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Sample records for cta polymeric inclusion

  1. Inclusion polymerization of isoprene in deoxycholic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Ragni, Pietro; Rosati, Aldo; Ursini, Ornella

    2009-05-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of isoprene was made on its inclusion (or clathrate) complex with deoxycholic acid (DOCA) at 150 and 300 kGy. The microstructure of the resulting polyisoprene (PIP) was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and found fully comparable to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator. Thus, the 1,4-trans content was found to be 48% and that of 1,4-cis units was 28% of the polymer structure; the remaining are being 1,2 and 3,4 units. The PIP irregular microstructure was justified in terms of monomer dynamics inside the DOCA channels. PIP from inclusion polymerization is fully amorphous as studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) in comparison to an authentic sample of trans-1,4-polyisoprene, which instead has a crystalline melting point of 71.5 °C. The inclusion complex of PIP with DOCA (PIP@DOCA) shows a DTA melting point of 194.4 °C, 12.4 °C higher than the melting point of pure DOCA. PIP isolated from inclusion polymerization from DOCA and its complex PIP@DOCA was studied also by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Isoprene does not form inclusion complexes with urea and thiourea. When irradiated with these two compounds it produces an oily PIP oligomer whose microstructure was found by FTIR spectroscopy analogous to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator.

  2. Architecture of Amylose Supramolecules in Form of Inclusion Complexes by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the architecture of amylose supramolecules in form of inclusion complexes with synthetic polymers by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. Amylose is known to be synthesized by enzymatic polymerization using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as a monomer, by phosphorylase catalysis. When the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of various hydrophobic polymers, such as polyethers, polyesters, poly(ester-ether), and polycarbonates as a guest polymer, such inclusion supramolecules were formed by the hydrophobic interaction in the progress of polymerization. Because the representation of propagation in the polymerization is similar to the way that a vine of a plant grows, twining around a rod, this polymerization method for the formation of amylose-polymer inclusion complexes was proposed to be named “vine-twining polymerization”. To yield an inclusion complex from a strongly hydrophobic polyester, the parallel enzymatic polymerization system was extensively developed. The author found that amylose selectively included one side of the guest polymer from a mixture of two resemblant guest polymers, as well as a specific range in molecular weights of the guest polymers poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF) in the vine-twining polymerization. Selective inclusion behavior of amylose toward stereoisomers of chiral polyesters, poly(lactide)s, also appeared in the vine-twining polymerization. PMID:24970172

  3. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  4. Asymmetric radiation-induced inclusion polymerization of 3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene in deoxycholic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene (3MPD) as an inclusion complex in deoxycholic acid (DOCA) has produced in good yield the optically active polymer poly(3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene) (P3MPD) whose structure and properties were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA). The data show that the polymer is essentially trans-1,4-P3MPD as expected for the polymerization in constrained media. Trans-1,4-P3MPD is optically active with [ α] D values comprised between +4.3 and +5.6. The optical rotatory dispersion curve of the P3MPD is completely different from that of DOCA as expected.

  5. Mirror development for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Doro, M.; Brun, P.; Canestrari, R.; Chadwick, P.; Font, L.; Ghigo, M.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Michalowski, J.; Niemiec, J.; Pareschi, G.; Peyaud, B.; Seweryn, K.

    2009-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), currently in its early design phase, is a proposed new project for groundbased gamma-ray astronomy with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA is planned to consist of several tens of large Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with a combined reflective surface of up to 10,000 m2. The challenge for the future CTA array is to develop lightweight and cost efficient mirrors with high production rates, good longterm durability and adequate optical properties. The technologies currently under investigation comprise different methods of carbon fibre/epoxy based substrates, sandwich concepts with cold-slumped surfaces made of thin float glass and different structural materials like aluminum honeycomb, glass foam or PU foam inside, and aluminum sandwich structures with either diamond milled surfaces or reflective foils. The current status of the mirror development for CTA will be summarized together with investigations on the improvement of the reflective surfaces and their protection against degradation.

  6. Characterization of inclusion complexes of organic ions with hydrophilic hosts by ion transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Olmos, José Manuel; Laborda, Eduardo; Ortuño, Joaquín Ángel; Molina, Ángela

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative characterization of inclusion complexes formed in aqueous phase between organic ions and hydrophilic hosts by ion-transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors is studied, both in a theoretical and experimental way. Simple analytical solutions are presented for the determination of the binding constant of the complex from the variation with the host concentration of the electrochemical signal. These solutions are valid for any voltammetric technique and for solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors comprising one polarisable interface (1PI) and also, for the first time, two polarisable interfaces (2PIs). Suitable experimental conditions and data analysis procedures are discussed and applied to the study of the interactions of a common ionic liquid cation (1-octyl-3-metyl-imidazolium) and an ionisable drug (clomipramine) with two hydrophilic cyclodextrins: α-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The experimental study is performed via square wave voltammetry with 2PIs and 1PI solvent polymeric membranes and in both cases the electrochemical experiments enable the detection of inclusion complexes and the determination of the corresponding binding constant.

  7. Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme journal issue focuses on current activities of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services which stress inclusion of students with disabilities in the mainstream. It begins with a message from the Assistant Secretary, Robert R. Davila which examines the full meaning of an "inclusive" education. Next, Barbara…

  8. The CTA aims at the Inert Doublet Model

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    We show that the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) can realistically challenge the Inert Doublet Model, one of the simplest and best known models of dark matter. Specifically, the CTA may exclude its heavy regime up to dark matter masses of 800 GeV and probe a large fraction of the remaining viable parameter space at even higher masses. Two features of the Inert Doublet Model make it particularly suitable for CTA searches. First, the dark matter mass (in the heavy regime) must be larger than 500 GeV. Second, the dark matter annihilation cross section, σ v, is always larger than the thermal one, reaching values as high as 10{sup −25} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}. This higher value of σv is the result of the unavoidable coannihilation effects that determine the relic density via thermal freeze-out in the early Universe. We find that with 100 hours of Galactic Center exposure, CTA's expected limit widely surpasses, even after the inclusion of systematic errors, current and projected bounds from Fermi-LAT and HESS on this model.

  9. Facile fabrication of narrowly-distributed polymeric micelles via host-guest inclusion complexation of hyperbranched polymers and cyclodextrin and its two-dimensional self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2010-10-14

    A novel narrowly-distributed (ND) polymeric micelle obtained in combination with host-guest recognition and self-assembly is reported. First, the adamantyl-terminated hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO-AD) was synthesized by esterification of hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO) with 1-adamantanecarbonyl chloride. Then the ND polymeric core-shell micelles, with the hydrophobic HBPO-AD cores and hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) shells, were prepared via host-guest inclusion complexation of HBPO-AD and β-CD. The resultant polymer micelles were well characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Interestingly, after annealing at a temperature above the glass transition temperature (T(g)) for a certain time, the polymeric micelles can further self-assemble and fuse into two-dimensional (2D) sheets. The TEM, SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization validate that the sheets are formed through stacking and fusion of tightly packed nanoparticles. In addition, the formation mechanism of polymeric complex micelles and 2D sheets has also been discussed.

  10. Synergies with CTA and VHE Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next-generation observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. With one array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes each in the northern and southern hemispheres, CTA will provide full-sky coverage, enhance flux sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to current instruments, cover gamma-ray energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, and provide angular resolution of a few arc-minutes across a multi-degree field of view. In the context of its Key Science Projects (KSPs), CTA will conduct a census of particle acceleration in the universe, with quarter-sky extragalactic, full-plane Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud surveys planned. Additional KSPs are focused on transients, acceleration up to PeV energies in our own galaxy, active galaxies, star-forming systems on a wide range of scales, and the Perseus cluster of galaxies. A major element of the programme is the search for dark matter, in particular the annihilation signature of WIMPs. Like for current-generation VHE instruments, CTA science will strongly rely upon multiwavelength observations of sources, with the X-ray domain playing a particularly crucial role. The presentation will briefly introduce CTA, summarize its science perspectives, and address the synergies with instruments in other wavebands.

  11. The Spanish contribution to the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, J. A.; CTA Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground- based Very High Energy gamma-ray instrument. It will serve as an open observatory to a wide astrophysics community and will provide a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. To achieve such goals, it will offer full-sky coverage (with Northern and Southern hemisphere sites), an improvement in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, an enlarged span in energy (from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV), and enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1100 members from 28 countries all over the world. The Spanish High Energy Astrophysics community is deeply committed to CTA, with more than 70 scientists and technicians from 9 research groups currently involved in building prototypes for several CTA subsystems. This participation covers a wide list of items, both hardware- and software-related. The former includes telescope-level (camera electronics and mechanics and telescope undercarriage) and observatory- level (array optical calibration and atmospheric monitoring) elements. And the latter includes the design of the data pipelines and the scheduling for observational proposals. In this report, the status of the CTA project and the contribution of the Spanish community will be presented.

  12. Perspectives from CTA in relativistic astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Werner

    The Cherenkov telescope array (CTA) is a next-generation observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. With one array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes each in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CTA will provide full-sky coverage, enhance flux sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to current instruments, cover gamma-ray energies from 20 GeV to 300 GeV, and provide a wide field of view with angular resolution of a few arc-minutes. Science themes to be addressed by the CTA observatory include (i) understanding the origin of relativistic cosmic particles, and the role these play in the evolution of star forming systems and galaxies, (ii) probing extreme environments such as neutron stars and black holes, but also the cosmic voids, and (iii) exploring frontiers in physics such as the nature of dark matter. With its superior performance, the prospects for CTA combine guaranteed science — the in-depth understanding of known objects and mechanisms — with anticipated detection of new classes of gamma-ray emitters and new phenomena, and a very significant potential for fundamentally new discoveries.

  13. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  14. Multiband VLBI Observations of CTA102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantakyro, F. T.; Baath, L. B.; Dallacasa, D.; Jones, D. L.; Wehrle, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    The source CTA102, known to exhibit low frequency variability, has been observed at six epochs (three at lambda 32 cm, two at lambda 18 cm, and one at lambda l.3 cm) with intercontinental VLBI arrays. On the basis of the changes observed in the structure, we believe that the flux density variations at these wavelengths are due to intrinsic processes and not due to interstellar scintillation. This source exhibits behaviour suggestive of being expanding with a very high apparent transverse velocity.

  15. Effect of inclusion size on failure mechanism and mechanical properties of polymeric composites containing micro and nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jeong-Min

    The effect of particle size on the mechanical properties of polymeric composites was investigated experimentally and numerically. It was found from experiments that particle sizes at micro scale have little influence on the Young's modulus of the composite and that Young's modulus increases as the size of particles decreases at nano scale. It was also observed that tensile strength of the composite is significantly dependent on particle size. At 1 vol.% loading, the tensile strength increased as the particle size decreased. However, the trend for the composite with alumina nanoparticles of 3% volume fraction was found to be opposite. TEM and SEM micrographs showed higher likelihood of poor dispersions in the composite with 3 vol.% nanoparticles than that with 1 vol.%. Finite element analyses showed that total strain energy release rate for particle/matrix debonding growth decreases as particle size decreases and that sliding fracture mode becomes dominant as the debonding grows. It was found that interfacial fracture toughness does not depend on particle size in micron scale but increases substantially when the sliding fracture mode prevails. It was analyzed with molecular dynamics simulations that the Young's modulus enhancement by decrease of nanoparticle size may be attributed to stiff polymer layers around nanoparticles. It was also found that the stiff polymer layers around nanoparticle are more effective on improving the elastic modulus with smaller nanoparticles and stronger polymer-nanoparticle interactions.

  16. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy of fisetin by encapsulating as inclusion complex with HPβCD in polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kadari, Amrita; Gudem, Sagarika; Kulhari, Hitesh; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Borkar, Roshan M; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2017-11-01

    Fisetin (FST), a potent anticancer phytoconstituent, exhibits poor aqueous solubility and hence poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study is to improve the oral bioavailability of FST by encapsulating into PLGA NPs (poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles) as a complex of HPβCD (hydroxyl propyl beta cyclodextrin) and to assess its anti-cancer activity against breast cancer cells. FST-HPβCD inclusion complex (FHIC) was prepared and the supramolecular complex formation was characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD and (1)H NMR. FHIC encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (FHIC-PNP) were prepared and were studied for in vitro anticancer activity, cellular uptake, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comparative bioavailability of FST was determined after oral administration in C57BL6 mice as pure FST and FHIC-PNP. The results revealed that FHIC-PNP not only enhanced the anti-cancer activity and apoptosis of FST against MCF-7 cells but also improved its oral bioavailability, as demonstrated by increased peak plasma concentration and total drug absorbed.

  17. A fast optical outburst of the quasar CTA102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, Svetlana; Larionov, Valeri; Mokrushina, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The quasar CTA102 is being in an active state at gamma-ray and optical wavelengths since 2015, with prominent gamma-ray and optical outbursts observed in the beginning of 2016 (see www.bu.edu/blazars/VLBA_GLAST/cta102.html).

  18. Intracranial aneurysm growth quantification in CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, Rashindra; Metz, Coert T.; Klein, Stefan; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van der Lugt, Aad; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2012-02-01

    Next to aneurysm size, aneurysm growth over time is an important indicator for aneurysm rupture risk. Manual assessment of aneurysm growth is a cumbersome procedure, prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. In clinical practice, mainly qualitative assessment and/or diameter measurement are routinely performed. In this paper a semi-automated method for quantifying aneurysm volume growth over time in CTA data is presented. The method treats a series of longitudinal images as a 4D dataset. Using a 4D groupwise non-rigid registration method, deformations with respect to the baseline scan are determined. Combined with 3D aneurysm segmentation in the baseline scan, volume change is assessed using the deformation field at the aneurysm wall. For ten patients, the results of the method are compared with reports from expert clinicians, showing that the quantitative results of the method are in line with the assessment in the radiology reports. The method is also compared to an alternative method in which the volume is segmented in each 3D scan individually, showing that the 4D groupwise registration method agrees better with manual assessment.

  19. All Sky Camera for the CTA Atmospheric Calibration work package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandat, Dusan; Pech, Miroslav; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Travnicek, Petr; Janecek, Petr; Ebr, Jan; Doro, Michele; Gaug, Markus

    2015-03-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) is a passive non-invasive imaging system for rapid night sky atmosphere monitoring. By design, the operation of the ASC will not affect the measurement procedure of the CTA observatory, for which we discuss its application in this report. The data collected should enable improved productivity and increased measurement time for the CTA observatory. The goal of ASC is to identify cloud position, atmosphere attenuation and time evolution of the sky condition, working within the CTA Central Calibration Facilities (CCF) group. Clouds and atmosphere monitoring may allow near-future prediction of the night-sky quality, helping scheduling. Also, in the case of partly cloudy night sky the cameras will identify the uncovered regions of the sky during the operation time, and define potential observable sources that can be measured. By doing so, a higher productivity of the CTA observatory measurements may be possible.

  20. Management of Coronary Artery Calcium and Coronary CTA Findings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dustin M; Divakaran, Sanjay; Villines, Todd C; Nasir, Khurram; Shah, Nishant R; Slim, Ahmad M; Blankstein, Ron; Cheezum, Michael K

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) have significant data supporting their ability to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) and classify patient risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Evidence regarding CAC use for screening has established an excellent prognosis in patients with no detectable CAC, and the ability to risk re-classify the majority of asymptomatic patients considered intermediate risk by traditional risk scores. While data regarding the ideal management of CAC findings are limited, evidence supports statin consideration in patients with CAC > 0 and individualized aspirin therapy accounting for CAD risk factors, CAC severity, and factors which increase a patient's risk of bleeding. In patients with stable or acute symptoms undergoing coronary CTA, a normal CTA predicts excellent prognosis, allowing reassurance and disposition without further testing. When CTA identifies nonobstructive CAD (<50 % stenosis), observational data support consideration of statin use/intensification in patients with extensive plaque (at least four coronary segments involved) and patients with high-risk plaque features. In patients with both nonobstructive and obstructive CAD, multiple studies have now demonstrated an ability of CTA to guide management and improve CAD risk factor control. Still, significant under-treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and high-risk image findings remain, among concerns that CTA may increase invasive angiography and revascularization. To fully realize the impact of atherosclerosis imaging for ASCVD prevention, patient engagement in lifestyle changes and the modification of ASCVD risk factors remain the foundation of care. This review provides an overview of available data and recommendations in the management of CAC and CTA findings.

  1. CTA simulations with CORSIKA/sim lowbar telarray

    SciTech Connect

    Bernloehr, K.

    2008-12-24

    While current atmospheric Cherenkov installations consist of only a few telescopes each, future installations will be far more complex. Monte Carlo simulations have become an essential tool for the design and optimisation of such installations. The CORSIKA air-shower simulation code and the sim lowbar telarray code for simulation of arrays of Cherenkov telescopes have been used to simulate several candidate configurations of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in detail. Together with other detailed and simplified simulations the resulting data provide the basis for the ongoing optimisation of CTA over a wide energy range. In this paper, the simulation methods are outlined and preliminary results on a number of configurations are presented. It is demonstrated that the initial goals of the CTA project can be achieved with available technology, at least in the medium and high energy range (about 100 GeV to 100 TeV)

  2. Automatic aortic root segmentation in CTA whole-body dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinpei; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an evolving technique for patients with serious aortic stenosis disease. Typically, in this application a CTA data set is obtained of the patient's arterial system from the subclavian artery to the femoral arteries, to evaluate the quality of the vascular access route and analyze the aortic root to determine if and which prosthesis should be used. In this paper, we concentrate on the automated segmentation of the aortic root. The purpose of this study was to automatically segment the aortic root in computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets to support TAVR procedures. The method in this study includes 4 major steps. First, the patient's cardiac CTA image was resampled to reduce the computation time. Next, the cardiac CTA image was segmented using an atlas-based approach. The most similar atlas was selected from a total of 8 atlases based on its image similarity to the input CTA image. Third, the aortic root segmentation from the previous step was transferred to the patient's whole-body CTA image by affine registration and refined in the fourth step using a deformable subdivision surface model fitting procedure based on image intensity. The pipeline was applied to 20 patients. The ground truth was created by an analyst who semi-automatically corrected the contours of the automatic method, where necessary. The average Dice similarity index between the segmentations of the automatic method and the ground truth was found to be 0.965±0.024. In conclusion, the current results are very promising.

  3. Application of the DIRAC framework to CTA: first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrabito, L.; Barbier, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Khélifi, B.; Komin, N.; Lamanna, G.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Lenain, Jp; Lorca, A.; Renaud, M.; Sterzel, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vuerli, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) - an array of several tens of Cherenkov telescopes - is the next generation of ground-based instrument in the field of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA observatory is expected to produce a main data stream for permanent storage of the order of 1-to-5 GB/s for about 1000 hours of observation per year, thus producing a total data volume of the order of several PB per year. The CPU time needed to calibrate and process one hour of data taking will be of the order of some thousands CPU hours with current technology. The high data rate of CTA, together with the large computing power requirements for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, need dedicated computing resources. Massive MC simulations are needed to study the physics of cosmic-ray atmospheric showers as well as telescope response and performance for different detectors and layout configurations. Given these large storage and computing requirements, the Grid approach is well suited, and a vast number of MC simulations are already running on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). In order to optimize resource usage and to handle all production and future analysis activities in a coherent way, a high-level framework with advanced functionalities is desirable. For this purpose we have preliminarly evaluated the DIRAC framework for distributed computing and tested it for the CTA workload and data management systems. In this paper we present a possible implementation of a Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI) Computing Model for CTA as well as the benchmark test results of DIRAC.

  4. Advanced analysis and event reconstruction for the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherini, Y.; Khélifi, B.; Pita, S.; Punch, M.; CTA Consortium

    2012-12-01

    The planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future observatory for very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy composed of one site per hemisphere [1]. It aims at 10 times better sensitivity, a better angular resolution and wider energy coverage than current installations such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. In order to achieve this level of performance, both the design of the telescopes and the analysis algorithms are being studied and optimized within the CTA Monte-Carlo working group. Here, we present ongoing work on the data analysis for both the event reconstruction (energy, direction) and gamma/hadron separation, carried out within the HAP (H.E.S.S. Analysis Package) software framework of the H.E.S.S. collaboration, for this initial study. The event reconstruction uses both Hillas-parameter-based algorithms and an improved version of the 3D-Model algorithm [2]. For the gamma/hadron discrimination, original and robust discriminant variables are used and treated with Boosted Decision Trees (BDTs) in the TMVA [3] (Toolkit for Multivariate Data Analysis) framework. With this advanced analysis, known as Paris-MVA [4], the sensitivity is improved by a factor of ~ 2 in the core range of CTA relative to the standard analyses. Here we present the algorithms used for the reconstruction and discrimination, together with the resulting performance characteristics, with good confidence, since the method has been successfully applied for H.E.S.S.

  5. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  6. Radical polymerization by a supramolecular catalyst: cyclodextrin with a RAFT reagent

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Kohei; Takashima, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular catalysts have received a great deal of attention because they improve the selectivity and efficiency of reactions. Catalysts with host molecules exhibit specific reaction properties and recognize substrates via host–guest interactions. Here, we examined radical polymerization reactions with a chain transfer agent (CTA) that has α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a host molecule (α-CD-CTA). Prior to the polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), we investigated the complex formation of α-CD with DMA. Single X-ray analysis demonstrated that α-CD includes DMA inside its cavity. When DMA was polymerized in the presence of α-CD-CTA using 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane dihydrochloride (VA-044) as an initiator in an aqueous solution, poly(DMA) was obtained in good yield and with narrow molecular weight distribution. In contrast, the polymerization of DMA without α-CD-CTA produced more widely distributed polymers. In the presence of 1,6-hexanediol (C6 diol) which works as a competitive molecule by being included in the α-CD cavity, the reaction yield was lower than that without C6 diol. PMID:28144318

  7. Catalytic living ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, Amit A.; Kilbinger, Andreas F. M.

    2015-09-01

    In living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), a transition-metal-carbene complex polymerizes ring-strained olefins with very good control of the molecular weight of the resulting polymers. Because one molecule of the initiator is required for each polymer chain, however, this type of polymerization is expensive for widespread use. We have now designed a chain-transfer agent (CTA) capable of reducing the required amount of metal complex while still maintaining full control over the living polymerization process. This new method introduces a degenerative transfer process to ROMP. We demonstrate that substituted cyclohexene rings are good CTAs, and thereby preserve the ‘living’ character of the polymerization using catalytic quantities of the metal complex. The resulting polymers show characteristics of a living polymerization, namely narrow molecular-weight distribution, controlled molecular weights and block copolymer formation. This new technique provides access to well-defined polymers for industrial, biomedical and academic use at a fraction of the current costs and significantly reduced levels of residual ruthenium catalyst.

  8. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Form CTA-PR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form CTA-PR C Appendix C to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App. C Appendix C to Part 4—Form CTA-PR ER24FE12.052...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Form CTA-PR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form CTA-PR C Appendix C to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App. C Appendix C to Part 4—Form CTA-PR ER24FE12.052...

  10. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Form CTA-PR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form CTA-PR C Appendix C to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App. C Appendix C to Part 4—Form CTA-PR ER24FE12.052...

  11. A proposal of Texture Features for interactive CTA Segmentation by Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Maiora, J; Papakostas, G A; Kaburlasos, V G; Grana, M

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to create an interactive image segmentation system of the abdominal area for quick volumetric segmentation of the aorta requiring minimal intervention of the human operator. The aforementioned goal is to be achieved by an Active Learning image segmentation system over enhanced image texture features, obtained from the standard Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and the Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The process iterates the following steps: first, image segmentation is produced by a Random Forest (RF) classifier trained on a set of image texture features for labeled voxels. The human operator is presented with the most uncertain unlabeled voxels to select some of them for inclusion in the training set, retraining the RF classifier. The approach will be applied to the segmentation of the thrombus in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) patients. A priori knowledge on the expected shape of the target structures is used to filter out undesired detections. On going preliminary experiments on datasets containing diverse number of CT slices (between 216 and 560), each one consisting a real human contrast-enhanced sample of the abdominal area, are underway. The segmentation results obtained with simple image features were promising and highlight the capacity of the used texture features to describe the local variation of the AAA thrombus and thus to provide useful information to the classifier.

  12. Extragalactic photon-ALP conversion at CTA energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavtsev, A.; Raffelt, G.; Vogel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in extragalactic space between galaxy clusters may induce conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. For TeV gamma rays, the oscillation length (losc) of the photon-ALP system becomes inevitably of the same order as the coherence length of the magnetic field l and the length over which the field changes significantly (transition length lt) due to refraction on background photons. We derive exact statistical evolution equations for the mean and variance of the photon and ALP transfer functions in the non-adiabatic regime (losc ~ l gg lt). We also make analytical predictions for the transfer functions in the quasi-adiabatic regime (losc ll l, lt). Our results are important in light of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and may also be applied to models with non-zero ALP masses.

  13. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  14. Adsorption of the harmful hormone ethinyl estradiol inside hydrophobic cavities of CTA(+) intercalated montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Burgos, A E; Ribeiro-Santos, Tatiana A; Lago, Rochel M

    Hydrophobic cavities produced by cetyltrimethylammonium cation (CTA(+)) exchanged and trapped in the interlayer space of montmorillonite were used to remove the harmful hormone contaminant ethinyl estradiol (EE2) from water. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry, elemental analysis (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen), Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and contact angle analyses showed that the intercalation of 9, 16 and 34 wt% CTA(+) in the montmorillonite resulted in the d001 expansion from 1.37 to 1.58, 2.09 and 2.18 nm, respectively. EE2 adsorption experiments showed that the original clay montmorillonite does not remove EE2 from water whereas the intercalated composites showed high efficiency with adsorption capacities of 4.3, 8.8 and 7.3 mg g(-1) for M9CTA(+), M16CTA(+) and M34CTA(+), respectively. Moreover, experiments with montmorillonite simply impregnated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide showed that the intercalation of CTA(+) to form the hydrophobic cavity is very important for the adsorption properties. Simple solvent extraction can be used to remove the adsorbed EE2 without significant loss of CTA(+), which allows the recovery and reuse of the adsorbent for at least five times.

  15. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  16. The High-Level Interface Definitions in the ASTRI/CTA Mini Array Software System (MASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, V.; Tosti, G.; Schwarz, J.; Bruno, P.; Cefal‘A, M.; Paola, A. D.; Gianotti, F.; Grillo, A.; Russo, F.; Tanci, C.; Testa, V.; Antonelli, L. A.; Canestrari, R.; Catalano, O.; Fiorini, M.; Gallozzi, S.; Giro, E.; Palombara, N. L.; Leto, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.; Stringhetti, L.; Trifoglio, M.; Vercellone, S.; Astri Collaboration; Cta Consortium

    2015-09-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, of a Small Size Dual-Mirror Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. A second goal of the project is the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The ASTRI Mini Array Software System (MASS) is designed to support the ASTRI/CTA mini-array operations. MASS is being built on top of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) framework, which provides support for the implementation of distributed data acquisition and control systems, and functionality for log and alarm management, message driven communication and hardware devices management. The first version of the MASS system, which will comply with the CTA requirements and guidelines, will be tested on the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. In this contribution we present the interface definitions of the MASS high level components in charge of the ASTRI SST-2M observation scheduling, telescope control and monitoring, and data taking. Particular emphasis is given to their potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  17. Novae as Tevatrons: prospects for CTA and IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, B. D.; Caprioli, D.; Vurm, I.; Beloborodov, A. M.; Bartos, I.; Vlasov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of novae as sources of ˜0.1-1 GeV gamma-rays highlights the key role of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration in these transient systems. Although there is evidence for a spectral cut-off above energies ˜1-100 GeV at particular epochs in some novae, the maximum particle energy achieved in these accelerators has remained an open question. The high densities of the nova ejecta (˜10 orders of magnitude larger than in supernova remnants) render the gas far upstream of the shock neutral and shielded from ionizing radiation. The amplification of the magnetic field needed for diffusive shock acceleration requires ionized gas, thus confining the acceleration process to a narrow photoionized layer immediately ahead of the shock. Based on the growth rate of the hybrid non-resonant cosmic ray current-driven instability (considering also ion-neutral damping), we quantify the maximum particle energy, Emax, across the range of shock velocities and upstream densities of interest. We find values of Emax ˜ 10 GeV-10 TeV, which are broadly consistent with the inferred spectral cut-offs, but which could also in principle lead to emission extending to ≳ 100 GeV accessible to atmosphere Cherenkov telescopes, such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Detecting TeV neutrinos with IceCube is more challenging, although the prospects are improved for a nearby event (≲ kpc) or if the shock power during the earliest, densest phases of the outburst is higher than implied by the GeV light curves, due to downscattering of the gamma-rays within the ejecta.

  18. Fast automatic algorithm for bifurcation detection in vascular CTA scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozio, Matthias; Gorbunova, Vladlena; Godenschwager, Christian; Beck, Thomas; Bernhardt, Dominik

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular imaging aims at identifying vessels and their branches. Automatic vessel segmentation and bifurcation detection eases both clinical research and routine work. In this article a state of the art bifurcation detection algorithm is developed and applied on vascular computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans to mark the common iliac artery and its branches, the internal and external iliacs. In contrast to other methods our algorithm does not rely on a complete segmentation of a vessel in the 3D volume, but evaluates the cross-sections of the vessel slice by slice. Candidates for vessels are obtained by thresholding, following by 2D connected component labeling and prefiltering by size and position. The remaining candidates are connected in a squared distanced weighted graph. With Dijkstra algorithm the graph is traversed to get candidates for the arteries. We use another set of features considering length and shape of the paths to determine the best candidate and detect the bifurcation. The method was tested on 119 datasets acquired with different CT scanners and varying protocols. Both easy to evaluate datasets with high resolution and no apparent clinical diseases and difficult ones with low resolution, major calcifications, stents or poor contrast between the vessel and surrounding tissue were included. The presented results are promising, in 75.7% of the cases the bifurcation was labeled correctly, and in 82.7% the common artery and one of its branches were assigned correctly. The computation time was on average 0.49 s +/- 0.28 s, close to human interaction time, which makes the algorithm applicable for time-critical applications.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers fabricated by using (CTA)2S2O8 as self-decomposed soft templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianyou; Du, Binyang; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2012-10-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully synthesized by using a template-directed free radical polymerization technique in aqueous solution at 0-5 °C with oxidative complexes as self-decomposed soft templates. The oxidative complexes ((CTA)(2)S(2)O(8)), which were formed between anionic oxidant (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) at 0-5 °C, can be automatically decomposed due to the reduction of S(2)O(8)(2-). No additional treatment was needed to remove the templates. The reactive functional monomer, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), was used as main monomer. Styrene was used as the comonomer. With simultaneous free radical copolymerization of TMSPMA and styrene, condensation of methoxysilyl groups, and the self-decomposition of (CTA)(2)S(2)O(8), organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully obtained. The mesoporous structures and morphologies of the resultant hybrid mesoporous polymers were found to be strongly dependent on the feed amounts of TMSPMA and styrene. In the absence of styrene, the hybrid polymer PTMSPMA exhibited mesh-like bicontinuous structures with mesopores and high surface area (335 m(2)/g). With the incorporation of styrene, mesoporous nanoparticles were obtained. The surface areas of the mesoporous nanoparticles decreased with the increase of styrene contents. The adsorption capabilities of such mesoporous polymers for organic dye (Congo red) and protein (bovine serum albumin) were also studied.

  20. Cadmium (II) and lead (II) transport in a polymer inclusion membrane using tributyl phosphate as mobile carrier and CuFeO(2) as a polarized photo electrode.

    PubMed

    Arous, Omar; Amara, Mourad; Trari, Mohamed; Bouguelia, Aissa; Kerdjoudj, Hacène

    2010-08-15

    In this work, a development of polymeric inclusion membranes for the cations separation is reported. The membrane was made up of cellulose triacetate (CTA) with a tributyl phosphate (TBP) incorporated into the polymer as metal ions carrier. The transport of lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions in two membrane systems polymer inclusion membrane (PIM), PIM coupled with photo-chemical electrode using TBP as carrier and 2-nitro phenyl octyl ether (NPOE) or tris ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP) as plasticizer have been investigated. The membranes: polymer+plasticizer+carrier were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transports of lead and cadmium have been studied using these systems and the results were compared to commercial cation exchange membrane (CRA). The obtained results showed that for Pb(2+) ion, the concentrations of the strip phase increases using synthesized membranes. The conduction band of the delafossite CuFeO(2) (-1.25 V(SCE)) yields a thermodynamically M(2+) (=Pb(2+), Cd(2+)) photo electrodeposition and speeds up the diffusion process. In all the cases, the potential of the electrode M/M(2+) in the feed compartment increases until a maximum value, reached at approximately 100 min above which it undergoes a diminution.

  1. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based γ-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of noise reduction and vesselness filters for liver vessel segmentation on abdominal CTA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Ha Manh; Klink, Camiel; Moelker, Adriaan; Niessen, Wiro; van Walsum, Theo

    2015-05-01

    Liver vessel segmentation in CTA images is a challenging task, especially in the case of noisy images. This paper investigates whether pre-filtering improves liver vessel segmentation in 3D CTA images. We introduce a quantitative evaluation of several well-known filters based on a proposed liver vessel segmentation method on CTA images. We compare the effect of different diffusion techniques i.e. Regularized Perona-Malik, Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch and Vessel Enhancing Diffusion as well as the vesselness approaches proposed by Sato, Frangi and Erdt. Liver vessel segmentation of the pre-processed images is performed using a histogram-based region grown with local maxima as seed points. Quantitative measurements (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) are determined based on manual landmarks inside and outside the vessels, followed by T-tests for statistic comparisons on 51 clinical CTA images. The evaluation demonstrates that all the filters make liver vessel segmentation have a significantly higher accuracy than without using a filter (p  <  0.05) Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch achieves the best performance. Compared to the diffusion filters, vesselness filters have a greater sensitivity but less specificity. In addition, the proposed liver vessel segmentation method with pre-filtering is shown to perform robustly on a clinical dataset having a low contrast-to-noise of up to 3 (dB). The results indicate that the pre-filtering step significantly improves liver vessel segmentation on 3D CTA images.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catching the radio flare in CTA 102 (Fromm+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Savolainen, T.; Mimica, P.; Kadler, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Lister, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The CTA 102 was observed with all ten antennas of the VLBA, where CTA 102 was the main target within the experiment BR122. In the BS157 and the BW086 experiment other observations CTA 102 was used as a D-term calibrator (see below for experiment codes) -------------------------- code Date (yyyy-mm-dd) -------------------------- BS157A 2005-05-19 BS157C 2005-09-01 BR122A 2006-04-14 BR122B 2006-06-08 BW086B 2006-10-02 BW086C 2006-12-04 BW086D 2007-01-26 BW086E 2007-04-26 -------------------------- (3 data files).

  4. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  5. Model generation of coronary artery bifurcations from CTA and single plane angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenes, Ruben; Diez, Jose L.; Duchateau, Nicolas; Pashaei, Ali; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To generate accurate and realistic models of coronary artery bifurcations before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using information from two image modalities. Because bifurcations are regions where atherosclerotic plaque appears frequently and intervention is more challenging, generation of such realistic models could be of high value to predict the risk of restenosis or thrombosis after stent implantation, and to study geometrical and hemodynamical changes. Methods: Two image modalities have been employed to generate the bifurcation models: computer tomography angiography (CTA) to obtain the 3D trajectory of vessels, and 2D conventional coronary angiography (CCA) to obtain radius information of the vessel lumen, due to its better contrast and image resolution. In addition, CCA can be acquired right before and after the intervention in the operation room; therefore, the combination of CTA and CCA allows the generation of realistic preprocedure and postprocedure models of coronary bifurcations. The method proposed is semiautomatic, based on landmarks manually placed on both image modalities. Results: A comparative study of the models obtained with the proposed method with models manually obtained using only CTA, shows more reliable results when both modalities are used together. The authors show that using preprocedure CTA and postprocedure CCA, realistic postprocedure models can be obtained. Analysis carried out of the Murray's law in all patient bifurcations shows the geometric improvement of PCI in our models, better than using manual models from CTA alone. An experiment using a cardiac phantom also shows the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have shown that fusion of CTA and CCA is feasible for realistic generation of coronary bifurcation models before and after PCI. The method proposed is efficient, and relies on minimal user interaction, and therefore is of high value to study geometric and hemodynamic

  6. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes. PMID:21960964

  7. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  8. A patient-specific visualization tool for comprehensive analysis of coronary CTA and perfusion MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirisli, H. A.; Gupta, V.; Kirschbaum, S.; Neefjes, L.; van Geuns, R. J.; Mollet, N.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; Reiber, J. H. C.; van Walsum, T.; Niessen, W. J.

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (CMR) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are widely used to assess heart disease. CMR is used to measure the global and regional myocardial function and to evaluate the presence of ischemia; CTA is used for diagnosing coronary artery disease, such as coronary stenoses. Nowadays, the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses is determined subjectively by combining information on myocardial function with assumptions on coronary artery territories. As the anatomy of coronary arteries varies greatly between individuals, we developed a patient-specific tool for relating CTA and perfusion CMR data. The anatomical and functional information extracted from CTA and CMR data are combined into a single frame of reference. Our graphical user interface provides various options for visualization. In addition to the standard perfusion Bull's Eye Plot (BEP), it is possible to overlay a 2D projection of the coronary tree on the BEP, to add a 3D coronary tree model and to add a 3D heart model. The perfusion BEP, the 3D-models and the CTA data are also interactively linked. Using the CMR and CTA data of 14 patients, our tool directly established a spatial correspondence between diseased coronary artery segments and myocardial regions with abnormal perfusion. The location of coronary stenoses and perfusion abnormalities were visualized jointly in 3D, thereby facilitating the study of the relationship between the anatomic causes of a blocked artery and the physiological effects on the myocardial perfusion. This tool is expected to improve diagnosis and therapy planning of early-stage coronary artery disease.

  9. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype and mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site (on the slopes of Mount Etna), a dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. It is planned to install up to 70 small size telescopes in the southern CTA site, in order to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach. According to this philosophy, the telescope includes structure, primary and secondary mirrors, camera, software and hardware for control/acquisition and data handling. The camera, almost completed, has been designed to cover a field of view of 9.6 degrees. After the full implementation of the prototype, a remarkable improvement in terms of technology advancement and performance will come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led within the CTA collaboration by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least 9 ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site as part of its pre-production phase. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the flux sensitivity compared with the current experiments (HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS) in the 5 - 300 TeV energy range.

  10. Biokompatible Polymere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich; Maier, Gerhard

    Der klinische Einsatz von synthetischen Polymeren begann in den 60-er Jahren in Form von Einwegartikeln, wie beispielsweise Spritzen und Kathetern, vor allem aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Infektionen infolge nicht ausreichender Sterilität der wiederverwendbaren Artikel aus Glas und metallischen Werkstoffen durch den Einsatz von sterilen Einwegartikeln signifikant reduziert werden konnten [1]. Die Einführung der medizinischen Einwegartikel aus Polymeren erfolgte somit nicht nur aus ökonomischen, sondern auch aus hygienischen Gründen. Wegen der steigenden Anzahl synthetischer Polymere und dem zunehmenden Bedarf an ärztlicher Versorgung reicht die Anwendung von Polymeren in der Medizin von preisgünstigen Einwegartikeln, die nur kurzzeitig intrakorporal eingesetzt werden, bis hin zu Implantaten, welche über eine längere Zeit grossen Beanspruchungen im menschlichen Körper ausgesetzt sind. Die steigende Verbreitung von klinisch eingesetzten Polymeren ist auf ihre einfache und preisgünstige Verarbeitbarkeit in eine Vielzahl von Formen und Geometrien sowie auf ihr breites Eigenschaftsspektrum zurückzuführen. Polymere werden daher in fast allen medizinischen Bereichen eingesetzt.

  11. Invited review-Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the thoracic cardiovascular system in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Drees, Randi; François, Christopher J; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the thoracic cardiovascular system is offering new diagnostic opportunities in companion animal patients with the increasing availability of multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) units in veterinary facilities. Optimal investigation of the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary circulation provides unique challenges due to the constant movement of the heart, the small size of several of the structures of interest, and the dependence of angiographic quality on various contrast bolus design and patient factors. Technical and practical aspects of thoracic cardiovascular CTA are reviewed in light of the currently available veterinary literature and future opportunities given utilizing MDCT in companion animal patients with suspected thoracic cardiovascular disease.

  12. Area postrema ablations in cats: Evidence for separate neural routes for motion- and xylazine-induced CTA and emesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Fox, Robert A.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Crampton, G.; Daunton, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies on the role of the area postrema (AP) in vomiting induced in the cat by motion and drugs have shown that the AP is not essential for motion-induced vomiting, but is necessary for vomiting to apomorphine and xylazine. To confirm these findings and to determine the role of the AP in the formation of Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA), the AP was ablated bilaterally in 10 adult female cats. With one exception, the ablated cats continued to vomit to the same motion that elicited emesis before the ablation. Doses of xylazine and apomorphine that elicit emesis in intact cats, failed to induce emesis in the ablated cats. Histological examination indicated that 8 cats had complete lesions and 2 had partial lesions. Investigations of effects of AP ablations on CTA revealed that cats with complete lesions did not form CTA to flavored milk paired with xylazine-induced CTA. Seven of the eigth completely lesioned cats developed motion-induced CTA, even though emesis was not consistently elicited by motion. These results suggest that there are multiple routes for inducing CTA and the emetic reflex, that CTA can form without eliciting emesis, and that CTA may be a sensitive measure of sub-emetic motion sickness.

  13. Improvement of determination technique for extracting centerline in coronary artery with calcification on CTA.

    PubMed

    Ikai, Akihiro; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Yamamoto, Isao; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Kimura, Motomasa

    2009-09-20

    The present study proposes a method for improving an existing technique used for extracting the centerlines of coronary arteries with calcifications on CTA. Through the use of the improved centerline extraction method, CPR images could be depicted accurately. In the proposed method, two dynamic range compression algorithms using two ITC for blood vessel regions and calcification regions were employed. Two dynamic range compressed CTA images obtained from the two ITC were then subtracted. After that, automatic tracing to determine the centerline for creating CPR images was performed using 3D image processing equipment. The usefulness of our proposed method was confirmed by using simulated CTA of the coronary artery with calcification. We also applied the proposed method to CTA images of 39 branches in 18 cases, and to 48 segments. Our experimental results showed that automatic tracing software pre-installed in the workstation could accurately determine the centerline of the coronary artery without being affected by the existence of calcification. Furthermore, an experienced radiological technologist evaluated the CPR images obtained by the proposed method. The results showed that most created CPR images could be used as diagnostic images after a minor revision performed manually.

  14. Intra-night optical activity of the blazar CTA 102 during its maximum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Velimir; Bachev, Rumen

    2016-11-01

    CTA 102 is known to experience violent outbursts in the optical, the latest of which happened just recently (ATel #9756, ATel #9732). Following these reports we observed this object for four nights (17.11.2016 - 20.11.2016) in a search for intra-night variability.

  15. Swift XRT and UVOT flares accompany brightest ever gamma-ray flare of CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Carpenter, Bryce; D'Ammand, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, observed the highest-ever level of gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 4C +11.69, PKS 2230+11, 3FGL J2232.5+1143).

  16. Evaluation of novel PMTs of worldwide best parameters for the CTA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, R.; Müller, D.; Hose, J.; Menzel, U.; Nakajima, D.; Takahashi, M.; Teshima, M.; Toyama, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2017-02-01

    Photomultiplier Tubes (PMT) are the most widespread detectors for measuring fast and faint light signals. About six years ago, we started an improvement program for the PMT candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project in cooperation with the companies Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Japan) and Electron Tubes Enterprises Ltd. (England). CTA is the next major Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes array for ground-based high energy gamma-ray astrophysics. A total of ∼ 100 telescopes of sizes of 23 m, 12 m and 4 m in diameter will be built in northern and southern hemispheres. For CTA we need PMTs with the highest quantum efficiency and photoelectron collection efficiency, short pulse width of a few ns, low transit time spread and very low afterpulsing. The manufacturers were able to produce 1.5‧ PMTs of enhanced peak quantum efficiency of ∼ 40 % . These collect up to 95-98% of photoelectrons onto the first dynode for the wavelengths ≥ 400 nm . A pulse width of ≤ 3 ns has been achieved at the selected operational gain of 40k. The afterpulsing for a threshold of ≥ 4 photoelectrons is dramatically reduced, down to the level of 0.02%. We will report on the measurements of 1.5‧ PMTs from Hamamatsu and Electron Tubes Enterprises as candidate PMTs for the CTA project. The novel 1.5‧ PMTs have the worldwide best parameters.

  17. New λ6 cm and λ11 cm observations of the supernova remnant CTA 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.; Wang, C.; Han, J. L.; Reich, P.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We attempt to study spatial variations in the spectrum and rotation measures (RMs) of the large-diameter, high-latitude supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1. Methods: We conducted new λ6 cm and λ11 cm observations of CTA 1 using the Urumqi 25-m and Effelsberg 100-m telescopes. Data at other wavelengths were included to investigate the spectrum and polarisation properties. Results: We obtained new total intensity and polarisation maps at λ6 cm and λ11 cm with angular resolutions of 9'.5and 4'.4, respectively. We derived a spectral index of α = -0.63 ± 0.05 (Sν ∝ να) based on the integrated flux densities at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 2639 MHz, and 4800 MHz. The spectral index map calculated from data at the four frequencies shows a clear steepening of the spectrum from the strong shell emission towards the north-western breakout region with weak diffuse emission. The decrease of the spectral index is up to about Δα = 0.3. The RM map derived from polarisation data at λ6 cm and λ11 cm shows a sharp transition between positive RMs in the north-eastern and negative RMs in the south-western part of the SNR. We note a corresponding RM pattern of extragalactic sources and propose the existence of a large-diameter Faraday screen in front of CTA 1, which covers the north-eastern part of the SNR. The RM of the Faraday screen is estimated to be about +45 rad m-2. A RM structure function of CTA 1 indicates a very regular magnetic field within the Faraday screen, which is stronger than about 2.7 μG for a distance of 500 pc. Conclusions: CTA 1 is a large-diameter shell-type SNR located out of the Galactic plane, which makes it an ideal object to study its properties without suffering confusion. The previous detection of the rare breakout phenomenon in CTA 1 is confirmed. We identify a Faraday screen partly covering CTA 1 with a regular magnetic field in the opposite direction to the interstellar magnetic field. The detection of Faraday screens in the Galactic plane is

  18. Morphology-based three-dimensional segmentation of coronary artery tree from CTA scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banh, Diem Phuc T.; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Paquerault, Sophie; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    We developed an algorithm based on a rule-based threshold framework to segment the coronary arteries from angiographic computed tomography (CTA) data. Computerized segmentation of the coronary arteries is a challenging procedure due to the presence of diverse anatomical structures surrounding the heart on cardiac CTA data. The proposed algorithm incorporates various levels of image processing and organ information including region, connectivity and morphology operations. It consists of three successive stages. The first stage involves the extraction of the three-dimensional scaffold of the heart envelope. This stage is semiautomatic requiring a reader to review the CTA scans and manually select points along the heart envelope in slices. These points are further processed using a surface spline-fitting technique to automatically generate the heart envelope. The second stage consists of segmenting the left heart chambers and coronary arteries using grayscale threshold, size and connectivity criteria. This is followed by applying morphology operations to further detach the left and right coronary arteries from the aorta. In the final stage, the 3D vessel tree is reconstructed and labeled using an Isolated Connected Threshold technique. The algorithm was developed and tested on a patient coronary artery CTA that was graciously shared by the Department of Radiology of the Massachusetts General Hospital. The test showed that our method constantly segmented the vessels above 79% of the maximum gray-level and automatically extracted 55 of the 58 coronary segments that can be seen on the CTA scan by a reader. These results are an encouraging step toward our objective of generating high resolution models of the male and female heart that will be subsequently used as phantoms for medical imaging system optimization studies.

  19. Carprofen-imprinted monolith prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lu; Han, Xu; Wang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    To obtain fast separation, ionic liquids were used as porogens first in combination with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to prepare a new type of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized using a mixture of carprofen (template), 4-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, [BMIM]BF4, and chain transfer agent (CTA). Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio, the degree of crosslinking, the composition of the porogen, and the content of CTA, on the column efficiency and imprinting effect of the resulting MIP monolith were systematically investigated. Affinity screening of structurally similar compounds with the template can be achieved in 200 s on the MIP monolith due to high column efficiency (up to 12,070 plates/m) and good column permeability. Recognition mechanism of the imprinted monolith was also investigated.

  20. Sensitivity of CTA to dark matter signals from the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Mathias; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Scott, Pat E-mail: jsg@tapir.caltech.edu

    2014-06-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most promising targets for indirect detection of dark matter with gamma rays. We investigate the sensitivity of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to dark matter annihilation and decay in the Galactic Center. As the inner density profile of the Milky Way's dark matter halo is uncertain, we study the impact of the slope of the Galactic density profile, inwards of the Sun, on the prospects for detecting a dark matter signal with CTA. Adopting the Ring Method to define the signal and background regions in an ON-OFF analysis approach, we find that the sensitivity achieved by CTA to annihilation signals is strongly dependent on the inner profile slope, whereas the dependence is more mild in the case of dark matter decay. Surprisingly, we find that the optimal choice of signal and background regions is virtually independent of the assumed density profile. For the fiducial case of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we find that CTA will be able to probe annihilation cross-sections well below the canonical thermal relic value for dark matter masses from a few tens of GeV up to ∼ 5 TeV for annihilation to τ{sup +}τ{sup −}, and will achieve only a slightly weaker sensitivity for annihilation to b b-bar or μ{sup +}μ{sup −}. CTA will improve significantly on current sensitivity to annihilation signals for dark matter masses above ∼ 100 GeV, covering parameter space that is complementary to that probed by searches with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The interpretation of apparent excesses in the measured cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra as signals of dark matter decay will also be testable with CTA observations of the Galactic Center. We demonstrate that both for annihilation and for decay, including spectral information for hard channels (such as μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and τ{sup +}τ{sup −}) leads to enhanced sensitivity for dark matter masses above m{sub DM} ∼ 200 GeV.

  1. Constant Resistance Is Not Constant Termperature Anemometry - A Lesson From the PWM-CTA Simulation and Its Impact on All CTA Frequency Responce Evaluations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Scott; Foss, John

    1998-11-01

    The transient response of a hot-wire sensor has been simulated numerically ala Perry(Perry, A., (1982), Hotwire Anemometry, Oxford Press.). The recently developed Pulse-Width-Modulated Constant Temperature Anemometer (PWM-CTA(J.F.Foss,D.G. Bohl, and T.J. Hicks (1996) ``The Pulse Width Modulated-Constant Temperature Anemometer,'' Meas. Sci. and Tech., vol. 7, pp. 1388-1395.)) was the power source for the sensor. The simplicity of this electrical circuit has permitted the simulation to reveal a distinctive feature of the sensor's response. A typical sensor was "calibrated" in the model for 3t_0) = 25m/sec. The indicated velocity did not equal the established Q(t>t_o) value albeit the proper overheat resistance was achieved in one time step. The discrepancy is a result of transient effects in the temperature distribution: T(z) and the non-linear coupling between the velocity and the heat transfer. This effect will be present in all CTA operations. The ``effective frequency response'' will be discussed.

  2. Toward the construction of a medium size prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Griffiths, S.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T. B.; Jenke, P.; Kaaret, P.; Kieda, D.; Limon, M.; Mognet, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Peck, A.; Petrashyk, A.; Ribeiro, D.; Stevenson, B.; Vassiliev, V.; Yu, P.

    2015-09-01

    The construction of a prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT) started in early June 2015 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Southern Arizona, as a candidate medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Compared to current Davies-Cotton telescopes, this novel instrument with an aplanatic two-mirror optical system will offer a wider field-of-view and improved angular resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of the camera allows the use of highly-integrated photon detectors such as silicon photo multipliers. As part of CTA, this design has the potential to greatly improve the performance of the next generation ground-based observatory for very high-energy (E>60 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy. In this contribution we present the design and performance of both optical and alignment systems of the pSCT.

  3. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in a computer programmer: CTA diagnosis and surgical and endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Ehab A; Bonatti, Hugo; Housseini, Ahmed M; Maged, Ismaeel M; Morgan, Raymond F; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Finger ischemia due to embolic occlusion of digital arteries resulting from trauma to the palmar ulnar artery has been termed hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS). In HHS, arterial thrombosis and/or aneurysm formation with embolization to the digital arteries causes symptoms of ischemia. We describe a patient in whom the initial diagnosis was made on multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA), as well as his endovascular and surgical management.

  4. DAMPE detection of variable GeV gamma-ray emission from blazar CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zun-Lei; Caragiulo, Micaela; Chang, Jin; Duan, Kai-Kai; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Gargano, Fabio; Lei, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiang; Liang, Yun-Feng; Mazziotta, M. Nicola; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Su, Meng; Tykhonov, Andrii; Yuan, Qiang; Zimmer, Stephan; Dampe Collaboration; Li, Bin; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Cneost Group

    2016-12-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), has detected variable gamma-ray emission from a source positionally coincident with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 4C +11.69) with redshift of z=1.037 (Schmidt 1965, ApJ, 141, 1295) and coordinates (J2000.0, from VLBI) of R.A.: 338.151704 deg, Dec.: 11.730807 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  5. The radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247: The hot spots of radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Chernikov, P. A.

    2013-06-01

    The physical conditions in the radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247 are studied assuming that the low-frequency spectral turnovers are due to synchrotron self-absorption. The physical parameters of the radio sources are estimated using a technique based on a nonuniform synchrotron source model. It is shown that the magnetic-field distributions in the dominant compact components of these radio sources are strongly inhomogeneous. The magnetic fields at the center of the sources are B ˜ 10-1 G, and the fields are two to three orders of magnitude weaker at the periphery. The magnetic field averaged over the compact component is B ˜ 10-3 G, and the density of relativistic electrons is n e ˜ 10-3 cm-3. Assuming that there is equipartition of the energies of the magnetic field and relativistic particles, averaged over the source, < E H > = < E e > ˜ 10-7-10-6 erg cm-3. The energy density of the magnetic field exceeds that of the relativistic electrons at the centers of the radio sources. The derived parameters of CTA 21 and OF+247 are close to those of the hot spots in the radio galaxy Cygnus A. On this basis, it is suggested that CTA 21 and OF+247 are radio galaxies at an early stage of their evolution, when the hot spots (dominant compact radio components) have appeared, and the radio lobes (weak extended components) are still being formed.

  6. Molecular environment, reverberation, and radiation from the pulsar wind nebula in CTA 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jonatan; Torres, Diego F.; Pedaletti, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the molecular mass around CTA 1 using data from Planck and the Harvard CO survey. We observe that the molecular mass in the vicinity of the complex is not enough to explain the TeV emission observed by VERITAS, even under favorable assumptions for the cosmic ray acceleration properties of the supernova remnant. This supports the idea that the TeV emission comes from the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Here, we model the spectrum of the PWN at possible different stages of its evolution, including both the dynamics of the PWN and the supernova remnant and their interaction via the reverse shock. We have included in the model the energy lost via radiation by particles and the particles escape when computing the pressure produced by the gas. This leads to an evolving energy partition, since for the same instantaneous sharing of the injection of energy provided by the rotational power, the field and the particles are affected differently by radiation and losses. We present the model, and study in detail how the spectrum of a canonical isolated PWN is affected during compression and re-expansion and how this may impact on the CTA 1 case. By exploring the phase-space of parameters that lead to radii in agreement with those observed, we then analyse different situations that might represent the current stage of the CTA 1 PWN, and discuss caveats and requirements of each one.

  7. Fully automatic cardiac segmentation from 3D CTA data: a multi-atlas based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirisli, Hortense A.; Schaap, Michiel; Klein, Stefan; Neefjes, Lisan A.; Weustink, Annick C.; Van Walsum, Theo; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2010-03-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA), a non-invasive imaging technique, is becoming increasingly popular for cardiac examination, mainly due to its superior spatial resolution compared to MRI. This imaging modality is currently widely used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) but it is not commonly used for the diagnosis of ventricular and atrial function. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for segmenting the whole heart (i.e. the outer surface of the myocardium) and cardiac chambers from CTA datasets. Cardiac chamber segmentation is particularly valuable for the extraction of ventricular and atrial functional information, such as stroke volume and ejection fraction. With our approach, we aim to improve the diagnosis of CAD by providing functional information extracted from the same CTA data, thus not requiring additional scanning. In addition, the whole heart segmentation method we propose can be used for visualization of the coronary arteries and for obtaining a region of interest for subsequent segmentation of the coronaries, ventricles and atria. Our approach is based on multi-atlas segmentation, and performed within a non-rigid registration framework. A leave-one-out quantitative validation was carried out on 8 images. The method showed a high accuracy, which is reflected in both a mean segmentation error of 1.05+/-1.30 mm and an average Dice coefficient of 0.93. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by successfully applying the method to 243 additional datasets, without any significant failure.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIWAVELENGTH AND OPTICAL MICROVARIABILITY OBSERVATIONS OF CTA 102 (PKS J2232+1143)

    SciTech Connect

    Osterman Meyer, Angela; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; Balonek, Tom

    2009-12-15

    We present analysis of both the short-term optical and long-term multiwavelength variability of CTA 102. In 2004, this object was observed in an intense optical flaring state. Extensive R-band microvariability observations were carried out during this high state. In 2005, we obtained several weeks of contemporaneous radio, optical, and X-ray observations of CTA 102. These observations recorded distinct flaring activity in all three wavebands. Subsequent analysis revealed that this object may appear redder when in a brighter optical state, and that the X-ray, optical, and radio activity do not appear to be correlated. The shape of the observed spectral energy distributions suggests that both synchrotron-related and external inverse Compton processes may contribute to the X-ray emission. Our results are also compared to other results on this object and archival microvariability observations. It appears that more rapid, dramatic microvariability events occur when CTA 102 is in an elevated optical flux state.

  9. The Cognition and Neuroergonomics (CaN) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA): Scientific Vision, Approach, and Translational Paths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    The Cognition and Neuroergonomics (CaN) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA): Scientific Vision, Approach, and Translational Paths by...The Cognition and Neuroergonomics (CaN) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA): Scientific Vision, Approach, and Translational Paths Kelvin S. Oie...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Cognition and Neuroergonomics

  10. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  11. Absence of Protoheme IX Farnesyltransferase CtaB Causes Virulence Attenuation but Enhances Pigment Production and Persister Survival in MRSA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jiazhen; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein CtaB in S. aureus is a protoheme IX farnesyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the heme containing terminal oxidases of bacterial respiratory chain. In this study, to assess the role of CtaB in S. aureus virulence, pigment production, and persister formation, we constructed a ctaB mutant in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA500. We found that deletion of ctaB attenuated growth and virulence in mice but enhanced pigment production and formation of quinolone tolerant persister cells in stationary phase. RNA-seq analysis showed that deletion of ctaB caused decreased transcription of several virulence genes including RNAIII which is consistent with its virulence attenuation. In addition, transcription of 20 ribosomal genes and 24 genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis was significantly down-regulated in the ctaB knockout mutant compared with the parent strain. These findings suggest the importance of heme biosynthesis in virulence and persister formation of S. aureus. PMID:27822202

  12. Carbonic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  13. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  14. Individually addressable thermo- and redox-responsive block copolymers by combining anionic polymerization and RAFT protocols.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernhard V K J; Elbert, Johannes; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Gallei, Markus

    2014-04-01

    A novel diblock copolymer consisting of poly(vinylferrocene) (PVFc) and poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEA) is synthesized via a combination of anionic and RAFT polymerization. The use of a novel route to hydroxyl-end-functionalized metallopolymers in anionic polymerization and subsequent esterification with a RAFT agent leads to a PVFc macro-CTA (M¯n = 3800 g mol(-1) ; Đ = 1.17). RAFT polymerization with DEA affords block copolymers as evidenced by (1) H NMR spectroscopy as well as size exclusion chromatography (6400 ≤ M¯n≤ 33700 g mol(-1) ; 1.31 ≤ Đ 1.28). Self-assembly of the amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous solution leads to micelles as shown via TEM. Importantly, the distinct thermo-responsive and redox-responsive character of the blocks is probed via dynamic light scattering and found to be individually and repeatedly addressable.

  15. Automated registration of coronary arterial trees from multiple phases in coronary CT angiography (cCTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella

    2013-03-01

    We are developing an automated registration method for coronary arterial trees from multiple-phase cCTA to build a best-quality tree to facilitate detection of stenotic plaques. Cubic B-spline with fast localized optimization (CBSO) is designed to register the initially segmented left and right coronary arterial trees (LCA or RCA) separately in adjacent phase pairs where displacements are small. First, the corresponding trees in phase 1 and 2 are registered. The phase 3 tree is then registered to the combined tree. Similarly the trees in phases 4, 5, and 6 are registered. An affine transform with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization (AQSO) is designed to register the trees between phases with large displacements, namely, registering the combined tree from phases 1, 2, and 3 to that from phases 4, 5, and 6. Finally, CBSO is again applied to the AQSO registered volumes for final refinement. The costs determined by the distances between the vessel centerlines, bifurcation points and voxels of the trees are minimized to guide both CBSO and AQSO registration. The registration performance was evaluated on 22 LCA and 22 RCA trees on 22 CTA scans with 6 phases from 22 patients. The average distance between the centerlines of the registered trees was used as a registration quality index. The average distances for LCA and RCA registration for 6 phases and 22 patients were 1.49 and 1.43 pixels, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using automated method for registration of coronary arterial trees from multiple cCTA phases.

  16. Fermi LAT Detection of a Rapid, Powerful Gamma-ray Flare of the FSRQ CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Bryce; Ojha, Roopesh

    2015-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 3FGL J2232.5+1143, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23) with radio coordinates R.A.: 338.1517038 deg, Dec: 11.7308067 deg (J2000, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880) at redshift z=1.037 (Schmidt 1965, ApJ, 141, 1295).

  17. Fermi-LAT detection of strong flaring activity from the FSRQ CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, J.; Carpenter, Bryce; Cutini, Sara

    2016-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 3FGL J2232.5+1143, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23) with radio coordinates R.A.: 338.1517038 deg, Dec: 11.7308067 deg (J2000, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880) at redshift z=1.037 (Schmidt 1965, ApJ, 141, 1295).

  18. Coronary CT angiography (cCTA): automated registration of coronary arterial trees from multiple phases.

    PubMed

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Kazerooni, Ella; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita

    2014-08-21

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is a commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. cCTA is generally reconstructed in multiple cardiac phases because different coronary arteries may be better visualized in some phases than in others due to the periodic cardiac motion. We are developing an automated registration method for coronary arterial trees from multiple-phase cCTA that has potential application in building a 'best-quality' tree to facilitate image analysis and detection of stenotic plaques. Given the segmented left or right coronary arterial (LCA or RCA) trees from the multiple phases as input, the adjacent phase pairs, where displacements are relatively small, are registered by a specifically designed method based on a cubic B-spline with fast localized optimization (CBSO). For the phase pairs with large displacements, a global registration using an affine transform with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization (AQSO) is followed by a local registration using CBSO to refine the AQSO registered volumes. 26 LCA and 26 RCA trees with six cCTA phases from 26 patients were used for registration evaluation. The average distances for the tree pairs between the adjacent phases with small displacements before and after CBSO registration were 0.96  ±  0.79 and 0.76  ±  0.61 mm respectively for LCA, and 0.93  ±  0.97 and 0.64  ±  0.43 mm, respectively for RCA. The average distance differences before and after registration were statistically significant (p < 0.001) for both LCA and RCA trees. The average distances for the distant phases with large displacements before registration, after AQSO registration, and finally after the CBSO registration were 2.85  ±  1.46, 1.62  ±  0.76, and 0.97  ±  0.43 mm, respectively for LCA, and 4.03  ±  2.36, 2.18  ±  1.11, and 0.97  ±  0.44 mm, respectively for RCA. The average distance differences

  19. Búsqueda de Sitios para CTA: Análisis de Datos Satelitales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, A. E.; Medina, M. C.; Romero, G. E.

    The CTA Consortium has decided to implement a systematic search for sites for the Observatory. This search will be made in two different steps. The first one consists of a general determination of the possible sites on the basis of some very basic selection criteria, such as geographic latitude, altitude and extension of the flat area needed. For those sites passing these criteria, a more intensive characterization should be made, using available satellite data, together with existing ground or air-based measurements. In this work we compare the behavior of different sites analyzing the aerosol content and the total precipitable water vapor, measured by MODIS instrument. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Coronary CT angiography (cCTA): automated registration of coronary arterial trees from multiple phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Kazerooni, Ella; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita

    2014-08-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is a commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. cCTA is generally reconstructed in multiple cardiac phases because different coronary arteries may be better visualized in some phases than in others due to the periodic cardiac motion. We are developing an automated registration method for coronary arterial trees from multiple-phase cCTA that has potential application in building a ‘best-quality’ tree to facilitate image analysis and detection of stenotic plaques. Given the segmented left or right coronary arterial (LCA or RCA) trees from the multiple phases as input, the adjacent phase pairs, where displacements are relatively small, are registered by a specifically designed method based on a cubic B-spline with fast localized optimization (CBSO). For the phase pairs with large displacements, a global registration using an affine transform with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization (AQSO) is followed by a local registration using CBSO to refine the AQSO registered volumes. 26 LCA and 26 RCA trees with six cCTA phases from 26 patients were used for registration evaluation. The average distances for the tree pairs between the adjacent phases with small displacements before and after CBSO registration were 0.96  ±  0.79 and 0.76  ±  0.61 mm respectively for LCA, and 0.93  ±  0.97 and 0.64  ±  0.43 mm, respectively for RCA. The average distance differences before and after registration were statistically significant (p < 0.001) for both LCA and RCA trees. The average distances for the distant phases with large displacements before registration, after AQSO registration, and finally after the CBSO registration were 2.85  ±  1.46, 1.62  ±  0.76, and 0.97  ±  0.43 mm, respectively for LCA, and 4.03  ±  2.36, 2.18  ±  1.11, and 0.97  ±  0.44 mm, respectively for RCA. The average distance differences between every two

  1. Very high energy observations of the Galactic Centre: recent results and perspectives with CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrier, Regis

    2016-07-01

    The central 300 pc of our Galaxy are a major laboratory for high energy astrophysics. They harbor the closest supermassive black hole (SMBH) and are the site of a sustained star formation activity. The energy released by the supernovae on the ambient medium must be very strong. Similarly, albeit extremely faint nowadays, the SMBH must have experienced episodes of intense activity in the past which can influence significantly the central regions and beyond, e.g. powering the Fermi bubbles. I review observational results at very high energies from the central region and discuss their implications and the questions they leave open. I discuss the perspectives CTA offers for Galactic Centre astrophysics.

  2. A novel non-toxic combined CTA1-DD and ISCOMS adjuvant vector for effective mucosal immunization against influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Helgeby, Anja; Schön, Karin; Nygren, Caroline; El-Bakkouri, Karim; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier; Lövgren, Karin Bengtsson; Nyström, Ida; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-05-23

    Here we demonstrate that by using non-toxic fractions of saponin combined with CTA1-DD we can achieve a safe and above all highly efficacious mucosal adjuvant vector. We optimized the construction, tested the requirements for function and evaluated proof-of-concept in an influenza A virus challenge model. We demonstrated that the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS vector provided 100% protection against mortality and greatly reduced morbidity in the mouse model. The immunogenicity of the vector was superior to other vaccine formulations using the ISCOM or CTA1-DD adjuvants alone. The versatility of the vector was best exemplified by the many options to insert, incorporate or admix vaccine antigens with the vector. Furthermore, the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS could be kept 1 year at 4°C or as a freeze-dried powder without affecting immunogenicity or adjuvanticity of the vector. Strong serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses were elicited and CD4 T cell responses were greatly enhanced after intranasal administration of the combined vector. Together these findings hold promise for the combined vector as a mucosal vaccine against influenza virus infections including pandemic influenza. The CTA1-DD/ISCOMS technology represents a breakthrough in mucosal vaccine vector design which successfully combines immunomodulation and targeting in a safe and stable particulate formation.

  3. On the location of the supermassive black hole in CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, Christian M.; Perucho, Manel; Ros, Eduardo; Savolainen, Tuomas; Zensus, J. Anton

    2015-04-01

    Context. Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei are one of the most powerful phenomena in the Universe. They form in the surroundings of the supermassive black holes as a by-product of accretion onto the central black hole in active galaxies. The flow in the jets propagates at velocities close to the speed of light. The distance between the first part of the jet that is visible in radio images (core) and the black hole is still a matter of debate. Aims: Only very-long-baseline interferometry observations resolve the innermost compact regions of the radio jet. These observations can access the jet base, and by combining data at different wavelenghts, address the physical parameters of the outflow from its emission. Methods: We have performed an accurate analysis of the frequency-dependent shift of the VLBI core location for a multi-wavelength set of images of the blazar CTA 102 including data from 6 cm down to 3 mm. Results: The measure of the position of the central black hole, with mass ~108.93M⊙, in the blazar CTA 102 reveals a distance of ~8 × 104 gravitational radii to the 86 GHz core, in agreement with similar measures obtained for other blazars and distant radio galaxies, and in contrast with recent results for the case of nearby radio galaxies, which show distances between the black hole and the radio core that can be two orders of magnitude smaller.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning based on time-resolved CTA for arteriovenous malformation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Josiah, Darnell; Gonzalez, Javier; Schmidt, Matthew; Tarabishy, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has long been recognized as the optimal form of management for high-grade arteriovenous malformations not amenable to surgical resection. Radiosurgical plans have generally relied upon the integration of stereotactic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), standard contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography angiography (CTA) with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Current options are disadvantageous in that catheter-based biplane DSA is an invasive test associated with a small risk of complications and perhaps more importantly, the two-dimensional nature of DSA is an inherent limitation in creating radiosurgical contours. The necessity of multiple scans to create DSA contours for radiosurgical planning puts patients at increased risk. Furthermore, the inability to import two-dimensional plans into some radiosurgery programs, such as Cyberknife TPS, limits treatment options for patients. Defining the nidus itself is sometimes difficult in any of the traditional modalities as all draining veins and feeding arteries are included in the images. This sometimes necessitates targeting a larger volume, than strictly necessary, with stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of the AVM. In this case report, we show the ability to use a less-invasive and three-dimensional form of angiography based on time-lapsed CTA (4D-CTA) rather than traditional DSA for radiosurgical planning. 4D-CTA may allow generation of a series of images, which can show the flow of contrast through the AVM. A review of these series may allow the surgeon to pick and use a volume set that best outlines the nidus with least interference from feeding arteries or draining veins. In addition, 4D-CTA scans can be uploaded into radiosurgery programs and allow three-dimensional targeting. This is the first reported case demonstrating the use of a 4D CTA and an MRI to delineate the AVM nidus for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, with complete

  5. Inclusion and Museums: Developing Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Recent policy on inclusion has had an impact on the development of museum galleries and related educational provision. Museums are used as learning organisations and, as such, need to consider how to create an inclusive environment. However, inclusive provision for people with learning difficulties in museums tends to be isolated and small scale,…

  6. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  7. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  8. Biodegradable Multiblock Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization and Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopečková, Pavla; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2011-04-26

    A new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA) containing alkyne end groups was designed, synthesized and used for direct synthesis of clickable telechelic polymers. Good control of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) was achieved by using the new CTA, as indicated by a linear increase of number average molecular weight (Mn) with conversion and low polydispersity (PDI) (<1.1). In particular, enzymatically degradable multiblock HPMA polymers were readily prepared by subsequent reaction with αω, -diazido oligopeptide (GFLG) sequence via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Upon exposure of high molecular weight fractions of multiblock polyHPMA to papain or cathepsin B, the polymer was degraded into segments of molecular weight and narrow polydispersity similar to those of the initial telechelic polyHPMA.

  9. Improved Livingness and Control over Branching in RAFT Polymerization of Acrylates: Could Microflow Synthesis Make the Difference?

    PubMed

    Derboven, Pieter; Van Steenberge, Paul H M; Vandenbergh, Joke; Reyniers, Marie-Francoise; Junkers, Thomas; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Marin, Guy B

    2015-12-01

    The superior capabilities of structured microreactors over batch reactors are demonstrated for reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) solution polymerization of n-butyl acrylate with the aid of simulations, explicitly accounting for the chain length distribution of all macrospecies types. Since perfect isothermicity can be established in a microreactor, less side products due to backbiting and β-scission are formed compared to the batch operation in which ineffective heat removal leads to an undesirable temperature spike. For a given RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), additional microstructural control results under microflow conditions by optimizing the reaction temperature, lowering the dilution degree, or decreasing the initial molar ratio of monomer to RAFT CTA.

  10. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  11. Catching the radio flare in CTA 102. II. VLBI kinematic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Savolainen, T.; Mimica, P.; Kadler, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Lister, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can resolve the radio structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and provide estimates of the structural and kinematic characteristics on parsec-scales in their jets. The changes in the kinematics of the observed jet features can be used to study the physical conditions in the innermost regions of these sources. We performed multifrequency multiepoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the blazar CTA 102 during its 2006 radio flare, the strongest ever reported for this source. These observations provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of the physical properties of blazars, especially during these flaring events Aims: We want to study the kinematic changes in the source during the strong radio outburst in April 2006 and test the assumption of a shock-shock interaction. This assumption is based on the analysis and modeling of the single-dish observations of CTA 102 (Paper I). Methods: In this paper we study the kinematics of CTA 102 at several frequencies using VLBI observations. From the modeled jet features we derived estimates for the evolution of the physical parameters, such as the particle density and the magnetic field. Furthermore, we combined our observations during the 2006 flare with long-term VLBA monitoring of the source at 15 GHz and 43 GHz. Results: We cross-identified seven features throughout our entire multifrequency observations and find evidence of two possible recollimation shocks around 0.1 mas (deprojected 18 pc at a viewing angle ϑ = 2.6°) and 6.0 mas (deprojected 1 kpc) from the core. The 43 GHz observations reveal a feature ejected at epoch tej = 2005.9 ± 0.2, which could be connected to the 2006 April radio flare. Furthermore, this feature might be associated with the traveling component involved in the possible shock-shock interaction, which gives rise to the observed double peak structure in the single-dish light curves reported in Paper I

  12. Comparison of biofouling mechanisms between cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide forward osmosis membranes in osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhua; Zhao, Yanxiao; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-02-01

    There are two types of popular forward osmosis (FO) membrane materials applied for researches on FO process, cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide. However, performance and fouling mechanisms of commercial TFC FO membrane in osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) are still unknown. In current study, its biofouling behaviors in OMBRs were investigated and further compared to the CTA FO membrane. The results indicated that β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms accounted for approximately 77% of total biovolume on the CTA FO membrane while β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides (biovolume ratio of 81.1%) were the only dominant biofoulants on the TFC FO membrane. The analyses on the biofouling structure implied that a tighter biofouling layer with a larger biovolume was formed on the CTA FO membrane. The differences in biofouling behaviors including biofoulants composition and biofouling structure between CTA and TFC FO membranes were attributed to different membrane surface properties.

  13. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  14. Comparative requirements for exploratory clinical trials -- eIND, eCTA and microdosing.

    PubMed

    Muller, Patrick Y

    2011-06-19

    Exploratory clinical trials provide a strategy for rapid human entry of investigational drugs. Such clinical studies are typically conducted during early clinical development in phase I as first-in-human studies, have no therapeutic intent, are not intended to examine clinical tolerability and involve a small number of human subjects at limited dose/exposure. Early decision data derived from such clinical studies may include PK, PD and/or biomarker-based translational medicine endpoints as well as PK/PD modeling approaches. This review critically discusses the various exploratory clinical trial strategies, their advantages and disadvantages as well as the regulatory safety requirements. In this respect, strategies for exploratory Investigational New Drugs (eIND), exploratory Clinical Trial Applications (eCTA) and microdosing are highlighted and compared in view of the new ICH M3(R2) guideline including options for biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals such as monoclonal antibodies.

  15. Observation of high-energy gamma rays from the quasi-stellar object CTA 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The quasar CTA 102 (QSO 2230 + 114) was observed four times in 1991-1992 by the EGRET high-energy gamma-ray telescope on the Compton GRO satellite. In the 1992 January 23-February 6 observation, emission was detected at the level (2.4 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 7 photons/sq cm s (E is greater than 100 MeV). The other observations produced upper limits or detections with lower significance which are consistent with the same flux. The photon spectrum can be represented by a power law with a number index of 2.6 +/- 0.2, the softest so far observed by EGRET. The emitted gamma-ray luminosity, if isotropic, is 5 x 10 exp 47 ergs/s (H(0) = 75 km/s Mpc , q(0) = 0.5), although there are good reasons to believe that the gamma emission is strongly beamed.

  16. Catching the radio flare in CTA 102. III. Core-shift and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Savolainen, T.; Mimica, P.; Kadler, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. The temporal and spatial spectral evolution of the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be studied with multi-frequency, multi-epoch very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) observations. The combination of both morphological (kinematical) and spectral parameters can be used to derive source-intrinsic physical properties, such as the magnetic field and the nonthermal particle density. Such a study is of special interest during the high states of activity in AGNs, since VLBI observations can provide estimates of the location of the flaring site. Furthermore, we can trace the temporal variations in the source-intrinsic parameters during the flare, which may reflect the interaction between the underlying plasma and a traveling shock wave. The source CTA 102 exhibited such a radio flare around 2006. Aims: In the first two papers of this series (Papers I and II), we analyzed the single-dish light curves and the VLBI kinematics of the blazar CTA 102 and suggested a shock-shock interaction between a traveling and a standing shock wave as a possible scenario to explain the observed evolution of the component associated to the 2006 flare. In this paper we investigate the core shift and spectral evolution to test our hypothesis of a shock-shock interaction. Methods: We used eight multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the spectral parameters during the flare. We observed CTA 102 between May 2005 and April 2007 using the VLBA at six different frequencies spanning from 2 GHz up to 86 GHz. After the calibrated VLBA images were corrected for opacity, we performed a detailed spectral analysis. We developed methods for aligning the images and extracting the uncertainties in the spectral parameters. From the derived values we estimated the magnetic field and the density of the relativistic particles and combined those values with the kinematical changes provided from the long-term VLBA monitoring

  17. The CTA sensitivity to Lorentz-violating effects on the gamma-ray horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, M.; Ellis, J.; Nilsson, A.; Hinton, J.; White, R. E-mail: atf10ani@student.lu.se E-mail: jah85@leicester.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    The arrival of TeV-energy photons from distant galaxies is expected to be affected by their QED interaction with intergalactic radiation fields through electron-positron pair production. In theories where high-energy photons violate Lorentz symmetry, the kinematics of the process γ+γ→e{sup +}+e{sup −} is altered and the cross section suppressed. Consequently, one would expect more of the highest-energy photons to arrive if QED is modified by Lorentz violation than if it is not. We estimate the sensitivity of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to changes in the gamma-ray horizon of the Universe due to Lorentz violation, and find that it should be competitive with other leading constraints.

  18. The CTA sensitivity to Lorentz-violating effects on the gamma-ray horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, M.; Nilsson, A.; Ellis, J.; Hinton, J.; White, R.

    2014-06-01

    The arrival of TeV-energy photons from distant galaxies is expected to be affected by their QED interaction with intergalactic radiation fields through electron-positron pair production. In theories where high-energy photons violate Lorentz symmetry, the kinematics of the process γ+γ→e++e- is altered and the cross section suppressed. Consequently, one would expect more of the highest-energy photons to arrive if QED is modified by Lorentz violation than if it is not. We estimate the sensitivity of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to changes in the gamma-ray horizon of the Universe due to Lorentz violation, and find that it should be competitive with other leading constraints.

  19. Swift observation of strong X-ray and UV activity of CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, S.; Verrecchia, F.

    2016-12-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also historically known as 4C +11.69, PKS 2230+11, OY 150, DA 582, H 2230+114 and a well known gamma-ray source in the MeV/GeV bands, 3EG J2232+1147, 3FGL J2232.5+1143) has been subject into a prolonged outburst activity at optical and gamma-ray energy bands since the end of Oct. 2016 (see, for example, preliminary optical results in ATel#9676, ATel#9732, ATel#9756, ATel#9776, ATel#9801, ATel#9808, ATel#9821, preliminary gamma-ray results by AGILE in ATel#9743, ATel#9788, ATel#9840, and by the public Fermi LAT uncalibrated flux data).

  20. X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE RADIO-QUIET GAMMA-RAY PULSAR IN CTA 1

    SciTech Connect

    Caraveo, P. A.; De Luca, A.; Marelli, M.; Bignami, G. F.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Kanbach, G.

    2010-12-10

    Prompted by the Fermi-LAT discovery of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar inside the CTA 1 supernova remnant, we obtained a 130 ks XMM-Newton observation to assess the timing behavior of this pulsar. Exploiting both the unprecedented photon harvest and the contemporary Fermi-LAT timing measurements, a 4.7{sigma} single-peak pulsation is detected, making PSR J0007+7303 the second example, after Geminga, of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar also seen to pulsate in X-rays. Phase-resolved spectroscopy shows that the off-pulse portion of the light curve is dominated by a power-law, non-thermal spectrum, while the X-ray peak emission appears to be mainly of thermal origin, probably from a polar cap heated by magnetospheric return currents, pointing to a hot spot varying throughout the pulsar rotation.

  1. Template-based CTA X-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Timur; Demirci, Stefanie; Degertekin, Muzaffer; Navab, Nassir; Unal, Gozde

    2013-03-01

    This study performs 3D to 2D rigid registration of segmented pre-operative CTA coronary arteries with a single segmented intra-operative X-ray Angio frame in both frequency and spatial domains for real-time Angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy. Most of the work on rigid registration in literature required a close initial- ization of poses and/or positions because of the abundance of local minima and high complexity that searching algorithms face. This study avoids such setbacks by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. First, template DRRs as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented CTA are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a wide range as in C-arm setup. We have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the real X-ray after equalizing the scales (due to disparities in focal length distances) in 3 domains, namely Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase and Fourier polar. The best pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that these methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by our results. Translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of our objective function without local minima due to distance maps. Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space rather than with actual values in 3D due to lack of ground truth, ill-posedness of the problem which we intend to address in future.

  2. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CTA 1 BY VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Falcone, A. E-mail: smcarthur@ulysses.uchicago.edu; and others

    2013-02-10

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission coincident with the shell-type radio supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1 using the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory. The source, VER J0006+729, was detected as a 6.5 standard deviation excess over background and shows an extended morphology, approximated by a two-dimensional Gaussian of semimajor (semiminor) axis 0. Degree-Sign 30 (0. Degree-Sign 24) and a centroid 5' from the Fermi gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0007+7303 and its X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -{Gamma}}, with a differential spectral index of {Gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}, and normalization N {sub 0} = (9.1 {+-} 1.3{sub stat} {+-} 1.7{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux, F {sub {gamma}} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 1 TeV, corresponds to 0.2% of the pulsar spin-down power at 1.4 kpc. The energetics, colocation with the SNR, and the relatively small extent of the TeV emission strongly argue for the PWN origin of the TeV photons. We consider the origin of the TeV emission in CTA 1.

  3. Automatic selection of best quality vessels from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jordan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing an automated method to select the best-quality vessels from coronary arterial trees in multiplephase cCTA and build a best-quality tree to facilitate the detection of stenotic plaques. Using our previously developed vessel registration method, the vessels from different phases were automatically registered. Branching points on the centerline are projected onto the registered trees. The centerlines are split into branches based on the projected branching points. Each tree branch is then straightened. The registered trees and centerline branches are used to determine the correspondence of branches between phases so that each branch can be compared to its corresponding branches in the other phases. A vessel quality measure (VQM) is calculated as the average radial gradients at the vessel wall over the entire vessel branch. The quality of the corresponding branches from all phases is automatically compared using the VQM. An observer preference study was conducted with two radiologists to visually compare the quality of the vessels. For each branch, the pair that was automatically determined to be the best and worst quality by the VQM was used for the radiologists' visual assessment. Each radiologist, blinded to the VQM, evaluated pairs of corresponding branches and provided their preference. The performance of the automatic selection using VQM was evaluated as the percentage of the total number of vessel pairs for which the automatic selection agreed with the radiologist's selection of the higher quality branch in the pair. The agreement between the first radiologist and the automated selection was 80% and that between the second radiologist and the automated selection was 82%. In comparison, the agreement between the two radiologists was 90%. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using an automated method to select the best-quality vessels from multiple cCTA phases.

  4. CtaM Is Required for Menaquinol Oxidase aa3 Function in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Schurig-Briccio, Lici A.; Gerdes, Svetlana Y.; Gennis, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis in the developed world. The ability of S. aureus to cause substantial disease in distinct host environments is supported by a flexible metabolism that allows this pathogen to overcome challenges unique to each host organ. One feature of staphylococcal metabolic flexibility is a branched aerobic respiratory chain composed of multiple terminal oxidases. Whereas previous biochemical and spectroscopic studies reported the presence of three different respiratory oxygen reductases (o type, bd type, and aa3 type), the genome contains genes encoding only two respiratory oxygen reductases, cydAB and qoxABCD. Previous investigation showed that cydAB and qoxABCD are required to colonize specific host organs, the murine heart and liver, respectively. This work seeks to clarify the relationship between the genetic studies showing the unique roles of the cydAB and qoxABCD in virulence and the respiratory reductases reported in the literature. We establish that QoxABCD is an aa3-type menaquinol oxidase but that this enzyme is promiscuous in that it can assemble as a bo3-type menaquinol oxidase. However, the bo3 form of QoxABCD restricts the carbon sources that can support the growth of S. aureus. In addition, QoxABCD function is supported by a previously uncharacterized protein, which we have named CtaM, that is conserved in aerobically respiring Firmicutes. In total, these studies establish the heme A biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus, determine that QoxABCD is a type aa3 menaquinol oxidase, and reveal CtaM as a new protein required for type aa3 menaquinol oxidase function in multiple bacterial genera. PMID:27406563

  5. Inclusive Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu-Tien, Wu

    2007-01-01

    As an echo of the worldwide movement of inclusive education and because of the conviction of inclusive ideas, special education in Taiwan is moving toward a goal of inclusion, though not necessarily full inclusion. While its terminology is as yet undesignated, principles and strategies are significantly reflected in the Special Education Act and…

  6. Limits to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  7. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array of Small Size Telescopes as a precursor of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Agnetta, Gaetano; Antolini, Elisa; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Bastieri, Denis; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Belluso, Massimiliano; Bigongiari, Ciro; Billotta, Sergio; Biondo , Benedetto; Boettcher, Markus; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Bruno , Pietro; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Capalbi, Milvia; Capobianco, G.; Caraveo, Patrizia; Carosi, Alòessandro; Cascone, Enrico; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cereda, Michele; Conconi, Paolo; Conforti, Vito; Cusumano, Giancarlo; De Caprio, Vincenzo; De Luca, Andrea; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Di Paola, Andrea; Di Pierro, Federico; Fantinel, Daniela; Fiorini, Mauro; Fugazza, Dino; Gardiol, Daniele; Gargano, Carmelo; Garozzo , Salvatore; Gianotti , Fulvio; Giarrusso , Salvatore; Giro, Enrico; Grillo, Aledssandro; Impiombato, Domenico; Incorvaia , Salvatore; La Barbera , Antonino; La Palombara , Nicola; La Parola , Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Lessio, Luigi; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi , Saverio; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Malaspina, Giuseppe; Marano, Davide; Martinetti , Eugenio; Melioli, C.; Millul, Rachele; Mineo , Teresa; Morello, Carlo; Morlino, Giovanni; Nemmen, R.; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Romano, Patrizia; Romeo, Giuseppe; Russo, Francesco; Sacco, Bruno; Sartore, Nicola; Schwarz, Joseph; Alberto, Segreto; Selvestrel, Danilo; Sironi, Giorgia; Stamerra, Antonio; Strazzeri, Elisabetta; Stringhetti, Luca; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tanci, Claudio; Testa, Vincenzo; Timpanaro , Maria Cristina; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vallania, Piero; Vercellone, Stefano; Volpicelli, Antonio; Zitelli, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI ("Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana") is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing a wide-field-of-view (9.6 degrees in diameter) end-to-end prototype of the small-size telescope (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, sensitive in the energy band from a few TeV up to hundreds TeV. The ASTRI telescope is based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (ASTRI SST-2M) optical design, with a compact (F# = 0.5) optical configuration named ASTRI SST-2M telescope. This allows us to adopt an innovative modular focal plane camera based on silicon photo-multipliers, with a logical pixel size of 6.2mm x 6.2mm. Moreover, planned, and already being developed, an SST mini-array based on 7 identical telescopes represents an evolution of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array will be part of the CTA array, representing a precursor that will be included into the final array. With the mini-array, in addition to a technical assessment studies in the perpective of the full CTA implementation, it will be possible to perform an early scientific program. In particular we wish to start investigating the poorly known energy range between a few and 100 TeV, thus exploring e.g. the cut-off regime of cosmic accelerators. Apart from INAF, other international institutes will directly participate in the mini-array implementation, as the North-West University in South Africa and the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. An interest about it has been expressed also by other international groups. In this talk we will report on the development status of the ASTRI prototype and ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  8. Concise polymeric materials encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Salamone, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This comprehensive, accessible resource abridges the ``Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia'', presenting more than 1,100 articles and featuring contributions from more than 1,800 scientists from all over the world. The text discusses a vast array of subjects related to the: (1) synthesis, properties, and applications of polymeric materials; (2) development of modern catalysts in preparing new or modified polymers; (3) modification of existing polymers by chemical and physical processes; and (4) biologically oriented polymers.

  9. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  10. 4D-CTA improves diagnostic certainty and accuracy in the detection of proximal intracranial anterior circulation occlusion in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Bart A. J. M.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Nelemans, Patricia J.; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Postma, Alida A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In acute ischemic stroke, imaging of the cranio-cervical vessels is essential for intra-arterial treatment selection. Fast, reliable and easy accessible imaging is necessary 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Radiologists in training and non-expert readers often perform initial reviewing. In this pilot study, the potential benefit of adding 4Dimensional-CT Angiography (4D-CTA) to the patient selection protocol for intra-arterial therapy is investigated. Materials and methods Twenty-five datasets of prospectively recruited patients, eligible for intra-arterial treatment, were enrolled. Four radiologists-in-training consecutively reviewed CTA, CT-Perfusion and 4D-CTA (post-processed from CTP datasets) and scored: occlusion-presence and diagnostic certainty (scale 1–10). Time-to-diagnosis was registered. Results Arterial occlusion was present in 8 patients. Accuracy improved from 88–92% after CTA and CTP assessment to 96–100% after 4D-CTA assessment (P-values >0,05). Mean diagnostic certainty improved from 7,2–8,6 to 8,8–9,3 (P-values all < 0,05). Mean time to diagnosis increased from 3, 5, 5 and 4 minutes after CTA to 9, 14, 12, and 10 minutes after 4D-CTA. Conclusion 4D-CTA as an additive to regular CTA and CT-Perfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke eligible for intra-arterial treatment shows a tendency to increase diagnostic accuracy and improves diagnostic certainty, when reviewed by radiologist in training, while only mildly prolonging time to diagnosis. PMID:28234928

  11. Supramolecular Inclusion in Cyclodextrins: A Pictorial Spectroscopic Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldar, Basudeb; Mallick, Arabinda; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    A spectroscopic experiment is presented that reveals that the hydrophobically end-modified water-soluble polymeric fluorophore, pyrene end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (PYPY), interacts differently with [alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-cyclodextrins (CD) to form supramolecular inclusion complexes. The emission spectrum of PYPY in aqueous solution shows…

  12. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  13. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  14. Comparative evaluation of actinide ion uptake by polymer inclusion membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, B N; Raut, D R; Mohapatra, P K; Das, D K; Behere, P G; Afzal, Md

    2014-06-30

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am(3+), Pu(4+), UO2(2+) and Th(4+) from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer along with the diglycolamide carrier extractants and were characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, thermal analysis and AFM. The PIM composition was optimized by a series of studies which involved variation in the CTA, NPOE and carrier concentration which suggested 58% TODGA, 30% NPOE and 12% CTA to be optimum. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid and showed the trend: Am(3+)>Pu(4+)>Th(4+)>UO2(2+). Transport studies were carried out in a two-compartment cell where nitric acid concentration the feed was varied (1-3M) while the receiver compartment contained alpha-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid (AHIBA). The actinide ion transport efficiencies with TODGA containing PIMs followed the same trend as seen in the uptake studies. The AFM patterns of the PIMs changed when loaded with Eu(3+) carrier (used as a surrogate for Am(3+)) while the regenerated membranes have displayed comparable morphologies. Diffusion coefficient values were experimentally obtained from the transport studies and were found to be 8.89×10(-8) cm(2)/s for Am(3+) transport.

  15. Creating an Inclusive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A., Ed.; Thousand, Jacqueline S., Ed.

    This collection of readings in support of inclusive education for students with disabilities offers rationales for inclusion, personal accounts of individuals involved, and strategies for facilitating change. Stressed throughout is the idea that inclusion is an attitude or belief system, not an action or set of actions. The readings identify…

  16. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  17. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  18. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  19. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  20. Registration of 3D+t coronary CTA and monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography.

    PubMed

    Metz, Coert T; Schaap, Michiel; Klein, Stefan; Baka, Nora; Neefjes, Lisan A; Schultz, Carl J; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo

    2013-05-01

    A method for registering preoperative 3D+t coronary CTA with intraoperative monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography images is proposed to improve image guidance during minimally invasive coronary interventions. The method uses a patient-specific dynamic coronary model, which is derived from the CTA scan by centerline extraction and motion estimation. The dynamic coronary model is registered with the 2D+t X-ray sequence, considering multiple X-ray time points concurrently, while taking breathing induced motion into account. Evaluation was performed on 26 datasets of 17 patients by comparing projected model centerlines with manually annotated centerlines in the X-ray images. The proposed 3D+t/2D+t registration method performed better than a 3D/2D registration method with respect to the accuracy and especially the robustness of the registration. Registration with a median error of 1.47 mm was achieved.

  1. Carotid stenosis evaluation by 64-slice CTA: comparison of NASCET, ECST and CC grading methods.

    PubMed

    Kılıçkap, Gülsüm; Ergun, Elif; Başbay, Elif; Koşar, Pınar; Kosar, Uğur

    2012-06-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET), European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and Common Carotid (CC) methods, which are used to measure the degree of ICA stenosis, using 64-slice CT angiography and to compare the measurements made by these three methods. 88 cases (111 carotid arteries) were included in the study. Carotid CTA was performed by a 64 slice scanner (Toshiba, Aqullion 64).Two radiologists measured the degree of carotid stenosis by using NASCET, ECST and CC methods. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of each method was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots and kappa and linear weighted kappa statistics. The relation between the measurements was assessed by correlation coefficient (with linear and quadratic methods). Correlation coefficients showed that there is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods. The degree of stenosis measured with the NASCET method had the lowest value, while the corresponding values measured with the ECST and CC methods were close to each other. ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed high intra and inter observer agreement for NASCET, ECST and CC methods whereas kappa statistics showed moderate to substantial agreement. CC method had slightly higher agreement when compared with the other two methods. Intra and interobserver agreement is high for NASCET, ECST and CC methods however CC method has a slightly higher reproducibility. There is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods.

  2. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  3. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  4. On the sensitivity of CTA to gamma-ray boxes from multi-TeV dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lamperstorfer, Anna S.; López-Gehler, Sergio; Pato, Miguel; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2015-09-01

    Collider, direct and indirect searches for dark matter have typically little or no sensitivity to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with masses above a few TeV. This rather unexplored regime can however be probed through the search for distinctive gamma-ray spectral features produced by the annihilation of WIMPs at very high energies. Here we present a dedicated search for gamma-ray boxes—sharp spectral features that cannot be mimicked by astrophysical sources—with the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Using realistic projections for the instrument performance and detailed background modelling, a profile likelihood analysis is implemented to derive the expected upper limits and sensitivity reach after 100 h of observations towards a 2°×2° region around the Galactic centre. Our results show that CTA will be able to probe gamma-ray boxes down to annihilation cross sections of 10-27-10-26 cm3/s up to tens of TeV. We also identify a number of concrete particle physics models providing thermal dark matter candidates that can be used as target benchmarks in future search campaigns. This constitutes a golden opportunity for CTA to either discover or rule out multi-TeV thermal dark matter in a corner of parameter space where all other experimental efforts are basically insensitive.

  5. On the sensitivity of CTA to gamma-ray boxes from multi-TeV dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lamperstorfer, Anna S.; López-Gehler, Sergio; Pato, Miguel; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: anna.lamperstorfer@tum.de E-mail: migpato@gmail.com

    2015-09-01

    Collider, direct and indirect searches for dark matter have typically little or no sensitivity to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with masses above a few TeV. This rather unexplored regime can however be probed through the search for distinctive gamma-ray spectral features produced by the annihilation of WIMPs at very high energies. Here we present a dedicated search for gamma-ray boxes—sharp spectral features that cannot be mimicked by astrophysical sources—with the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Using realistic projections for the instrument performance and detailed background modelling, a profile likelihood analysis is implemented to derive the expected upper limits and sensitivity reach after 100 h of observations towards a 2°×2° region around the Galactic centre. Our results show that CTA will be able to probe gamma-ray boxes down to annihilation cross sections of 10{sup −27}−10{sup −26} cm{sup 3}/s up to tens of TeV. We also identify a number of concrete particle physics models providing thermal dark matter candidates that can be used as target benchmarks in future search campaigns. This constitutes a golden opportunity for CTA to either discover or rule out multi-TeV thermal dark matter in a corner of parameter space where all other experimental efforts are basically insensitive.

  6. Synthesis of polyphenylacetylene by radiation-induced polymerization in deoxycholic acid clathrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Iglesias-Groth, Susana

    2009-04-01

    Phenylacetylene was polymerized as inclusion compound (clathrate) inside deoxycholic acid (DOCA) crystals. The polymerization was initiated by γ radiation and a total dose of 320 kGy was employed. The resulting polyphenylacetylene (PPA) was isolated by dissolution of deoxycholic acid in boiling ethanol. PPA high polymer was accompanied by a series of phenylacetylene oligomers, which were detected by liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC). PPA was characterized by electronic absorption spectroscopy and by FT-IR spectroscopy in comparison to a reference PPA prepared by a stereospecific catalyst. The microstructure of PPA from inclusion polymerization was highly trans type, similar to that observed on PPA prepared by bulk radiolysis. No optical activity was detected by polarimetry on PPA prepared by inclusion polymerization. The host-guest complex PPA/DOCA was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and by thermogravimetry (TGA). DTA provided evidences of the host-guest complex formation from the shift of the melting point of DOCA while the TGA confirmed the identity - in terms of thermal behaviour - of the PPA from inclusion polymerization with that from stereospecific polymerization.

  7. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  8. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  9. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  10. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  11. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  12. Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

  13. The TeV emission of Ap Librae: a hadronic interpretation and prospects for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Giannios, D.

    2017-01-01

    Ap Librae is one out of a handful of low-frequency peaked blazars to be detected at TeV γ-rays and the only one with an identified X-ray jet. Combined observations of Fermi-LAT at high energies (HE) and of H.E.S.S. at very high energies (VHE) revealed a striking spectral property of Ap Librae; the presence of a broad high-energy component that extends more than nine orders of magnitude in energy and is, therefore, hard to be explained by the usual single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We show that the superposition of different emission components related to photohadronic interactions can explain the γ-ray emission of Ap Librae without invoking external radiation fields. We present two indicative model fits to the spectral energy distribution of Ap Librae where the VHE emission is assumed to originate from a compact, sub-pc scale region of the jet. A robust prediction of our model is VHE flux variability on time-scales similar to those observed at X-rays and HE γ-rays, which can be further used to distinguish between a sub-pc or kpc scale origin of the TeV emission. We thus calculate the expected variability signatures at X-rays, HE and VHE γ-rays and show that quasi-simultaneous flares are expected, with larger amplitude flares appearing at γ-rays. We assess the detectability of VHE variability from Ap Librae with CTA, next generation of IACT. We show that ˜h time-scale variability at Eγ > 0.1 TeV could be detectable at high significance with shorter exposure times than current Cherenkov telescopes.

  14. Inclusion chemistry in periodic mesoporous hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, K.; Bein, T.

    1998-10-01

    This review provides an overview of different aspects of inclusion chemistry in ordered mesoporous host materials such as MCM-41 or MCM-48 (Mobil codes). A rich field of inclusion chemistry has been explored in this context, including sorption, ion exchange, inhibition followed by reduction, grafting of reactive metal alkoxides, halides, etc., grafting of silane coupling agents (sometimes followed by subsequent reactions), grafting of reactive metal complexes, and polymerization in the channels. Finally, co-condensation of reactive species during the mesopore synthesis is a method to incorporate functionality into the walls of the channel system. Important applications of these modified and functionalized systems are heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis involving bulky grated catalysts and/or the conversion of large substrates. Other potential applications include ion exchange and separations, removal of heavy metals, chromatography, stabilization of quantum wires, stabilization of dyes, and polymer composites.

  15. Precision synthesis of functional materials via RAFT polymerization and click-type chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Joel Diez

    2011-12-01

    The need to tailor polymeric architectures with specific physico-chemical properties via the simplest, cleanest, and most efficient synthetic route possible has become the ultimate goal in polymer synthesis. Recent progress in macromolecular science, such as the discoveries of controlled/"living" free radical polymerization (CRP) methods, has brought about synthetic capabilities to prepare (co)polymers with advanced topologies, predetermined molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions, and precisely located functional groups. In addition, the establishment of click chemistry has redefined the selected few highly efficient chemical reactions that become highly useful in post-polymerization modification strategies. Hence, the ability to make well-defined topologies afforded by controlled polymerization techniques and the facile incorporation of functionalities along the chain via click-type reactions have yielded complex architectures, allowing the investigation of physical phenomena which otherwise could not be studied with systems prepared via conventional methods. The overarching theme of the research work described in this dissertation is the fusion of the excellent attributes of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method, which is one of the CRP techniques, and click-type chemical reactions in the precision of synthesis of advanced functional materials. Chapter IV is divided into three sections. In Section I, the direct RAFT homopolymerization of 2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate (AOI) and subsequent post-polymerization modifications are described. The polymerization conditions were optimized in terms of the choice of RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), polymerization temperature and the reaction medium. Direct RAFT polymerization of AOI requires a neutral CTA, and relatively low reaction temperature to yield AOI homopolymers with low polydispersities. Efficient side-chain functionalization of PAOI homopolymers was

  16. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-08

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology.

  17. Polymeric ion conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    There are several requirements for (polymeric) ion conductors in electrochromic window applications: (1) they have high ionic conductivity (desirably, > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} Scm{sup {minus}1}); (2) they have high chemical and electrochemical stabilities with respect to the wide usable potential window and thermal and UV stabilities; (3) they are transparent in a specific wavelength region, which is, however, dependent of applications; and (4) they have enough adhesiveness to the substrates and have acceptable mechanical properties. Many kinds of polymeric ionic conductors have since been reported and some of them were applied to electrochromic uses. In this chapter, electrochemical and physicochemical properties of these materials are reviewed. However, certain aspects such as crystallographic studies and conduction models in detail have been omitted, which are still controversial.

  18. Organometallic polymerization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Waymouth, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Well-defined transition metal catalysts have resulted in exciting new opportunities in polymer synthesis. The stereochemistry of vinyl polymers can be rationally controlled with choice of the appropriate catalysts. Studies with optically active catalyst precursors have revealed considerable information on the absolute stereochemistry of olefin polymerization and have led to the synthesis of novel chiral polyolefins. The development of homogeneous olefin metathesis catalysts has also led to a variety of well-defined new polymer structures with controlled molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms and stereochemistry of homogeneous transition metal catalyzed polymerization will be discussed. The ability to control polymer structure through catalyst design presents exciting opportunities in the synthesis of {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} macromolecules.

  19. Polymeric Microcapsule Arrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-24

    support, microencapsulation and entrapment within a membrane/film or gel. The ideal enzyme immobilization method would (1) Employ mild chemical...yields hollow polymeric microcapsules of uniform diameter and length. These microcapsules are arranged in a high density array in which the...individual capsules protrude from a surface like the bristles of a brush. We have developed procedures for filling these microcapsules with high

  20. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  1. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  2. Developments in polymerization lamps.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Planas, Amparo; Martín, Juan; Abalos, Camilo; Llamas, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composite resins and the consequent stress generated at the composite-tooth interface continue to pose a serious clinical challenge. The development of high-intensity halogen lamps and the advent of curing units providing higher energy performance, such as laser lamps, plasma arc units, and, most recently, light-emitting diode (LED) curing units, have revolutionized polymerization lamp use and brought major changes in light-application techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature yielded the following conclusions: (1) the most reliable curing unit for any type of composite resin is the high-density halogen lamp, fitted with a programming device to enable both pulse-delay and soft-start techniques; (2) if any other type of curing unit is used, information must be available on the compatibility of the unit with the composite materials to be used; (3) polymerization lamp manufacturers need to focus on the ongoing development of LED technology; (4) further research is required to identify the most reliable light-application techniques.

  3. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  4. What Counts as Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  5. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  6. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  7. Handbook for Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar, Carol A.; West, Lynda L.

    This manual is intended to help regular and special educators and related professionals to better serve special learners in inclusive settings through identifying practical strategies for the classroom and school, and techniques for overcoming barriers to inclusion. The manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The first chapter addresses…

  8. Learning Styles and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    This book is about learning styles and inclusion, but essentially it is about learning, and how to make learning more effective for all learners. To recognise the needs of learners as well as those of teachers, and at the same time appreciate that the inclusive education environment, irrespective of its merits, will present barriers for learners,…

  9. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  10. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  11. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  12. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  13. Probing for Pulsars: An XMM Study of the Composite SNRS G327.1-1.1 and CTA1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The subject grant is for analysis of XMM data from the supernova remnant CTA1. Our investigation centered on the study of the compact source Rx 50007.0+7302 that, based on our previous observations, appears to be a neutron star powering a wind nebula in the remnant interior. This compact source has also been suggested as the counterpart of the EGRET source 2EG J0008+7307. The analysis of the data from the compact source is complete. We find that the spectrum of the source is well described by a power law with the addition of a soft thermal component that may correspond to emission from hot polar cap regions or to cooling emission from a light element atmosphere over the entire star. There is evidence of extended emission on small spatial scales which may correspond to structure in the underlying synchrotron nebula. Extrapolation of the nonthermal emission component to gamma-ray energies yields a flux that is consistent with that of 2EG J0008+7307, thus strengthening the proposition that there is a gamma-ray emitting pulsar at the center of CTA 1. Our timing studies with the EPIC pn data revealed no evidence for pulsations, however; we set an upper limit of 61% on the pulsed fraction from this source. The results from this study were presented in a poster at the recent IAU Symposium in Sydney, Australia. A paper summarizing these results, entitled "Xray Observations of the Compact Source in CTA 1" (Slane et al.) has been submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

  14. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  15. Fusion of CTA and XA data using 3D centerline registration for plaque visualization during coronary intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaila, Gaurav; Kitslaar, Pieter; Tu, Shengxian; Penicka, Martin; Dijkstra, Jouke; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn

    2016-03-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) results in the buildup of plaque below the intima layer inside the vessel wall of the coronary arteries causing narrowing of the vessel and obstructing blood flow. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is usually done to enlarge the vessel lumen and regain back normal flow of blood to the heart. During PCI, X-ray imaging is done to assist guide wire movement through the vessels to the area of stenosis. While X-ray imaging allows for good lumen visualization, information on plaque type is unavailable. Also due to the projection nature of the X-ray imaging, additional drawbacks such as foreshortening and overlap of vessels limit the efficacy of the cardiac intervention. Reconstruction of 3D vessel geometry from biplane X-ray acquisitions helps to overcome some of these projection drawbacks. However, the plaque type information remains an issue. In contrast, imaging using computed tomography angiography (CTA) can provide us with information on both lumen and plaque type and allows us to generate a complete 3D coronary vessel tree unaffected by the foreshortening and overlap problems of the X-ray imaging. In this paper, we combine x-ray biplane images with CT angiography to visualize three plaque types (dense calcium, fibrous fatty and necrotic core) on x-ray images. 3D registration using three different registration methods is done between coronary centerlines available from x-ray images and from the CTA volume along with 3D plaque information available from CTA. We compare the different registration methods and evaluate their performance based on 3D root mean squared errors. Two methods are used to project this 3D information onto 2D plane of the x-ray biplane images. Validation of our approach is performed using artificial biplane x-ray datasets.

  16. The investigation of electrokinetic behaviour of micro-particles produced by CTA+ ions and Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Mindivan, Ferda; Korucu, Mehtap Ejder; Açıkyıldız, Metin; Doğar, Çetin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the interactions between clay platelets and CTA+ ions in aqueous dispersions of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) were examined in detail by using electro kinetic parameters such as electrical conductivity and zeta potential and by considering XRD patterns and d-spacing values of the organoclay samples as a function of both surfactant concentration (CTAB, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and clay amount. The amounts adsorbed and zeta potentials of the particles increased with an increase in the initial concentration of CTAB in parallel with the electrical conductivity values. The adsorption mechanisms which predominate at certain ranges of CTAB concentration were proposed and schematized by considering the d-spacing values calculated and the zeta potential values of particles. For the different solid/liquid ratios, the initial concentrations of CTAB, in which appeared significant increases in the d-spacing values were found as 200, 280 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The d-spacing values which correspond to these concentrations are, respectively 1.82, 1.82 and 1.68 nm. It is remarkable that at first three solid/liquid ratios, a "stress region" to be related with hydrophobic binding appeared. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔGo), isosteric enthalpy (ΔHoads)q, and isosteric entropy (ΔSoads)q were also calculated by using experimental data. These parameters indicate that adsorption of CTAB onto Na-montmorillonite is spontaneous and exothermic in the temperature range studied. The ((ΔSoads)q, (ΔHoads)q and (ΔGo)) values calculated are highly negative. This reveals that the adsorption of CTA+ ions at the interlayer region of clay carried out with more order stacking of CTA+ ions.

  17. RAFT Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization of N-(2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone: A Convenient Low Viscosity Route to High Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Victoria J; Derry, Matthew J; Fielding, Lee A; Musa, Osama M; Armes, Steven P

    2016-06-28

    RAFT solution polymerization of N-(2-(methacryoyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone (NMEP) in ethanol at 70 °C was conducted to produce a series of PNMEP homopolymers with mean degrees of polymerization (DP) varying from 31 to 467. Turbidimetry was used to assess their inverse temperature solubility behavior in dilute aqueous solution, with an LCST of approximately 55 °C being observed in the high molecular weight limit. Then a poly(glycerol monomethacylate) (PGMA) macro-CTA with a mean DP of 63 was chain-extended with NMEP using a RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation at 70 °C. The target PNMEP DP was systematically varied from 100 up to 6000 to generate a series of PGMA63-PNMEP x diblock copolymers. High conversions (≥92%) could be achieved when targeting up to x = 5000. GPC analysis confirmed high blocking efficiencies and a linear evolution in Mn with increasing PNMEP DP. A gradual increase in Mw/Mn was also observed when targeting higher DPs. However, this problem could be minimized (Mw/Mn < 1.50) by utilizing a higher purity grade of NMEP (98% vs 96%). This suggests that the broader molecular weight distributions observed at higher DPs are simply the result of a dimethacrylate impurity causing light branching, rather than an intrinsic side reaction such as chain transfer to polymer. Kinetic studies confirmed that the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of NMEP was approximately four times faster than the RAFT solution polymerization of NMEP in ethanol when targeting the same DP in each case. This is perhaps surprising because both (1)H NMR and SAXS studies indicate that the core-forming PNMEP chains remain relatively solvated at 70 °C in the latter formulation. Moreover, dissolution of the initial PGMA63-PNMEP x particles occurs on cooling from 70 to 20 °C as the PNMEP block passes through its LCST. Hence this RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation offers an efficient route to a high molecular weight water-soluble polymer in a rather

  18. RAFT Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization of N-(2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone: A Convenient Low Viscosity Route to High Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    RAFT solution polymerization of N-(2-(methacryoyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone (NMEP) in ethanol at 70 °C was conducted to produce a series of PNMEP homopolymers with mean degrees of polymerization (DP) varying from 31 to 467. Turbidimetry was used to assess their inverse temperature solubility behavior in dilute aqueous solution, with an LCST of approximately 55 °C being observed in the high molecular weight limit. Then a poly(glycerol monomethacylate) (PGMA) macro-CTA with a mean DP of 63 was chain-extended with NMEP using a RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation at 70 °C. The target PNMEP DP was systematically varied from 100 up to 6000 to generate a series of PGMA63–PNMEPx diblock copolymers. High conversions (≥92%) could be achieved when targeting up to x = 5000. GPC analysis confirmed high blocking efficiencies and a linear evolution in Mn with increasing PNMEP DP. A gradual increase in Mw/Mn was also observed when targeting higher DPs. However, this problem could be minimized (Mw/Mn < 1.50) by utilizing a higher purity grade of NMEP (98% vs 96%). This suggests that the broader molecular weight distributions observed at higher DPs are simply the result of a dimethacrylate impurity causing light branching, rather than an intrinsic side reaction such as chain transfer to polymer. Kinetic studies confirmed that the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of NMEP was approximately four times faster than the RAFT solution polymerization of NMEP in ethanol when targeting the same DP in each case. This is perhaps surprising because both 1H NMR and SAXS studies indicate that the core-forming PNMEP chains remain relatively solvated at 70 °C in the latter formulation. Moreover, dissolution of the initial PGMA63–PNMEPx particles occurs on cooling from 70 to 20 °C as the PNMEP block passes through its LCST. Hence this RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation offers an efficient route to a high molecular weight water-soluble polymer in a rather

  19. Fermi LAT observation of renewed and strong GeV gamma-ray activity from blazar CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed a new phase of strong gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 4C +11.69, PKS 2230+11, 3FGL J2232.5+1143) with VLBI coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 338.151704 deg, Dec.: 11.730807 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  20. Identification of stability and control derivatives for AS 355 L2 helicopter with Quad-M/CTA methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Sérgio Servilha; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2012-11-01

    This work presents results obtained from a study of case for H-55 Helicopter System Identification which was carried out by an implementation of Quad-M Methodology purposed for Jategaonkar. The implementation performed was based on Cruz et al whose works were developed in Centro Técnico Aeroespacial (CTA). A comparison between Stability and Control Derivatives tables from these results and those from literature is performed for some important flight conditions. This comparison allows us to conclude about the reliability of the method, to present preliminary SCD tables for the studied aircraft and point to possible future works.

  1. {delta}{sup 0} resonance production in peripheral 4.2A GeV C+Ta collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, Lj.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Mendas, I.; Popovic, D. S.; Krpic, D.

    2009-07-15

    The production of {delta}{sup 0}(1232){yields}p{pi}{sup -} resonance is studied in peripheral C+Ta collisions at 4.2A GeV using the 2-m propane bubble chamber exposed at JINR Dubna Synchrophasotron. Using an invariant mass distribution of p{pi}{sup -} pairs and additional kinematical constrains, the mass, width, and kinematical characteristics of {delta}{sup 0} resonance are determined. The ratio of the number of pions originated from {delta}{sup 0} resonance decay to the number of all pions (resonant and nonresonant) is estimated. The analogous ratio for protons is also determined.

  2. A calcified polymeric valve for valve-in-valve applications.

    PubMed

    Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Morisawa, Daisuke; Toosky, Taraz T; Kheradvar, Arash

    2017-01-04

    The prevalence of aortic valve stenosis (AS) is increasing in the aging society. More recently, novel treatments and devices for AS, especially transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have significantly changed the therapeutic approach to this disease. Research and development related to TAVR require testing these devices in the calcified heart valves that closely mimic a native calcific valve. However, no animal model of AS has yet been available. Alternatively, animals with normal aortic valve that are currently used for TAVR experiments do not closely replicate the aortic valve pathology required for proper testing of these devices. To solve this limitation, for the first time, we developed a novel polymeric valve whose leaflets possess calcium hydroxyapatite inclusions immersed in them. This study reports the characteristics and feasibility of these valves. Two types of the polymeric valve, i.e., moderate and severe calcified AS models were developed and tested by deploying a transcatheter valve in those and measuring the related hemodynamics. The valves were tested in a heart flow simulator, and were studied using echocardiography. Our results showed high echogenicity of the polymeric valve, that was correlated to the severity of the calcification. Aortic valve area of the polymeric valves was measured, and the severity of stenosis was defined according to the clinical guidelines. Accordingly, we showed that these novel polymeric valves closely mimic AS, and can be a desired cost-saving solution for testing the performance of the transcatheter aortic valve systems in vitro.

  3. Hafnocene-Based Olefin Polymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesner, T.; Troll, C.; Rieger, B.

    Zirconocenes have been used for a long time in the field of olefin polymerization using MAO as cocatalyst. The equivalent hafnocenes were seldom used due to a lack of productivity while using MAO activation. In the last few years borane and borate activation has come into the focus of research for olefin polymerization. A variety of different hafnocenes were used to investigate the polymerization mechanism and the different cocatalysts.

  4. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  5. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  6. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  7. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  8. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  9. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  10. Sustainable polymerizations in recoverable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Yan, Feng; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei; Zhou, Yinxia; Chen, Jiaxin; Tang, Yishan; Texter, John

    2010-03-16

    Free radical and atom-transfer radical polymerizations were conducted in monomer/ionic liquid microemulsions. After the polymerization and isolation of the resultant polymers, the mixture of the catalyst and ionic liquids (surfactant and continuous phase) can be recovered and reused, thereby dramatically improving the environmental sustainability of such chemical processing. The addition of monomer to recovered ionic liquid mixtures regenerates transparent, stable microemulsions that are ready for the next polymerization cycle upon addition of initiator. The method combines the advantages of IL recycling and microemulsion polymerization and minimizes environmental disposable effects from surfactants and heavy metal ions.

  11. Probing for Pulsars in XMM Study of the Composite SNRS G327.1-1.1 and CTA 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotsky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The subject grant is for analysis of XMM data from the supernova remnant CTA1. Our investigation centered on the study of the compact source RX 50007.0+7302 that, based on our previous observations, appears to be a neutron star powering a wind nebula in the remnant interior. This compact source has also been suggested as the counterpart of the EGRET source 2EG J0008+7307. The analysis of the data from the compact source is complete. We find that the spectrum of the source is well described by a power law with the addition of a soft thermal component that may correspond to emission from hot polar cap regions or to cooling emission from a light element atmosphere over the entire star. There is evidence of extended emission on small spatial scales which may correspond to structure in the underlying synchrotron nebula. Extrapolation of the nonthermal emission component to gamma-ray energies yields a flux that is consistent with that of 2EG J0008+7307, thus strengthening the proposition that there is a gamma-ray emitting pulsar at the center of CTA 1. Our timing studies with the EPIC pn data revealed no evidence for pulsations, however; we set an upper limit of 61% on the pulsed fraction from this source. The results from this study were presented.

  12. FOST 2 Upgrade with Hollow-Fiber CTA FO Module and Generation of Osmotic Agent for Microorganism Growth Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Beeler, David

    2016-01-01

    FOST 2 is an integrated membrane system that incorporates a forward osmosis subsystem and a reverse osmosis subsystem working in series. It has been designed as a post treatment system to process the effluent from the Membrane Aerated Biological Reactor developed at NASA Johnson Space Center and Texas Tech University. Its function is to remove dissolved solids residual such as ammonia and suspended solids, as well as to provide a physical barrier to microbial and viral contamination. A tubular CTA membrane module from HTI and a flat-sheet lipid-base membrane module from Porifera were integrated and tested on FOST 2 in the past, using both a bioreactor's effluent and greywater as the feed solution. This paper documents the performance of FOST 2 after its upgrade with a hollow-fiber CTA membrane module from Toyobo, treating real black-water to generate the osmotic agent solution necessary to conduct growth studies of genetically engineered microorganism for the Synthetic Biological Membrane project.

  13. H.E.S.S. and CTA, present and perspectives in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sol, H.

    2016-12-01

    Very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy emerged as a new branch of astronomy about ten years ago with the major discoveries achieved by the High Energy Stereocopic System (H.E.S.S.) operating in Namibia, quickly followed by the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes (MAGIC) in the Canary Islands and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) in the USA. These experiments succeeded to start exploring the cosmos at TeV energies, with the present detection of 178 sources in this range, mostly pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, binary systems, blazars, and a variety of other types of sources. Based on these promizing results, the scientific community soon defined a next generation global project with significantly improved performance, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), in order to implement an open observatory at extreme energies, allowing a deep analysis of the sky in the highest part of the electromagnetic spectrum, from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The CTA preparation phase is now completed. Production of the first telescopes should start in 2017 for deployment in 2018, in the perspective of an array fully operational at the horizon 2022.

  14. Cloning, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the periplasmic sensing domain of Pseudomonas fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA).

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md Salah; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-09-05

    Chemotaxis towards nutrients plays a crucial role in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA) mediates movement towards amino acids present in root exudates. In this study, the periplasmic sensory domain of CtaA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. A complete data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.2, b = 76.0, c = 113.3 Å. This is an important step towards elucidation of the structural basis of how CtaA recognizes its signal molecules and transduces the signal across the membrane.

  15. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  16. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  17. Gratings in polymeric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishakov, G.; Sokolov, V.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Laser-induced formation of polymer Bragg grating filters for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) applications is discussed. Acrylate monomers halogenated with both fluorine and chlorine, which possess absorption losses less than 0.25 dB/cm and wide choice of refractive indices (from 1.3 to 1.5) in the 1.5 μm telecom wavelength region were used. The monomers are highly intermixable thus permitting to adjust the refractive index of the composition within +/-0.0001. Moreover they are photocurable under UV exposure and exhibit high contrast in polymerization. These properties make halogenated acrylates very promising for fabricating polymeric waveguides and photonic circuits. Single-mode polymer waveguides were fabricated on silicon wafers using resistless contact lithography. Submicron index gratings have been written in polymer waveguides using holographic exposure with He-Cd laser beam (325 nm) through a phase mask. Both uniform and apodized gratings have been fabricated. The gratings are stable and are not erased by uniform UV exposure. The waveguide gratings possess narrowband reflection spectra in the 1.5 μm wavelength region of 0.4 nm width, nearly rectangular shape of the stopband and reflectivity R > 99%. The fabricated Bragg grating filters can be used for multiplexing/demultiplexing optical signals in high-speed DWDM optical fiber networks.

  18. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  19. Platelet interaction with polymerizing fibrin.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, S; Regoeczi, E; Stewart, G J; Senyl, A F; Mustard, J F

    1972-03-01

    Interaction of washed pig, rabbit, or human platelets with fibrinogen was studied during its transition to fibrin using photometric, isotopic, and electron microscopic techniques. Untreated fibrinogen and fully polymerized fibrin had no detectable effect on platelets. Fibrinogen, incubated with low concentrations of reptilase or thrombin, formed intermediate products which readily became associated with platelets and caused their aggregation. Neutralization of the thrombin did not prevent this interaction. In the absence of fibrinogen, reptilase did not affect platelets. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was accompanied by small losses of platelet constituents (serotonin, adenine nucleotides, platelet factor 4, and lactic dehydrogenase). This loss did not appear to be the result of the platelet release reaction. Inhibitors of the release reaction or of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation did not prevent the interaction of platelets with polymerizing fibrin. Apyrase or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) reduced the extent of platelet aggregation by polymerizing fibrin, but the amount of protein associated with platelets was slightly increased. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) or ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA).Fibers formed in solutions of polymerizing fibrin were larger in the presence than in the absence of washed platelets, suggesting that platelets affect fibrin polymerization. The adherence of platelets to polymerizing fibrin may be responsible for the establishment of links between platelets and fibrin in hemostatic plugs and thrombi.

  20. Amplification of actin polymerization forces

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments. PMID:27002174

  1. Amplification of actin polymerization forces.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-03-28

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments.

  2. Oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed by proteins containing expanded polyglutamine

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S.; Hoffner, G.; Verbeke, P.; Djian, P.; Green, H.

    2003-01-01

    Neurological diseases resulting from proteins containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) are characteristically associated with insoluble neuronal inclusions, usually intranuclear, and neuronal death. We describe here oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed in cells by expanded polyQ. These aggregates are not dissociated by concentrated formic acid, an extremely effective solvent for otherwise insoluble proteins. Perinuclear inclusions formed in cultured cells by expanded polyQ can be completely dissolved in concentrated formic acid, but a soluble protein oligomer containing the expanded polyQ and released by the formic acid is not dissociated to monomer. In Huntington's disease, a formic acid-resistant oligomer is present in cerebral cortex, but not in cerebellum. Cortical nuclei contain a polymeric aggregate of expanded polyQ that is insoluble in formic acid, does not enter polyacrylamide gels, but is retained on filters. This finding shows that the process of polymerization is more advanced in the cerebral cortex than in cultured cells. The resistance of oligomer and polymer to formic acid suggests the participation of covalent bonds in their stabilization. PMID:12591956

  3. Novel inclusion in laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaoshan; Wang Siting; Jin Zhongru; Shen Yafang; Chen Jiaguang

    1986-12-01

    In growing alexandrite crystals, a novel inclusion has been found. The inclusions are quantitatively analyzed by an electronic probe and the mechanism for forming inclusions is suggested. In our Bridgman MgF/sub 2/ crystals, the inclusions in <001> direction have also been observed.

  4. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  5. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

  6. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-05-15

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10{sup -13} s s{sup -1}. Its characteristic age of 10{sup 4} years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  7. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope discovers the pulsar in the young galactic supernova remnant CTA 1.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hartman, R C; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Kanai, Y; Kanbach, G; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Kishishita, T; Kiziltan, B; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Lonjou, V; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mineo, T; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piano, G; Pieri, L; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schalk, T L; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yasuda, H; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2008-11-21

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 milliseconds and a period derivative of 3.614 x 10(-13) seconds per second. Its characteristic age of 10(4) years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. We speculate that most unidentified Galactic gamma-ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  8. Two-particle azimuthal correlations in 4.2A GeV C+Ta collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, Lj.; Mendas, I.; Jotanovic, O.; Milosevic, J.

    2007-10-15

    Two particle azimuthal correlations are studied in 4.2A GeV C+Ta collisions observed with the 2-m propane bubble chamber exposed at JINR Dubna Synchrophasotron. The correlations are analyzed both for protons and negative pions, and their dependence on the collision centrality, rapidity and rapidity difference is investigated. It is found that protons show a weak back-to-back correlations, while a side-by-side correlations are observed for negative pions. Restricting both protons to the target or projectile fragmentation region, the side-by-side correlations are observed for protons also. Using the two particle correlation function, the flow analysis is performed and intensity of directed flow is determined without event-by event estimation of the reaction plane.

  9. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  10. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  11. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  12. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  13. Evaluation of a multi-atlas based method for segmentation of cardiac CTA data: a large-scale, multicenter, and multivendor study

    SciTech Connect

    Kirisli, H. A.; Schaap, M.; Klein, S.; Papadopoulou, S. L.; Bonardi, M.; Chen, C. H.; Weustink, A. C.; Mollet, N. R.; Vonken, E. J.; Geest, R. J. van der; Walsum, T. van; Niessen, W. J.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, CTA is not commonly used for the assessment of ventricular and atrial function, although functional information extracted from CTA data is expected to improve the diagnostic value of the examination. In clinical practice, the extraction of ventricular and atrial functional information, such as stroke volume and ejection fraction, requires accurate delineation of cardiac chambers. In this paper, we investigated the accuracy and robustness of cardiac chamber delineation using a multiatlas based segmentation method on multicenter and multivendor CTA data. Methods: A fully automatic multiatlas based method for segmenting the whole heart (i.e., the outer surface of the pericardium) and cardiac chambers from CTA data is presented and evaluated. In the segmentation approach, eight atlas images are registered to a new patient's CTA scan. The eight corresponding manually labeled images are then propagated and combined using a per voxel majority voting procedure, to obtain a cardiac segmentation. Results: The method was evaluated on a multicenter/multivendor database, consisting of (1) a set of 1380 Siemens scans from 795 patients and (2) a set of 60 multivendor scans (Siemens, Philips, and GE) from different patients, acquired in six different institutions worldwide. A leave-one-out 3D quantitative validation was carried out on the eight atlas images; we obtained a mean surface-to-surface error of 0.94{+-}1.12 mm and an average Dice coefficient of 0.93 was achieved. A 2D quantitative evaluation was performed on the 60 multivendor data sets. Here, we observed a mean surface-to-surface error of 1.26{+-}1.25 mm and an average Dice coefficient of 0.91 was achieved. In addition to this quantitative evaluation, a large-scale 2D and 3D qualitative evaluation was performed on 1380 and 140 images, respectively. Experts evaluated that 49% of the 1380 images

  14. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the matrix's intrinsic physical properties.

  15. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the intrinsic physical properties of the matrix.

  16. Bacterial inclusion body purification.

    PubMed

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Peternel, Spela; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Purification of bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) is gaining importance due to the raising of novel applications for this type of submicron particulate protein clusters, with potential uses in the biomedical field among others. Here, we present two optimized methods to purify IBs adapting classical procedures to the material nature as well as the requirements of its final application.

  17. Against Being Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The term "inclusive excellence," made popular by the Association of American Colleges and Universities and adopted by many schools across the country is in some ways unfortunate, in that the concept of "including," arguably, assumes the priority and ongoing dominance of a given reality into which one may (or may not) be granted…

  18. Positive Inclusion Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This guide focuses on the use of low-end technology to make education more inclusive for children and adolescents with disabilities. The definition of "assistive technology" is discussed, and low-end technology is defined as simple modification/adaptation of toys and games, design and construction of simple switching devices, and the…

  19. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  20. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  1. Education for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Poverty can be both a consequence of, and contributory factor to, educational exclusion. This paper argues that poverty and exclusion are multidimensional. They require a multisectoral and multilevel approach in education if the most vulnerable sectors of society are to benefit from initiatives to turn exclusion into inclusion. This paper also…

  2. Inclusion on the Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  3. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to…

  4. Inclusion Strategies that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Alice M.

    2004-01-01

    Many school systems are moving toward an inclusion model for teaching special learners in which all students are included in general classrooms. The basic premise is that all students should first be placed in the general classroom. Students receive as many necessary supplementary aids and services as possible in the general classroom, and then,…

  5. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.

    1980-05-01

    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  6. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  7. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days.

  8. Polymerized supramolecular assemblies and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, David F.

    2001-03-01

    The creation of durable, biomembrane-mimetic coatings for inorganic and polymeric surfaces that are biocompatible, i.e. resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, remains an important goal that is expected to impact numerous fields. It has already been shown that the physical stability of lipid bilayer vesicles can be dramatically enhanced by cross-linking polymerization of reactive lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines. Bilayers of these same lipids on clean silicon dioxide surfaces can be formed by fusion of small bilayer vesicles with the surface. Radical initiated polymerization of these supported bilayers yields a stable poly(lipid) film that is not perturbed upon exposure to surfactant. Moreover, the cross-linked bilayer film can be removed from water into air with retention of the poly(lipid) bilayer structure. These polymerized bilayer films could be repeatedly transferred from water to air to water with no obvious change in their biocompatibility. The supported bilayer films were equally resistant to non-specific protein adsorption before and after polymerization. This indicates that biocompatible nature of the phosphorylcholine head group of the lipids was not compromised by polymerization of the lipids. The ability to maintain surface biocompatibility of membranes while substantially increasing their stability would appear to extend the technological uses of supramolecular assemblies of lipids.

  9. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based

  10. Polymeric materials in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    Paper of short review type. It is the continuation of and addition to previous review papers "V. E. Skurat. Polymers in Space. In: Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, vol. 4, Wiley and sons, 2010; Ibid., 2012 (on line)". Following topics are considered: (1) Destruction of polymers by solar radiation with various wavelengths in different spectral regions (visible-UV, vacuum UV (VUV), deep UV, soft and hard X-rays) are discussed. In difference with common polymer photochemistry induced by UV radiation, directions of various routs of polymer phototransformations and their relative yields are greatly dependent on wavelength of light (photon energy) during illuminations in VUV, deep UV and X-ray regions. During last twenty years, intensive spacecraft investigations of solar spectrum show great periodic and spontaneous variations of radiation intensities in short-wavelengths regions - up to one - two decimal orders of magnitude for X-rays. As a result, during solar flares the absorbed dose on the polymer surfaces from X-rays can be compared with absorbed dose from VUV radiation. (2) Some new approaches to predictions of reaction efficiencies of fast orbital atomic oxygen in their interaction with polymeric materials are considered. (3) Some aspects of photocatalitic destruction of polymers in vacuum conditions by full-spectrum solar radiation are discussed. This process can take place in enamels containing semiconducting particles (TiO2, ZnO) as pigments. (4) Contamination of spacecraft surfaces from intrinsic outer atmosphere play important role not only from the point of view of deterioration of optical and thermophysical properties. Layers of SiO2 contaminations with nanometer thicknesses can greatly diminish mass losses from perfluorinated polymers under VUV irradiation.

  11. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  12. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.

  13. Making Inclusion Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Jennifer; Colker, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Inclusion is an oft-used buzzword in education. It is also a concept that the author highly values and wants to be a part of her teaching. She feels she would not be teaching to her potential if she was not able to reach all students. She truly wants a classroom in which all children have access. The author was a Sure Start teacher at a U.S.…

  14. Working through the Inclusion Maze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michelle

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that if inclusion programs are implemented correctly, students with special needs will begin to have more success stories, which will help educators find a pathway out of the dead ends of the inclusion maze. (RS)

  15. Normalizing difference in inclusive teaching.

    PubMed

    Baglieri, Susan; Knopf, Janice H

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion practices and special education can be transformed by using a disability studies perspective, which constructs differences as natural, acceptable, and ordinary. Although inclusion is a moral imperative in promoting social justice, some inclusive practices continue to marginalize students with disabilities. A truly inclusive school reflects a democratic philosophy whereby all students are valued, educators normalize difference through differentiated instruction, and the school culture reflects an ethic of caring and community.

  16. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  17. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  18. Inclusion: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan, Ed.; Stainback, William, Ed.

    This book discusses the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms and describes strategies that enhance the social success and educational achievement for all students. Section 1 provides an introduction to inclusion and contains the following chapters: "Rationale for Inclusive Schooling" (Anastasios Karagiannis and…

  19. Developing Inclusive Schools: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    This workbook provides practical information for developing and implementing inclusive school programs through understanding the educator role, using effective problem-solving strategies, and developing a support network to meet the challenges of inclusion. Ten chapters cover the following topics: (1) effective inclusion (an analysis of the trend…

  20. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futaba, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  1. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    PubMed Central

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism. Images PMID:6320723

  2. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  3. Mechanically controlled radical polymerization initiated by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Hemakesh; Kleiman, Maya; Esser-Kahn, Aaron Palmer

    2016-10-01

    In polymer chemistry, mechanical energy degrades polymeric chains. In contrast, in nature, mechanical energy is often used to create new polymers. This mechanically stimulated growth is a key component of the robustness of biological materials. A synthetic system in which mechanical force initiates polymerization will provide similar robustness in polymeric materials. Here we show a polymerization of acrylate monomers initiated and controlled by mechanical energy provided by ultrasonic agitation. The activator for an atom-transfer radical polymerization is generated using piezochemical reduction of a Cu(II) precursor complex, which thus converts a mechanical activation of piezoelectric particles to the synthesis of a new material. This polymerization reaction has some characteristics of controlled radical polymerization, such as narrow molecular-weight distribution and linear dependence of the polymeric chain length on the time of mechanical activation. This new method of controlled radical polymerization complements the existing methods to synthesize commercially useful well-defined polymers.

  4. The Role of Inclusion Binding Contributions for β-Cyclodextrin Polymers Cross-Linked with Divinyl Sulfone?--A Comment on Morales-Sanfrutos et al. Entitled "Divinyl Sulfone Cross-Linked Cyclodextrin-Based Polymeric Materials: Synthesis and Applications as Sorbents and Encapsulating Agents", Molecules, 2015, 20, 3565-3581.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; McMartin, Dena W

    2016-01-14

    This commentary reports on a recent scientific study reported in this journal (cf. Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3565-3581). Some key scientific issues that require further explanation and clarification in the former article are as follows: (i) the relationship between the inclusion site accessibility and the level of cross-linking employed are brought into question for the case of α-CD and β-CD cross-linked adsorbent materials; (ii) the binding affinity of the CD/guest complexes were not related to the isotherm parameters for the CD-polymer/guest systems; (iii) the limited molecular level structural characterization of the cross-linked polymer materials; and (iv) the interpretation of the adsorption isotherm results by the authors.

  5. Singing and social inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  6. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  7. Three-dimensional Imaging of Crystalline Inclusions Embedded in Intact Maize Stalks

    PubMed Central

    Badger, John; Lal, Jyotsana; Harder, Ross; Inouye, Hideyo; Gleber, S. Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Robinson, Ian; Makowski, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mineral inclusions in biomass are attracting increased scrutiny due to their potential impact on processing methods designed to provide renewable feedstocks for the production of chemicals and fuels. These inclusions are often sculpted by the plant into shapes required to support functional roles that include the storage of specific elements, strengthening of the plant structure, and providing a defense against pathogens and herbivores. In situ characterization of these inclusions faces substantial challenges since they are embedded in an opaque, complex polymeric matrix. Here we describe the use of Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) to study mineral inclusions within intact maize stalks. Three-dimensional BCDI data sets were collected and used to reconstruct images of mineral inclusions at 50–100 nm resolution. Asymmetries in the intensity distributions around the Bragg peaks provided detailed information about the deformation fields within these crystal particles revealing lattice defects that result in distinct internal crystal domains. PMID:24091898

  8. Can We Build Inclusion?

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural

  9. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-13

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  10. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  11. The control system of the 12-m medium-size telescope prototype: a test-ground for the CTA array control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, E. A.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Lindemann, R.; Melkumyan, D.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high energy -ray observatory. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different sizes and types and in addition numerous auxiliary devices. In order to provide a test-ground for the CTA array control, the steering software of the 12-m medium size telescope (MST) prototype deployed in Berlin has been implemented using the tools and design concepts under consideration to be used for the control of the CTA array. The prototype control system is implemented based on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) control middleware, with components implemented in Java, C++ and Python. The interfacing to the hardware is standardized via the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture (OPC UA). In order to access the OPC UA servers from the ACS framework in a common way, a library has been developed that allows to tie the OPC UA server nodes, methods and events to the equivalents in ACS components. The front-end of the archive system is able to identify the deployed components and to perform the sampling of the monitoring points of each component following time and value change triggers according to the selected configurations. The back-end of the archive system of the prototype is composed by two different databases: MySQL and MongoDB. MySQL has been selected as storage of the system configurations, while MongoDB is used to have an efficient storage of device monitoring data, CCD images, logging and alarm information. In this contribution, the details and conclusions on the implementation of the control software of the MST prototype are presented.

  12. Automated identification of best-quality coronary artery segments from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) for vessel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing an automated method to identify the best quality segment among the corresponding segments in multiple-phase cCTA. The coronary artery trees are automatically extracted from different cCTA phases using our multi-scale vessel segmentation and tracking method. An automated registration method is then used to align the multiple-phase artery trees. The corresponding coronary artery segments are identified in the registered vessel trees and are straightened by curved planar reformation (CPR). Four features are extracted from each segment in each phase as quality indicators in the original CT volume and the straightened CPR volume. Each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier to vote the corresponding segments. A newly designed weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is finally used to determine the best-quality coronary segment. An observer preference study is conducted with three readers to visually rate the quality of the vessels in 1 to 6 rankings. Six and 10 cCTA cases are used as training and test set in this preliminary study. For the 10 test cases, the agreement between automatically identified best-quality (AI-BQ) segments and radiologist's top 2 rankings is 79.7%, and between AI-BQ and the other two readers are 74.8% and 83.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the performance of our automated method was comparable to those of experienced readers for identification of the best-quality coronary segments.

  13. 320-Row Detector Dynamic 4D-CTA for the Assessment of Brain and Spinal Cord Vascular Shunting Malformations. A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Federico; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Shunting vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord are traditionally studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA), the current gold standard imaging method routinely used because of its favourable combination in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Because DSA is relatively expensive, time-consuming and carries a risk of silent embolic events and a small risk of transient or permanent neurologic deterioration, a non-invasive alternative angiographic method is of interest. New 320 row-detector CT scanners allow volumetric imaging of the whole brain with temporal resolution up to ≌ 3 Hz. Those characteristics make computed tomography angiography (CTA) an affordable imaging method to study the haemodynamics of the whole brain and can also be applied to the study of limited portions of the spinal cord. The aim of this paper is to make a brief summary of our experience in studying shunting vascular malformation of the brain and spinal cord using dynamic 4D-CTA, explaining the technical details of the studies performed at our institution, and the state-of-the-art major advantages and drawbacks of this new technique. We found that dynamic 4D-CTA is able to depict the main architectural characteristics of previously untreated vascular shunting malformations both in brain and spinal cord (i.e. their main arterial feeders and draining veins) allowing their correct diagnosis and exhaustive classification, limiting the use of DSA for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  15. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycely O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers. acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors, in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors. weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 1000 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  16. Low vibration polymeric composite engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, David P.; Muench, Rolf K.

    1994-12-01

    An internal combustion engine is constructed with metallic parts in its regions which are subjected to high stress (temperature, pressure) during combustion and polymeric materials in its regions which are subjected to relatively lower stresses. The integrated construction helps realize increased power densities and reductions on engine noise without compromising engine performance. V-configuration Diesel engines particularly benefit from this construction.

  17. Ballistic Resistance of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad

    2005-03-01

    Ballistic-resistant body armor has been credited with saving more than 2,500 lives, but new materials are constantly being developed, and there currently exists no method for evaluating armor over time to ensure the continued effectiveness of the protection. We report on progress towards development of a standard test method for reliability of the active polymeric materials that comprise them.

  18. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  19. The absorption of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řídký, R.; Popovič, M.; Rolc, S.; Drdlová, M.; Krátký, J.

    2016-06-01

    An absorption capacity of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates is important for wide range of practical applications. Nowadays there are many variants of numerical models suitable for this kind of analysis. The main difficulty is in selection of the most realistic numerical model and a correct setup of many unknown material constants. Cooperation between theoretical simulations and real testing is next crucial point in the investigation process. Standard open source material database offer material properties valid for strain rates less than 250 s-1. There are experiments suitable for analysis of material properties with strain rates close to 2000 s-1. The high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous blast energy absorbing material measured by modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is presented in this study. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. One of the possible solution leads to complex and frequency depended Young modulus of testing bars material. This testing technique was applied to materials composed of porous glass/ceramic filler and polymeric binder, with density of 125 - 300 kg/m3 and particle size in range of 50 µm - 2 mm. The achieved material model was verified in practical application of sandwich structure includes polymeric composites under a blast test.

  20. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  1. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  2. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  3. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl.sub.5 or W(CO).sub.6 /hv.

  4. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6]/hv.

  5. The Potential of Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization as Safe Nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Shuo; Luo, Kui; Hu, Jiani; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have been presented as nanoscale drug/gene delivery systems and imaging probes, and the well-defined HPMA copolymers prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization promote their to clinical trials, as the significant enhanced anticancer efficacy. The biosafety is another issue associated with the carriers. In this study, we prepared the linear and branched HPMA copolymers labeled with Cy5.5 via RAFT polymerization and click chemistry, and their potential biosafety was studied. The linear copolymer was prepared via RAFT polymerization mediated by the ends-functionalized peptide chain transfer agent (peptide2CTA), resulting in well-defined and block linear HPMA copolymer with molecular weight (MW) of 98 kDa. Additionally, the branched HPMA copolymer was also prepared via RAFT polymerization. Followed by Cy5.5 labeling, the two copolymers showed negative zeta potential and their accumulation into tumor was studied by in vivo optical fluorescence imaging in the nude mice with breast tumors. The biosafety studies on in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility studies, including hemolysis tests, plasma coagulation and thromboelastography assay were carried out well, demonstrating that the linear HPMA copolymer-Cy5.5 with MW around 100 kDa and biodegradable moiety in the main chain might be utilized as safe nanoscale carrier.

  6. UV-triggered dopamine polymerization: control of polymerization, surface coating, and photopatterning.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Li, Linxian; Li, Junsheng; Yang, Chengwu; Frenkel, Nataliya; Welle, Alexander; Heissler, Stefan; Nefedov, Alexei; Grunze, Michael; Levkin, Pavel A

    2014-12-17

    UV irradiation is demonstrated to initiate dopamine polymerization and deposition on different surfaces under both acidic and basic pH. The observed acceleration of the dopamine polymerization is explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species that trigger dopamine polymerization. The UV-induced dopamine polymerization leads to a better control over polydopamine deposition and formation of functional polydopamine micropatterns.

  7. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  8. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  9. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH POLARIMETRIC STUDY OF THE BLAZAR CTA 102 DURING A GAMMA-RAY FLARE IN 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.; Agudo, Iván; Molina, Sol N.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Bala, Vishal; Joshi, Manasvita; Taylor, Brian; Williamson, Karen E.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Blinov, Dmitry A.; Grishina, Tatiana S.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Smith, Paul S.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Arkharov, Arkady A.; Borman, George A.; Paola, Andrea Di; and others

    2015-11-01

    We perform a multi-wavelength polarimetric study of the quasar CTA 102 during an extraordinarily bright γ-ray outburst detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in 2012 September–October when the source reached a flux of F{sub >100} {sub MeV} = 5.2 ± 0.4 × 10{sup −6} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. At the same time, the source displayed an unprecedented optical and near-infrared (near-IR) outburst. We study the evolution of the parsec-scale jet with ultra-high angular resolution through a sequence of 80 total and polarized intensity Very Long Baseline Array images at 43 GHz, covering the observing period from 2007 June to 2014 June. We find that the γ-ray outburst is coincident with flares at all the other frequencies and is related to the passage of a new superluminal knot through the radio core. The powerful γ-ray emission is associated with a change in direction of the jet, which became oriented more closely to our line of sight (θ ∼ 1.°2) during the ejection of the knot and the γ-ray outburst. During the flare, the optical polarized emission displays intra-day variability and a clear clockwise rotation of electric vector position angles (EVPAs), which we associate with the path followed by the knot as it moves along helical magnetic field lines, although a random walk of the EVPA caused by a turbulent magnetic field cannot be ruled out. We locate the γ-ray outburst a short distance downstream of the radio core, parsecs from the black hole. This suggests that synchrotron self-Compton scattering of NIR to ultraviolet photons is the probable mechanism for the γ-ray production.

  10. Feasibility of Quantification of Intracranial Aneurysm Pulsation with 4D CTA with Manual and Computer-Aided Post-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Illies, Till; Saering, Dennis; Kinoshita, Manabu; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Bester, Maxim; Fiehler, Jens; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The analysis of the pulsation of unruptured intracranial aneurysms might improve the assessment of their stability and risk of rupture. Pulsations can easily be concealed due to the small movements of the aneurysm wall, making post-processing highly demanding. We hypothesized that the quantification of aneurysm pulsation is technically feasible and can be improved by computer-aided post-processing. Materials and Methods Images of 14 cerebral aneurysms were acquired with an ECG-triggered 4D CTA. Aneurysms were post-processed manually and computer-aided on a 3D model. Volume curves and random noise-curves were compared with the arterial pulse wave and volume curves were compared between both post-processing modalities. Results The aneurysm volume curves showed higher similarity with the pulse wave than the random curves (Hausdorff-distances 0.12 vs 0.25, p<0.01). Both post-processing methods did not differ in intra- (r = 0.45 vs r = 0.54, p>0.05) and inter-observer (r = 0.45 vs r = 0.54, p>0.05) reliability. Time needed for segmentation was significantly reduced in the computer-aided group (3.9 ± 1.8 min vs 20.8 ± 7.8 min, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results show pulsatile changes in a subset of the studied aneurysms with the final prove of underlying volume changes remaining unsettled. Semi-automatic post-processing significantly reduces post-processing time but cannot yet replace manual segmentation. PMID:27880805

  11. Polymerization in highly compressed nitrogen (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the thermodynamic properties of new polymeric phases of nitrogen at ultra-high pressures, as well as computer modeling of the structure and properties of polymeric nitrogen based on the potential models of interaction of atoms and molecules are reviewed. The location of the phase transition lines for the transitions between the molecular and polymeric crystals, molecular and polymeric fluids as well as the position of the melting line for the polymeric nitrogen in the phase diagram are discussed.

  12. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however,…

  13. Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…

  14. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was…

  15. Enacting Inclusion : A Framework for Interrogating Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that…

  16. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  17. Polymeric anti-HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics.

  18. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  19. Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Rebecca L.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434

  20. Polymeric nanofibers in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2011-10-01

    Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed.

  1. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 2 carbon atoms of mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins or diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing one or more olefins in the presence of the catalyst system comprising (A) an organo aluminum cocatalyst, and (B) a vanadium-containing catalyst component obtained by sequentially treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent with (i) a dihydrocarbyl magnesium compound, (ii) optionally an oxygen-containing compound which is an alcohol, ketone or aldehyde, (iii) a vanadium compound, and (iv) a Group IIIa metal halide. The process as above is described wherein the inert solid support material is an inorganic oxide or mixtures of inorganic oxides.

  2. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-04-14

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alphaolefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins or diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing one or more olefins in the presence of the catalyst system comprising (A) an organo aluminum cocatalyst, and (B) a vanadium-containing catalyst component obtained by treating an inert support material in an inert solvent with (i) a dihydrocarbyl magnesium compound or a complex or mixture of an organic dihydrocarbyl magnesium compound and an aluminum compound, (ii) optionally an oxygen-containing compound which is an alcohol, ketone or aldehyde, (iii) a Group IIIa metal halide, (iv) at least one vanadium compound, and as the last step a second treatment with a Group IIIa metal halide.

  3. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  4. Stability of Polymeric Crystalline Polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkovits, Daniel W.; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    In the search for polymeric materials with novel properties, such as high dielectric constant and low loss, an important attribute of a material is its crystal structure. Most polymers can crystallize into multiple polymorphs whose properties vary. Therefore, the question of which polymorphs are thermodynamically preferred under what conditions is of great importance. We generate polymorphs using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and tackle the question of stability using a combination of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques. Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI).

  5. Macrokinetic characteristics of isobutylene polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, K.S.; Berlin, A.A.; Enikolopyan, N.S.; Prochukhan, Y.A.; Svinkov, A.G.

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes a method of obtaining oligo and polyisobutylene with a molecular mass of 112-50,000: the cationic polymerization of isobutylene carried out in the presence of AlCl/sub 3/, in an environment of hydrocarbons (butanes, etc.) or chlorinated hydrocarbons (ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, etc.) at a temperature of 173-353 K/sub 3/ and in mixer-reactors of complicated design with a volume of 1.5-30 m.

  6. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  8. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  9. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  10. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  11. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. In Support of Unfinished Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

    2014-01-01

    This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

  14. Creative Educational Practices for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro; Stoltz, Tania; Machado, Jarci

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of gifted students depends on several aspects to happen in the school context, and one of the most important aspects to include these children at school is creative educational practices. Teaching with art is a good possibility to make children feel motivated to attend school. In the school context, the inclusion of these children could…

  15. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  16. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-a simple method for the characterization of polymer inclusion membranes containing aliquat 336.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michelle; Duffy, Noel; Marco, Roland De; Potter, Ian

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to estimate the non-frequency dependent (static) dielectric constants of base polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polystyrene (PS). Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) containing different amounts of PVC or CTA, along with the room temperature ionic liquid Aliquat 336 and plasticizers such as trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), dioctyl sebecate (DOS) and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) have been investigated. In this study, the complex and abstract method of EIS has been applied in a simple and easy to use way, so as to make the method accessible to membrane scientists and engineers who may not possess the detailed knowledge of electrochemistry and interfacial science needed for a rigorous interpretation of EIS results. The EIS data reported herein are internally consistent with a percolation threshold in the dielectric constant at high concentrations of Aliquat 336, which illustrates the suitability of the EIS technique since membrane percolation with ion exchangers is a well-known phenomenon.

  18. Polymeric nanocomposites: compounding and performance.

    PubMed

    Utracki, L A

    2008-04-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites (PNC) are binary mixtures of strongly interacting, inorganic platelets dispersed in a polymeric matrix. For full exfoliation, the thermodynamic miscibility is required. There are three basic methods of organically-modified clay dispersion that might result in PNC: (1) in polymer solution (followed by solvent removal), (2) in a monomer (followed by polymerization), and (3) in molten polymer (compounding). Most commercial PNC are produced by the second method, but it is the third one that has the greatest promise for the plastics industry. Similarly as during the manufacture of polymer blends, the layered silicates must be compatibilized by intercalation with organic salts and/or addition of functionalized macromolecules. Compounding affects the kinetics of dispersion process, but rarely the miscibility. Melt compounding is carried out either in a single-screw (SSE) or a twin-screw extruder (TSE). Furthermore, an extensional flow mixer (EFM) might be attached to an extruder. Two versions of EFM were evaluated: (1) designed for polymer homogenization and blending, and (2) designed for dispersing nano-particles. In this review, the dispersion of organoclay in polystyrene (PS), polyamide-6 (PA-6) or in polypropylene (PP) is discussed. The PNC based on PS or PA-6 contained two components (polymer and organoclay), whereas those based on PP in addition had a compatibilizer mixture of two maleated polypropylenes. Better dispersion was found compounding PNC's in a SSE + EFM than in TSE with or without EFM. The mechanical performance (tensile, flexural and impact) was examined.

  19. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-03-28

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  20. The Chemical Behavior of Fluids Released during Deep Subduction Based on Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of current research on fluid inclusions in (HP-) UHP metamorphic rocks that, combined with existing experimental research and thermodynamic models, allow us to investigate the chemical and physical properties of fluids released during deep subduction, their solvent and element transport capacity, and the subsequent implications for the element recycling in the mantle wedge. An impressive number of fluid inclusion studies indicate three main populations of fluid inclusions in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks: i) aqueous and/or non-polar gaseous fluid inclusions (FI), ii) multiphase solid inclusions (MSI), and iii) melt inclusions (MI). Chemical data from preserved fluid inclusions in rocks match with and implement "model" fluids by experiments and thermodynamics, revealing a continuity behind the extreme variations of physico-chemical properties of subduction-zone fluids. From fore-arc to sub-arc depths, fluids released by progressive devolatilization reactions from slab lithologies change from relatively diluted chloride-bearing aqueous solutions (± N2), mainly influenced by halide ligands, to (alkali) aluminosilicate-rich aqueous fluids, in which polymerization probably governs the solubility and transport of major (e.g., Si and Al) and trace elements (including C). Fluid inclusion data implement the petrological models explaining deep volatile liberation in subduction zones, and their flux into the mantle wedge.

  1. Properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes from corn starch grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch granules have been previously investigated as fillers in polymers. In this study, much smaller particles in the form of spherulites produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose corn starch and oleic acid to form amylose inclusion complexes were graft polymerized with methyl acrylate, both ...

  2. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  3. CT Angiography (CTA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Angiography uses one of three imaging technologies and, in most cases, a contrast material injection ...

  4. CT Angiography (CTA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplied by them in various body parts, including: brain neck heart chest abdomen (such as the kidneys and ... plaque) disease in the carotid artery of the neck, which may limit blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke. identify a small aneurysm ...

  5. CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhang-ning; Dong, Wen-tao; Cai, Xin-wang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Li-tong; Gao, Feng; Kang, Xiao-kui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hai-ning; Gao, Nan-nan; Ning, Xian-jia; Tu, Jun; Li, Feng-tan; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Ying-jian; Li, Nai-xin; Yang, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Wang, Jing-hua; Yang, Xin-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The vascular morphology in crowd with family history of stroke remains unclear. The present study clarified the characteristics of the intracranial vascular CoW and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in subjects with family history of stroke. Methods. A stratified cluster, random sampling method was used for subjects with family history of stroke among rural residents in Jixian, Tianjin, China. All the subjects underwent a physical examination, head computed tomography (CT) scan, and cephalic and cervical computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan. Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd with similar living environment, stable genetic background, and family history of stroke and without obvious nerve function impairment (1) hypoplasia or absence of A1 segment was significantly different in gender (male versus female: 9.8% versus 18.8%, p = 0.031), especially the right-side A1 (male versus female: 5.9% versus 16.4%, p = 0.004). (2) Hypoplasia or absence of bilateral posterior communicating arteries was more common in men than women (58.2% versus 45.3%, p = 0.032). Unilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery was observed more often in women than men (17.2% versus 8.5%, p = 0.028). (3) The percentage of subjects with incomplete CoW did not increase significantly with age. Compared to healthy Chinese people, the crowd had a higher percentage of incomplete CoW (p < 0.001). (4) No obvious correlation between risk factors and CoW was found. (5) The prevalence of aneurysm was 10.3% in the special crowd. Conclusions. The certain variations of CoW showed significant relation to gender, but not to age in people with family history of stroke. The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm is

  6. Polymeric slot waveguide for photonics sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovan, J.; Uherek, F.

    2016-12-01

    Polymeric slot waveguide for photonics sensing was designed, simulated and studied in this work. The polymeric slot waveguide was designed on commercial Ormocer polymer platform and operates at visible 632.8 nm wavelength. Designed polymeric slot waveguide detects the refractive index change of the ambient material by evanescent field label-free techniques. The motivation for the reported work was to design a low-cost polymeric slot waveguide for sensing arms of integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical sensor with reduced temperature dependency. The minimal dimensions of advanced sensing slot waveguide structure were designed for researcher direct laser writing fabrication by nonlinear two-photon polymerization. The normalized effective refractive index changes of TE and TM fundamental modes in polymeric slot waveguide and slab waveguides were compared. The sensitivity of the normalized effective refractive index changes of TE and TM fundamental modes on refractive index changes of the ambient material was investigated by glucose-water solutions.

  7. RADIATION-INDUCED POLYMERIZATION OF POLYFUNCTIONAL VINYLSILOXANE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the molecular weights and characteristic viscosities of these polymers the hypothesis that polymer molecules are soluble microgels was arrived at. The...present work examines some properties of polymerization of these monomers. The hypotheses were confirmed. The polymer is a soluble microgel . The...possibility of inducing polymerization of vinyl monomers with microgels of polyvinylsiloxanes was established, and radiolysis and polymerization of polyfunctional vinylsiloxanes were studied. (Author)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions inclusion body myopathy 2 inclusion body myopathy 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Inclusion body myopathy 2 is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles , ...

  9. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  10. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  11. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  12. Marketing NASA Langley Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    A marketing tool was created to expand the knowledge of LaRC developed polymeric materials, in order to facilitate the technology transfer process and increase technology commercialization awareness among a non-technical audience. The created brochure features four materials, LaRC-CP, LaRC-RP46, LaRC-SI, and LaRC-IA, and highlights their competitive strengths in potential commercial applications. Excellent opportunities exist in the $40 million per year microelectronics market and the $6 billion adhesives market. It is hoped that the created brochure will generate inquiries regarding the use of the above materials in markets such as these.

  13. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  14. Polymeric materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the use of polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Topics considered at the conference included polymer flow in porous media, hydrophobically associating polymers, mobility control,rheology, the direct determination of high molecular weights, size characterization of enhanced oil recovery polymers, MWD systems, light scattering, the use of size exclusion chromatography to study the degradation of water-soluble polymers for hydraulic fracturing fluids, polymer concentration in sandstone, electron microscopy, high salinity conditions, polymerization, and viscosity.

  15. Proton conducting, high modulus polymer electrolyte membranes by polymerization-induced microphase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, Sujay; Hillmyer, Marc; Lodge, Timothy

    Robust solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are vital for designing next-generation lithium-ion batteries and high-temperature fuel cells. However, the performance of diblock polymer electrolytes is generally limited by poor mechanical stability and network defects in the conducting pathways. We present the in-situ preparation of robust cross-linked PEMs via polymerization-induced microphase separation, and incorporation of protic ionic liquid (IL) into one of the microphase separated domains. The facile design strategy involves a delicate balance between the controlled growth of polystyrene from a poly(ethylene oxide) macro-chain transfer agent (PEO-CTA) and simultaneous chemical cross-linking by divinylbenzene in the presence of IL. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of a disordered structure with bicontinuous morphology and a characteristic domain size of order 20 nm. The long-range continuity of the PEO/protic IL conducting nanochannels and cross-linked polystyrene domains imparts high thermal and mechanical stability to the PEMs, with elastic modulus approaching 10 MPa and a high ionic conductivity of 15 mS/cm at 180 °C.

  16. How Do Spherical Diblock Copolymer Nanoparticles Grow during RAFT Alcoholic Dispersion Polymerization?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) chain transfer agent (CTA) is used for the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) alcoholic dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol at 70 °C. THF GPC analysis indicated a well-controlled polymerization with molecular weight increasing linearly with conversion. GPC traces also showed high blocking efficiency with no homopolymer contamination apparent and Mw/Mn values below 1.35 in all cases. 1H NMR studies confirmed greater than 98% BzMA conversion for a target PBzMA degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 600. The PBzMA block becomes insoluble as it grows, leading to the in situ formation of sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nanoparticles via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Fixing the mean DP of the PDMA stabilizer block at 94 units and systematically varying the DP of the PBzMA block enabled a series of spherical nanoparticles of tunable diameter to be obtained. These nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, MALLS, and SAXS, with mean diameters ranging from 35 to 100 nm. The latter technique was particularly informative: data fits to a spherical micelle model enabled calculation of the core diameter, surface area occupied per copolymer chain, and the mean aggregation number (Nagg). The scaling exponent derived from a double-logarithmic plot of core diameter vs PBzMA DP suggests that the conformation of the PBzMA chains is intermediate between the collapsed and fully extended state. This is in good agreement with 1H NMR studies, which suggest that only 5−13% of the BzMA residues of the core-forming chains are solvated. The Nagg values calculated from SAXS and MALLS are in good agreement and scale approximately linearly with PBzMA DP. This suggests that spherical micelles grow in size not only as a result of the increase in copolymer molecular weight during the PISA synthesis but also by exchange of individual copolymer chains between micelles

  17. A convex hull inclusion test.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T; Cowles, J

    1987-02-01

    A new characterization of the interior of the convex hull of a finite point set is given. An inclusion test based on this characterization is, on average, almost linear in the number of points times the dimensionality.

  18. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make a Donation Matching Gifts Legacy Gifts Product Donations Partner Become an MDA Partner Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook twitter ...

  19. Innovation for an Inclusive Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springett, Mark; Rice, Mark; Carmichael, Alex; Griffiths, Richard

    This workshop will focus on setting the agenda for research, practice and policy in support of inclusive design for third generation computer-based products. The next generation of technology represents an unprecedented opportunity to improve the quality of life for groups of users who have previously faced exclusion, such as those with impairments and older citizens. At the same time it risks creating a greater digital divide and further exclusion. How we approach design for this new generation will determine whether or not the third wave will provide positive advances towards an inclusive digital world. We therefore need to put forward both a rationale for inclusive design and provide pointers towards technical development and design practice in support of inclusion. It is our belief that there is not only a strong moral case for design for inclusion but also significant commercial incentive, which may be key to persuading influential players to focus on inclusion. Therefore one of our key objectives is to describe and promote the advantages of designing ‘in from the edges’ of the user population rather than designing for a notional ‘average’ user.

  20. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.; Etherton, B.P.; Kaus, M.J.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes a polymerization process. It comprises polymerizing ethylene, alpha-olefins of 3 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene and the alpha-olefins in the presence of a catalyst system. The system comprising: an organo aluminum compound of the formula AIR'''/sub eta/X'''/sub 3-eta/ wherein R''' is hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X''' is a halogen and eta is a number from 1 to 3, and a transition metal-containing catalyst component. The component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent with an organonmetallic compound represented by the formula R/sup 1/MgR/sup 2/ wherein R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/, which may be the same of different,contain 1 to 20 carbon atoms and are selected from alkyl group, aryl group, cycloalkyl group, aralkyl group, alkadienyl group of group; an alcohol; an acyl halide; a titanium halide; Cl/sub 2/, and prereducing the transition metal-containing product with an aluminum alkyl, with the proviso that the first two ingredients can be added to the inert solid simultaneously, as the reaction product of the first two steps or treatment with step two immediately precedes treatment with step one.

  1. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compound of the formula ALR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and is a number from 1 to 3, and (b) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with (A) an organometallic compounds of a Group IIa, IIb or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, (B) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols or mixtures thereof, (C) an acyl halide, (D) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, Vb, VIb or VIII metal, and (E) a group IIIa metal hydrocarbyl dihalide.

  2. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compound of the formula AIR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R'' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and n is a number from 1 to 3, and (B) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with, optionally (A) Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, an interhalogen or mixtures thereof, (B) an organometallic compound of a Group IIa, IIb or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, (C) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols or mixtures thereof, (D) an acyl halide, (E) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, VB, VIb or VIII metal, and (F) Cl/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, an interhalogen or mixtures thereof.

  3. Polymerization catalyst, production and use

    SciTech Connect

    Best, S.A.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the polymerization of ethylene and alpha-olefins having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or mixtures of ethylene, alpha-olefins and diolefins. The process comprises polymerizing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (a) an organo aluminum compounds of the formula AIR''/sub n/X''/sub 3-n/ wherein R'' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, X is halogen and n is a number from 1 to 3, and (b) a transition metal containing catalyst component comprising the solid reaction product obtained by treating an inert solid support material in an inert solvent. This is done sequentially with (A) an organometallic compound of a Group IIa, IIb, or IIIa metal wherein all the metal valencies are satisfied with a hydrocarbon group, optionally (B) an oxygen containing compound selected from ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, siloxanes or mixtures thereof, (C) at least one transition metal compound of a Group IVb, Vb, VIb or VIII metal, and (D) a group IIIa metal hydrocarbyl dihalide.

  4. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Mast, Christof B; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-05-14

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10(600) compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers.

  5. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  6. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  7. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  8. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  9. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Christof B.; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10600 compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers. PMID:23630280

  10. Targeted polymeric nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Wilson, David R.; Zamboni, Camila G.; Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, advances in designing polymeric nanoparticles for targeted cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Characterization and evaluation of biomaterials, targeting ligands, and transcriptional elements are each discussed. Advances in biomaterials have driven improvements to nanoparticle stability and tissue targeting, conjugation of ligands to the surface of polymeric nanoparticles enable binding to specific cancer cells, and the design of transcriptional elements has enabled selective DNA expression specific to the cancer cells. Together, these features have improved the performance of polymeric nanoparticles as targeted non-viral gene delivery vectors to treat cancer. As polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and to have reduced immunogenicity and tumorigenicity compared to viral platforms, they have significant potential for clinical use. Results of polymeric gene therapy in clinical trials and future directions for the engineering of nanoparticle systems for targeted cancer gene therapy are also presented. PMID:26061296

  11. Pressure induced polymerization of Formates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, Oliver

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of pressure induced polymerization of CO2 inspired us to search for C-O based chain structures forming at high pressure. We used salts of carboxylic acids as starting materials and exposed them to pressures between 10 and 30 GPa. Upon heating to temperatures above 1800 K we observed deprotonation and significant changes in the Raman shifts of C-O streching modes. Structure analysis based on powder diffraction patterns collected at sector 16 of the APS showed formation of extended C-O chain structures with the cations of the salts residing in the interchain spaces. These new high pressure polymers are interesting by their mechanical strength and provide basic molecular patterns of organic metallic conductors.

  12. Molecular and polymeric ceramic precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Sneddon, L.G.

    1991-08-01

    The development of new methods for the production of complex materials is one of the most important problems in modern solid state chemistry and materials science. This project is attempting to apply the synthetic principles which have evolved inorganic and organometallic chemistry to the production of technologically important non-oxide ceramics, such as boron nitride, boron carbide and metal borides. Our recent work has now resulted in the production of new polymer systems, including poly(B-vinylborazine), polyvinylpentaborane and polyborazylene, that have proven to be high yield precursors to boron-based ceramic materials. Current work is now directed toward the synthesis of new types of molecular and polymeric boron-containing species and on exploration of the solid state properties of the ceramics that have been produced in these studies.

  13. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  14. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  15. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used to…

  16. Inclusion 101: How To Teach All Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Shea, Thomas M.

    This book is designed to help educators provide effective instruction to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Chapters address: (1) the concepts of inclusive society, schools, classrooms and services; (2) legal foundations for inclusion and government support for education; (3) the qualities of inclusive schools and classrooms; (4)…

  17. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  18. Preparation of polysaccharide supramolecular films by vine-twining polymerization approach.

    PubMed

    Kadokawa, Jun-ichi; Nomura, Shintaro; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we investigated the preparation of polysaccharide supramolecular films through the formation of inclusion complexes by amylose in vine-twining polymerization using carboxymethyl cellulose-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) (CMC-g-PCL) as a new guest polymer. First, hydrogels were prepared by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization in the presence of CMC-g-PCL according to the vine-twining polymerization manner. The XRD result of a powdered sample obtained by lyophilization of the resulting hydrogel indicated the presence of inclusion complexes of amylose with the PCL graft-chains between intermolecular (CMC-g-PCL)s, which acted as supramolecular cross-linking points for the hydrogelation. Then, the supramolecular films were obtained by adding water to the powdered samples, followed by drying. The mechanical properties of the selected films examined by tensile testing were superior to those of a CMC film. The effect of the supramolecular cross-linking structures on the mechanical properties of the films was evaluated further by several investigations.

  19. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  20. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  1. Valuing Student Teachers' Perspectives: Researching Inclusively in Inclusive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Amrhein, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how engaging with the principles of inclusive research can enhance research studies that set out to understand the experiences of student teachers on initial teacher education programmes. It does so by describing the methodological development of an on-going study of student teachers' perspectives on working with diverse…

  2. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and…

  3. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  4. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  5. ESR studies of semicontinuous emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, W.; Westmoreland, D.G.

    1993-12-31

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used in the detection and quantification of propagating radicals during a semicontinuous emulsion polymerization. The propagating radical concentration is crucial for the determination of kinetic parameters of the emulsion polymerization process. A flow reactor was built which involves a closed-loop flow system that circulates latex from the polymerization reactor through the ESR cavity for free-radical measurements and back to the reactor. With the continuous measurement of the radical concentrations during a polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), {bar n} (average number of radicals per particle) and k{sub p} (propagating rate constant), are measured throughout the entire polymerization. For the polymerization of the MMA system studied, the authors observed a gradual increased in n and decrease in k{sub p} during the run, suggesting a diffusionally controlled process and that the polymerization is not occurring homogeneously throughout the polymer particles. In the glassy pMMA matrix, radicals can be {open_quotes}trapped{close_quotes} within a minimum volume and remain unterminated.

  6. Polymeric nanoparticles: the future of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Banik, Brittany L; Fattahi, Pouria; Brown, Justin L

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most studied organic strategies for nanomedicine. Intense interest lies in the potential of polymeric NPs to revolutionize modern medicine. To determine the ideal nanosystem for more effective and distinctly targeted delivery of therapeutic applications, particle size, morphology, material choice, and processing techniques are all research areas of interest. Utilizations of polymeric NPs include drug delivery techniques such as conjugation and entrapment of drugs, prodrugs, stimuli-responsive systems, imaging modalities, and theranostics. Cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases are fields impacted by NP technologies that push scientific boundaries to the leading edge of transformative advances for nanomedicine.

  7. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J [Livermore, CA; Hatch, Anson V [Tracy, CA; Wang, Ying-Chih [Pleasanton, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA; Renzi, Ronald F [Tracy, CA; Claudnic, Mark R [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-01

    Methods for making a micofluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining a cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  8. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  9. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  10. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  11. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  12. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  13. Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Fern

    A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

  14. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  15. Taking Inclusion into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1998-01-01

    According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration,…

  16. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  18. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  20. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  1. Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

  2. Four Inclusion Models that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Dori; McKenney, Merry

    1998-01-01

    Describes four models that have been shown to be effective in including students with disabilities in regular school programs: consultation, team teaching, aide services, and limited pullout service. Advantages and challenges of inclusion at the middle-school level are addressed. (DB)

  3. Leveraging Technology for Educational Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Sudha; Subramaniam, Radha

    2017-01-01

    The divides created by inequalities of income, lopsided growth and by the vicious circle of poverty has ensnared learning and delayed the planned strategies for educational inclusion. India's eighth Five-Year Plan prioritised and allocated increased funding for education with focus on reach-out to the remote interiors and rural India. However,…

  4. The front-end electronics and slow control of large area SiPM for the SST-1M camera developed for the CTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Ziȩtara, K.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Curyło, M.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudniki, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michałowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśsko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Żychowski, P.

    2016-09-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescope (SST-1M) is one of the proposed designs for the smallest type of telescopes, SSTs that will compose the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The SST-1M camera will use Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) which are nowadays commonly used in High Energy Physics experiments and many imaging applications. However the unique pixel shape and size have required a dedicated development by the University of Geneva and Hamamatsu. The resulting sensor has a surface of ∼94 mm2 and a total capacitance of ∼3.4 nF. These unique characteristics, combined with the stringent requirements of the CTA project on timing and charge resolution have led the University of Geneva to develop custom front-end electronics. The preamplifier stage has been tailored in order to optimize the signal shape using measurement campaigns and electronic simulation of the sensor. A dedicated trans-impedance pre-amplifier topology is used resulting in a power consumption of 400 mW per pixel and a pulse width < 30 ns. The measurements that have led to the choice of the different components and the resulting performance are detailed in this paper. The slow control electronics was designed to provide the bias voltage with 6.7 mV precision and to correct for temperature variation with a forward feedback compensation with 0.17 °C resolution. It is fully configurable and can be monitored using CANbus interface. The architecture and the characterization of the various elements are presented.

  5. Polymeric Coatings for Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Schuler, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Two polymeric coatings have been developed for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission. ProSEDS is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster scheduled for launch in August 2000. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, the other end of which is attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire individually coated with 8.7 micrometers (0.35 mil) of an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of 87% Clear Oxygen-Resistant polymer (COR) and 13% polyanaline (PANi), wrapped around a braided Kevlar (TM) 49 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure was performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Conductivity was measured before and after atomic oxygen exposure. High voltage tests, up to 1500 V, of the current collecting ability of the COR/PANi have been completed. Approximately 160 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta 11 second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulation is composed of polyimide overcoated with TOR-BP, another polymeric coating developed by Triton for this mission. TOR-BP acts as both insulator

  6. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  7. Properties of an indirect composite material polymerized with two different laboratory polymerizing systems.

    PubMed

    Satsukawa, Hidetada; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Tanoue, Naomi; Nemoto, Mika; Ogino, Tomohisa; Matsumura, Hideo

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the performance of two laboratory light polymerization systems used to polymerize an indirect composite (Sinfony). A two-step polymerization system (Visio-Alfa and Beta) and a halogen-metal halide unit (Twinkle MIII) were assessed. The composite was polymerized either with the Visio units or with the MIII unit for different exposure periods. Knoop hardness, water sorption, and solubility in water of the composite polymerized with the following modes were determined: Visio, 15 minutes; MIII, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 seconds. Extension of light exposure time to the MIII unit improved the hardness of the composite from 30.5 (30 s) to 40.7 (180 s), whereas hardness obtained with the Visio units resulted in 24.8 (15 minutes). Water sorption and solubility of the composite were greater when it was polymerized with the Visio units than with the MIII unit.

  8. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  9. Polymeric conjugates for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nate; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer therapeutics has evolved over the past decade and has resulted in the development of polymer-drug conjugates with a wide variety of architectures and chemical properties. Whereas traditional non-degradable polymeric carriers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (HPMA) copolymers have been translated to use in the clinic, functionalized polymer-drug conjugates are increasingly being utilized to obtain biodegradable, stimuli-sensitive, and targeted systems in an attempt to further enhance localized drug delivery and ease of elimination. In addition, the study of conjugates bearing both therapeutic and diagnostic agents has resulted in multifunctional carriers with the potential to both “see and treat” patients. In this paper, the rational design of polymer-drug conjugates will be discussed followed by a review of different classes of conjugates currently under investigation. The design and chemistry used for the synthesis of various conjugates will be presented with additional comments on their potential applications and current developmental status. PMID:22707853

  10. Radiation effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    It is important to study changes in properties of polymeres after irradiation with charged particles, with ultraviolet radiation, and with combinations of both. An apparatus for this purpose has been built at the NASA Langley Research Center. It consists of a chamber 9 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with a port for an electron gun, another port for a mass spectrometer, and a quartz window through which an ultraviolet lamp can be focused. The chamber, including the electron gun and the mass spectrometer, can be evacuated to a pressure of 10 to the 8th power torr. A sample placed in the chamber can be irradiated with electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, sequentially, or simultaneously, while volatile products can be monitored during all irradiations with the mass spectrometer. The apparatus described above has been used to study three different polymer films: lexan; a polycarbonate; P1700, a polysulfone; and mylar, a polyethylene terephthalate. All three polymers had been studied extensively with both electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, but not simultaneously. Also, volatile products had not been monitored during irradiation for the materials. A high electron dose rate of 530 Mrads/hr was used so that a sufficient concentration of volatile products would be formed to yield a reasonable mass spectrum.

  11. Highly elastic conductive polymeric MEMS

    PubMed Central

    Ruhhammer, J; Zens, M; Goldschmidtboeing, F; Seifert, A; Woias, P

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric structures with integrated, functional microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) elements are increasingly important in various applications such as biomedical systems or wearable smart devices. These applications require highly flexible and elastic polymers with good conductivity, which can be embedded into a matrix that undergoes large deformations. Conductive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a suitable candidate but is still challenging to fabricate. Conductivity is achieved by filling a nonconductive PDMS matrix with conductive particles. In this work, we present an approach that uses new mixing techniques to fabricate conductive PDMS with different fillers such as carbon black, silver particles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Additionally, the electrical properties of all three composites are examined under continuous mechanical stress. Furthermore, we present a novel, low-cost, simple three-step molding process that transfers a micro patterned silicon master into a polystyrene (PS) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) replica with improved release features. This PS/PTFE mold is used for subsequent structuring of conductive PDMS with high accuracy. The non sticking characteristics enable the fabrication of delicate structures using a very soft PDMS, which is usually hard to release from conventional molds. Moreover, the process can also be applied to polyurethanes and various other material combinations. PMID:27877753

  12. Highly elastic conductive polymeric MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhhammer, J.; Zens, M.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Seifert, A.; Woias, P.

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric structures with integrated, functional microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) elements are increasingly important in various applications such as biomedical systems or wearable smart devices. These applications require highly flexible and elastic polymers with good conductivity, which can be embedded into a matrix that undergoes large deformations. Conductive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a suitable candidate but is still challenging to fabricate. Conductivity is achieved by filling a nonconductive PDMS matrix with conductive particles. In this work, we present an approach that uses new mixing techniques to fabricate conductive PDMS with different fillers such as carbon black, silver particles, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Additionally, the electrical properties of all three composites are examined under continuous mechanical stress. Furthermore, we present a novel, low-cost, simple three-step molding process that transfers a micro patterned silicon master into a polystyrene (PS) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) replica with improved release features. This PS/PTFE mold is used for subsequent structuring of conductive PDMS with high accuracy. The non sticking characteristics enable the fabrication of delicate structures using a very soft PDMS, which is usually hard to release from conventional molds. Moreover, the process can also be applied to polyurethanes and various other material combinations.

  13. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  14. Polymerization as a Model Chain Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Describes the features of the free radical, anionic, and cationic mechanisms of chain addition polymerization. Indicates that the nature of chain reactions can be best taught through the study of macromolecules. (CC)

  15. Hydrocarbon polymeric binder for advanced solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    A series of DEAB initiated isoprene polymerizations were run in the 5-gallon stirred autoclave reactor. Polymerization run parameters such as initiator concentration and feed rate were correlated with the molecular weight to provide a basis for molecular weight control in future runs. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of n-1,3-alkadienes. By these methods, 1,3-nonadiene was polymerized using DEAB initiator to give an ester-telechelic polynonadiene. This was subsequently hydrogenated with copper chromite catalyst to give a hydroxyl terminated saturated liquid hydrocarbon prepolymer having greatly improved viscosity characteristics and a Tg 18 degrees lower than that of the hydrogenated polyisoprenes. The hydroxyl-telechelic saturated polymers prepared by the hydrogenolysis of ester-telechelic polyisoprene were reached with diisocyanates under conditions favoring linear chain extension gel permeation chromatography was used to monitor this condensation polymerization. Fractions having molecular weights above one million were produced.

  16. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-09-01

    Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.

  17. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  18. Hydrogel polymerization in microgravity for contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, Oksana; Kostarev, Konstantin; Kondyurin, Alexey

    Contact lenses become widely used for vision correction. The modern contact lenses made of polymer materials have to satisfy a number of requirements: biocompatibility and non-toxicity, low elastic module, high oxygen permeability, good wettability, mechanical strength and stable shape. To following all these requirements, special polymer compositions and polymerization techniques are in development. One of the unique technology is based on polymerization process in microgravity. The synthesis of the polymer structures proceeds in low concentration solution and Earth gravity has a great influence on the polymerization kinetics and final properties of the gel. The microgravity conditions give a possibility to get a regular polymer network with specific macromolecular structure. The experiments on board of space station and theoretical models of the polymerization processes are considered for contact lenses application.

  19. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  20. Polymerization of actin by positively charged liposomes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    By cosedimentation, spectrofluorimetry, and electron microscopy, we have established that actin is induced to polymerize at low salt concentrations by positively charged liposomes. This polymerization occurs only at the surface of the liposomes, and thus monomers not in direct contact with the liposome remain monomeric. The integrity of the liposome membrane is necessary to maintain actin in its polymerized state since disruption of the liposome depolymerizes actin. Actin polymerized at the surface of the liposome is organized into two filamentous structures: sheets of parallel filaments in register and a netlike organization. Spectrofluorimetric analysis with the probe N- pyrenyl-iodoacetamide shows that actin is in the F conformation, at least in the environment of the probe. However, actin assembly induced by the liposome is not accompanied by full ATP hydrolysis as observed in vitro upon addition of salts. PMID:3360852

  1. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Coari, Kristin M; Martin, Rebecca C; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B

    2017-02-03

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  2. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coari, Kristin M.; Martin, Rebecca C.; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B.

    2017-02-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  3. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  4. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  5. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-01-10

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  6. New Polybenzimidazole Architectures by Diels Alder Polymerization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-14

    REPORT New Polybenzimidazole Architectures By Diels Alder Polymerization. Final Report 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Due to their high...substituents to improve processability, are desirable. This project was a proof of principle study to determine if Diels - Alder polymerization of monomers...AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Polybenzimidazole, Diels Alder

  7. UV Polymerization of Hydrodynamically Shaped Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    parallel.17 One other example of non-round fibers was originally reported in 199518 and was produced by co -extrusion of polymers with different...ordinary as there is a minimum required exposure to initiate polymerization as shown with other polymers .25 It was desirable to maintain the same exposure...UV polymerization of hydrodynamically shaped fibers† Abel L. Thangawng, Peter B. Howell, Jr, Christopher M. Spillmann, Jawad Naciri and Frances S

  8. Polymeric micelles for acyclovir drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sawdon, Alicia J; Peng, Ching-An

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. (1)H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-PCL. Through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and critical micelle concentration (CMC), the synthesized ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were characterized. It was found that the average size of the polymeric micelles was under 200nm and the CMCs of ACV-PCL-MPEG and ACV-PCL-chitosan were 2.0mgL(-1) and 6.6mgL(-1), respectively. The drug release kinetics of ACV was investigated and cytotoxicity assay demonstrates that ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were non-toxic.

  9. Properties of extruded starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers prepared from spherulites formed from amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of high amylose corn starch and oleic acid were processed by steam jet-cooking, and the dispersions were rapidly cooled to yield amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes as sub-micron spherulites and spherulite aggregates. Dispersions of these spherulite particles were then graft polymerized ...

  10. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions microvillus inclusion disease microvillus inclusion ...

  12. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  13. Kinetics of red blood cell aggregation: an example of geometric polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, A.S.; Samsel, R.W.

    1984-04-02

    The kinetics of the process by which red blood cells aggregate into long cylindrical, and sometimes branched, structures called rouleaux is studied within the framework of both reversible and irreversible addition and condensation polymerization reactions. However, unlike usual polymer kinetics, here we take into account the geometry of the subunits and the geometry of the growing structure. Geometric factors such as the amount of reactive wall area influence the probability of branching and hence the final shape of the aggregate. The inclusion of loop formation reactions is shown to be crucial in obtaining physically realistic equilibrium solutions of the kinetic equations. 11 references, 3 figures.

  14. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  15. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  16. Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the…

  17. Inclusive Classes in Physical Education: Teachers' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toloi, Gabriela Gallucci; Manzini, Eduardo José; Spoldaro, Diego Machado; Zacarias, Lucas Ventura

    2016-01-01

    The successful inclusion of students with special needs in physical education classes requires much planning and preparation. Lack of preparation of physical education teachers working in inclusive settings in Brazil has demonstrated the need for specialized training in strategies for implementing inclusion. The goal of this study was to identify,…

  18. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  19. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  20. Extremes of Inclusion: Too Much, Too Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kelvin L.

    This study investigated the inclusion of two children (age 7) in a general education classroom to illustrate the concepts of under inclusion and over inclusion. One child, who was found to be under included, rarely played with classmates on the playground and during "choice time" in class spent most of his time watching other children…

  1. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  2. An inclusion measure between fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new inclusion measure between fuzzy sets. Firstly, we select an axiomatic definition for the inclusion measure. Then, we present a new computation formula based on the selected axiomatic definition, and demonstrate its two properties. Finally, we give examples to validate its performance. The results show that the new inclusion measure is rational for fuzzy sets.

  3. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  4. Inclusive Education in Schools in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callado Moreno, J. Antonio; Molina Jaén, Ma. Dolores; Pérez Navío, Eufrasio; Rodríguez Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the…

  5. Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way for Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: normalization and inclusion. It reviews the aims, processes, and outcomes of the normalization and social role valorization movement and explores its compatibility with inclusion. Lessons from normalization are applied to the inclusion movement.…

  6. Arsenic(V) removal with polymer inclusion membranes from sulfuric acid media using DBBP as carrier.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Ballinas, Ma; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; de Jesús Rodríguez, Ma Teresa; Silva, Orlando; Muñoz, María; de Gyves, Josefina

    2004-02-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) based on cellulose triacetate (CTA) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) were tested for arsenic(V) separation from H2SO4 for its recovery from copper electrolytes. Solvent extraction experiments allowed the determination of the As(V)-DBBP and H2SO4-DBBP complexes formed in the organic phase. Application of a transient model to membrane transport experiments in solutions containing only arsenic or H2SO4 indicated that it occurred under a kinetically controlled regime by formation of H3AsO4[DBBP]2 and H2SO4[DBBP] species, respectively. When arsenic and H2SO4 are simultaneously present, the existence of a third species, H3AsO4[DBBP][H2SO4], explains well the fact that As(V) flux decreases and that H2SO4 flux increases. In both cases, a limiting 50% recovery value was obtained. However, active arsenic transport (>50%) is achieved if the H2SO4 concentration gradient is assured (e.g., using a triple-cell configuration). In this way, high arsenic recovery factors (90% in 800 min) were obtained with initial concentrations of 5000 mg/L As(V) and 220 g/L H2SO4. In all membrane systems tested, good As(V) selectivity over copper (up to 30000 mg/L) was attained.

  7. Signal amplification strategies for DNA and protein detection based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaohong; Yuan, Liang; Hua, Xin; Xu, Lingling; Liu, Songqin

    2015-06-02

    Demand is increasing for ultrasensitive bioassays for disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring and other research areas. This requires novel signal amplification strategies to maximize the signal output. In this review, we focus on a series of significant signal amplification strategies based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization. Some common polymers are used as carriers to increase the local concentration of signal probes and/or biomolecules on their surfaces or in their interiors. Some polymers with special fluorescence and optical properties can efficiently transfer the excitation energy from a single site to the whole polymer backbone. This results in superior fluorescence signal amplification due to the resulting collective effort (integration of signal). Recent polymerization-based signal amplification strategies that employ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and photo-initiated polymerization are also summarized. Several distinctive applications of polymers in ultrasensitive bioanalysis are highlighted.

  8. Studies on the selective Am3+ transport, irradiation stability and surface morphology of polymer inclusion membranes containing Cyanex-301 as carrier extractant.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K; Hassan, P A; Manchanda, V K

    2011-08-15

    Transport behaviour of Am(3+) across cellulose triacetate (CTA) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the carrier extractant and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) as the plasticizer was investigated from different feed and strip conditions. The TBP plasticized membrane resulted back transport of Am when alpha-hydroxy iso-butyric acid was used as the complexing agent in the strip phase while no such effect was seen when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as the complexant. Effect of varying Cyanex-301 concentration and bipyridyl (bipy) concentration on Am transport was also investigated. Long term reusability of the membrane was studied by measuring the permeability coefficient (P) after exposing the PIMs to a maximum gamma ray dose of ∼ 200 kGy. The surface morphology of the membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and the roughness parameter was correlated to transport efficiency.

  9. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    component forms polybenzoxazole (PBO) in a reaction that absorbs heat from its surroundings. PBO under thermal stress cross-links, forming a protective char layer, which thermally insulates the polymer. Thus, the formation of the char layer further assists to extinguish the fire by preventing vaporization of the polymeric fuel.

  10. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H.; Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  11. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  12. Questioning Secondary Inclusive Education: Are Inclusive Classrooms Always Best for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkachyk, Ruth Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Educating students with special needs in inclusive settings has become a priority for westernized governments as they strive to create more inclusive societies. While recognizing the societal benefits of inclusion, teachers and parents question whether or not implementation of full inclusion will come at the expense of learners' individual…

  13. Delivery of antibiotics with polymeric particles.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Meng-Hua; Bao, Yan; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jun

    2014-11-30

    Despite the wide use of antibiotics, bacterial infection is still one of the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality. The clinical failure of antibiotic therapy is linked with low bioavailability, poor penetration to bacterial infection sites, and the side effects of antibiotics, as well as the antibiotic resistance properties of bacteria. Antibiotics encapsulated in nanoparticles or microparticles made up of a biodegradable polymer have shown great potential in replacing the administration of antibiotics in their "free" form. Polymeric particles provide protection to antibiotics against environmental deactivation and alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Polymeric particles can overcome tissue and cellular barriers and deliver antibiotics into very dense tissues and inaccessible target cells. Polymeric particles can be modified to target or respond to particular tissues, cells, and even bacteria, and thereby facilitate the selective concentration or release of the antibiotic at infection sites, respectively. Thus, the delivery of antibiotics with polymeric particles augments the level of the bioactive drug at the site of infection while reducing the dosage and the dosing frequency. The end results are improved therapeutic effects as well as decreased "pill burden" and drug side effects in patients. The main objective of this review is to analyze recent advances and current perspectives in the use of polymeric antibiotic delivery systems in the treatment of bacterial infection.

  14. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  15. Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

  16. Investigation of Solution Polymerizations in Microgravity and 1 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Alvin P.

    1998-01-01

    The in-situ dielectric spectra for the solution polymerization of polydiacetylene has been successfully measured. The results show a distinct difference between the response for the bulk solution and surface polymerization. It also shows a low frequency peak in the dissipation factor which is present in both the bulk and surface polymerizations. These features may prove to be significant indicators for important polymerization processes. Future studies will investigate the mechanisms responsible for these dielectric responses. This technique will eventually be used to monitor microgravity polymerizations and provide in-situ data on how microgravity affects solution polymerization.

  17. Equilibrium polymerization on the equivalent-neighbor lattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Miron

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium polymerization problem is solved exactly on the equivalent-neighbor lattice. The Flory-Huggins (Flory, 1986) entropy of mixing is exact for this lattice. The discrete version of the n-vector model is verified when n approaches 0 is equivalent to the equal reactivity polymerization process in the whole parameter space, including the polymerized phase. The polymerization processes for polymers satisfying the Schulz (1939) distribution exhibit nonuniversal critical behavior. A close analogy is found between the polymerization problem of index the Schulz r and the Bose-Einstein ideal gas in d = -2r dimensions, with the critical polymerization corresponding to the Bose-Einstein condensation.

  18. Immobilization of Polymeric Luminophor on Nanoparticles Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolbukh, Yuliia; Podkoscielna, Beata; Lipke, Agnieszka; Bartnicki, Andrzej; Gawdzik, Barbara; Tertykh, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Polymeric luminophors with reduced toxicity are of the priorities in the production of lighting devices, sensors, detectors, bioassays or diagnostic systems. The aim of this study was to develop a method of immobilization of the new luminophor on a surface of nanoparticles and investigation of the structure of the grafted layer. Monomer 2,7-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)naphthalene (2,7-NAF.DM) with luminophoric properties was immobilized on silica and carbon nanotubes in two ways: mechanical mixing with previously obtained polymer and by in situ oligomerization with chemisorption after carrier's modification with vinyl groups. The attached polymeric (or oligomeric) surface layer was studied using thermal and spectral techniques. Obtained results confirm the chemisorption of luminophor on the nanotubes and silica nanoparticles at the elaborated synthesis techniques. The microstructure of 2,7-NAF.DM molecules after chemisorption was found to be not changed. The elaborated modification approach allows one to obtain nanoparticles uniformly covered with polymeric luminophor.

  19. Molecular Probe Fluorescence Monitoring of Polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunton, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using fluorescence spectroscopy to determine viscosity of polymer/monomer in support of Transient Interfacial Phenomena in Miscible Polymer Systems (TIPMPS). This project will attempt to measure gradient induced flow at a miscible interface during and / or after in-flight polymerization of dodecyl acrylate (lauryl acrylate). Concentration and temperature gradients will be intentionally introduced during polymerization and the resultant fluid flow determined by Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). This report describes an investigation of the feasibility of using fluorescence of a probe molecule to monitor viscosity and/or concentration during and after polymerization. The probe used was pyrene which has been shown to be sensitive to its local environment in methyl methacrylate.

  20. Photopolymerization of conductive polymeric metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xichen; Anyaogu, Kelechi C; Neckers, Douglas C

    2009-11-01

    5-Mercapto-2,2'-bithiophene functionalized metal nanoparticles BTSMs [M: copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au)] of different diameters (2-8 nm) were synthesized. Conductive polymeric metal nanoparticles were formed from BTSM by UV irradiation. The photopolymerization mechanism was investigated using transient absorption measurements. Intramolecular electron transfer from the ligand to the metal nano-core was confirmed. Nanoparticle size, as well as plasmon electronic interactions, are important factors. The smaller the nanoparticle and the stronger the electronic interactions, the faster the electron transfer is. The three-dimensional structure of the polymerized BTSM was identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of polymerized BTSM measured in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) film is higher than that of the nonpolymerized BTSM.

  1. Methylenelactide: vinyl polymerization and spatial reactivity effects

    PubMed Central

    Britner, Judita

    2016-01-01

    The first detailed study on free-radical polymerization, copolymerization and controlled radical polymerization of the cyclic push–pull-type monomer methylenelactide in comparison to the non-cyclic monomer α-acetoxyacrylate is described. The experimental results revealed that methylenelactide undergoes a self-initiated polymerization. The copolymerization parameters of methylenelactide and styrene as well as methyl methacrylate were determined. To predict the copolymerization behavior with other classes of monomers, Q and e values were calculated. Further, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-controlled homopolymerization of methylenelactide and copolymerization with N,N-dimethylacrylamide was performed at 70 °C in 1,4-dioxane using AIBN as initiator and 2-(((ethylthio)carbonothioyl)thio)-2-methylpropanoic acid as a transfer agent. PMID:28144306

  2. Attempting a classification for electrical polymeric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, T. F.; López Cascales, J.; Fernández-Romero, A. J.

    2007-04-01

    Polymeric actuators, electroactive polymer actuators, electromechanical polymeric actuators, artificial muscles, and other, are usual expressions to name actuators developed during the last 15-20 years based on interactions between the electric energy and polymer films. The polymeric actuators can be divided into two main fields: electromechanical actuators working by electrostatic interactions between the polymer and the applied electric fields, and electrochemomechanical actuators, or reactive actuators, working by an electrochemical reaction driven by the flowing electric current. The electromechanical actuators can be classified into electrostrictive, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, electrostatic and electrokinetic. They can include a solvent (wet) or not (dry), or they can include a salt or not. Similitude and differences related to the rate and position control or to the possibility or not to include sensing abilities are discussed.

  3. Self-Healing of biocompatible polymeric nanocomposities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino, Omar; Chipara, Dorina

    2014-03-01

    Polymers are vulnerable to damage in form of cracks deep within the structure, where detection is difficult and repair is near to impossible. These cracks lead to mechanical degradation of the polymer. A method has been created to solve this problem named polymeric self healing. Self healing capabilities implies the dispersion within the polymeric matrix of microcapsules filled with a monomer and of catalyst. Poly urea-formaldehyde microcapsules used in this method are filled with dicyclopentadiene that is liberated after being ruptured by the crack propagation in the material. Polymerization is assisted by a catalyst FGGC that ignites the self healing process. Nanocomposites, such as titanium oxide, will be used as an integration of these polymers that will be tested by rupturing mechanically slowly. In order to prove the self healing process, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM are used.

  4. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  5. Universal metastability of sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Weijun

    Sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is a natural mutation of the normal hemoglobin (HbA) found in the red blood cells of human body. Polymerization of HbS occurs when the concentration of deoxyHbS exceeds a well-defined solubility, which is the underlying cause of the Sickle Cell Disease. It has long been assumed that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached when polymerization comes to an end. However, in this thesis we demonstrate that in confined volume as well as in bulk solution, HbS polymerization terminates prematurely, leaving the solution in a metastable state. A newly developed Reservoir method as well as modulated excitation method were adopted for the study. This discovery of universal metastability gives us new insights into understanding the mechanism of sickle cell disease.

  6. High resistance to oxidative stress in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is mediated by a single catalase, Cta1p, and is controlled by the transcription factors Yap1p, Skn7p, Msn2p, and Msn4p.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Briones-Martin-del-Campo, Marcela; Cañas-Villamar, Israel; Montalvo-Arredondo, Javier; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; Castaño, Irene; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2008-05-01

    We characterized the oxidative stress response of Candida glabrata to better understand the virulence of this fungal pathogen. C. glabrata could withstand higher concentrations of H(2)O(2) than Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even Candida albicans. Stationary-phase cells were extremely resistant to oxidative stress, and this resistance was dependent on the concerted roles of stress-related transcription factors Yap1p, Skn7p, and Msn4p. We showed that growing cells of C. glabrata were able to adapt to high levels of H(2)O(2) and that this adaptive response was dependent on Yap1p and Skn7p and partially on the general stress transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p. C. glabrata has a single catalase gene, CTA1, which was absolutely required for resistance to H(2)O(2) in vitro. However, in a mouse model of systemic infection, a strain lacking CTA1 showed no effect on virulence.

  7. High Resistance to Oxidative Stress in the Fungal Pathogen Candida glabrata Is Mediated by a Single Catalase, Cta1p, and Is Controlled by the Transcription Factors Yap1p, Skn7p, Msn2p, and Msn4p▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Briones-Martin-del-Campo, Marcela; Cañas-Villamar, Israel; Montalvo-Arredondo, Javier; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; Castaño, Irene; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the oxidative stress response of Candida glabrata to better understand the virulence of this fungal pathogen. C. glabrata could withstand higher concentrations of H2O2 than Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even Candida albicans. Stationary-phase cells were extremely resistant to oxidative stress, and this resistance was dependent on the concerted roles of stress-related transcription factors Yap1p, Skn7p, and Msn4p. We showed that growing cells of C. glabrata were able to adapt to high levels of H2O2 and that this adaptive response was dependent on Yap1p and Skn7p and partially on the general stress transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p. C. glabrata has a single catalase gene, CTA1, which was absolutely required for resistance to H2O2 in vitro. However, in a mouse model of systemic infection, a strain lacking CTA1 showed no effect on virulence. PMID:18375620

  8. Two-photon polymerization of polydiacetylene.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Olga; Berman, Amir; Golan, Yuval; Horovitz, Baruch; Zeiri, Leila

    2009-02-05

    We show that visible light can polymerize diacetylene monomers into polydiacetylene (PDA) in a two-photon process. We monitor the process by measuring Raman intensities of PDA using a Raman laser at 633 nm with variable intensity I and show that the Raman cross section at short times increases as I3, corresponding to a two-photon process. The process generates a relatively stable blue phase PDA, in contrast with UV polymerization that leads to a fast blue to red phase transformation.

  9. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  10. Colloidal polymeric nanoparticles and brain drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2009-07-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood stream and has stopped the development of many powerful and interesting drugs candidates for central nervous system due to the low poor distribution and by efflux mechanisms. Many different approaches have been developed in order to overcome this barrier and the drug gain access to the brain. The polymeric nanoparticles are efficient colloidal systems that have been investigated to the brain drug delivery. This review will focus on the current strategies for brain drug delivery emphasizing the properties and characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles for this purpose.

  11. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Zubris, Deanna L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (polyQACs) comprise a broad class of materials with applications in medical implants, food processing, and surface sanitizing, amongst many others. These polymeric substances are especially promising due to their potent antibacterial activity and limited hemolytic toxicity. In particular, many polyQACs have superior therapeutic indices and a lower likelihood of developing antibacterial resistance in comparison to their monomers, making them ideal materials for wound dressings, catheters, and other biomedical applications. This review outlines the history and development, previous successes, current state of the research, and future directions of polyQACs in society.

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei Studies with the Morehead State University 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna: BL Lac, CTA 102 and 3C 454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Fite, N. D.; Burba, T. T.; Grimes, C. K.; Graves, D. C.

    2009-05-01

    Blazars are amongst the most luminous astronomical sources known and have been studied extensively over an extremely broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum (gamma-ray through radio). Detailed studies of these sources require simultaneous or near-simultaneous observations made by observatories operating at multiple frequencies. To help supply needed observations at radio frequencies of blazars, the Space Science Center at Morehead State University is currently conducting a program of monitoring observations for a sample of blazars using the 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna (STA). The STA is capable of observations at three frequency ranges, namely the KU-band (11.2-12.7 GHz), the S-band (2-4 GHz) and the expanded L-band (1.4-1.7 GHz). To illustrate this work, we present the results of a monitoring campaign of three well-known blazars -- BL Lac, CTA 102 and 3C 454.3 -- over a time range of approximately two years. Results and initial conclusions will be presented and discussed. This research is supported by a grant from the Kentucky Space Grants Consortium.

  13. DENSE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED MONITORING OF CTA 102 DURING HIGH STATE IN 2012 WITH OISTER: DETECTION OF INTRA-NIGHT ''ORPHAN POLARIZED FLUX FLARE''

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Abe, Yuhei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Arai, Akira; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hori, Takafumi; Nakata, Chikako; Isogai, Mizuki; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Jumpei; Oasa, Yumiko; and others

    2013-05-10

    CTA 102, classified as a flat spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.037, produced an exceptionally bright optical flare in 2012 September. Following the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of enhanced {gamma}-ray activity, we closely monitored this source in the optical and near-infrared bands for the 10 subsequent nights using 12 telescopes in Japan and South Africa. On MJD 56197 (2012 September 27, four to five days after the peak of bright {gamma}-ray flare), polarized flux showed a transient increase, while total flux and polarization angle (PA) remained almost constant during the ''orphan polarized-flux flare.'' We also detected an intra-night and prominent flare on MJD 56202. The total and polarized fluxes showed quite similar temporal variations, but the PA again remained constant during the flare. Interestingly, the PAs during the two flares were significantly different from the jet direction. The emergence of a new emission component with a high polarization degree (PD) up to 40% would be responsible for the observed two flares, and such a high PD indicates the presence of a highly ordered magnetic field at the emission site. We argue that the well-ordered magnetic field and even the observed directions of the PA, which is grossly perpendicular to the jet, are reasonably accounted for by transverse shock(s) propagating down the jet.

  14. Production of delta isobars on tantalum nuclei in CTa collisions at a projectile momentum of 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Olimov, Kh. K.

    2010-03-15

    A procedure that relies on analyzing the angle between the momenta of the proton and the pion originating from CTa interaction at a projectile momentum of 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon was used to investigate for the first time the production of {Delta}{sup 0} and {Delta}{sup ++} resonances in such interactions and to determine their parameters. The criterion of stability in the parameter a characterizing the background contribution was presented for the first time and was used to reconstruct the mass distributions of {Delta}{sup 0} and {Delta}{sup ++} resonances. The contributions of {Delta}{sup 0}- and {Delta}{sup ++}-resonance decays to the production of charged pions were estimated. The results of this study are compared with similar data obtained by using the analogous procedure for {Delta}{sup 0} and {Delta}{sup ++} resonances produced on carbon nuclei in CC and {sup 4}HeC collisions at a projectile momentum of 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon and in {pi}{sup -12}C interactions at a projectile momentum of 40 GeV/c.

  15. The crack-inclusion interaction problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

  16. Triblock Terpolymers by Simultaneous Tandem Block Polymerization (STBP).

    PubMed

    Freudensprung, Ines; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    A route of synthesizing triblock terpolymers in a one-pot, "one-step" polymerization approach is presented. The combination of two distinct polymerization techniques through orthogonal catalyst/initiator functionalities attached to a polymeric linker furnishes novel pathways to ABC-terpolymers. Both polymerizations have to be compatible regarding mechanisms, chosen monomers, and solvents. Here, an α,ω-heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) serves as poly-meric catalyst/initiator to obtain triblock terpolymers of poly(norbornene)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactic acid) PNB-PEG-PLLA via simultaneous ring opening metathesis poly-merization and ring opening polymerization in a fast one-pot polymerization. Structural characterization of the polymers is provided via (1)H-, DOSY-, and (1)H,(1)H-COSY-NMR, while solution and thin film self-assembly are investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy.

  17. Polymerization Initiated at the Sidewalls of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Hudson, Jared L.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been developed for growing polymer chains via anionic, cationic, or radical polymerization from the side walls of functionalized carbon nanotubes, which will facilitate greater dispersion in polymer matrices, and will greatly enhance reinforcement ability in polymeric material.

  18. Method of Making Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Proelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers, acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors. in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors, weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 100 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium: applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  19. A novel electro-driven membrane for removal of chromium ions using polymer inclusion membrane under constant D.C. electric current.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ahmet; Onac, Canan; Alpoguz, H Korkmaz

    2016-11-05

    In this study, the use of polymer inclusion membrane under constant electric current for the removal of Cr(VI) from water has investigated for the first time. Transport of Cr(VI) is performed by an electric current from the donor phase to the acceptor phase with a constant electric current of 0.5A. The optimized membrane includes of 12.1% 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE), 77.6% cellulose triacetate (CTA), 10.3% tricapryl-methylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as a carrier. We tested the applicability of the selected membrane for Cr(VI) removal in real environmental water samples and evaluated its reusability. Electro membrane experiments were carried out under various parameters, such as the effect of electro membrane voltage at constant DC electric current; electro membrane current at constant voltage, acceptor phase pH, and stable electro membrane; and a comparison of polymer inclusion membrane and electro membrane transport studies. The Cr(VI) transport was achieved 98.33% after 40min under optimized conditions. An alternative method has been employed that eliminates the changing of electrical current by the application of constant electric current for higher reproducibility of electro membrane extraction experiments by combining the excellent selective and long-term use features of polymer inclusion membrane.

  20. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  1. Inclusion bodies: formation and utilisation.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix; Lilie, Hauke; Neubauer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The efficient in vivo folding of many heterologous proteins is a major bottleneck of high level production in bacterial hosts and simple optimisation protocols have not been available yet. Therefore, inclusion body (IB) based processes play a major role as a potential strategy for the production of complex recombinant proteins. These processes combine the advantages of a high accumulation of the target protein in well-characterised bacteria such as Escherichia coli, efficient strategies for IB isolation, purification and in vitro protein refolding without the need of complicated coexpression systems. Recent advances in the molecular physiology of IB formation and resolubilisation allow straight-forward optimisation of fermentation processes to obtain a high-quality product. In addition, simple strategies have been developed to optimise the purification and renaturation of disulfide bond containing proteins making a fast transfer of such processes into the industrial production scale realistic.

  2. Inclusion bodies: not that bad…

    PubMed Central

    Ramón, Ana; Señorale-Pose, Mario; Marín, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

  3. Working towards an inclusive curriculum.

    PubMed

    Wren, Y; Parkhouse, J

    1998-01-01

    The move towards an inclusive model of education presents teachers with the difficulty of differentiating the curriculum for children with speech, language and communication impairments. This paper focuses on the 'WiSaLT Curriculum Appendix'-a tool which can be used by teachers and speech and language therapists to help such children access the mainstream curriculum and to promote improvement in their language and communication skills. As well as highlighting potential areas of difficulty within each attainment target for key stage one, the appendix guides users to specific strategies and activities. Thus the speech and language therapist and teacher can identify which attainment targets might prove problematic for any one child and also have access to ideas which can help.

  4. Impregnated metal-polymeric functional beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Amine containing polymeric microspheres such as polyvinyl pyridine are complexed with metal salts or acids containing metals such as gold, platinum or iron. After reduction with sodium borohydride, the salt is reduced to finely divided free metal or metal oxides, useful as catalysts. Microspheres containing covalent bonding sites can be used for labeling or separating proteins.

  5. Impregnated metal-polymeric functional beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Amine containing polymeric microspheres such as polyvinyl pyridine are complexed with metal salts or acids containing metals such as gold, platinum or iron. After reduction with sodium borohydride, the salt is reduced to finely divided free metal or metal oxides, useful as catalysts. Microspheres containing covalent bonding sites can be used for labeling or separating proteins.

  6. Next-generation polymeric photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Shacklette, Lawrence W.; Norwood, Robert A.; Yardley, James T.

    1997-07-01

    A versatile polymeric waveguide technology is proposed for low-cost high-performance photonic devices that address the needs of both the telecom and the datacom industries. We have developed advanced organic polymeric materials that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that determine properties such as flexibility, toughness, loss, and stability with temperature and humidity. These monomers are intermiscible, providing for precise adjustment of the refractive index from 1.3 to 1.6. Waveguides are formed photolithographically, with the liquid monomer mixture polymerizing upon illumination in the UV via either mask exposure or laser direct-writing. A wide range of rigid and flexible substrates can be used, including glass, quartz, oxidized silicon, glass-filled epoxy printed circuit board substrate, and flexible polyimide film. We discuss the use of these materials on chips, on multi-chip modules, on boards, and on backplanes. Light coupling from and to chips is achieved by cutting 45 degree(s) mirrors using excimer laser ablation. Fabrication of the planar polymeric structures directly on the modules provides for stability, ruggedness, and hermeticity in packaging.

  7. Composite polymeric/ceramic pervaporation membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Tsotsis, T.T.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated the preparation of composite polymeric/ceramic membranes. We have studied the effect of the preparation techniques on the properties of these composite membranes. A model has been developed to describe the transport characteristics. We have used these membranes in pervaporation membrane reactor applications. Our experimental data and modeling results will be presented.

  8. Remendable Polymeric Materials Using Reversible Covalent Bonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Novel Polymeric Dienes and Dienophiles: Synthesis of Reversibly Cross- Linked Elastomers . Macromolecules, 35, 7246- 7253. Goiti, E., M. Huglin, and J...Materials and Nanotechnology in Engineering. Edited by Du, 6423, 112. Liu, Y., and Y. Chen, 2007: Thermally Reversible Cross- Linked Polyamides with...High Toughness and Self- Repairing Ability from Maleimide- and Furan- Functionalized Aromatic Polyamides . Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 208

  9. Thermodynamics of glass forming polymeric melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Prapti B.; Patel, Ashmi T.; Pratap, Arun

    2013-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy difference (ΔG) between the under cooled melt and the corresponding equilibrium solid has been analyzed for two samples of glass forming polymeric melts; polyamid-6 (PA-6), polypropylene oxide (PPO) in the entire temperature range: i.e. Tm (melting temperature) to Tg (glass transition temperature).

  10. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bienek, Diane R.; Tutak, Wojtek; Skrtic, Drago

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field. PMID:28134776

  11. Personal Cooling Fabric Based on Polymeric Thermoelectrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-28

    organic polymers points to a spectrum of applications in which electrically powered cooling is required. Additionally, further materials development...cooling fabric could be developed. Organic polymers offer a light weight, environmentally friendly, and low cost alternative to the widely used...in a personal cooling fabric based on conductive polymeric or low molecular weight organic materials as a light weight, environmentally friendly

  12. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  13. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  14. Polymerization Mechanism of α-Linear Olefin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen-guo; Zhang, Chang-qiao; Yu, Ping; Liu, Cheng-bu; Wei, Yun-he

    2010-02-01

    The density functional theory on the level of B3LYP/6-31G was empolyed to study the chain growth mechanism in polymerization process of α-linear olefin in TiCl3/AlEt2Cl catalytic system to synthesize drag reduction agent. Full parameter optimization without symmetry restrictions for reactants, products, the possible transition states, and intermediates was calculated. Vibration frequency was analyzed for all of stagnation points on the potential energy surface at the same theoretical level. The internal reaction coordinate was calculated from the transition states to reactants and products respectively. The results showed as follows: (i) Coordination compounds were formed on the optimum configuration of TiCl3/AlEt2Cl. (ii) The transition states were formed. The energy difference between transition states and the coordination compounds was 40.687 kJ/mol. (iii) Double bond opened and Ti-C(4) bond fractured, and the polymerization was completed. The calculation results also showed that the chain growth mechanism did not essentially change with the increase of carbon atom number of α-linear olefin. From the relationship between polymerization activation energy and carbon atom number of the α-linear olefin, it can be seen that the α-linear olefin monomers with 6-10 carbon atoms had low activation energy and wide range. It was optimum to synthesize drag reduction agent by polymerization.

  15. Modeling the free radical polymerization of acrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Hakan; Salman, Seyhan; Tüzün, Nurcan Şenyurt; Avci, Duygu; Aviyente, Viktorya

    Acrylates have gained importance because of their ease of conversion to high-molecular-weight polymers and their broad industrial use. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is a well-known monomer for free radical polymerization, but its α-methyl substituent restricts the chemical modification of the monomer and therefore the properties of the resulting polymer. The presence of a heteroatom in the methyl group is known to increase the polymerizability of MMA. Methyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (MHMA), methyl α-methoxymethylacrylate (MC1MA), methyl α-acetoxymethylacrylate (MAcMA) show even better conversions to high-molecular-weight polymers than MMA. In contrast, the polymerization rate is known to decrease as the methyl group is replaced by ethyl in ethyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (EHMA) and t-butyl in t-butyl α-hydroxymethylacrylate (TBHMA). In this study, quantum mechanical tools (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in order to understand the mechanistic behavior of the free radical polymerization reactions of acrylates. The polymerization rates of MMA, MHMA, MC1MA, MAcMA, EHMA, TBHMA, MC1AN (α-methoxymethyl acrylonitrile), and MC1AA (α-methoxymethyl acrylic acid) have been evaluated and rationalized. Simple monomers such as allyl alcohol (AA) and allyl chloride (AC) have also been modeled for comparative purposes.

  16. The morphology of emulsion polymerized latex particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wignall, G.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Linne, M.A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L.H.; Wai, M.P.; Gelman, R.A.; Fatica, M.G.; Hoerl, R.H.; Fisher, L.W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structre as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10/sup 4/ < M < 6 x 10/sup 6/ g/mol. For M > 10/sup 6/ the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10/sup 6/ g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  19. TRANSITION METAL CATALYSIS IN CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION: ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel and diversified macromolecular structures, which include polymers with designed topologies (top), compostions (middle), and functionalities (bottom), can be prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization processes. These polymers can be synthesized from a large variety of...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. 872.6070... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet activator for polymerization is a device that...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. 872.6070... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet activator for polymerization is a device that...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. 872.6070... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet activator for polymerization is a device that...

  3. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  4. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  8. Free heme and sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Veselina V.

    This work investigates further the mechanism of one of the most interesting of the protein self-assembly systems---the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and the role of free heme in it. Polymerization of sickle hemoglobin is the primary event in the pathology of a chronic hemolytic condition called sickle cell anemia with complex pathogenesis, unexplained variability and symptomatic treatment. Auto-oxidation develops in hemoglobin solutions exposed to room temperature and causes release of ferriheme. The composition of such solutions is investigated by mass spectrometry. Heme dimers whose amount corresponds to the initial amounts of heme released from the protein are followed. Differences in the dimer peak height are established for hemoglobin variants A, S and C and depending on the exposure duration. The effects of free heme on polymerization kinetics are studied. Growth rates and two characteristic parameters of nucleation are measured for stored Hb S. After dialysis of polymerizing solutions, no spherulites are detected at moderately high supersaturation and prolonged exposure times. The addition of 0.16-0.26 mM amounts of heme to dialyzed solutions leads to restoration of polymerization. The measured kinetic parameters have higher values compared to the ones before dialysis. The amount of heme in non-dialyzed aged solution is characterized using spectrophotometry. Three methods are used: difference in absorbance of dialyzed and non-dialyzed solutions, characteristic absorbance of heme-albumin complex and absorbance of non-dialyzed solutions with added potassium cyanide. The various approaches suggest the presence of 0.12 to 0.18 mM of free ferriheme in such solutions. Open questions are whether the same amounts of free heme are present in vivo and whether the same mechanism operates intracellulary. If the answer to those questions is positive, then removal of free heme from erythrocytes can influence their readiness to sickle.

  9. Polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2013-01-01

    Main-group classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (CLPs and FLPs) comprising strong Lewis acids (LAs) and strong Lewis bases (LBs) are highly active for polymerization of conjugated polar alkenes, affording typically high molecular weight polymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. Especially effective systems are the Lewis pairs (LPs) consisting of the strong LA Al(C6F5)3 and strong LBs, such as achiral phosphines and chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes, and phosphazene superbases, for polymerization of methacrylates and acrylamides as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones. Chain initiation involves cooperative addition of LPs to the monomer to generate zwitterionic active species, and chain propagation proceeds via a bimetallic, activated-monomer addition mechanism. Transition metal nucleophile/electrophile pairs comprising neutral metallocene bis(ester enolate)s and strong LAs E(C6F5)3 (E = Al, B) generate two drastically different polymerization systems, depending on the LA. With E = Al, catalyst activation and chain initiating events lead to dually active ion-pairs, thereby effecting ion-pairing polymerization that affords polymers with unique stereo-multiblock microstructures. With E = B, on the other hand, the FLP-induced catalyst activation generates metallacyclic cations paired with the hydridoborate anion [HB(C6F5)3](-); uniquely, such ion-pairs effect catalytic polymerization of conjugated polar alkenes by an H-shuttling mechanism, with the cation catalyzing chain growth and the anion promoting chain transfer by shuttling the hydride between the cation and anion centers through the neutral borane.

  10. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  11. Making the case for inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach.

  12. Neurite outgrowth is driven by actin polymerization even in the presence of actin polymerization inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jonathan X.; Efimova, Nadia; Svitkina, Tatyana M.

    2016-01-01

    Actin polymerization is a universal mechanism to drive plasma membrane protrusion in motile cells. One apparent exception to this rule is continuing or even accelerated outgrowth of neuronal processes in the presence of actin polymerization inhibitors. This fact, together with the key role of microtubule dynamics in neurite outgrowth, led to the concept that microtubules directly drive plasma membrane protrusion either in the course of polymerization or by motor-driven sliding. The possibility that unextinguished actin polymerization drives neurite outgrowth in the presence of actin drugs was not explored. We show that cultured hippocampal neurons treated with cytochalasin D or latrunculin B contained dense accumulations of branched actin filaments at ∼50% of neurite tips at all tested drug concentrations (1–10 μM). Actin polymerization is required for neurite outgrowth because only low concentrations of either inhibitor increased the length and/or number of neurites, whereas high concentrations inhibited neurite outgrowth. Of importance, neurites undergoing active elongation invariably contained a bright F-actin patch at the tip, whereas actin-depleted neurites never elongated, even though they still contained dynamic microtubules. Stabilization of microtubules by Taxol treatment did not stop elongation of cytochalasin–treated neurites. We conclude that actin polymerization is indispensable for neurite elongation. PMID:27682586

  13. Gassmann-Consistency of Inclusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, M.; Wollner, U.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mathematical inclusion theories predict the effective elastic properties of a porous medium with idealized-shape inclusions as a function of the elastic moduli of the host matrix and those of the inclusions. These effective elastic properties depend on the volumetric concentration of the inclusions (the porosity of the host frame) and the aspect ratio of an inclusion (the ratio between the thickness and length). Seemingly, these models can solve the problem of fluid substitution and solid substitution: any numbers can be used for the bulk and shear moduli of the inclusions, including zero for empty inclusions (dry rock). In contrast, the most commonly used fluid substitution method is Gassmann's (1951) theory. We explore whether inclusion based fluid substitution is consistent with Gassmann's fluid substitution. We compute the effective bulk and shear moduli of a matrix with dry inclusions and then conduct Gassmann's fluid substitution, comparing these results to those from directly computing the bulk and shear moduli of the same matrix but with the inclusions having the bulk modulus of the fluid. A number of examples employing the differential effective medium (DEM) model and self-consistent (SC) approximation indicate that the wet-rock bulk moduli as predicted by DEM and SC are approximately Gassmann-consistent at high aspect ratio and small porosity. However, at small aspect ratios and high porosity, these inclusion models are not Gassmann-consistent. For all cases, the shear moduli are not Gassmann-consistent at all, meaning that the wet-rock shear modulus as given by DEM or SC is very different from the dry-rock moduli as predicted by the same theories. We quantify the difference between the two methods for a range of porosity and aspect ratio combinations.

  14. Etching and Polymerization in Fluorocarbon-Hydrogen Plasmas: Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    The goal of this research was to develop an understanding of the important reactions and species involved in polymerization and selective oxide/silicon etching with and without ion bombardment in fluorocarbon/hydrogen plasmas. Through the creation and use of a computer model, the impact of flow rate, power, CF_4/H _2 feed composition, and pressure was studied. Comparisons of model predictions of gas phase species with experimentally measured concentrations and deposition/etching rates validated the model and demonstrated the influence of gas phase species and ions upon surface reactions. The assumption of complete mixing (Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) was proven to be appropriate; it allowed the model to include gaseous expansion and run quickly. Although previous investigators postulated CF _2 to be the predominant polymer precursor, model predictions showed that CF was also important and inclusion of CF was necessary to replicate experimental results. Without ion bombardment, hydrogen appeared to significantly lower the polymerization rate by abstracting fluorine from the film or terminating chain growth. Fluorine enhanced polymerization under some conditions, which could be due to increased generation of active sites by abstraction of hydrogen from the polymer. With energetic bombardment, fluorine reduced polymerization due to etching of polymer or shortening the lifetime of adsorbed CF_{rm x}^ecies. A new parameter, E_{rm s}, was defined and shown to indicate the ion flux to the surface. The differences in polymerization for a given CF_{rm x}/F ratio could be explained by differences in ion flux. For cases of significant polymer deposition, the polymerization rate gave the illusion of ion energy independence. This research attempted to prove that polymer inhibits etching by chemically adsorbing on silicon, not by limiting diffusion of fluorine, allowing the etch rate to be represented with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Oxide etching was not significantly

  15. Dynamic self-assembly of 'living' polymeric chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Binghui; Shi, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    We report a dynamic self-assembly system of 'living' polymeric chains sustained by chemistry using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The linear polymeric chains consist of self-assembled nanoparticles connected by metastable linker molecules. As such, the polymeric chains, once assembled, undergo spontaneous dissociation driven by thermodynamics. However, with a continuous supply of linker molecules and the stored chemical energy therein, the polymeric chains can survive and maintain a steady state averaged chain length. These dynamically self-assembled polymeric chains are analogous to biological systems that both are thermodynamically metastable, yet dynamically stable upon continuous influx of matter and energy.

  16. Mechanisms of Drug Diffusion from Polymeric Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kuldeepak

    1987-09-01

    A detailed mechanistic study of drug diffusion and the factors which influence drug diffusion through polymeric controlled release systems was undertaken to understand drug diffusion through hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric systems. The effect of improved aqueous solubility of the salt form (ionizable form) of selected drugs on diffusion through hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric membranes was compared to diffusion of the less soluble (unionizable form) of the drugs. Model drugs chosen for these studies were prednisolone, prednisolone phosphate sodium (prednisolone phosphoric acid disodium salt), pilocarpine, pilocarpine hydrochloride, sulfacetamide and sodium sulfacetamide. The hydrophilic polymers were hydrogels of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA) and hydrophobic polymers were copolyether-urethane -urea (Biomer) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Salt forms of the drugs permeated faster than the free forms through the hydrophilic polymers because of higher aqueous solubility. The free forms of the drugs had higher diffusion rates than the salt forms due to increased solubility in the hydrophobic polymers. Drug solubility in polymers and the water fraction of the polymeric membrane were determined to be the primary factors in diffusion through polymeric membranes. Drug aqueous solubility was of secondary importance. Two controlled release systems were then designed to further study drug release. The Biomer and copolymers of polystyrene and PHEMA were chosen as the polymers for the fabrication of the devices. These copolymers incorporated the favorable attributes of hydrophobic and hydrophilic homopolymers into single polymers. Prednisolone was used as a model drug for these studies. The effects of initial drug load, drug loading solvents and the drug polymer interactions on drug release from the devices were then studied. The drug release from these devices increased as the initial drug load increased. Drug loading solvents had a marked effect on drug

  17. Alaska Inclusion Training Modules: Building Inclusive Classrooms and Schools. Modules 1-3. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan, Ed.; Kurka, Diana, Ed.

    This document presents three inservice training modules which focus on the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education settings in Alaska schools. Module 1, "Setting our Sights on Inclusion," by Diana Kurka, is a three-hour inservice program which provides an introduction to inclusion via sections on: legal and…

  18. Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…

  19. Inclusion in High-Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2016-01-01

    Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to…

  20. Supporting the Development of More Inclusive Practices Using the Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion is a central issue for educational psychologists (EPs) today, yet they have often been portrayed as gatekeepers to special provision. One approach for EPs to promote more inclusive practices in schools is through the Index for Inclusion as a vehicle for consultation. This paper reports a study of EPs acting as "critical friends" to…

  1. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  2. Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling. An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…

  3. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  4. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  5. Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

  6. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  7. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  8. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  10. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  11. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  12. Standards & Inclusion: Can We Have Both?. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    Designed for regular and special educators, this 40-minute video profiles inclusive schools from around the country that have successfully incorporated academic standards. It addresses many of the critical issues facing educators who are supporting students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Topics discussed include: (1) the consequences of…

  13. Faculty Preparedness to Build Cultural Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Dena Renee

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members play a significant role in retaining diverse students, faculty, and staff on a college campus based on how culturally inclusive their behavior is. This research elucidates the development of a faculty inclusiveness survey, and tests it on a national random sample of 637 faculty members to determine how prepared they are to build…

  14. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  15. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  16. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  17. Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

  18. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  19. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  20. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will

    2016-01-01

    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  1. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  2. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  3. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  4. Inclusive Education Reform: Implications for Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia; Carrington, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In Queensland, inclusive education reform is on the political agenda, following the report of the Ministerial Taskforce on Inclusive Education (students with disabilities) in 2004. The Government's responses to the initiatives outlined in the taskforce report emphasise a commitment to social justice and equity so that all students can be included…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  6. Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

  7. Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Shannon D.; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.; Moody, Raymond L.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing curriculum that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) people has the potential to create an equitable learning environment. In order to learn more about students' experiences of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum, 26 high school students with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, and gender identities…

  8. Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

  9. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  10. Inclusive Schooling Policy: An Educational Detective Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Julianne

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the Salamanca statement (UNESCO 1994), inclusive schooling has formed a growing part of the deliberations of the special education community. Inclusive schooling research in Australia in the main continues to reproduce traditions of the special education field, emphasising the dominant psychological perspectives that have…

  11. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  12. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  13. Special or Inclusive Education: Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Lani Florian, Professor of Social and Educational Inclusion at the University of Aberdeen, examines the relationships between "special" and "inclusive" education. She looks at the notion of specialist knowledge among teachers and at the roles adopted by staff working with pupils with "additional" or "special" needs in mainstream…

  14. Understanding Principals' Attitudes towards Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jeff; du Plessis, Diana

    1997-01-01

    Inclusion is both a philosophy based on social justice and a practice requiring significant adaptations by the school community. This article presents qualitative data on over 200 Queensland (Australia) principals toward inclusion. Responses suggest the majority are "qualified" inclusionists. Although mindful of social-justice…

  15. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... BOARD 12 CFR Part 906 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women... Mac), and the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and... establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or designate an office, responsible for carrying...

  16. What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's Working, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1)…

  17. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  18. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  19. Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie

    2010-01-01

    In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

  20. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…