0

  2. Decision Support for the Capacity Management of Bronchoscopy Devices: Optimizing the Cost-Efficient Mix of Reusable and Single-Use Devices Through Mathematical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Edenharter, Günther M; Gartner, Daniel; Pförringer, Dominik

    2017-06-01

    Increasing costs of material resources challenge hospitals to stay profitable. Particularly in anesthesia departments and intensive care units, bronchoscopes are used for various indications. Inefficient management of single- and multiple-use systems can influence the hospitals' material costs substantially. Using mathematical modeling, we developed a strategic decision support tool to determine the optimum mix of disposable and reusable bronchoscopy devices in the setting of an intensive care unit. A mathematical model with the objective to minimize costs in relation to demand constraints for bronchoscopy devices was formulated. The stochastic model decides whether single-use, multi-use, or a strategically chosen mix of both device types should be used. A decision support tool was developed in which parameters for uncertain demand such as mean, standard deviation, and a reliability parameter can be inserted. Furthermore, reprocessing costs per procedure, procurement, and maintenance costs for devices can be parameterized. Our experiments show for which demand pattern and reliability measure, it is efficient to only use reusable or disposable devices and under which circumstances the combination of both device types is beneficial. To determine the optimum mix of single-use and reusable bronchoscopy devices effectively and efficiently, managers can enter their hospital-specific parameters such as demand and prices into the decision support tool.The software can be downloaded at: https://github.com/drdanielgartner/bronchomix/.

  3. CT appearance of splenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  4. NETL CT Imaging Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.

  5. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  6. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  7. Virtual Reality in Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    investigative tool within the nearest future . Figure 16: The Process from Scanning to Visualization on Virtual Reality Equipment. VIRTUAL REALITY ...showing an overall vision of the future Katrinebjerg IT City. Figure 25: Katrinebjerg Phase 1. VIRTUAL REALITY IN DENMARK 2 - 16 RTO-TR-HFM-121...Virtual Reality in Denmark Lisbeth M. Rasmussen Senior Advisor Danish Defence Research Establishment 1.0 INTRODUCTION VR-projects in

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT Simulation for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Effect in Patients Already Staged by PET-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Gerard G.; McAleese, Jonathan; Carson, Kathryn J.; Stewart, David P.; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Eakin, Ruth L.; Zatari, Ashraf; Lynch, Tom; Jarritt, Peter H.; Young, V.A. Linda D.C.R.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET), in addition to computed tomography (CT), has an effect in target volume definition for radical radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In previously PET-CT staged patients with NSCLC, we assessed the effect of using an additional planning PET-CT scan for gross tumor volume (GTV) definition. Methods and Materials: A total of 28 patients with Stage IA-IIIB NSCLC were enrolled. All patients had undergone staging PET-CT to ensure suitability for radical RT. Of the 28 patients, 14 received induction chemotherapy. In place of a RT planning CT scan, patients underwent scanning on a PET-CT scanner. In a virtual planning study, four oncologists independently delineated the GTV on the CT scan alone and then on the PET-CT scan. Intraobserver and interobserver variability were assessed using the concordance index (CI), and the results were compared using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: PET-CT improved the CI between observers when defining the GTV using the PET-CT images compared with using CT alone for matched cases (median CI, 0.57 for CT and 0.64 for PET-CT, p = .032). The median of the mean percentage of volume change from GTV{sub CT} to GTV{sub FUSED} was -5.21% for the induction chemotherapy group and 18.88% for the RT-alone group. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, this was significantly different (p = .001). Conclusion: PET-CT RT planning scan, in addition to a staging PET-CT scan, reduces interobserver variability in GTV definition for NSCLC. The GTV size with PET-CT compared with CT in the RT-alone group increased and was reduced in the induction chemotherapy group.

  9. A Case of Colon Cancer Associated with Ulcerative Colitis: Evaluation Using CT Colonography.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Yuhara, Hiroki; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Igarashi, Muneki; Mine, Tetsuya; Tomita, Sakura; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-09-20

    A 29-year-old female with ulcerative colitis was found to have advanced sigmoid colon cancer on colonoscopy. Computed tomography (CT) was performed after colonoscopy for the evaluation of metastasis. CT colonography (CTC) could be understood adding carbon dioxide because of soon after colonoscopic examination. Images of CTC were evaluated by two- and three-dimensional images including virtual endoscopic, virtual colon dissection and air images, and then compared with conventional endoscopic images. Virtual endoscopic images of flat elevated cancer with shallow ulcer were similar to those findings by conventional endoscopy. This lesion could be depicted by computer-aided detection.

  10. High availability using virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-10-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtual hosts. The whole Grid data center SNS-PISA is running at the moment in virtual environment under the high availability system. As extension of the 3RC architecture, several storage solutions have been tested to store and centralize all the virtual disks, from NAS to SAN, to grant data safety and access from everywhere. Exploiting virtualization and ability to automatically reinstall a host, we provide a sort of host on-demand, where the action on a virtual machine is performed only when a disaster occurs.

  11. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  12. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  13. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  14. Adjunctive remifentanil infusion in deeply sedated and paralyzed ICU patients during fiberoptic bronchoscopy procedure: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even with an adequate pain assessment, critically ill patients under sedation experience pain during procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU). We evaluated the effects of adjunctive administration of Remifentanil, a short-acting drug, in deeply sedated patient on variation of Bispectral Index (BIS) during a fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Methods A prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 18-bed ICU. Patients needing a tracheal fibroscopy under deep sedation (midazolam (0.1 mg/kg per hour) fentanyl (4 μg/kg per hour)) and neuromuscular blocking (atracurium 0.5 mg/kg) were included in the study. A continuous monitoring of BIS, arterial pressure, and heart rate were realized before, during, and after the fiberoptic exam. An adjunctive continuous placebo or Remifentanil infusion was started just before the fiberoptic exam with a target effect-site concentration of 4 ng/ml using a Base Primea pump. Results Mean arterial pressure and heart rates were comparable between the placebo and Remifentanil groups at all times of the procedure. We did not observe differences in the variation of BIS values between the two groups during procedure. We described no change in BIS values relative to the placebo group in this population. Conclusions In deeply sedated and paralyzed patients, receiving analgesic support based on a scale score an additional administration of short-acting analgesic drug, such as Remifentanil, seems not to be necessary for acute pain control. Trial registration NCT00162591. PMID:22800647

  15. SafAIRway: an airway training for pulmonologists performing a flexible bronchoscopy with nonanesthesiologist administered propofol sedation: A prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Melanie; Grande, Bastian; Kolbe, Michaela; Kriech, Sarah; Nöthiger, Christoph B; Kohler, Malcolm; Spahn, Donat R; Franzen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Nonanesthesiologist administered propofol (NAAP) sedation for flexible bronchoscopy is controversial, because there is no established airway management (AM) training for pulmonologists. The aim was to investigate the performance and acceptance of a proposed AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists performing NAAP sedation. The algorithm includes using 3 maneuvers including bag mask ventilation (BMV), laryngeal tube (LT), and needle cricothyrotomy (NCT). During training (consisting of 2 sessions with a break of 9 weeks in between), these maneuvers were demonstrated and exercised, followed by 4 consecutive attempts to succeed with each of these devices. The primary outcome was the improvement of completion time needed for a competent airway. Secondary outcomes were the trainees' overall reactions to the training and algorithm, and the perceptions of psychological safety (PS). The 23 staff members of the Department of Pulmonology performed a total of 552 attempts at AM procedures (4 attempts at each of the 3 maneuvers in 2 sessions), and returned a total of 42 questionnaires (4 questionnaires were not returned). Median completion times of LT and NCT improved significantly between Sessions 1 and 2 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively), whereas BMV was only marginally improved (P = 0.05). Trainees perceived training to be useful and expressed satisfaction with this training and the algorithm. The perception of PS increased after training. An AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists leads to improved technical AM skills, and is considered useful by trainees and raised their perception of PS during training. It thus represents a promising program.

  16. [Virtual reality in MR colonography].

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, D; Debatin, J F

    2000-03-01

    Early detection and subsequent removal of colorectal polyps have been shown to constitute an effective approach for decreasing the incidence of colorectal cancer. The lack of an ideal modality for colorectal polyp screening stimulated interest in the development of CT-colonography and MR-colonography. Both techniques allow the colon to be analyzed in a cross-sectional as well as a virtual endoscopic format. Causing no side-effects and not concerning for radiation exposure MR-colonography warrants further consideration. Additional to detecting polyps down to 6 mm in size the inner wall contour and the morphology of the colonic wall itself can be assessed. New developments like fecal tagging will increase patients acceptance comparing to other diagnostic techniques. In search of an ideal modality for polyp screening MR-colonography will become a potent option in the diagnostic arsenal.

  17. Reanimating patients: cardio-respiratory CT and MR motion phantoms based on clinical CT patient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Johannes; Sauppe, Sebastian; Rank, Christopher M.; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Until today several algorithms have been developed that reduce or avoid artifacts caused by cardiac and respiratory motion in computed tomography (CT). The motion information is converted into so-called motion vector fields (MVFs) and used for motion compensation (MoCo) during the image reconstruction. To analyze these algorithms quantitatively there is the need for ground truth patient data displaying realistic motion. We developed a method to generate a digital ground truth displaying realistic cardiac and respiratory motion that can be used as a tool to assess MoCo algorithms. By the use of available MoCo methods we measured the motion in CT scans with high spatial and temporal resolution and transferred the motion information onto patient data with different anatomy or imaging modality, thereby reanimating the patient virtually. In addition to these images the ground truth motion information in the form of MVFs is available and can be used to benchmark the MVF estimation of MoCo algorithms. We here applied the method to generate 20 CT volumes displaying detailed cardiac motion that can be used for cone-beam CT (CBCT) simulations and a set of 8 MR volumes displaying respiratory motion. Our method is able to reanimate patient data virtually. In combination with the MVFs it serves as a digital ground truth and provides an improved framework to assess MoCo algorithms.

  18. Feasibility of CT-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy in Early Diagnosis of BOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Poulou, Loukia S. Tsangaridou, Iris; Filippoussis, Petros; Sidiropoulou, Nektaria; Apostolopoulou, Sofia; Thanos, Loukas

    2008-09-15

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a nonneoplastic, noninfectious lung disease with a diverse spectrum of imaging abnormalities and nonspecific symptoms diagnosed by open lung biopsy, transbroncial biopsy, and/or video-assisted thoracoscopy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the role of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy in early diagnosis of the disorder. Fourteen BOOP cases diagnosed by CT-guided biopsy were analyzed in terms of imaging abnormalities and complication rate. All had previously undergone a nondiagnostic procedure (bronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage) to exclude infection or lung cancer. The most common imaging abnormalities in descending order were bilateral consolidations (5/14), unilateral tumor-like lesions (5/14), unilateral consolidations (3/14), and diffuse reticular pattern (1/14). Coexistent abnormalities (pleural effusions, nodules, ground-glass opacities) were observed in five patients. The complication rate was 4 of 14 (28.6%), including 2 cases of subclinical pneumothorax and 1 case of minor hemoptysis and local lung injury. None required intervention. We conclude that transthoracic CT-guided biopsy may be used in the diagnosis of BOOP in selected patients with mild complications. For the focal consolidation nodule/mass imaging pattern, CT-guided biopsy may prove to be a reasonable alternative to more invasive procedures.

  19. Accident response -- X-ray to virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hefele, J.; Stupin, D.; Kelley, T.; Sheats, M.; Tsai, C.

    1999-03-01

    The Engineering Sciences and Applications (ESA) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been working to develop a process to extract topographical information from digital x-ray data for modeling in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment and translation into a virtual environment. The application for this process is the evolution of a field deployable tool for use by the Accident Response Group (ARG) at the Laboratory. The authors have used both CT Scan and radiography data in their process development. The data is translated into a format recognizable by Pro/ENGINEER{trademark} and then into a virtual environment that can be operated on by dVISE{trademark}. They have successfully taken both CT Scan and radiograph data of single components and created solid and virtual environment models for interrogation.

  20. Dual-Energy CT of Incidental Findings in the Abdomen: Can We Reduce the Need for Follow-Up Imaging?

    PubMed

    Wortman, Jeremy R; Bunch, Paul M; Fulwadhva, Urvi P; Bonci, Gregory A; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2016-07-06

    The purpose of this article is to review the added value of dual-energy CT for characterization of incidental lesions discovered during routine abdominal CT. Dual-energy CT allows acquisition of virtual unenhanced images, iodine maps, and virtual monochromatic images, all of which can aid in characterizing incidental lesions at the time of detection. Virtual unenhanced images and iodine maps are used for assessment of enhancement of incidental lesions, which can help differentiate suspicious enhancing lesions from benign nonenhancing lesions. Virtual monochromatic images can be obtained at low energy to improve conspicuity and detection of subtle lesions. Routine use of dual-energy CT may eliminate the need for additional imaging in the workup of some of these incidental lesions.

  1. Virtual Observatories: Are We Virtually There Yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual observatories are tools for simplifying access to and use of astronomical data from an increasing number of data sources of rapidly growing volume. Now that a variety of virtual observatory development efforts are under way around the world, a cursory review of the efforts outside solar physics, and an only slightly more detailed consideration of those within, demonstrates a commonality of conceptual model if not of approach or application. The linkages among virtual observatories optimized for different scientific communities present an interesting challenge to the designers: should virtual observatories be designed for the most expert users? For the least? For everyone? It is too early to provide definitive answers, but examination of current efforts does offer some clues.

  2. Virtual Observatories: Are We Virtually There Yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual observatories are tools for simplifying access to and use of astronomical data from an increasing number of data sources of rapidly growing volume. Now that a variety of virtual observatory development efforts are under way around the world, a cursory review of the efforts outside solar physics, and an only slightly more detailed consideration of those within, demonstrates a commonality of conceptual model if not of approach or application. The linkages among virtual observatories optimized for different scientific communities present an interesting challenge to the designers: should virtual observatories be designed for the most expert users? For the least? For everyone? It is too early to provide definitive answers, but examination of current efforts does offer some clues.

  3. Effect of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in intensive care unit patients: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Kang, Kai; Liu, Haitao; Jia, Liu; Tang, Rong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Kaijiang

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical effectiveness of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB).This retrospective cohort study included 148 patients from the third ICU ward of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (Harbin, China) who received simultaneous invasive mechanical ventilation and FFB between March 2012 and December 2014. Patients were divided into dexmedetomidine (n  =  72) and midazolam (n  =  76) groups according to sedative mode. The sedative effects, incidence of adverse events, and bronchoscopist satisfaction scores were compared between groups.During FFB, total sedation time and total time of FFB were significantly shorter in the midazolam group (P < .001, respectively), with a lower percentage of these patients requiring propofol for remedial sedation (P < .001). The incidence of FFB-related adverse events (including bronchospasm, cough, and decreased oxygen saturation) was significantly higher in dexmedetomidine group compared with midazolam group (P  =  .007, .014 and .008, respectively). However, the incidence of other adverse events was not significantly different between groups. In addition, bronchoscopist satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the midazolam compared with dexmedetomidine group (7.72 ± 1.65 vs 7.08 ± 1.77; P  =  .030).For sedation of ICU patients during FFB, combination of midazolam and dexmedetomidine demonstrated an enhanced sedative effect, lower incidence of adverse events, and higher bronchoscopist satisfaction score compared with dexmedetomidine alone, thus represents a suitable alternative sedative for FFB patients.

  4. Trans-bronchoscopy with implantation of (125)I radioactive seeds in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingjian; Pu, Deli; Zhang, Weidong; Liao, Jiangrong; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Guang; Liu, Zhenyin; Singh, Sristi; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Fujun

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the role of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy using trans-bronchoscope (125)I radioactive seeds implantation in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer, in terms of feasibility, safety, quality of life (QOL), and survival time. Between April 2008 and June 2011, 15 patients from two medical institutions that had obstructive pulmonary atelectasis caused by inoperable lung cancer were assigned to receive (125)I implantation endoluminal brachytherapy by bronchoscopy. Subsequent to the implantation of (125)I seeds, the outcomes were measured in terms of procedure success rate, reopening of atelectasis, complications associated with the procedure, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores and survival time. The surgical procedure was successfully performed in all 15 patients. No procedure-associated mortality occurred and the complications were mild and considered acceptable. Irritable cough and temporary increase of hemoptysis occurred in 11 (73.3%) and 10 (66.7%) patients respectively, and were the most common complications. The pulmonary atelectasis reopening rate subsequent to the procedure was 86.7, 76.9, 80.0, 75.0 and 50.0% at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. The KPS score significantly improved following the implantation of (125)I seeds and the duration of improvement ranged between 3 and 27 months. The median and mean survival times were 15.6 and 16 months, respectively. Actuarial survival rates at 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure were 86.7, 66.7 and 13.3%, respectively. In patients with advanced lung cancer and those presenting with obstructive pulmonary atelectasis, treatment with intraluminal implantation of (125)I seeds is a safe and effective therapy option with easy accessibility.

  5. Trans-bronchoscopy with implantation of 125I radioactive seeds in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, MINGJIAN; PU, DELI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; LIAO, JIANGRONG; ZHANG, TAO; YANG, GUANG; LIU, ZHENYIN; SINGH, SRISTI; GAO, FEI; ZHANG, FUJUN

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy using trans-bronchoscope 125I radioactive seeds implantation in patients with pulmonary atelectasis induced by lung cancer, in terms of feasibility, safety, quality of life (QOL), and survival time. Between April 2008 and June 2011, 15 patients from two medical institutions that had obstructive pulmonary atelectasis caused by inoperable lung cancer were assigned to receive 125I implantation endoluminal brachytherapy by bronchoscopy. Subsequent to the implantation of 125I seeds, the outcomes were measured in terms of procedure success rate, reopening of atelectasis, complications associated with the procedure, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores and survival time. The surgical procedure was successfully performed in all 15 patients. No procedure-associated mortality occurred and the complications were mild and considered acceptable. Irritable cough and temporary increase of hemoptysis occurred in 11 (73.3%) and 10 (66.7%) patients respectively, and were the most common complications. The pulmonary atelectasis reopening rate subsequent to the procedure was 86.7, 76.9, 80.0, 75.0 and 50.0% at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. The KPS score significantly improved following the implantation of 125I seeds and the duration of improvement ranged between 3 and 27 months. The median and mean survival times were 15.6 and 16 months, respectively. Actuarial survival rates at 6, 12 and 24 months after the procedure were 86.7, 66.7 and 13.3%, respectively. In patients with advanced lung cancer and those presenting with obstructive pulmonary atelectasis, treatment with intraluminal implantation of 125I seeds is a safe and effective therapy option with easy accessibility. PMID:26171002

  6. Monitoring sedation for bronchoscopy in mechanically ventilated patients by using the Ramsay sedation scale versus auditory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Wei; Sun, Shu-Fen; Chu, Kuo-An; Lee, David Lin; Wong, Kam-Fai

    2014-02-06

    Appropriate sedation benefits patients by reducing the stress response, but it requires an appropriate method of assessment to adjust the dosage of sedatives. The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the sedation of mechanically ventilated patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FB) monitored by auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) or the Ramsay sedation scale (RSS). In a prospective, randomized, controlled study, all patients who underwent FB with propofol sedation were monitored and their sedation adjusted. During FB, one group was monitored by AEP and another group was monitored by RSS. The propofol dosage was adjusted by the nursing staff during examination to maintain the Alaris AEP index (AAI) value between 25 and 40 in the AEP group and the RSS at 5 or 6 in the RSS group. Before FB and during FB, the AAI, heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded every 5 min. The percentages of time at the sedation target and the propofol dosages were calculated. Nineteen patients received AEP monitoring and 18 patients received RSS monitoring. The percentage of time at the sedation target during FB was significantly higher in the AEP monitoring group (51.3%; interquartile range [IQR], 47.0-63.5%) than in the RSS group (15.4%; IQR, 9.5-23.4%), (P < 0.001). During FB, the RSS group had a significantly higher AAI (P = 0.011), HR (P < 0.001), and MAP (P < 0.001) than the AEP group. In mechanically ventilated patients undergoing FB, AEP monitoring resulted in less variation in AAI, HR, and MAP, and a higher percentage of time at the sedation target than RSS monitoring.

  7. SafAIRway: an airway training for pulmonologists performing a flexible bronchoscopy with nonanesthesiologist administered propofol sedation

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Melanie; Grande, Bastian; Kolbe, Michaela; Kriech, Sarah; Nöthiger, Christoph B.; Kohler, Malcolm; Spahn, Donat R.; Franzen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonanesthesiologist administered propofol (NAAP) sedation for flexible bronchoscopy is controversial, because there is no established airway management (AM) training for pulmonologists. The aim was to investigate the performance and acceptance of a proposed AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists performing NAAP sedation. The algorithm includes using 3 maneuvers including bag mask ventilation (BMV), laryngeal tube (LT), and needle cricothyrotomy (NCT). During training (consisting of 2 sessions with a break of 9 weeks in between), these maneuvers were demonstrated and exercised, followed by 4 consecutive attempts to succeed with each of these devices. The primary outcome was the improvement of completion time needed for a competent airway. Secondary outcomes were the trainees’ overall reactions to the training and algorithm, and the perceptions of psychological safety (PS). The 23 staff members of the Department of Pulmonology performed a total of 552 attempts at AM procedures (4 attempts at each of the 3 maneuvers in 2 sessions), and returned a total of 42 questionnaires (4 questionnaires were not returned). Median completion times of LT and NCT improved significantly between Sessions 1 and 2 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively), whereas BMV was only marginally improved (P = 0.05). Trainees perceived training to be useful and expressed satisfaction with this training and the algorithm. The perception of PS increased after training. An AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists leads to improved technical AM skills, and is considered useful by trainees and raised their perception of PS during training. It thus represents a promising program. PMID:27281093

  8. Virtual Campus in the Context of an Educational Virtual City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina; Morozov, Mikhail; Gerasimov, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on virtual campuses, i.e. virtual worlds representing real educational institutions that are based on the metaphor of a university and provide users with different learning tools. More specifically, the idea of integrating a virtual campus into the context of a virtual city is suggested. Such a virtual city, where students…

  9. CT findings in leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1984-12-01

    Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

  10. Phantom based evaluation of CT to CBCT image registration for proton therapy dose recalculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Guillaume; Dedes, George; Zöllner, Christoph; Handrack, Josefine; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Reiner, Michael; Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Kamp, Florian; Söhn, Matthias; Wilkens, Jan J.; Baroni, Guido; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform dose recalculation on the anatomy of the day is important in the context of adaptive proton therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging to generate the daily stopping power distribution of the patient. We investigated the deformation of the planning CT scan (pCT) onto daily CBCT images to generate a virtual CT (vCT) using a deformable phantom designed for the head and neck (H & N) region. The phantom was imaged at a planning CT scanner in planning configuration, yielding a pCT and in deformed, treatment day configuration, yielding a reference CT (refCT). The treatment day configuration was additionally scanned at a CBCT scanner. A Morphons DIR algorithm was used to generate a vCT. The accuracy of the vCT was evaluated by comparison to the refCT in terms of corresponding features as identified by an adaptive scale invariant feature transform (aSIFT) algorithm. Additionally, the vCT CT numbers were compared to those of the refCT using both profiles and regions of interest and the volumes and overlap (DICE coefficients) of various phantom structures were compared. The water equivalent thickness (WET) of the vCT, refCT and pCT were also compared to evaluate proton range differences. Proton dose distributions from the same initial fluence were calculated on the refCT, vCT and pCT and compared in terms of proton range. The method was tested on a clinical dataset using a replanning CT scan acquired close in time to a CBCT scan as reference using the WET evaluation. Results from the aSIFT investigation suggest a deformation accuracy of 2-3 mm. The use of the Morphon algorithm did not distort CT number intensity in uniform regions and WET differences between vCT and refCT were of the order of 2% of the proton range. This result was confirmed by proton dose calculations. The patient results were consistent with phantom observations. In conclusion, our phantom

  11. CT of Castleman disease

    SciTech Connect

    Onik, G.; Goodman, P.C.

    1983-04-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing among mediastinal fatty tumors, vascular abnormalities, and fluid-filled cystic masses is well established. However, little has been written about the use of CT to identify mediastinal masses with soft-tissue characteristics nor of the ability of CT to assess the degree of enhancement of these lesions after contrast material administration. We report a case of Castleman disease which presented as a densely enhancing, soft-tissue lesion on dynamic CT scanning and suggest that enhancement characteristics may be helpful in limiting the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses.

  12. CT angiography - chest

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography angiography - thorax; CTA - lungs; Pulmonary embolism - CTA chest; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - CTA chest; Venous thromboembolism - CTA lung; Blood clot - CTA lung; Embolus - CTA lung; CT ...

  13. Learning by doing virtually.

    PubMed

    von Sternberg, N; Bartsch, M S; Petersik, A; Wiltfang, J; Sibbersen, W; Grindel, T; Tiede, U; Warnke, P H; Heiland, M; Russo, P A J; Terheyden, H; Pohlenz, P; Springer, I N

    2007-05-01

    Selective reduction of bone without collateral damage (nerves, teeth) is essential in apicectomy. To test whether skills acquired on a virtual apicectomy simulator (VOXEL-MAN system with integrated force-feedback) are transferable from virtual to physical reality, two groups of trainees were compared. Group 1 received computer-based virtual surgical training before performing an apicectomy in a pig cadaver model. The probability of preserving vital neighboring structures was improved significantly, i.e. six-fold, after virtual surgical training (P<0.001). The average volume of the bony defects created by the trainees of Group 2 (mean: 0.47 ml) was significantly (P<0.001) larger than by the trainees of Group 1 (mean: 0.25 ml). Most importantly, the ability to objectively self-assess performance was significantly improved after virtual training. Training with a virtual apicectomy simulator appears to be effective, and the skills acquired are transferable to physical reality.

  14. MITRE's virtual model shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Michael A.

    1995-04-01

    The exploration of visual data and the use of visual information during the design process can be greatly enhanced by working within the virtual environment where the user is closely coupled to the data by means of immersive technologies and natural user interfaces. Current technology enables us to construct a virtual environment utilizing 3D graphics projection, object generated stereo sound, tactile feedback, and voice command input. Advances in software architectures and user interfaces enable us to focus on enhancing the design process within the virtual environment. These explorations at MITRE have evolved into an application which focuses on the ability to create, manipulate, and explore photo and audio realistic 3D models of work spaces, office complexes, and entire communities in real-time. This application, the Virtual Interactive Planning System, is a component of the MITRE virtual model shop, a suite of applications which permits the user to design and manipulate computer graphics models within the virtual environment.

  15. Virtual reality exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, B O; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer-generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first controlled study of virtual reality in treatment of a psychiatric disorder. A case study supported the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for the fear of flying. The potential for virtual reality exposure treatment for these and other disorders is explored, and therapeutic issues surrounding the delivery of VR exposure are discussed.

  16. Software platform for simulation of a prototype proton CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Valentina; Bashkirov, Vladimir A; Piersimoni, Pierluigi; Guatelli, Susanna; Plautz, Tia E; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F-W; Johnson, Robert P; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Tessonnier, Thomas; Parodi, Katia; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Schulte, Reinhard W

    2017-03-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a promising imaging technique to substitute or at least complement x-ray CT for more accurate proton therapy treatment planning as it allows calculating directly proton relative stopping power from proton energy loss measurements. A proton CT scanner with a silicon-based particle tracking system and a five-stage scintillating energy detector has been completed. In parallel a modular software platform was developed to characterize the performance of the proposed pCT. The modular pCT software platform consists of (1) a Geant4-based simulation modeling the Loma Linda proton therapy beam line and the prototype proton CT scanner, (2) water equivalent path length (WEPL) calibration of the scintillating energy detector, and (3) image reconstruction algorithm for the reconstruction of the relative stopping power (RSP) of the scanned object. In this work, each component of the modular pCT software platform is described and validated with respect to experimental data and benchmarked against theoretical predictions. In particular, the RSP reconstruction was validated with both experimental scans, water column measurements, and theoretical calculations. The results show that the pCT software platform accurately reproduces the performance of the existing prototype pCT scanner with a RSP agreement between experimental and simulated values to better than 1.5%. The validated platform is a versatile tool for clinical proton CT performance and application studies in a virtual setting. The platform is flexible and can be modified to simulate not yet existing versions of pCT scanners and higher proton energies than those currently clinically available. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. High availability using virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolari, Federico; Arezzini, Silvia; Ciampa, Alberto; Mazzoni, Enrico; Domenici, Andrea; Vaglini, Gigliola

    2010-04-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows the running virtual machines to be distributed over a small number of servers, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The 3RC system is based on a finite state machine, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtual hosts. The whole Grid data center SNS-PISA is running at the moment in virtual environment under the high availability system.

  18. Analysis of patient CT dose data using virtualdose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Richard

    X-ray computer tomography has many benefits to medical and research applications. Recently, over the last decade CT has had a large increase in usage in hospitals and medical diagnosis. In pediatric care, from 2000 to 2006, abdominal CT scans increased by 49 % and chest CT by 425 % in the emergency room (Broder 2007). Enormous amounts of effort have been performed across multiple academic and government groups to determine an accurate measure of organ dose to patients who undergo a CT scan due to the inherent risks with ionizing radiation. Considering these intrinsic risks, CT dose estimating software becomes a necessary tool that health care providers and radiologist must use to determine many metrics to base the risks versus rewards of having an x-ray CT scan. This thesis models the resultant organ dose as body mass increases for patients with all other related scan parameters fixed. In addition to this,this thesis compares a modern dose estimating software, VirtualDose CT to two other programs, CT-Expo and ImPACT CT. The comparison shows how the software's theoretical basis and the phantom they use to represent the human body affect the range of results in organ dose. CT-Expo and ImPACT CT dose estimating software uses a different model for anatomical representation of the organs in the human body and the results show how that approach dramatically changes the outcome. The results categorizes four datasets as compared to the three software types where the appropriate phantom was available. Modeling was done to simulate chest abdominal pelvis scans and whole body scans. Organ dose difference versus body mass index shows as body mass index (BMI) ranges from 23.5 kg/m 2 to 45 kg/m2 the amount of organ dose also trends a percent change from -4.58 to -176.19 %. Comparing organ dose difference with increasing x-ray tube potential from 120 kVp to 140 kVp the percent change in organ dose increases from 55 % to 65 % across all phantoms. In comparing VirtualDose to CT

  19. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy guided injection of methylene blue combined with hookwire for preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions in thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiayuan; Mao, Xiaowei; Xie, Fangfang

    2015-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used in the resection of small pulmonary lesions in the clinical practice. The accurate preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions is significant to guide the operation. We report a thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) guided injection of methylene blue combined with hookwire to localize the small pulmonary lesion in a 50-year-old woman. We successfully performed VATS followed by the combined localization of these two methods. This localization method has a higher accuracy and fewer complications, which can effectively guide the surgical resection. PMID:26793384

  20. Free-breathing cine CT for the diagnosis of tracheomalacia in young children.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-08-01

    Tracheomalacia is characterized by excessive expiratory collapse of the trachea. To investigate the accuracy of free-breathing cine CT for diagnosis of tracheomalacia in young children with bronchoscopy as reference standard. In a retrospective study (May 2001-July 2008), a patient group (n = 27) of children with bronchoscopic evidence of tracheomalacia, and a control group (n = 320) underwent free-breathing cine CT. The tracheal shape on free-breathing cine CT was classified as round, lunate, elongated or crescentic. Cross-sectional area change of the trachea and age were compared between the groups and the diagnostic performance of free-breathing cine CT for tracheomalacia was evaluated. The patient group showed significantly greater cross-sectional area change of the trachea (57.2% ± 22.2% vs. 10.6% ± 11.2%, P < 0.001) than the control group. If a cross-sectional area change of the trachea of 31.6% was used as a cut-off value for the diagnosis of tracheomalacia, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of cine CT were 96.3% (26/27), 97.2% (311/320) and 97.1% (337/347), respectively. If a crescentic shape during the expiratory phase was used, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 51.9% (14/27), 98.8% (316/320) and 95.1% (330/347), respectively. Free-breathing cine CT has potential to provide the diagnosis of tracheomalacia in young children.

  1. CT Scans - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tomography) Scan - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section CT ( ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section CT ( ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...

  3. Subdural empyema: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.D.; Leeds, N.E.; Danziger, A.

    1984-02-01

    CT scans in 49 patients with surgically proven subdural empyema were evaluated. The empyemas were crescentic or lentiform extra-axial hypodense collections (density approximating that of cerebrospinal fluid) with prominent, sharply etched medial rim enhancement. Enhancement of the adjacent cerebral cortex was identified in many cases. Mass effect was always present and in 10 cases so extensive that it overshadowed a small extra-axial collection. CT allowed for precise localization of the lesion, including contiguous or isolated involvement of the interhemispheric subdural space. Mortality was 12% (6/49 cases), a marked improvement when compared with mortality figures obtained prior to the advent of CT (40%). CT findings indicative of involvement of the adjacent parenchyma via retrograde thrombophlebitis with resultant infarction and/or abscess formation were associated with poor prognosis. Improvement in prognosis since the advent of CT is the direct result of early accurate diagnosis and timely intervention.

  4. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  5. Digging the Virtual Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polymeropoulou, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will investigate the way that the technological progress and the Informatics contributed greatly to the field of Archaeology. There will be analyzed the terms of virtual archaeology and virtual reality in archaeology and there will be an extended reference to the applications and the computer graphics that archaeologists could use…

  6. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  7. A Virtual Good Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

  8. 10 Myths of Virtualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

  9. Virtual Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firer, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non-violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education…

  10. State Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  11. Virtual School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  12. Virtual Schools. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    The majority of school districts in the U.S. are providing some form of online learning for their students. In the past, virtual schools primarily targeted advanced students who didn't have access to certain courses in their regular schools. Recently, however, many virtual schools have shifted their focus to credit recovery as a way to provide…

  13. A Virtual Good Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

  14. 10 Myths of Virtualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

  15. Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follows, Scott B.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the possibilities and educational benefits of virtual learning environments (VLEs), based on experiences with "Thirst for Knowledge," a VLE that simulates the workplace of a major company. While working in this virtual office world, students walk through the building, attend meetings, read reports, receive e-mail, answer the telephone,…

  16. Who Benefits from Virtuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Barry; Hedberg, John G.; Wright, Rob

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of constructivist frameworks to develop effective and successful learning environments, including educational software. Topics include technology supporting reform; virtuality and multimedia; attributes of interactive multimedia and virtual reality; and examples of context and learner active participation. (Contains 35…

  17. Virtual Worlds for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an online experience that has not only created a fantasy world for the general public but has enabled some tech-savvy educators to create virtual educational opportunities. Second Life, or SL, is a 3-D Internet-based virtual world created by Linden Lab and populated by nearly 1,000,000 active users worldwide since 2003.…

  18. State Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  19. Virtual School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  20. Virtual Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firer, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non-violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education…

  1. Possible application of CT morphometry of the calcaneus and talus in forensic anthropological identification.

    PubMed

    Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Mustafa, Asmaa Mohammed Hishmat; Sogawa, Nozomi; Kanou, Tetsuya; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) data provide information for volumetric and radiographic density analysis. The present study investigated the application of virtual CT volumetry of the tarsal bones to estimation of the sex, stature, and body weight using postmortem CT (PMCT) data of forensic autopsy cases. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the bilateral foot bones of intact Japanese subjects after adolescence (age ≥ 15 years, n = 179, 100 males and 79 females) were reconstructed on an automated CT image analyzer system. Measured parameters were mass volume, mean CT value (HU), and total CT value of the talus and calcaneus. Mean CT values of these bones showed age-dependent decreases in elderly subjects over 60 years of age for both sexes, with significant sex-related differences especially in the elderly. The mass volumes and total CT values of the talus and calcaneus showed significant sex-related differences, and also moderate correlations with body height and weight for bilateral bones in all cases (r = 0.58-0.78, p < 0.0001); however, the correlations of these parameters of the female talus with body weight were insufficient (r = 0.41-0.61, p < 0.0001). These observations indicate the applicability of virtual CT morphometry of the talus and calcaneus using an automated analyzer to estimate the sex and stature in forensic identification; however, greater variations should be considered in body weight estimations of females.

  2. Intelligent virtual teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ondřej; Kostolányová, Kateřina

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the Virtual Teacher that uses a set of rules to automatically adapt the way of teaching. These rules compose of two parts: conditions on various students' properties or learning situation; conclusions that specify different adaptation parameters. The rules can be used for general adaptation of each subject or they can be specific to some subject. The rule based system of Virtual Teacher is dedicated to be used in pedagogical experiments in adaptive e-learning and is therefore designed for users without education in computer science. The Virtual Teacher was used in dissertation theses of two students, who executed two pedagogical experiments. This paper also describes the phase of simulating and modeling of the theoretically prepared adaptive process in the modeling tool, which has all the required parameters and has been created especially for the occasion. The experiments are being conducted on groups of virtual students and by using a virtual study material.

  3. CT scan diagnosis of bleeding peptic ulcer after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Husain, Syed; Ahmed, Ahmed R; Johnson, Joseph; Boss, Thad; O'Malley, William

    2007-11-01

    Investigation of the bypassed stomach in patients with suspected peptic ulcer disease presents a major challenge to bariatric surgeons. Various methods have been suggested for visualization of the duodenum and bypassed stomach. These include endoscopy via percutaneous gastrostomy access, retrograde endoscopy and virtual gastroscopy using CT scan. We present a case of peptic ulcer bleeding diagnosed with the help of conventional CT scan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such case reported in the literature and the first in the bariatric population.

  4. Lack of efficacy of pre bronchoscopy inhaled salbutamol on symptoms and lung functions in patients with pre-existing airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anant; Momin, Indrajit; Poulose, Rosemary; Mohan, Charu; Madan, Karan; Hadda, Vijay; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, RM

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) may exaggerate symptoms and lung functions in patients with pre-existing airway obstruction. Interventions which can alleviate or minimize this procedure-related bronchospasm, especially in this high-risk group are, therefore, required. Methods: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 400 μg of inhaled salbutamol on patients with spirometric evidence of airflow obstruction planned for FOB. Patient's dyspnea, procedure tolerability, and change in spirometry were assessed before and after the procedure. Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled (78% males), with a mean (standard deviation) age of 49.8 (6.2) years. There was a significant fall in % predicted FEV1 within each group compared to their respective pre-bronchoscopy values. However, no significant difference in the % predicted or absolute FEV1 level was observed between the two groups. Similarly, although both groups experienced increased dyspnea immediately following FOB, this difference was not significant between the two groups either on the Borg or visual analog scale scales. Pre-FOB anxiety levels and the tolerability of the procedure as assessed by the bronchoscopist were similar in both groups. Conclusion: FOB in patients with pre-existing airway obstruction aggravates cough and dyspnea, with a concomitant decline in FEV1 and FVC. The administration of pre-FOB inhaled salbutamol does not have any significant beneficial effect on procedure-related outcomes. PMID:27578926

  5. Virtual Worlds, Virtual Literacy: An Educational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds enable students to learn through seeing, knowing, and doing within visually rich and mentally engaging spaces. Rather than reading about events, students become part of the events through the adoption of a pre-set persona. Along with visual feedback that guides the players' activities and the development of visual skills, visual…

  6. Virtual Machine Logbook - Enabling virtualization for ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yushu; Calafiura, Paolo; Poffet, Julien; Cavalli, Andrea; Leggett, Charles; Frédéric, Bapst

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS software has been developed mostly on CERN linux cluster lxplus or on similar facilities at the experiment Tier 1 centers. The fast rise of virtualization technology has the potential to change this model, turning every laptop or desktop into an ATLAS analysis platform. In the context of the CernVM project we are developing a suite of tools and CernVM plug-in extensions to promote the use of virtualization for ATLAS analysis and software development. The Virtual Machine Logbook (VML), in particular, is an application to organize work of physicists on multiple projects, logging their progress, and speeding up "context switches" from one project to another. An important feature of VML is the ability to share with a single "click" the status of a given project with other colleagues. VML builds upon the save and restore capabilities of mainstream virtualization software like VMware, and provides a technology-independent client interface to them. A lot of emphasis in the design and implementation has gone into optimizing the save and restore process to makepractical to store many VML entries on a typical laptop disk or to share a VML entry over the network. At the same time, taking advantage of CernVM's plugin capabilities, we are extending the CernVM platform to help increase the usability of ATLAS software. For example, we added the ability to start the ATLAS event display on any computer running CernVM simply by clicking a button in a web browser. We want to integrate seamlessly VML with CernVM unique file system design to distribute efficiently ATLAS software on every physicist computer. The CernVM File System (CVMFS) download files on-demand via HTTP, and cache it locally for future use. This reduces by one order of magnitude the download sizes, making practical for a developer to work with multiple software releases on a virtual machine.

  7. Virtually Abelian quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We study discrete-time quantum walks on Cayley graphs of non-Abelian groups, focusing on the easiest case of virtually Abelian groups. We present a technique to reduce the quantum walk to an equivalent one on an Abelian group with coin system having larger dimension. This method allows one to extend the notion of wave-vector to the virtually Abelian case and study analytically the walk dynamics. We apply the technique in the case of two quantum walks on virtually Abelian groups with planar Cayley graphs, finding the exact solution in terms of dispersion relation.

  8. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ...

  9. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate. Before the test, a contrast dye, often iodine, may be injected into a vein in your ... should not receive more CT scans than the number that clinical guidelines recommend. Another risk is that ...

  10. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  11. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  12. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... your provider should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical ...

  13. Lumbosacral spine CT

    MedlinePlus

    ... reveal the following conditions or diseases: Cyst Herniated disk Infection Cancer that has spread to the spine ... M. Editorial team. CT Scans Read more Herniated Disk Read more Osteoarthritis Read more A.D.A. ...

  14. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Virtual Worlds and Virtual Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LAmoreaux, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are continually developing innovative methods to capitalize on recent developments in computational power. Virtual worlds and virtual exploration present a new toolset for project design, implementation, and resolution. Replication of the physical world in the virtual domain provides stimulating displays to augment current data analysis techniques and to encourage public participation. In addition, the virtual domain provides stakeholders with a low cost, low risk design and test environment. The following document defines a virtual world and virtual exploration, categorizes the chief motivations for virtual exploration, elaborates upon specific objectives, identifies roadblocks and enablers for realizing the benefits, and highlights the more immediate areas of implementation (i.e. the action items). While the document attempts a comprehensive evaluation of virtual worlds and virtual exploration, the innovative nature of the opportunities presented precludes completeness. The authors strongly encourage readers to derive additional means of utilizing the virtual exploration toolset.

  15. CT of pituitary abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  16. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping…

  17. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping…

  18. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

  19. Virtual Organizations: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza

    The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

  20. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-13

    Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

  1. ISIS Workshops Using Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.

    2015-06-01

    ISIS workshops are now using virtualization technology to improve the user experience and create a stable, consistent and useful ISIS installation for educational purposes as well as future processing needs.

  2. Nuevo Observatorio Virtual Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, P. B.

    We summarized the main events in the creation of the Nuevo Observatorio Virtual Argentino (NOVA) and its objectives. We also discuss the present advances and the goals for the near future. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Helical CT of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Novelline, R A; Rhea, J T; Bell, T

    1999-05-01

    CT has revolutionized the diagnostic work-up of trauma patients with suspected abdominal injuries. A wide range of intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal organ injuries can be quickly and accurately diagnosed with CT. Today, helical CT technology permits even faster examinations, with improved intravenous contrast opacification of parenchymal organs and vascular structures and reduced CT artifacts caused by patient motion, respiration, and arterial pulsation. Severely injured and potentially unstable patients, who might not have been able to tolerate the long CT examinations of the past, may be quickly evaluated today with helical CT. Accurate diagnosis requires high quality CT examinations that are performed with optimum CT protocols. This article reviews the currently recommended helical CT protocols for evaluating patients with suspected abdominal injuries, and the CT findings when injuries are present.

  4. Mandibular reconstruction with the vascularized fibula flap: comparison of virtual planning surgery and conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Zhang, H Q; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Huang, Z Q; Chen, W L; Ye, J T; Li, J S

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of mandibular reconstruction and assessed clinical outcomes in both virtual planning and conventional surgery patients. ProPlan CMF surgical planning software was used preoperatively in the virtual planning group. In the virtual planning group, fibula flaps were harvested and osteotomized, and the mandibles were resected and reconstructed assisted by the prefabricated cutting guides and templates. The main outcome measures included the operative time, postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, facial appearance, and occlusal function. The ischemia time and total operation time were shorter in the virtual planning group than in the conventional surgery group. High precision with the use of the cutting guides and templates was found for both the fibula and mandible, and a good fit was noted among the pre-bent plate, mandible, and fibula segments in the virtual planning group. Postoperative CT scans also showed excellent mandibular contours of the fibula flaps in accordance with virtual plans in the virtual planning group. This study demonstrated that virtual surgical planning was able to achieve more accurate mandibular reconstruction than conventional surgery. The use of prefabricated cutting guides and plates makes fibula flap moulding and placement easier, minimizes the operating time, and improves clinical outcomes.

  5. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  6. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  7. Virtual screening against obesity.

    PubMed

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  8. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  9. Virtual Cluster Management with Xen

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Nikhil; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    Recently, virtualization of hardware resources to run multiple instances of independent virtual machines over physical hosts has gained popularity due to an industry-wide focus on the need to reduce the cost of operation of an enterprise computing infrastructure. Xen is an open source hypervisor that provides a virtual machine abstraction layer which is very similar to the underlying physical machine. Using multiple physical hosts, each hosting multiple virtual machines over a VMM like Xen, system administrators can setup a high-availability virtual cluster to meet the ever-increasing demands of their data centers. In such an environment, the Xen hypervisor enables live migration of individual