Science.gov

Sample records for ctsl run cc-15

  1. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  2. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  4. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships and gene expression pattern of three different cathepsin L (Ctsl) isoforms in zebrafish: Ctsla is the putative yolk processing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Cerdà, Joan

    2007-01-15

    Certain cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin L (Ctsl), have been involved in yolk processing mechanisms in oocytes and embryos of lower vertebrates. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), three different ctsl genes, ctsla, ctslb and ctslc, have been found in the genome, but their pattern of expression, as well as information on which the encoded enzymes are potentially involved in yolk absorption during embryogenesis, is unknown. Here, phylogenetic and gene structure analysis revealed that zebrafish ctsla and ctslb genes are similar, showing a highly conserved structure in comparison with human ctsl, while ctslc presents different exon organization together with an earlier evolution. Thus, ctslc appears to be evolved from a common ancestral ctsl-like gene, possibly through an early duplication event, whereas ctsla and ctslb may be originated from a second duplication mechanism. Zebrafish ctsla, ctslb and ctslc also showed different patterns of mRNA expression during embryogenesis and in adult tissues. While Ctsla transcripts were accumulated in embryos throughout development and in the adult ovary, those encoding Ctslb were detected only in embryos around the time of hatching as previously reported, and those for Ctslc appeared only in larvae and in some adult tissues, but not in the ovary. In zebrafish and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos, Ctsla mRNA was first detected in blastomers, and later in development it was localized in cells of the yolk syncytial layer, an embryonic structure involved in yolk absorption. These data therefore suggested that Ctsla is most likely the putative protease involved in yolk processing in fish embryos, while Ctslc seems not to be required during early embryogenesis in zebrafish.

  6. Characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Brazil (2008-2011): countrywide spread of OXA-23-producing clones (CC15 and CC79).

    PubMed

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Carvalho, Karyne Rangel; de Oliveira Santos, Ivson Cassiano; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'Alincourt; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2014-08-01

    The study investigated the genetic relationship of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolated from inpatients during 2008-2011 from 11 Brazilian states. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by disc diffusion method and Etest. Polymerase chain reaction was applied for carbapenemase genes, and ISAba1. Isolates were subjected to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for molecular typing. Most of the isolates showed high resistance rates to antibiotics tested. The blaOXA-51-like gene was found in all isolates, and 146 (94.2%) isolates were positive for blaOXA-23-like. In the most OXA-23-producing isolates, the blaOXA-23-like gene was accompanied by ISAba1. A total of 146 OXA-23-producing isolates were clustered into 28 genotypes by PFGE. Molecular analysis by MLST identified 13 sequence types (STs). The most prevalent PFGE profiles were designated as ST15 (CC15), ST1 (CC1), and ST79 (CC79). This study showed the widespread of clonal complexes of A. baumannii harboring the blaOXA-23-like gene in different Brazilian states.

  7. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away A A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  8. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems of life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running ... more fights. Sounds great and exciting, right? In reality, running away is anything but fun. Kids and ...

  9. Running Shoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    This guide explains the purpose of running shoes and provides tips for purchasing them. A brief explanation of the difference between training shoes and racing shoes is followed by a list of characteristics of running shoes that should be considered when buying them. These characteristics include heel fit, heel elevation and width, the inner and…

  10. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  11. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  12. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  13. Can Unshod Running Reduce Running Injuries?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    protein? Lieberman considered how humans could take down a boar or antelope while other predators like lions and hyenas were on the prowl. He...referenced research that reported African hunters chasing antelopes and Tarahumara Indians running down deer till their hooves fell off.35 Lieberman...

  14. Well liner running shoe

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.F.

    1994-01-11

    Wellbore liners are set with a running shoe comprising a cylindrical body, end cap, check valve and receiver member in assembly. The receiver member includes threads for receiving the coupling sleeve of a running tool, and retaining wickers for engagement with a cement plug or dart to retain the same permanently engaged with and blocking the flow of fluid through the running shoe. A running tool for use with the shoe includes a coupling sleeve which is retained on a support mandrel by a collar which is secured to the mandrel with a shear pin so that pressuring up the workstring, in the event of a stuck coupling sleeve, will permit retrieval of the main part of the running tool and the workstring. The interior parts of the running shoe are made of aluminum or plastic for easy drill-out to extend the wellbore beyond the end of the liner. 3 figs.

  15. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  16. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  17. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  18. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  19. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question,…

  20. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  1. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  2. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf Addiction ... Español English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz ...

  3. WRF nature run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalakes, J.; Hacker, J.; Loft, R.; McCracken, M. O.; Snavely, A.; Wright, N. J.; Spelce, T.; Gorda, B.; Walkup, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is a model of the atmosphere for mesoscale research and operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). A petascale problem for WRF is a nature run that provides very high-resolution 'truth' against which more coarse simulations or perturbation runs may be com-pared for purposes of studying predictability, stochastic parameterization, and fundamental dynamics. We carried out a nature run involving an idealized high resolution rotating fluid on the hemisphere, at a size and resolution never before attempted, and used it to investigate scales that span the k-3 to k-5/3 kinetic energy spectral transition, via simulations. We used up to 15,360 processors of the New York Blue IBM BG/L machine at Stony Brook Uni-versity and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The grid we employed has 4486 by 4486 horizontal grid points and 101 vertical levels (2 billion cells) at 5km resolution; this is 32 times larger than the previously largest 63 million cell 2.5km resolution WRF CONUS benchmark [10]). To solve a problem of this size, we worked through issues of parallel I/O and scalability and employed more processors than have ever been used in a WRF run. We achieved a sustained 3.4 Tflop/s on the New York Blue sys-tem, inputting and then generating an enormous amount of data to produce a scientifically meaningful result. More than 200 GB of data was input to initialize the run, which then generated output datasets of 40 GB each simulated hour. The cost of output was considered a key component of our investigation. Then we ran the same problem on more than 12K processors of the XT4 system at NERSC and achieved 8.8 Tflop/s. Our primary result however is not just scalability and a high Tflop/s number, but capture of atmosphere features never before represented by simulation, and taking an important step towards understanding weather predict-ability at high resolution.

  4. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  5. PDU Run 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  6. SAVAGE RUN WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral evaluation and related surveys were conducted in the Savage Run Wilderness in Wyoming and results of these studies indicate probable mineral-resource potential in four areas. Gold and (or) silver mineralization in veins associated with faults was found in two areas; all known occurrences inside the wilderness are very small in size. Slightly anomalous values of platinum, palladium, and nickel were recorded from rock-chip and stream- sediment samples from the southeast portion of the wilderness where layered mafic rocks predominate, and a probable resource potential exists for platinum, palladium, and nickel. An area of sheared rocks in the northeastern corner of the wilderness has a probable resource potential for copper. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  7. Running WASP at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The WASP model was initially implemented at Argonne for the International Training course on Electric System Planning being conducted at Argonne. This implementation was done with special consideration to course participants who are unfamiliar with WASP and with the computer system they use during the course. Cataloged Procedures were developed for this purpose. The procedures simplify using WASP and enable participants to quickly start using WASP with a minimum of training. Within the procedures, features were added that enhance WASP. These features include a formatted printout of WASP input data and a historical log of all runs and inut data used. For the RENAME step, an alternate method is presented, with special comment concerning the WASP3 release.

  8. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  9. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    PubMed

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  10. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  11. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  12. The QCD running coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge on $\\alpha_{s}$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $\\alpha_s$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled regime and its prediction

  13. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. The basic protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured to a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. PMID:26629772

  14. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  15. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  16. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  17. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2016-07-12

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  18. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2009-04-13

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  19. Oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod.

    PubMed

    Hanson, N J; Berg, K; Deka, P; Meendering, J R; Ryan, C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod on the treadmill as well as overground. 10 healthy recreational runners, 5 male and 5 female, whose mean age was 23.8±3.39 volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects participated in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot on treadmill, 2) shod on treadmill, 3) barefoot overground, and 4) shod overground. For each condition, subjects ran for 6 min at 70% vVO (2)max pace while VO (2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. A 2 × 2 (shoe condition x surface) repeated measures ANOVA revealed that running with shoes showed significantly higher VO (2) values on both the treadmill and the overground track (p<0.05). HR and RPE were significantly higher in the shod condition as well (p<0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). For the overground and treadmill conditions, recorded VO (2) while running shod was 5.7% and 2.0% higher than running barefoot. It was concluded that at 70% of vVO (2)max pace, barefoot running is more economical than running shod, both overground and on a treadmill.

  20. Wheel running in the wild.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-07

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  1. Run-to-Run Control Strategy for Diabetes Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    quite serious ( diabetic coma), and the long- term implications of varying glucose levels ( nephropathy , retinopathy, and other tissue damage ) have...Trial Re- search Group, \\The e ect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long{term complications in insulin{dependent...1 RUN-TO-RUN CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DIABETES MANAGEMENT F.J. Doyle III1, B. Srinivasan2, and D. Bonvin2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, University

  2. Observations of running penumbral waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.; Stein, A.

    1972-01-01

    Quiet sunspots with well-developed penumbrae show running intensity waves with period running around 300 sec. The waves appear connected with umbral flashes of exactly half the period. Waves are concentric, regular, with velocity constant around 10 km/sec. They are probably sound waves and show intensity fluctuation in H alpha centerline or wing of 10 to 20%. The energy is tiny compared to the heat deficit of the umbra.

  3. Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Chaouachi, Anis

    2011-04-01

    Sixteen semiprofessional Australian football players performed running bouts at incremental velocities of 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximum velocity on a Woodway nonmotorized force treadmill. As running velocity increased from 40 to 60%, peak vertical and peak horizontal forces increased by 14.3% (effect size [ES] = 1.0) and 34.4% (ES = 4.2), respectively. The changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 60 to 80% were 1.0% (ES = 0.05) and 21.0% (ES = 2.9), respectively. Finally, the changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 80% to maximum were 2.0% (ES = 0.1) and 24.3% (ES = 3.4). In addition, both stride frequency and stride length significantly increased with each incremental velocity (p < 0.05). Conversely, contact times and the vertical displacement of the center of mass significantly decreased with increased running velocity (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between horizontal force and maximum running velocity (r = 0.47). For the kinematic variables, only stride length was found to have a significant positive correlation with maximum running velocity (r = 0.66). It would seem that increasing maximal sprint velocity may be more dependent on horizontal force production as opposed to vertical force production.

  4. Running of the running and entropy perturbations during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris

    2016-07-01

    In single field slow-roll inflation, one expects that the spectral index ns-1 is first order in slow-roll parameters. Similarly, its running αs=d ns/d log k and the running of the running βs=d αs/d log k are second and third order and therefore expected to be progressively smaller, and usually negative. Hence, such models of inflation are in considerable tension with a recent analysis hinting that βs may actually be positive, and larger than αs. Motivated by this, in this work we ask the question of what kinds of inflationary models may be useful in achieving such a hierarchy of runnings, particularly focusing on two-field models of inflation in which the late-time transfer of power from isocurvature to curvature modes allows for a much more diverse range of phenomenology. We calculate the runnings due to this effect and briefly apply our results to assess the feasibility of finding |βs|≳|αs| in some specific models.

  5. RHIC Au beam in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    Au beam at the RHIC ramp in run 2014 is reviewed together with the run 2011 and run 2012. Observed bunch length and longitudinal emittance are compared with the IBS simulations. The IBS growth rate of the longitudinal emittance in run 2014 is similar to run 2011, and both are larger than run 2012. This is explained by the large transverse emittance at high intensity observed in run 2012, but not in run 2014. The big improvement of the AGS ramping in run 2014 might be related to this change. The importance of the injector intensity improvement in run 2014 is emphasized, which gives rise to the initial luminosity improvement of 50% in run 2014, compared with the previous Au-Au run 2011. In addition, a modified IBS model, which is calibrated using the RHIC Au runs from 9.8 GeV/n to 100 GeV/n, is presented and used in the study.

  6. CDF Run 2 muon system

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Ginsburg

    2004-02-05

    The CDF muon detection system for Run 2 of the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Muon stubs are detected for |{eta}| < 1.5, and are matched to tracks in the central drift chamber at trigger level 1 for |{eta}| < 1.25. Detectors in the |{eta}| < 1 central region, built for previous runs, have been enhanced to survive the higher rate environment and closer bunch spacing (3.5 {micro}sec to 396 nsec) of Run 2. Azimuthal gaps in the central region have been filled in. New detectors have been added to extend the coverage from |{eta}| < 1 to |{eta}| < 1.5, consisting of four layers of drift chambers covered with matching scintillators for triggering. The Level 1 Extremely Fast Tracker supplies matching tracks with measured p{sub T} for the muon trigger. The system has been in operation for over 18 months. Operating experience and reconstructed data are presented.

  7. [Stress fracture after changing to barefoot running].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-12-15

    Barefoot running is increasing in popularity but little is known about the implications in respect to injuries. It has been proposed that barefoot running is associated with a decrease in running injuries as it represents a more natural way of running. A 50-year-old runner with a weekly running distance of 50 km presented suffering from a stress fracture of the second metatarsal after six weeks of intensive barefoot running.

  8. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  9. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. Physiologic Responses to Treadmill and Water Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Phillip A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the physiological responses of uninjured runners to running on a treadmill and in water. Water running may lessen an injured athlete's rate of deconditioning, but indications are that the metabolic cost of water running is not significantly greater than that of treadmill running. (SM)

  12. Selective running tool for wells

    SciTech Connect

    Semar, J.E.

    1988-05-24

    A downhole running tool for positioning and locking tool support mandrels within landing nipples of thin production tubing string of a well is described comprising: (a) housing means adapted for connection to a tool string and forming an internal receptacle; (b) an elongated core member being disposed within the internal receptacle and being telescopically movable to collapsed and extended positions defined by spaced stops formed by the housing means, a portion of the elongated core member extending from the housing for connection with a tool support mandrel; and (c) releasable retainer means normally retaining the elongated core member at a substantially fixed set position within the internal receptacle and being released responsive to engagement with the landing nipple during upward movement of the downhole running tool to thus permit collapsing telescoping movement of the elongated core to a mandrel locating position within the internal receptacle.

  13. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  14. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  15. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  16. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  17. Fatigue associated with prolonged graded running.

    PubMed

    Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2016-10-01

    Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.

  18. Effective leg stiffness in running.

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Lipfert, Susanne W; Seyfarth, Andre

    2009-10-16

    Leg stiffness is a common parameter used to characterize leg function during bouncing gaits, like running and hopping. In the literature, different methods to approximate leg stiffness based on kinetic and kinematic parameters are described. A challenging point in estimating leg stiffness is the definition of leg compression during contact. In this paper four methods (methods A-D) based on ground reaction forces (GRF) and one method (method E) relying on temporal parameters are described. Leg stiffness calculated by these five methods is compared with running patterns, predicted by the spring mass model. The best and simplest approximation of leg stiffness is method E. It requires only easily accessible parameters (contact time, flight time, resting leg length, body mass and the leg's touch down angle). Method D is of similar quality but additionally requires the time-dependent progression of the GRF. The other three methods show clear differences from the model predictions by over- or underestimating leg stiffness, especially at slow speeds. Leg stiffness is derived from a conceptual model of legged locomotion and does not exist without this model. Therefore, it is important to prove which experimental method is suited best for approximating the stiffness in a specific task. This will help to interpret the predictions of the conceptual model in comparison with experimental data.

  19. HVM capabilities of CPE run-to-run overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Gutjahr, Karsten; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Sparka, Christian; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Ramanathan, Vidya; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of N2x and N1x process nodes, leading-edge factories are facing challenging demands of shrinking design margins. Previously un-corrected high-order signatures, and un-compensated temporal changes of high-order signatures, carry an important potential for improvement of on-product overlay (OPO). Until recently, static corrections per exposure (CPE), applied separately from the main APC correction, have been the industry's standard for critical layers [1], [2]. This static correction is setup once per device and layer and then updated periodically or when a machine change point generates a new overlay signature. This is a non-ideal setup for two reasons. First, any drift or sudden shift in tool signature between two CPE update periods can cause worse OPO and a higher rework rate, or, even worse, lead to yield loss at end of line. Second, these corrections are made from full map measurements that can be in excess of 1,000 measurements per wafer [3]. Advanced overlay control algorithms utilizing Run-to-Run (R2R) CPE can be used to reduce the overlay signatures on product in High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environments. In this paper, we demonstrate the results of a R2R CPE control scheme in HVM. The authors show an improvement up to 20% OPO Mean+3Sigma values on several critical immersion layers at the 28nm and 14 nm technology nodes, and a reduction of out-of-spec residual points per wafer (validated on full map). These results are attained by closely tracking process tool signature changes by means of APC, and with an affordable metrology load which is significantly smaller than full wafer measurements.

  20. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  1. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  2. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  3. Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Frederic

    1980-01-01

    Physical benefits of running have been highly publicized. Explores the equally valuable psychological benefits to be derived from running and examines how mastering a physical skill can be generalized to mastery in other areas of life. (Author)

  4. Adding run history to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  5. Dynamic gearing in running dogs.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

    1998-12-01

    Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function.

  6. Running Patterns of Highly Skilled Distance Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunetts, Michael J.; Dillman, Charles J.

    The biomechanical elements inherent in the running styles of Olympic-level athletes were examined in order to obtain a range of parameter values for specific running velocities. Forty-eight athletes participated in middle and long distance running events that were filmed and later analyzed to determine the relationship between the physical…

  7. Head injury from a bungee run.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj; Convery, Fiona; Watt, Michael; Fulton, Ailsa; McKinstry, Steven; Flannery, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    An adaptation of bungee jumping, 'bungee running', involves participants attempting to run as far as they can whilst connected to an elastic rope which is anchored to a fixed point. Usually considered a safe recreational activity, we report a potentially life-threatening head injury following a bungee running accident.

  8. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  9. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  10. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  11. Random Test Run Length and Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, James H.; Groce, Alex; Weston, Melissa; Xu, Ru-Gang

    2008-01-01

    A poorly understood but important factor in many applications of random testing is the selection of a maximum length for test runs. Given a limited time for testing, it is seldom clear whether executing a small number of long runs or a large number of short runs maximizes utility. It is generally expected that longer runs are more likely to expose failures -- which is certainly true with respect to runs shorter than the shortest failing trace. However, longer runs produce longer failing traces, requiring more effort from humans in debugging or more resources for automated minimization. In testing with feedback, increasing ranges for parameters may also cause the probability of failure to decrease in longer runs. We show that the choice of test length dramatically impacts the effectiveness of random testing, and that the patterns observed in simple models and predicted by analysis are useful in understanding effects observed.

  12. What we can learn about running from barefoot running: an evolutionary medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-04-01

    Barefoot running, which was how people ran for millions of years, provides an opportunity to study how natural selection adapted the human body to run. Because humans evolved to run barefoot, a barefoot running style that minimizes impact peaks and provides increased proprioception and foot strength, is hypothesized to help avoid injury, regardless of whether one is wearing shoes.

  13. Take the monkey and run

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  14. High impact running improves learning.

    PubMed

    Winter, Bernward; Breitenstein, Caterina; Mooren, Frank C; Voelker, Klaus; Fobker, Manfred; Lechtermann, Anja; Krueger, Karsten; Fromme, Albert; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Floel, Agnes; Knecht, Stefan

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical exercise improves cognitive functions and lowers the risk for age-related cognitive decline. Since little is known about the nature and the timing of the underlying mechanisms, we probed whether exercise also has immediate beneficial effects on cognition. Learning performance was assessed directly after high impact anaerobic sprints, low impact aerobic running, or a period of rest in 27 healthy subjects in a randomized cross-over design. Dependent variables comprised learning speed as well as immediate (1 week) and long-term (>8 months) overall success in acquiring a novel vocabulary. Peripheral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) were assessed prior to and after the interventions as well as after learning. We found that vocabulary learning was 20 percent faster after intense physical exercise as compared to the other two conditions. This condition also elicited the strongest increases in BDNF and catecholamine levels. More sustained BDNF levels during learning after intense exercise were related to better short-term learning success, whereas absolute dopamine and epinephrine levels were related to better intermediate (dopamine) and long-term (epinephrine) retentions of the novel vocabulary. Thus, BDNF and two of the catecholamines seem to be mediators by which physical exercise improves learning.

  15. The MICE Run Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, or a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The new MICE Run Control has been developed to ensure proper sequencing of equipment and use of system resources to protect data quality. A description of this system, its implementation, and performance during recent muon beam data collection will be discussed.

  16. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact.

  17. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Dennis M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-11-18

    Striding bipedalism is a key derived behaviour of hominids that possibly originated soon after the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages. Although bipedal gaits include walking and running, running is generally considered to have played no major role in human evolution because humans, like apes, are poor sprinters compared to most quadrupeds. Here we assess how well humans perform at sustained long-distance running, and review the physiological and anatomical bases of endurance running capabilities in humans and other mammals. Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton. The fossil evidence of these features suggests that endurance running is a derived capability of the genus Homo, originating about 2 million years ago, and may have been instrumental in the evolution of the human body form.

  18. [Facts and fiction about running shoes].

    PubMed

    Schelde, Jacob

    2012-11-26

    Running as a means of exercise is becoming increasingly popular, but the rate of injury is very high among runners. To prevent running-related injuries much attention has been given the running shoe and its construction, particular its shock-absorbing capabilities and motion control features. It is recommended that running shoes should be purchased based on the runner's medial arch height and degree of pronation, and that the shoes should be changed frequently as their shock-absorbing capabilities decrease with usage. Randomized controlled trials and other studies in the scientific literature do not support these recommendations.

  19. Distinct stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis are regulated by running and the running environment.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Matthew R; Hacker, Lindsay C; Fortin-Nunez, Stéphanie; Aumont, Anne; Bergeron, Raynald; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2011-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis continues into adulthood in mammalian vertebrates, and in experimental rodent models it is powerfully stimulated by exposure to a voluntary running wheel. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to a running wheel environment, in the absence of running, is sufficient to regulate specific aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult mice were provided with standard housing, housing enriched with a running wheel or housing enriched with a locked wheel (i.e., an environment comparable to that of running animals, without the possibility of engaging in running). We found that mice in the running wheel and locked wheel groups exhibited equivalent increases in proliferation within the neurogenic niche of the dentate gyrus; this included comparable increases in the proliferation of radial glia-like stem cells and the number of proliferating neuroblasts. However, only running animals displayed increased numbers of postmitotic neuroblasts and mature neurons. These results demonstrate that the running wheel environment itself is sufficient for promoting proliferation of early lineage hippocampal precursors, while running per se enables newly generated neuroblasts to survive and mature into functional hippocampal neurons. Thus, both running-independent and running-dependent stimuli are integral to running wheel-induced hippocampal neurogenesis.

  20. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  1. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  2. Running biomechanics: shorter heels, better economy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M N; Bobbert, M F; van Soest, A J; Clark, J R; van Heerden, J

    2008-10-01

    Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even among elite runners. This variation might be due to variation in the storage and reutilization of elastic energy in tendons. Using a simple musculoskeletal model, it was predicted that the amount of energy stored in a tendon during a given movement depends more critically on moment arm than on mechanical properties of the tendon, with the amount of stored energy increasing as the moment arm gets smaller. Assuming a link between elastic energy reutilization and overall metabolic cost of running, a smaller moment arm should therefore be associated with superior running economy. This prediction was confirmed experimentally in a group of 15 highly trained runners. The moment arm of the Achilles tendon was determined from standardized photographs of the ankle, using the position of anatomical landmarks. Running economy was measured as the rate of metabolic energy consumption during level treadmill running at a speed of 16 km h(-1). A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption (r(2)=0.75, P<0.001).

  3. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  4. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  5. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  6. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  7. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  8. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  9. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  10. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  11. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  12. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  13. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  14. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  15. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  16. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  17. Analysis Of Rearfoot Motion In Running Shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Les

    1986-12-01

    In order to produce better shoes that cushion athletes from the high impact forces of running and still provide stability to the foot it is essential to have a method of quickly and reliably evaluating the performance of prototype shoes. The analysis of rear-foot motion requires the use of film or video recordings of test subjects running on a treadmill. Specific points on the subject are tracked to give a measure of inversion or eversion of the heel. This paper describes the testing procedure and its application to running shoe design. A comparison of film and video systems is also discussed.

  18. Run 16, eIPM Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Dawson, C.; Jao, S.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2016-08-05

    Three problems with the eIPMs were corrected during the 2015 summer shutdown. These involved ac coupling and 'negative profiles', detector 'dead zone' created by biasing, and gain control on ramp. With respect to Run 16, problems dealt with included gain depletion on horizontal MCP and rf pickup on profile signals; it was found that the MCP was severely damaged over part of the aperture. Various corrective measures were applied. Some results of these measured obtained during Run 16 are shown. At the end of Run 16 there was a three-­day beam run to study polarized proton beams in the AGS. Attempts to minimize beam injection errors which increase emittance by using the eIPMs to measure the contribution of injection mismatch to the AGS output beam emittance are recounted. .

  19. Social network structures and bank runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  20. The calculation of take-off run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1934-01-01

    A comparatively simple method of calculating length of take-off run is developed from the assumption of a linear variation in net accelerating force with air speed and it is shown that the error involved is negligible.

  1. CDF forward shielding for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Krivosheev, O.E.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1998-03-16

    Detailed calculations of the accelerator related background in the CDF forward muon spectrometer have been performed with the MARS13 code and a newly developed C++ code for particle tracking in accelerator lattices. Calculated space distributions of background hits are in a good agreement with data taken in Run I. Several shielding configurations in the CDF hall and Tevatron tunnel have been studied. The optimal one provides a 30-fold shielding efficiency compatible with CDF Run II requirements.

  2. Minimum-time running: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Maroński, Ryszard; Rogowski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the minimum-time running problem. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The Hill-Keller model of running employed is based on Newton's second law and the equation of power balance. The problem is formulated in optimal control. The unknown function is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The problem is solved applying the direct Chebyshev's pseudospectral method.

  3. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  4. RHIC polarized proton performance in run-8.

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Barton, D.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Helical spin rotators at these two interaction regions were used to control the spin orientation of both beams at the collision points. Physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8.

  5. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  6. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  7. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P < .01). We conclude that 2 major roadblocks to designing successful lower limb robotic exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  8. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, R. M.; Gallas, E. J.; C-L Tseng, J.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called "runBrowser" makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  9. Negative running can prevent eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Freese, Katherine E-mail: ktfreese@umich.edu

    2015-01-01

    Current data from the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 telescope favor, at around the 2 σ level, negative running of the spectral index of curvature perturbations from inflation. We show that for negative running α < 0, the curvature perturbation amplitude has a maximum on scales larger than our current horizon size. A condition for the absence of eternal inflation is that the curvature perturbation amplitude always remain below unity on superhorizon scales. For current bounds on n{sub S} from Planck, this corresponds to an upper bound of the running α < −9 × 10{sup −5}, so that even tiny running of the scalar spectral index is sufficient to prevent eternal inflation from occurring, as long as the running remains negative on scales outside the horizon. In single-field inflation models, negative running is associated with a finite duration of inflation: we show that eternal inflation may not occur even in cases where inflation lasts as long as 10{sup 4} e-folds.

  10. Running kinematics and shock absorption do not change after brief exhaustive running.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Chu, Yungchien; Lovalekar, Mita; Burdett, Ray G; Lephart, Scott M

    2011-06-01

    Because of the nature of running, the forces encountered require a proper coordination of joint action of the lower extremity to dissipate the ground reaction forces and accelerations through the kinetic chain. Running-related muscle fatigue may reduce the shock absorbing capacity of the lower extremity and alter running kinematics. The purpose of this study was to determine if a bout of exhaustive running at a physiologically determined high intensity, changes running kinematics, impact accelerations, and alters shock attenuating capabilities. It was hypothesized that as a result of fatigue induced by an exhaustive run, running kinematics, impact accelerations at the head and shank, acceleration reduction, and shock attenuation would change. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used for this study. Twelve healthy, competitive male and female distance runners participated. Subjects performed 2 testing sessions consisting of a VO2max treadmill protocol to determine the heart rate at ventilatory threshold and a fatigue-inducing running bout at the identified ventilatory threshold heart rate. Kinematic data included knee flexion, pronation, time to maximum knee flexion, and time to maximum pronation. Acceleration data included shank acceleration, head acceleration, and shock attenuation. No significant differences resulted for the kinematic or acceleration variables. Although the results of this study do not support the original hypotheses, the influence of running fatigue on kinematics and accelerations remains inconclusive. Future research is necessary to examine fatigue-induced changes in running kinematics and accelerations and to determine the threshold at which point the changes may occur.

  11. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, P<.01), hip adduction excursion (1.3°, P<.01), hip abduction angular impulse (4%, P<.01), knee abduction angular impulse (5%, P=.03), average vertical ground reaction force loading rate (10%, P<.01) and step length (2.1cm, P=.001) were observed during exhausted running. These small changes in suspected PFP pathomechanical factors may increase a runner׳s propensity for PFP. However, unique changes in female running mechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP.

  12. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret; Eliot, Katie; Heuertz, Rita M; Weiss, Edward

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate ingestion improves exercise performance; however, it has also been linked to adverse health effects, except when consumed in the form of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a double-blind crossover study, whether whole beetroot consumption, as a means for increasing nitrate intake, improves endurance exercise performance. Eleven recreationally fit men and women were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial performed in 2010. Participants underwent two 5-km treadmill time trials in random sequence, once 75 minutes after consuming baked beetroot (200 g with ≥500 mg nitrate) and once 75 minutes after consuming cranberry relish as a eucaloric placebo. Based on paired t tests, mean running velocity during the 5-km run tended to be faster after beetroot consumption (12.3±2.7 vs 11.9±2.6 km/hour; P=0.06). During the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.8 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot trial, with no differences in velocity (P≥0.25) in the earlier portions of the 5-km run. No differences in exercise heart rate were observed between trials; however, at 1.8 km into the 5-km run, rating of perceived exertion was lower with beetroot (13.0±2.1 vs 13.7±1.9; P=0.04). Consumption of nitrate-rich, whole beetroot improves running performance in healthy adults. Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot.

  13. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running

    PubMed Central

    van Oeveren, Ben; Francke, Agnieta; Zijlstra, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby unclear. The present study investigates the use of foot contact time (CT) for running speed estimations, which potentially can be used in addition to the global positioning system (GPS) in situations where GPS performance is limited. CT was measured with tri axial inertial sensors attached to the feet of 14 runners, during natural over ground outdoor running, under optimized conditions for GPS. The individual relationships between running speed and CT were established during short runs at different speeds on two days. These relations were subsequently used to predict instantaneous speed during a straight line 4 km run with a single turning point halfway. Stopwatch derived speed, measured for each of 32 consecutive 125m intervals during the 4 km runs, was used as reference. Individual speed-CT relations were strong (r2 >0.96 for all trials) and consistent between days. During the 4km runs, median error (ranges) in predicted speed from CT 2.5% (5.2) was higher (P<0.05) than for GPS 1.6% (0.8). However, around the turning point and during the first and last 125m interval, error for GPS-speed increased to 5.0% (4.5) and became greater (P<0.05) than the error predicted from CT: 2.7% (4.4). Small speed fluctuations during 4km runs were adequately monitored with both methods: CT and GPS respectively explained 85% and 73% of the total speed variance during 4km runs. In conclusion, running speed estimates bases on speed-CT relations, have acceptable accuracy and could serve to backup or substitute for GPS during tarmac running on flat terrain whenever GPS performance is limited. PMID:27648946

  14. Compare 100 GeV/n Au Run 2010 with Run 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    With the very successful commissioning of the vertical stochastic cooling in 100 GeV/n Au Run 2010, the IBS (intra-beam scattering) is no longer the dominant factor in terms of the integrated luminosity. A new luminosity model is needed, where the beam intensity lifetime is more important and the burn-off needs to be accounted for. Toward this goal, a brief review of the Run 2010, compared with Run 2007, is presented.

  15. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics of barefoot versus shod running.

    PubMed

    Stacoff, A; Nigg, B M; Reinschmidt, C; van den Bogert, A J; Lundberg, A

    2000-11-01

    Barefoot running kinematics has been described to vary considerably from shod running. However, previous investigations were typically based on externally mounted shoe and/or skin markers, which have been shown to overestimate skeletal movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare calcaneal and tibial movements of barefoot versus shod running using skeletal markers. Intracortical bone pins with reflective marker triads were inserted under standard local anesthetic into the calcaneus and tibia of five healthy male subjects. The subjects ran barefoot, with a normal shoe, with three shoe soles and two orthotic modifications. The three-dimensional tibiocalcaneal rotations were determined using a joint coordinate system approach. Test variables were defined for eversion and tibial rotation. The results showed that the differences in bone movements between barefoot and shod running were small and unsystematic (mean effects being less than 2 degrees ) compared with the differences between the subjects (up to 10 degrees ). However, differences may occur during midstance when extreme shoe modifications (i.e. posterior orthosis) are used. It is concluded that calcaneal and tibial movement patterns do not differ substantially between barefoot and shod running, and that the effects of these interventions are subject specific. The result of this in vivo study contrasts with previous investigations using skin and shoe mounted markers and suggests that these discrepancies may be the result of the overestimation with externally mounted markers.

  16. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  17. Predicting application run times using historical information.

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Smith, W.; Taylor, V.

    1999-06-25

    The authors present a technique for deriving predictions for the run times of parallel applications from the run times of similar applications that have executed in the past. The novel aspect of the work is the use of search techniques to determine those application characteristics that yield the best definition of similarity for the purpose of making predictions. They use four workloads recorded from parallel computers at Argonne National Laboratory, the Cornell Theory Center, and the San Diego Supercomputer Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.They show that on these workloads the techniques achieve predictions that are between 14 and 60% better than those achieved by other researchers; the approach achieves mean prediction errors that are between 41 and 65% of mean application run times.

  18. Predicting running speed from a simple questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M J

    1985-01-01

    Of 221 competitors in a University half marathon in 1983, 98 replied to a questionnaire before the race which asked for details of training, age, height, weight and resting pulse rate. Finishing times of all competitors were recorded. In a multiple regression analysis significant predictors of running speed were: amount of training, expressed as distance run per week and number of weeks training for the event, the Body Mass Index (weight/height) and resting pulse rate. We conclude that for assessing running speed amongst competitors with similar amounts of training, the Body Mass Index and the resting pulse rate are useful substitutes for more elaborate and expensive measures. Images p142-a PMID:4075062

  19. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  20. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  1. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A.; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback. PMID:26488484

  2. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    PubMed

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  3. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  4. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  5. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (p<0.05). The change in ankle angle at foot contact alone explained 67.1% of the variance in VO(2). These findings suggest that cycling does influence limb movement and muscle recruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling.

  7. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

  8. A running controller for a powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Huff, Amanda M; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a running controller for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis. The running controller was implemented on a powered prosthesis prototype and evaluated by a transfemoral amputee subject running on a treadmill at a speed of 2.25 m/s (5.0 mph). The ability of the prosthesis and controller to provide the salient features of a running gait was assessed by comparing the kinematics of running provided by the powered prosthesis to the averaged kinematics of five healthy subjects running at the same speed. This comparison indicates that the powered prosthesis and running controller are able to provide essential features of a healthy running gait.

  9. Comparison of Running Economy Values While Wearing No Shoes, Minimal Shoes, and Normal Running Shoes.

    PubMed

    Cochrum, Robbie G; Connors, Ryan T; Coons, John M; Fuller, Dana K; Morgan, Don W; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    Cochrum, RG, Connors, RT, Coons, JM, Fuller, DK, Morgan, DW, and Caputo, JL. Comparison of running economy values while wearing no shoes, minimal shoes, and normal running shoes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 595-601, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in running economy (RE) at 50 and 70% of each subject's velocity at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) across barefoot and 2 mass, stack height, and heel-to-toe-drop controlled footwear conditions (minimal shoes and normal running shoes) in 9 recreational distance runners (mean age 26.8 ± 6.8 years). Over 3 days, subjects ran in one of the footwear conditions while RE (oxygen consumption) and step frequency were measured at each speed with a 5-minute rest between each trial. A 2-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) and Bonferroni-adjusted follow-up analyses revealed that RE was not significantly different across footwear conditions at either speed. However, those running barefoot exhibited a higher step frequency than when running in minimal (50%, p = 0.007; and 70%, p < 0.001) and standard footwear conditions (70% only, p < 0.001). Higher step frequencies were also exhibited by those running in minimal versus standard footwear (70% only, p = 0.007). Thus, RE is not affected by footwear or running barefoot in those with experience running in minimal-type footwear. Significant adjustments in step frequency when alternative footwear was introduced may help explain why RE was statistically maintained during each footwear and speed condition across but not between subjects. Therefore, determination of footwear for the enhancement of RE should be based on individual physical characteristics and preferences rather than a global recommendation of an economical running shoe.

  10. The D0 run II trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2004-11-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II.

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level.

  12. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  13. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure.

  14. An Orthopedic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Mark; Grana, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the development of osteoarthritis and whether running and other impact loading sports promote it. Although these sports do not cause arthritis in normal weight bearing limbs, they can accelerate it in damaged joints. It is important to identify people with preeexisting joint disease so they can choose nonimpact-loading aerobic exercise.…

  15. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  16. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  17. Utah CTE: Running in New Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Kristine; Fischio, Shannon; Thomas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Although the authors admit that they do not have any fool-proof formulas to offer for using Web site, blog, Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube in order to more successfully share one's career and technical education (CTE) story, they share a story of their own journey and hope that it may help people to run faster and more effectively in these new…

  18. Jet physics at CDF Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Safonov, A.; /UC, Davis

    2004-12-01

    The latest results on jet physics at CDF are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to studies of the inclusive jet cross section using 177 pb{sup -1} of Run II data. Also discussed is a study of gluon and quark jet fragmentation.

  19. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth

    PubMed Central

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth. PMID:22198759

  20. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  1. The influence of a new sole geometry while running

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  2. The influence of a new sole geometry while running.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown.

  3. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  4. Kinematic and kinetic analyses of novice running in dress shoes and running shoes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongku; Kim, Young-Kwan; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Kong, Sejin; Lee, Ki-Kwang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how novice runners adjust their lower extremities in heel-toe running while they wear dress shoes and running shoes. Ten novice male runners repeatedly ran across a force plate at 4 m/s in each type of shoes. Joint kinematics and kinetics, vertical ground reaction force, and utilized coefficient of friction during the stance phase were quantified. The results obtained showed no differences in impact peaks, stance time, stride length and joint kinematics. However, dorsiflexion moment was significantly greater with dress shoes (407 Nm) compared to that with running shoes (304 Nm; p<0.05). Compared to the runners in running shoes (0.23), the runners in dress shoes (0.20) achieved a significantly lower utilized coefficient of friction ( p<0.05). When running in dress shoes, novice runners tended to use better a dorsiflexion moment than when running in running shoes. This adaptation appears to minimize the chances of slipping at the moment of heel strike.

  5. Effects of treadmill running and fatigue on impact acceleration in distance running.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, José Antonio; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana Belloch, Salvador; Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of treadmill running on impact acceleration were examined together with the interaction between running surface and runner's fatigue state. Twenty recreational runners (11 men and 9 women) ran overground and on a treadmill (at 4.0 m/s) before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a 30-minute run at 85% of individual maximal aerobic speed. Impact accelerations were analysed using two lightweight capacitive uniaxial accelerometers. A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance showed that, in the pre-fatigue condition, the treadmill running decreased head and tibial peak impact accelerations and impact rates (the rate of change of acceleration), but no significant difference was observed between the two surfaces in shock attenuation. There was no significant difference in acceleration parameters between the two surfaces in the post-fatigue condition. There was a significant interaction between surface (treadmill and overground) and fatigue state (pre-fatigue and post-fatigue). In particular, fatigue when running overground decreased impact acceleration severity, but it had no such effect when running on the treadmill. The effects of treadmill running and the interaction need to be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies that use a treadmill in their experimental protocols, and when prescribing physical exercise.

  6. A novel running mechanic's class changes kinematics but not running economy.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Lehecka, Nick; King, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    A novel method of running technique instruction, Midstance to Midstance Running (MMR), was studied to determine how MMR affected kinematics and running economy (RE) of recreational runners. An experimental pre-post randomized groups design was used. Participants (n = 18) were recreational runners who ran at least 3 days a week and 5 km per run. All testing was performed on a treadmill at 2.8 m·s. The intervention group (n = 9) completed 8 weeks of instruction in MMR; the control group (n = 9) continued running without instruction. The MMR group showed significant decreases in stride length (SL) (p = 0.02) and maximum knee flexion velocity in stance (p = 0.01), and a significant increase in stride rate (SR) (p = 0.02) after 8 weeks. No significant changes were found in heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, or RE. Midstance to Midstance Running was effective in changing SR and SL, but was not effective in changing other kinematic variables such as foot contact position and maximum knee flexion during swing. Midstance to Midstance Running did not affect RE. Evidence suggests that MMR may be an appropriate instructional method for recreational runners trying to decrease SL and increase SR.

  7. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Tim W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Humans run faster by increasing a combination of stride length and stride frequency. In slow and medium-paced running, stride length is increased by exerting larger support forces during ground contact, whereas in fast running and sprinting, stride frequency is increased by swinging the legs more rapidly through the air. Many studies have investigated the mechanics of human running, yet little is known about how the individual leg muscles accelerate the joints and centre of mass during this task. The aim of this study was to describe and explain the synergistic actions of the individual leg muscles over a wide range of running speeds, from slow running to maximal sprinting. Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds. For speeds up to 7 m s(-1), the ankle plantarflexors, soleus and gastrocnemius, contributed most significantly to vertical support forces and hence increases in stride length. At speeds greater than 7 m s(-1), these muscles shortened at relatively high velocities and had less time to generate the forces needed for support. Thus, above 7 m s(-1), the strategy used to increase running speed shifted to the goal of increasing stride frequency. The hip muscles, primarily the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus and hamstrings, achieved this goal by accelerating the hip and knee joints more vigorously during swing. These findings provide insight into the strategies used by the leg muscles to maximise running performance and have implications for the design of athletic training programs.

  8. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  9. An overview of hip injuries in running.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    Running has steadily gained in worldwide popularity and is the primary exercise modality for many individuals of all ages. Its low cost, versatility, convenience and related health benefits appeal to men and women of broad cultural, ethnic and economic backgrounds. With more children and adults participating in recreational and competitive running, the incidence of injuries has steadily increased. Most running-related injuries affecting the lower extremities are due to preventable training errors, and some may necessitate medical evaluation or a significant reduction in training. Hip injuries in runners are due to interactions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that adversely affect the complex regional anatomy. Acute or chronic hip pain presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the vague, nonspecific symptoms and signs may originate from local, regional or distant foci. Muscle strains and tendonitis are the most common aetiologies of hip pain and typically result from sudden acceleration/deceleration manoeuvres, direction changes or eccentric contractions. Apophysitis and avulsion fractures may affect younger runners and produce localised pain at muscle attachment sites. Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral hip and knee symptoms characterised by sharp or burning pain that is exacerbated by activity. Bursitis, due to repetitive activity or acute trauma, may affect the trochanteric, ischial or iliopectineal bursae. Hip osteoarthritis may also produce persistent pain that worsens with running. Stress fractures are potentially serious conditions that affect women more frequently than men. Snapping hip syndrome is a benign condition that results from tight connective tissues' passing repeatedly over the greater trochanter, anterior hip capsule, lesser trochanter, femoral head or iliopectineal eminence. Acetabular labral tears, sports hernias and nerve entrapment syndromes are also potential causes of persistent hip pain in runners

  10. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  11. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  12. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  13. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  14. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  15. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  16. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  17. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  18. Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Creer, David J.; Romberg, Carola; Saksida, Lisa M.; van Praag, Henriette; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular exercise improves brain health and promotes synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise improves learning, but specific mechanisms of information processing influenced by physical activity are unknown. Here, we report that voluntary running enhanced the ability of adult (3 months old) male C57BL/6 mice to discriminate between the locations of two adjacent identical stimuli. Improved spatial pattern separation in adult runners was tightly correlated with increased neurogenesis. In contrast, very aged (22 months old) mice had impaired spatial discrimination and low basal cell genesis that was refractory to running. These findings suggest that the addition of newly born neurons may bolster dentate gyrus-mediated encoding of fine spatial distinctions. PMID:20133882

  19. Somatosensory perception of running shoe mass.

    PubMed

    Slade, Stephen J; Greenya, Joel G; Kliethermes, Christopher L; Senchina, David S

    2014-01-01

    Running shoes are often marketed based on mass. A total of 50 young adult males participated across two separate experiments to determine how well they could perceive the relative masses of five different running shoes using hands versus feet. For the foot portion, subjects were blindly fitted with the shoes and asked to rank their masses individually using visual analogue scales (VAS) and verbal rankings. For the hand portion, two different methods were used, one presenting all shoes simultaneously and the other presenting the shoes individually. Verbal accuracy and VAS scores correlated across subjects for the hand and foot, but accuracy in mass perception by the feet was 30% compared to 92% or 63% by the hand (depending on the method). These results indicate the foot perceives mass poorly compared to the hand, and that consumers' perception of shoe mass may come more from handling shoes versus wearing them.

  20. The anatomy and biomechanics of running.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Terry L; Jewison, David J

    2012-04-01

    To understand the normal series of biomechanical events of running, a comparative assessment to walking is helpful. Closed kinetic chain through the lower extremities, control of the lumbopelvic mechanism, and overall symmetry of movement has been described well enough that deviations from normal movement can now be associated with specific overuse injuries experienced by runners. This information in combination with a history of the runner's errors in their training program will lead to a more comprehensive treatment and prevention plan for related injuries.

  1. Full Spectrum Operations: A Running Start

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    exposing them to ultra-violet light). In systems using ultra- violet (UV) light, this step occurs last in the process as the previous two steps... Wastewater and Wastewater Effluent Processing .” Global Water Group, Inc, Dallas, Texas. Online database. http://www.globalwater.com/index.html...the nature of the BCT or create a new organization. To generate a running start, I will focus on two problems faced during the critical transition

  2. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  3. Comparing Computer Run Time of Building Simulation Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip; Selkowitz, Stephen; Wetter, Michael

    2008-07-23

    This paper presents an approach to comparing computer run time of building simulation programs. The computing run time of a simulation program depends on several key factors, including the calculation algorithm and modeling capabilities of the program, the run period, the simulation time step, the complexity of the energy models, the run control settings, and the software and hardware configurations of the computer that is used to make the simulation runs. To demonstrate the approach, simulation runs are performed for several representative DOE-2.1E and EnergyPlus energy models. The computer run time of these energy models are then compared and analyzed.

  4. RUNNING TECHNIQUE IS AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF RUNNING ECONOMY AND PERFORMANCE.

    PubMed

    Folland, Jonathan P; Allen, Sam J; Black, Matthew I; Handsaker, Joseph C; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2017-03-03

    Despite an intuitive relationship between technique and both running economy (RE) and performance, and the diverse techniques employed by runners to achieve forward locomotion, the objective importance of overall technique and the key components therein remain to be elucidated.

  5. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Lockey, Richard A; Abraham, Corinne S; Staerck, Allan; Goodwin, Jon E; McInnes, Gillian

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of short-term creatine monohydrate supplementation on multiple sprint running performance. Using a double-blind research design, 42 physically active men completed a series of 3 indoor multiple sprint running trials (15 x 30 m repeated at 35-second intervals). After the first 2 trials (familiarization and baseline), subjects were matched for fatigue score before being randomly assigned to 5 days of either creatine (4 x d(-1) x 5 g creatine monohydrate + 1 g maltodextrin) or placebo (4 x d(-1) x 6 g maltodextrin) supplementation. Sprint times were recorded via twin-beam photocells, and earlobe blood samples were drawn to evaluate posttest lactate concentrations. Relative to placebo, creatine supplementation resulted in a 0.7 kg increase in body mass (95% likely range: 0.02 to 1.3 kg) and a 0.4% reduction in body fat (95% likely range: -0.2 to 0.9%). There were no significant (p > 0.05) between-group differences in multiple sprint measures of fastest time, mean time, fatigue, or posttest blood lactate concentration. Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.

  6. Constructing predictive models of human running

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Horst-Moritz; Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John; Ludwig, Christian; Reger, Johann; Seyfarth, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict future motions. We construct SLIP control models using data-driven Floquet analysis, and show how these models may be used to obtain predictive models of human running with six additional states comprising the position and velocity of the swing-leg ankle. Our methods are general, and may be applied to any rhythmic physical system. We provide an approach for identifying an event-driven linear controller that approximates an observed stabilization strategy, and for producing a reduced-state model which closely recovers the observed dynamics. PMID:25505131

  7. The mechanics of running in children.

    PubMed

    Schepens, B; Willems, P A; Cavagna, G A

    1998-06-15

    1. The effect of age and body size on the bouncing mechanism of running was studied in children aged 2-16 years. 2. The natural frequency of the bouncing system (fs) and the external work required to move the centre of mass of the body were measured using a force platform. 3. At all ages, during running below approximately 11 km h-1, the freely chosen step frequency (f) is about equal to fs (symmetric rebound), independent of speed, although it decreases with age from 4 Hz at 2 years to 2.5 Hz above 12 years. 4. The decrease of step frequency with age is associated with a decrease in the mass-specific vertical stiffness of the bouncing system (k/m) due to an increase of the body mass (m) with a constant stiffness (k). Above 12 years, k/m and f remain approximately constant due to a parallel increase in both k and m with age. 5. Above the critical speed of approximately 11 km h-1, independent of age, the rebound becomes asymmetric, i.e. f < fs. 6. The maximum running speed (Vf, max) increases with age while the step frequency at remains constant (approximately 4 Hz), independent of age. 7. At a given speed, the higher step frequency in preteens results in a mass-specific power against gravity less than that in adults. The external power required to move the centre of mass of the body is correspondingly reduced.

  8. Running with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Amanda H; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a running control architecture for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that enables a transfemoral amputee to run with a biomechanically appropriate running gait and to intentionally transition between a walking and running gait. The control architecture consists firstly of a coordination level controller, which provides gait biomechanics representative of healthy running, and secondly of a gait selection controller that enables the user to intentionally transition between a running and walking gait. The running control architecture was implemented on a transfemoral prosthesis with powered knee and ankle joints, and the efficacy of the controller was assessed in a series of running trials with a transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, treadmill trials were conducted to assess the extent to which the coordination controller provided a biomechanically appropriate running gait. Separate trials were conducted to assess the ability of the user to consistently and reliably transition between walking and running gaits.

  9. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  10. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run I and Upgrades for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Dai

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken data at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV during Run I (2009-2013). The LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb-1 in 2012, which required dedicated strategies to ensure the highest possible physics output while effectively reducing the event rate. The Muon High Level Trigger has successfully adapted to the changing environment from low instantaneous luminosity (1032 cm-2 s-1) in 2010 to the peak high instantaneous luminosity (1034 cm-2 s-1). The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving muons in the final state. We will present the excellent performance achieved during Run I. In preparation for the next data taking period (Run II) several hardware and software upgrades to the ATLAS Muon Trigger have been performed to deal with the increased trigger rate expected at higher centre-of-mass energy and increased instantaneous luminosity. We will highlight the development of novel algorithms that have been developed to maintain a highly efficient event selection while reducing the processing time by a factor of three. In addition, the two stages of the high level trigger that was deployed in Run I will be merged for Run II. We will discuss novel approaches that are being developed to further improve the trigger algorithms for Run II and beyond.

  12. Can parallel use of different running shoes decrease running-related injury risk?

    PubMed

    Malisoux, L; Ramesh, J; Mann, R; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Theisen, D

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI.

  13. Aging and factors related to running economy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy J; Manley, Michelle J; Aziz, Jason; Padham, Jamie L; MacKenzie, Allison M

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship that age has on factors affecting running economy (RE) in competitive distance runners. Fifty-one male and female subelite distance runners (Young [Y]: 18-39 years [n = 18]; Master [M]: 40-59 years [n = 22]; and Older [O]: 60-older [n = 11]) were measured for RE, step rate, lactate threshold (LT), VO2max, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, power, and body composition. An RE test was conducted at 4 different velocities (161, 188, 215, and 241 m·min(-1)), with subjects running for 5 minutes at each velocity. The steady-state VO2max during the last minute of each stage was recorded and plotted vs. speed, and a regression equation was formulated. A 1 × 3 analysis of variance revealed no differences in the slopes of the RE regression lines among age groups (y = 0.1827x - 0.2974; R2 = 0.9511 [Y]; y = 0.1988x - 1.0416; R2 = 0.9697 [M]; y = 0.1727x + 3.0252; R2 = 0.9618 [O]). The VO2max was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 64.1 ± 3.2; M = 56.8 ± 2.7; O = 44.4 ± 1.7 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The maximal heart rate and velocity @ LT were significantly different among all age groups (Y = 197 ± 4; M = 183 ± 2; O = 170 ± 6 b·min(-1) and Y = 289.7 ± 27.0; M = 251.5 ± 32.9; O = 212.3 ± 24.6 m·min(-1), respectively). The VO2max @ LT was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 50.3 ± 2.0; M = 48.8 ± 2.9; O = 34.9 ± 3.2 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The O group was significantly lower than in the Y and M groups in flexibility, power, and upper body strength. Multiple regression analyses showed that strength and power were significantly related to running velocity. The results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that age-related declines in running performance are associated with declines in maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory variables and declines in strength and power, not because of declines in running economy.

  14. Body borne loads impact walk-to-run and running biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Brown, T N; O'Donovan, M; Hasselquist, L; Corner, B D; Schiffman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a biomechanics-based assessment of body borne load during the walk-to-run transition and steady-state running because historical research has limited load carriage assessment to prolonged walking. Fifteen male military personnel had trunk and lower limb biomechanics examined during these locomotor tasks with three different load configurations (light, ∼6 kg, medium, ∼20 kg, and heavy, ∼40 kg). Subject-based means of the dependent variables were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the effects of load configuration. During the walk-to-run transition, the hip decreased (P=0.001) and knee increased (P=0.004) their contribution to joint power with the addition of load. Additionally, greater peak trunk (P=0.001), hip (P=0.001), and knee flexion (P<0.001) moments and trunk flexion (P<0.001) angle, and reduced hip (P=0.001) and knee flexion (P=0.001) posture were evident during the loaded walk-to-run transition. Body borne load had no significant effect (P>0.05) on distribution of lower limb joint power during steady-state running, but increased peak trunk (P<0.001), hip (P=0.001), and knee (P=0.001) flexion moments, and trunk flexion (P<0.001) posture were evident. During the walk-to-run transition the load carrier may move joint power production distally down the kinetic chain and adopt biomechanical profiles to maintain performance of the task. The load carrier, however, may not adopt lower limb kinematic adaptations necessary to shift joint power distribution during steady-state running, despite exhibiting potentially detrimental larger lower limb joint loads. As such, further study appears needed to determine how load carriage impairs maximal locomotor performance.

  15. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  16. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  17. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  18. Contribution of trunk muscularity on sprint run.

    PubMed

    Kubo, T; Hoshikawa, Y; Muramatsu, M; Iida, T; Komori, S; Shibukawa, K; Kanehisa, H

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the trunk muscularity is related to sprint running performance. In 23 youth soccer players, the cross-sectional images at the mid level of each of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging to determine the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of rectus abdominis, oblique, psoas major, quadratus lumborum and erector spinae muscles. The times taken to sprint over 20 m were measured, and the mean velocity of running was calculated for each of the 2 distances (V (10 m) and V (20 m)) and for the distance from 10 m to 20 m (V (10-20 m)). The CSA values of the 5 slice levels for all muscles except for the quadratus lumborum and those of the 3 slice levels (L1-L2, L2-L3 and L3-L4) for the quadratus lumborum were averaged and expressed relative to the two-third power of body mass (CSA/BM (2/3)). The CSA/BM (2/3) values of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum were selected as significant contributors to predict V (10 m) ( R(2)=0.450), V (20 m) ( R(2)=0.504) and V (10-20 m) ( R(2)=0.420). The current results indicate that the muscularity of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum contributes to achieving a high performance in sprint running over distances of less than 20 m.

  19. Repeatability of a running heat tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jessica A; Doust, Jo; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    At present there is no standardised heat tolerance test (HTT) procedure adopting a running mode of exercise. Current HTTs may misdiagnose a runner's susceptibility to a hyperthermic state due to differences in exercise intensity. The current study aimed to establish the repeatability of a practical running test to evaluate individual's ability to tolerate exercise heat stress. Sixteen (8M, 8F) participants performed the running HTT (RHTT) (30 min, 9 km h(-1), 2% elevation) on two separate occasions in a hot environment (40 °C and 40% relative humidity). There were no differences in peak rectal temperature (RHTT1: 38.82 ± 0.47 °C, RHTT2: 38.86 ± 0.49 °C, Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.93, typical error of measure (TEM) = 0.13 °C), peak skin temperature (RHTT1: 38.12 ± 0.45, RHTT2: 38.11 ± 0.45 °C, ICC = 0.79, TEM = 0.30 °C), peak heart rate (RHTT1: 182 ± 15 beats min(-1), RHTT2: 183 ± 15 beats min(-1), ICC = 0.99, TEM = 2 beats min(-1)), nor sweat rate (1721 ± 675 g h(-1), 1716 ± 745 g h(-1), ICC = 0.95, TEM = 162 g h(-1)) between RHTT1 and RHTT2 (p>0.05). Results demonstrate good agreement, strong correlations and small differences between repeated trials, and the TEM values suggest low within-participant variability. The RHTT was effective in differentiating between individuals physiological responses; supporting a heat tolerance continuum. The findings suggest the RHTT is a repeatable measure of physiological strain in the heat and may be used to assess the effectiveness of acute and chronic heat alleviating procedures.

  20. Blood glutathione status following distance running.

    PubMed

    Dufaux, B; Heine, O; Kothe, A; Prinz, U; Rost, R

    1997-02-01

    In 12 moderately trained subjects reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the blood before and during the first two hours and first two days after a 2.5-h run. The participants covered between 19 and 26 km (20.8 +/- 2.5 km, mean +/- SD). The running speed was between 53 and 82% of the speed at which blood lactate concentration reached 4 mmol/L lactate (67.9 +/- 8.2%, mean +/- SD) assessed during a previously performed treadmill test. Blood samples were collected 1 h before, immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 2 h after, as well as 1 and 2 days after the run. Immediately after exercise GSH was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and GSSG significantly increased (p < 0.01). In all subjects the ratio of GSH to GSSG showed a marked decline to 18 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD) of the pre-exercise values (p < 0.01). One hour later the mean GSH and GSSG values returned to baseline. However, there were considerable inter-individual differences. In some subjects the GSH/ GSSG ratio overshot the pre-exercise levels, in others the ratio remained low even two hours after exercise. Compared with the pre-exercise values TBARS concentrations did not change significantly at any time point after exercise. The findings suggest that after prolonged exercise in moderately trained subjects a critical shift in the blood glutathione redox status may be reached. The changes observed were generally short-lived, the duration of which may have depended on the relative importance of reactive oxygen species generation by the capillary endothelial cells and neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes after the end of exercise.

  1. Effects of multicycle-run training on triathlete performance.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Valluet, Alex; Blonc, Stephen; Hertogh, Claude

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of triathlon training using multiple, short cycle-run sequences (multicycle-run training) on cycle-run performance. Twelve competitive triathletes, randomized into two groups, underwent multicycle-run training or normal training for 6 weeks. During this period, baseline training remained the same for both groups, and only the high-intensity component differed. The differentiated exercises were performed at or above 100% maximal aerobic velocity. The improvements in overall cycle-run performance were similar (3.3 +/- 1.4 % and 6.1 +/- 1.7% rise in Performance in multicycle-run and normal training, respectively). However, the improvement in performance was significantly greater for the multicycle-run training (-11.2 +/- 6.8 s versus -1.2 +/- 7. 7 s for multicycle-run training and normal training, respectively) during both the cycle-run change and the first 333-m lap, which together are termed the cycle-run transition. We concluded that 6 weeks of multicycle-run training did not induce greater improvement in cycle-run performance than did normal training in competitive triathletes. However, it did induce significant improvement in the cycle-run transition. This finding indicates that multicycle-run training may help competitive triathletes to develop greater skill and better physiological adaptations during this critical transition period of the triathlon race.

  2. Lower Three Runs Instream Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    An Instream Flow Study was conducted to identify the minimum discharge from PAR Pond that will support a balanced biological fish community in Lower Three Runs. Hydraulic and habitat models of the Physical Habitat simulation System (PHABSIM), the major component of the US Fish and Wildlife Service`s Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) were applied. Following calibration of the Water Surface Profile (WSP)Model for three study reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to develop relationships between discharge and reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to development relationship between discharge and available habitat.

  3. Input data to run Landis-II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  4. CDF Run II silicon tracking projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sill, Alan; CDF Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    Design features, functionality, and expected performance are reviewed for the silicon charged particle track detectors to be used by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during the upcoming Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The original design has been supplemented by addiition of a new layer of silicon mounted on the beam pipe that improves the vertexing performance of the combined assembly. Progress has been made in many areas of design and construction of the silicon sensors, readout electronics, and associated systems. The resulting detector array should provide substantial improvements in coverage and performance over those of previous CDF silicon vertex detectors.

  5. Schools should not be run as businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Schools, prisons, hospitals, governments and the like should not be run as businesses or following business principles. The reason is simple, most businesses fail in 3 to 5 years and 90% fail in 10 years. Business methodology more often than not leads to failure. Society should instead prefer and follow the methods of science, engineering and democracy. The scientific method is superior to markets. It has been known for 100 years that groups can produce better decisions than individuals. We should not have chairs, and deans and presidents. Rather, decisions should be taken by workers councils.

  6. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  7. Effects of a structured midsole on spatio-temporal variables and running economy in overground running.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Tobias; Kröll, Josef; Stöggl, Thomas; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    Research to enhance running performance has led to the design of a leaf spring-structured midsole shoe (LEAF). In treadmill running, it has been shown that LEAF led to an increased running economy and increased stride length (SL) through a horizontal foot shift during stance compared to a standard foam shoe (FOAM). The purpose of this study was to analyse whether (a) these findings can also be observed in overground running and (b) relations exist between spatio-temporal variables and running economy. Ten male long-distance heel-strike runners ran at their individual 2 mmol/l blood lactate speed with LEAF and FOAM in randomized order. Kinematic data were recorded with an inertial measurement unit synchronized with 2D video. Oxygen consumption was measured using an automated metabolic gas analysis system. Blood lactate was collected after each run. The strike pattern was unaffected by LEAF. SL was increased by 0.9 ± 1.1 cm (95% CI 0.2 to 1.5; p = .040; dz = 0.76), stride rate (SR) was reduced by -0.4 ± 0.3 strides/min (95% CI -0.6 to -0.1; p = .029; dz = 0.82) and oxygen consumption tended to be reduced by 1% (-0.4 ± 0.6 ml/min/kg; 95% CI -0.8 to 0.0; p = .082; dz = 0.62) when running with LEAF compared to FOAM. Changes in oxygen consumption in LEAF were correlated with SL (r = 0.71; p = .022) and SR (r = -0.68; p = .031). It can be concluded that LEAF has the potential to cause small changes in spatio-temporal variables during running. Runners increasing SL and decreasing SR in response to LEAF can achieve small improvements in running economy, which is beneficial in terms of performance.

  8. Dissociation between running economy and running performance in elite Kenyan distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mooses, Martin; Mooses, Kerli; Haile, Diresibachew Wondimu; Durussel, Jérôme; Kaasik, Priit; Pitsiladis, Yannis Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE) and performance in a homogenous group of competitive Kenyan distance runners. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (68.8 ± 3.8 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) was determined on a motorised treadmill in 32 Kenyan (25.3 ± 5.0 years; IAAF performance score: 993 ± 77 p) distance runners. Leg anthropometry was assessed and moment arm of the Achilles tendon determined. While Achilles moment arm was associated with better RE (r(2) = 0.30, P = 0.003) and upper leg length, total leg length and total leg length to body height ratio were correlated with running performance (r = 0.42, P = 0.025; r = 0.40, P = 0.030 and r = 0.38, P = 0.043, respectively), RE and maximal time on treadmill (t(max)) were not associated with running performance (r = -0.01, P = 0.965; r = 0.27; P = 0.189, respectively) in competitive Kenyan distance runners. The dissociation between RE and running performance in this homogenous group of runners would suggest that RE can be compensated by other factors to maintain high performance levels and is in line with the idea that RE is only one of many factors explaining elite running performance.

  9. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  10. Primordial gravitational waves in running vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, D. A.; Lima, J. A. S.; Alves, M. E. S.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves in a nonsingular flat cosmology powered by a "running vacuum" energy density described by ρΛ ≡ ρΛ(H), a phenomenological expression potentially linked with the renormalization group approach in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. The model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (2013) [25] which is termed complete in the sense that the cosmic evolution occurs between two extreme de Sitter stages (early and late time de Sitter phases). The gravitational wave equation is derived and its time-dependent part numerically integrated since the primordial de Sitter stage. The generated spectrum of gravitons is also compared with the standard calculations where an abrupt transition, from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase, is usually assumed. It is found that the stochastic background of gravitons is very similar to the one predicted by the cosmic concordance model plus inflation except at higher frequencies (ν ≳ 100 kHz). This remarkable signature of a "running vacuum" cosmology combined with the proposed high frequency gravitational wave detectors and measurements of the CMB polarization (B-modes) may provide a new window to confront more conventional models of inflation.

  11. Can cycle power predict sprint running performance?

    PubMed

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Jacobs, R; de Koning, J J

    1991-01-01

    A major criticism of present models of the energetics and mechanics of sprint running concerns the application of estimates of parameters which seem to be adapted from measurements of running during actual competitions. This study presents a model which does not perpetuate this solecism. Using data obtained during supra-maximal cycle ergometer tests of highly trained athletes, the kinetics of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways were modelled. Internal power wasted in the acceleration and deceleration of body limbs and the power necessary to overcome air friction was calculated from data in the literature. Assuming a mechanical efficiency as found during submaximal cycling, a power equation was constructed which also included the power necessary to accelerate the body at the start of movement. The differential equation thus obtained was solved through simulation. The model appeared to predict realistic times at 100 m (10.47 s), 200 m (19.63 s) and 400 m (42.99 s) distances. By comparison with other methods it is argued that power equations of locomotion should include the concept of mechanical efficiency.

  12. GRETINA commissioning and engineering run resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, Thomas; Beausang, Con; Ross, Tim; Hughes, Richard; Gell, Kristen; Good, Erin

    2012-10-01

    GRETINA, the first stage in the full Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETA), consists of seven modules covering approximately 1 solid angle. Each module is made up of four large, highly-segmented germanium detectors capable of measuring the interaction points of individual gamma-rays. GRETINA has recently been assembled and commissioned in LBNL via a series of engineering and commissioning runs. Here we report on an analysis of data from the first engineering run (ER01) which was intended to probe the response of the data acquisition system to high multiplicity gamma-ray cascades. For this experiment the 122Sn(40Ar, 4n) reaction at a beam energy of 210 MeV was utilized to populate high spin states in 158Er. A variety of beam currents, targets and trigger conditions were utilized to test the acquisition. Here we report on the measured energy resolution, both with calibration and in-beam sources as well as a gamma-gamma coincidence analysis to confirm the known level scheme and the capability of the data acquisition system for high fold coincidence measurements. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy via grant numbers DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05-ER41379.

  13. A runs-test algorithm: contingent reinforcement and response run structures.

    PubMed

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food, and the incorrect choice resulted in a blackout. Results indicated that this contingency reduced sequential dependencies among successive choice responses. With one exception, subjects' choice rule was well described as biased coin flipping. In Experiment 2, cuing was removed and the reinforcement criterion was changed to a percentile score based on the last 20 reinforced responses. The results replicated those of Experiment 1 in successfully eliminating first-order dependencies in all subjects. For 2 subjects, choice allocation was approximately consistent with nonbiased coin flipping. These results suggest that sequential dependencies may be a function of reinforcement contingency.

  14. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n = 13) runners ran at four speeds (2.5-5.5 m/s) while lower limb mechanics and electromyography of the thigh muscles were collected. There were few differences in prelanding activation levels, but HM runners displayed lower activations of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and semitendinosus muscles postlanding, and these differences increased with running speed. HM runners also demonstrated higher initial knee stiffness during the impact phase compared with LM runners, which was associated with an earlier peak knee flexion velocity, and both were relatively unchanged by running speed. In contrast, LM runners had higher knee stiffness during the slightly later weight acceptance phase and the disparity was amplified with increases in speed. It was concluded that initial knee joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by

  15. 5K Run: 7-Week Training Schedule for Beginners

    MedlinePlus

    ... This 5K training schedule incorporates a mix of running, walking and resting. This combination helps reduce the ... you'll gradually increase the amount of time running and reduce the amount of time walking. If ...

  16. 6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking NE - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

  17. 5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking N - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

  18. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  19. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  20. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  1. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  2. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  3. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. LHC Computing: The First Run and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Ian

    2012-10-10

    Even in between the last two generations of high energy physics detectors there has been a tremendous amount of progress in the area of computing. The distributed computing systems used in the LHC are composed of large-scale facilities on 5 continents, executing over a million processing requests a day, and moving peta-bytes of data a month. In this presentation I will discuss the operational experience of the LHC experiments and the challenges faced in the first run. I will discuss how the techniques have evolved and I will cover future projects to improve the distributed computing infrastructure and services. I will close by speaking of some potential new technologies being explored.

  5. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ = σH +Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ = 0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0 /Λ0 ≲ 2.63 ×10-2 and 6.74 ×10-2 for Λ (t) coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  6. Hit-and-run planetary collisions.

    PubMed

    Asphaug, Erik; Agnor, Craig B; Williams, Quentin

    2006-01-12

    Terrestrial planet formation is believed to have concluded in our Solar System with about 10 million to 100 million years of giant impacts, where hundreds of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos acquired random velocities through gravitational encounters and resonances with one another and with Jupiter. This led to planet-crossing orbits and collisions that produced the four terrestrial planets, the Moon and asteroids. But here we show that colliding planets do not simply merge, as is commonly assumed. In many cases, the smaller planet escapes from the collision highly deformed, spun up, depressurized from equilibrium, stripped of its outer layers, and sometimes pulled apart into a chain of diverse objects. Remnants of these 'hit-and-run' collisions are predicted to be common among remnant planet-forming populations, and thus to be relevant to asteroid formation and meteorite petrogenesis.

  7. Giving students the run of sprinting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-11-01

    A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental results. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.

  8. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula.

  9. Runs of Homozygosity in European Populations

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab; Franklin, Christopher S.; Pericic, Marijana; Barac-Lauc, Lovorka; Smolej-Narancic, Nina; Janicijevic, Branka; Polasek, Ozren; Tenesa, Albert; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Farrington, Susan M.; Rudan, Pavao; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wild, Sarah H.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating individual genome-wide autozygosity is important both in the identification of recessive disease variants via homozygosity mapping and in the investigation of the effects of genome-wide homozygosity on traits of biomedical importance. Approaches have tended to involve either single-point estimates or rather complex multipoint methods of inferring individual autozygosity, all on the basis of limited marker data. Now, with the availability of high-density genome scans, a multipoint, observational method of estimating individual autozygosity is possible. Using data from a 300,000 SNP panel in 2618 individuals from two isolated and two more-cosmopolitan populations of European origin, we explore the potential of estimating individual autozygosity from data on runs of homozygosity (ROHs). Termed Froh, this is defined as the proportion of the autosomal genome in runs of homozygosity above a specified length. Mean Froh distinguishes clearly between subpopulations classified in terms of grandparental endogamy and population size. With the use of good pedigree data for one of the populations (Orkney), Froh was found to correlate strongly with the inbreeding coefficient estimated from pedigrees (r = 0.86). Using pedigrees to identify individuals with no shared maternal and paternal ancestors in five, and probably at least ten, generations, we show that ROHs measuring up to 4 Mb are common in demonstrably outbred individuals. Given the stochastic variation in ROH number, length, and location and the fact that ROHs are important whether ancient or recent in origin, approaches such as this will provide a more useful description of genomic autozygosity than has hitherto been possible. PMID:18760389

  10. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Kuennen, M.; Gourley, C.; Schneider, S.; Dokladny, K.; Moseley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post) and 1.5 hrs post race (+1.5). Results Lac concentration was higher at +1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p < 0.05). Lys was unaffected by the race (p > 0.05). IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower +1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p < 0.05). Cort concentration was higher at post compared to +1.5 (p < 0.05), but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81±1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p < 0.05) compared to pre race. Conclusions The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running. PMID:24744458

  11. Modular Control of Treadmill vs Overground Running

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Motorized treadmills have been widely used in locomotion studies, although a debate remains concerning the extrapolation of results obtained from treadmill experiments to overground locomotion. Slight differences between treadmill (TRD) and overground running (OVG) kinematics and muscle activity have previously been reported. However, little is known about differences in the modular control of muscle activation in these two conditions. Therefore, we aimed at investigating differences between motor modules extracted from TRD and OVG by factorization of multi-muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals. Twelve healthy men ran on a treadmill and overground at their preferred speed while we recorded tibial acceleration and surface EMG from 11 ipsilateral lower limb muscles. We extracted motor modules representing relative weightings of synergistic muscle activations by non-negative matrix factorization from 20 consecutive gait cycles. Four motor modules were sufficient to accurately reconstruct the EMG signals in both TRD and OVG (average reconstruction quality = 92±3%). Furthermore, a good reconstruction quality (80±7%) was obtained also when muscle weightings of one condition (either OVG or TRD) were used to reconstruct the EMG data from the other condition. The peak amplitudes of activation signals showed a similar timing (pattern) across conditions. The magnitude of peak activation for the module related to initial contact was significantly greater for OVG, whereas peak activation for modules related to leg swing and preparation to landing were greater for TRD. We conclude that TRD and OVG share similar muscle weightings throughout motion. In addition, modular control for TRD and OVG is achieved with minimal temporal adjustments, which were dependent on the phase of the running cycle. PMID:27064978

  12. A new ankle foot orthosis for running.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Moore, Allan; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic knee injuries in automobile accidents and sports often lead to damage of the peroneal nerve. A lack of control of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve due to this damage, results in the inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot and to extend the toes. This condition is commonly known as foot drop. Foot drop reduces the stability in the body while walking and running and may also cause injury due to lack of foot clearance during the swing phase of the gait. Traditionally, an ankle foot orthosis (AFO), comprised of a moulded sheet of plastic that conforms around the posterior calf and distally contains all or part of the calcaneous as well as the plantar foot, is used to treat foot drop. The intent of this orthosis is to dorsiflex the foot to provide clearance during the swing phase of walking and running. Traditional AFO results in increased pressures due to a decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle and make the orthosis increasingly uncomfortable to wear. Several other existing designs of foot drop AFO suffer from similar inadequacies. To address these issues, a new AFO was developed. The device was successfully used by one person with foot drop without issues for more than one year. This new design conforms to the lower anterior shin and dorsum of the foot using dorsiassist Tamarack ankle joints to allow for greater plantar and dorsiflexion range of motion. While still limiting ankle inversion it does allow for more ankle eversion. This orthosis can be discretely worn inside shoes due to its smaller size, and can be worn for a longer period of time without discomfort.

  13. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  14. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407... Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Measure and record the temperature of the air... repeated, as long as the engine is preconditioned by running the previous mode. In the case of the...

  15. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  16. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-12 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data...

  17. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test runs. 86.537-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.537-90 Dynamometer test runs. (a) The vehicle... (505 seconds) is run. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Place drive wheel...

  18. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test runs. 86.537-90... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.537-90 Dynamometer test runs. (a) The vehicle... (505 seconds) is run. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Place drive wheel...

  19. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  20. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  1. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air... stream if the engine is left running; (7) Precondition the engine by operating it for 10 minutes...

  2. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  3. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  4. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air... stream if the engine is left running; (7) Precondition the engine by operating it for 10 minutes...

  5. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  6. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.507-08 Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change...

  7. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.507-86 Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change...

  8. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  9. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-86 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.507-12 Running change data requirements. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, the manufacturer shall submit additional running change...

  11. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-08 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-96 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1... per test portion. (c) If a dynamometer test run is determined to be void, corrective action may...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-2007 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test... start portion and one for the hot start portion. (c) If a dynamometer test run is determined to be...

  14. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  15. Running, Heart Disease, and the Ironic Death of Jim Fixx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plymire, Darcy C.

    2002-01-01

    Runner Jim Fixx wrote a book about running and died young of a heart attack while running. Fixx and other authors believed heart disease resulted from overcivilization and recommended running as a way of life and cure, advising readers to listen to their bodies instead of their doctors. Fixx's adherence to that philosophy explains his behavior…

  16. Predictors of Running Away from Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Running away is a frequent but little studied phenomenon among adolescents in foster care. Repeated running from care often leads to premature discharge and homelessness for youth. This article uses cumulative risk theory in the context of normative adolescent development to investigate predictors of running away from foster care. Results indicate…

  17. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  18. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  19. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  20. 40 CFR 1066.960 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Running loss test. 1066.960 Section 1066.960 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... Procedures for Motor Vehicles § 1066.960 Running loss test. Test vehicles for running loss emissions...

  1. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet...

  2. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  3. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  4. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  5. Effects of forefoot bending elasticity of running shoes on gait and running performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Tu, Kuan-Hua; Liu, Chiang; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of forefoot bending elasticity of running shoes on kinetics and kinematics during walking and running. Twelve healthy male participants wore normal and elastic shoes while walking at 1.5m/s, jogging at 2.5m/s, and running at 3.5m/s. The elastic shoes were designed by modifying the stiffness of flexible shoes with elastic bands added to the forefoot part of the shoe sole. A Kistler force platform and Vicon system were used to collect kinetic and kinematic data during push-off. Electromyography was used to record the muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius and medial tibialis anterior. A paired dependent t-test was used to compare the various shoes and the level of significance was set at α=.05. The range of motion of the ankle joint and the maximal anterior-posterior propulsive force differed significantly between elastic and flexible shoes in walking and jogging. The contact time and medial gastrocnemius muscle activation in the push-off phase were significantly lower for the elastic shoes compared with the flexible shoes in walking and jogging. The elastic forefoot region of shoes can alter movement characteristics in walking and jogging. However, for running, the elasticity used in this study was not strong enough to exert a similar effect.

  6. Effects of replica running shoes upon external forces and muscle activity during running.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Paula Da Silva; Brandina, Kátia; Bianco, Roberto; Oliveira, Vitor Henrique De; Souza, Juliana Roque De; Mezencio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca

    2012-05-01

    Twelve participants ran (9 km · h(-1)) to test two types of running shoes: replica and original shoes. Ground reaction force, plantar pressure and electromyographic activity were recorded. The shoes were tested randomly and on different days. Comparisons between the two experimental conditions were made by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P ≤ 0.05). The time to first peak, loading rate of the first peak and impulse of the first 75 ms of stance were significantly different between the shoes (P ≤ 0.05), revealing an increase of impact forces for the replica shoes. The peak plantar pressure values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) when wearing replica shoes. During running, the contact area was significantly smaller (P ≤ 0.05) for the replica shoe. The electromyographic activity of the analysed muscles did not show changes between the two shoes in running. These findings suggest that the use of replica running shoes can increase the external load applied to the human body, but may not change the muscle activity pattern during locomotion. This new mechanical situation may increase the risk of injuries in these movements.

  7. How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as “Can the world’s fastest men become faster still?” The correct answer is likely “Yes.” We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  8. Progress report of hydrology and sedimentation in Bixler Run, Corey Creek, and Elk Run watersheds, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, J.K.

    1957-01-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation in progress and presents some tentative findings from a study of hydrology and sedimentation of three small watersheds where soil conservation practices are being applied. The study was begun in April 1954, to determine precipitation, runoff, probable sources and yields of sediment, and channel changes in two small watersheds in Pennsylvania. This report covers the period April 1954, to September 30, 1955 with the exception of the aggradation-degradation range data which covers the period October 1954 to November 1956. The internal or time control method of calibration is being used for the Bixler Run watershed study, and an external control is being used in the Corey Creek study.Precipitation on Bixler Run watershed was 47.33 inches for the 1955 water year. Total runoff was 14.08 inches and the suspended sediment yield was 1,143.3 tons or 76 tons per square mile of drainage area. Precipitation on Corey Creek watershed for the same period totaled 35.81 inches. The total runoff was 8.37 inches and the suspended-sediment yield was 713.0 tons or 58.2 tons per square mile of drainage area. The precipitation on Elk Run, external control watershed for the Corey Creek study was 34.54 inches. The runoff was 10.10 inches and the suspended sediment yield was 709.9 tons or 69.5 tons per square mile.Results from the study of channel changes by means of sediment aggradation-degradation ranges showed fill in all three watersheds. Bixler Run showed an average channel fill of 1.3 square feet per stream cross section. Corey Creek and Elk Run watersheds showed average fills of 2.9 and 4.1 square feet per cross section respectively. Most of the sediments comprising this fill were in the particle size range of gravel and coarser material.The water in all three watersheds was low in dissolved solids during the period of investigation, varying from 72 to 127 ppm in Bixler Run, from 58 to 130 ppm in Corey Creek, and from 58 to 117 ppm

  9. Running injuries. A review of the epidemiological literature.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, W

    1992-11-01

    Running is one of the most popular leisure sports activities. Next to its beneficial health effects, negative side effects in terms of sports injuries should also be recognised. Given the limitations of the studies it appears that for the average recreational runner, who is steadily training and who participates in a long distance run every now and then, the overall yearly incidence rate for running injuries varies between 37 and 56%. Depending on the specificity of the group of runners concerned (competitive athletes; average recreational joggers; boys and girls) and on different circumstances these rates vary. If incidence is calculated according to exposure of running time the incidence reported in the literature varies from 2.5 to 12.1 injuries per 1000 hours of running. Most running injuries are lower extremity injuries, with a predominance for the knee. About 50 to 75% of all running injuries appear to be overuse injuries due to the constant repetition of the same movement. Recurrence of running injuries is reported in 20 to 70% of the cases. From the epidemiological studies it can be concluded that running injuries lead to a reduction of training or training cessation in about 30 to 90% of all injuries, about 20 to 70% of all injuries lead to medical consultation or medical treatment and 0 to 5% result in absence from work. Aetiological factors associated with running injuries include previous injury, lack of running experience, running to compete and excessive weekly running distance. The association between running injuries and factors such as warm-up and stretching exercises, body height, malalignment, muscular imbalance, restricted range of motion, running frequency, level of performance, stability of running pattern, shoes and inshoe orthoses and running on 1 side of the road remains unclear or is backed by contradicting or scarce research findings. Significantly not associated with running injuries seem age, gender, body mass index, running hills

  10. 78 FR 76609 - Genesis Solar, LLC; NRG Delta LLC; Mountain View Solar, LLC; Pheasant Run Wind, LLC; Pheasant Run...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ..., LLC; Pheasant Run Wind, LLC; Pheasant Run Wind II, LLC; Tuscola Wind II, LLC; Mountain Wind Power, LLC; Mountain Wind Power II, LLC; Summerhaven Wind, LP; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator...

  11. A lower-extremities kinematic comparison of deep-water running styles and treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Killgore, Garry L; Wilcox, Anthony R; Caster, Brian L; Wood, Terry M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify a deep-water running (DWR) style that most closely approximates terrestrial running, particularly relative to the lower extremities. Twenty intercollegiate distance runners (women, N = 12; men, N = 8) were videotaped from the right sagittal view while running on a treadmill (TR) and in deep water at 55-60% of their TR VO(2)max using 2 DWR styles: cross-country (CC) and high-knee (HK). Variables of interest were horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) displacement of the knee and ankle, stride rate (SR), VO(2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Multivariate omnibus tests revealed statistically significant differences for RPE (p < 0.001). The post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between TR and both DWR styles (p < 0.001). The kinematic variables multivariate omnibus tests were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001 to p < 0.019). The post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in SR (p < 0.001) between TR (1.25 +/- 0.08 Hz) and both DWR styles and also between the CC (0.81 +/- 0.08 Hz) and HK (1.14 +/- 0.10 Hz) styles of DWR. The CC style of DWR was found to be similar to TR with respect to linear ankle displacement, whereas the HK style was significantly different from TR in all comparisons made for ankle and knee displacement. The CC style of DWR is recommended as an adjunct to distance running training if the goal is to mimic the specificity of the ankle linear horizontal displacement of land-based running, but the SR will be slower at a comparable percentage of VO(2)max.

  12. Human-like Running Can Be Open-Loop Stable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mombaur, Katja

    This paper addresses the question if running motions of a human-like robot can be stable without feedback. Exploitation of self-stability is considered to be a crucial factor for biological running and might be the key for success to make bipedal and humanoid robots run in the future, We investigate a two-dimensional simulation model of running with 9 bodies (trunk, thighs, shanks, feet, and arms) powered by torques at all internal joints. Using efficient optimal control techniques and stability optimization, we were able to determine torque inputs and spring-damper parameters that lead to fully open-loop stable running motions.

  13. Development and Prevention of Running-Related Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of running on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported with conflicting results. Generally, moderate-level running is not likely detrimental to joint health. However, many factors may be associated with the increased risk of developing osteoarthritis in runners. Factors often implicated in the development of osteoarthritis comprise those that increase joint vulnerability and those which increase joint loading. It is therefore suggested that running has different effects on different people. Efforts should be made to identify those with joint vulnerability and joint loading, and measures should be taken to have those factors and/or their running programs modified to run safely. Further investigations are needed to examine the effect of running on joint health under different conditions to confirm the association between exposure to risk factors and development of osteoarthritis, as well as to validate the effectiveness of measures for preventing running-related osteoarthritis.

  14. Advanced overlay: sampling and modeling for optimized run-to-run control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, WoongJae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, DongSuk; Snow, Patrick; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur Nihat; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years overlay (OVL) control schemes have become more complicated in order to meet the ever shrinking margins of advanced technology nodes. As a result, this brings up new challenges to be addressed for effective run-to- run OVL control. This work addresses two of these challenges by new advanced analysis techniques: (1) sampling optimization for run-to-run control and (2) bias-variance tradeoff in modeling. The first challenge in a high order OVL control strategy is to optimize the number of measurements and the locations on the wafer, so that the "sample plan" of measurements provides high quality information about the OVL signature on the wafer with acceptable metrology throughput. We solve this tradeoff between accuracy and throughput by using a smart sampling scheme which utilizes various design-based and data-based metrics to increase model accuracy and reduce model uncertainty while avoiding wafer to wafer and within wafer measurement noise caused by metrology, scanner or process. This sort of sampling scheme, combined with an advanced field by field extrapolated modeling algorithm helps to maximize model stability and minimize on product overlay (OPO). Second, the use of higher order overlay models means more degrees of freedom, which enables increased capability to correct for complicated overlay signatures, but also increases sensitivity to process or metrology induced noise. This is also known as the bias-variance trade-off. A high order model that minimizes the bias between the modeled and raw overlay signature on a single wafer will also have a higher variation from wafer to wafer or lot to lot, that is unless an advanced modeling approach is used. In this paper, we characterize the bias-variance trade off to find the optimal scheme. The sampling and modeling solutions proposed in this study are validated by advanced process control (APC) simulations to estimate run-to-run performance, lot-to-lot and wafer-to- wafer model term monitoring to

  15. APEX: A Prime EXperiment at Jefferson Lab. Test Run Results and Full Run Plans; Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacham, James

    2015-06-01

    APEX is an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Virginia, USA, that searches for a new gauge boson (A') with sub-GeV mass and coupling to ordinary matter of g' ˜ (10-6 - 10-2)e. Electrons impinge upon a fixed target of high-Z material. An A' is produced via a process analogous to photon bremsstrahlung, decaying to an e+e- pair. A test run was held in July of 2010, covering mA' = 175 to 250 MeV and couplings g'/e > 10-3. A full run is approved and will cover mA' ˜ 65 to 525 MeV and g'/e > 2.3 × 10-4, and is expected to occur sometime in 2016 or 2017.

  16. APEX: A Prime EXperiment at Jefferson Lab - Test Run Results and Full Run Plans; Update

    SciTech Connect

    Beacham, James

    2015-06-01

    APEX is an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Virginia, USA, that searches for a new gauge boson (A') with sub-GeV mass and coupling to ordinary matter of g' ~ (10-6 - 10⁻²)e. Electrons impinge upon a fixed target of high-Z material. An A' is produced via a process analogous to photon bremsstrahlung, decaying to an e⁺+e⁻ pair. A test run was held in July of 2010, covering mA' = 175 to 250 MeV and couplings g'/e > 10⁻³. A full run is approved and will cover mA' ~ 65 to 525 MeV and g'/e > 2.3 x 10⁻⁴, and is expected to occur sometime in 2016 or 2017.

  17. Relationship between speed and time in running.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Vingren, J L; Nakamura, F Y; Kokobun, E

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different mathematical models to describe the relationship between treadmill running speed and time to exhaustion. All models generated a value for an aerobic parameter (critical speed; S (critical)). 35 university students performed 5-7 constant-speed 0%-slope treadmill tests at speeds that elicited exhaustion in ∼3 min to ∼10 min. Speed and time data were fitted using 3 models: (1) a 2-parameter hyperbolic model; (2) a 3-parameter hyperbolic model; and (3) a hybrid 3-parameter hyperbolic+exponential model. The 2-parameter model generated values for S (critical) (mean (± SD): 186 ± 33 m·min (-1)) and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC; 251 ± 122 m) with a high level of statistical certainty (i.e., with small SEEs). The 3-parameter models generated parameter estimates that were unrealistic in magnitude and/or associated with large SEEs and little statistical certainty. Therefore, it was concluded that, for the range of exercise durations used in the present study, the 2-parameter model is preferred because it provides a parsimonious description of the relationship between velocity and time to fatigue, and it produces parameters of known physiological significance, with excellent confidence.

  18. Forces predicted at the ankle during running.

    PubMed

    Burdett, R G

    1982-01-01

    A biomechanical model of the ankle joint was developed and was used to predict the forces at the ankle during the stance phase of running. Measurements from five cadavers were averaged to obtain insertion points and directions of pull of equivalent tendons with respect to the assumed center of the ankle joint. A minimum joint force solution was obtained by assuming that only two equivalent muscle groups could exert force at one time. Three subjects ran at 4.47 m/s across a force platform that recorded the external forces and moments acting on the foot. Cinematography was used to measure the foot and leg positions during stance. Peak resultant joint forces ranging from 9.0 to 13.3 times body weight and peak Achilles tendon forces ranging from 5.3 to 10.0 times body weight were predicted. Small variations in some cases resulted in large differences in predicted forces. The highest tendon forces predicted exceeded those reported to cause damage to cadaver tendons in other studies.

  19. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  20. Are we running out of water?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1967-01-01

    Water supplies are not running out, but time is getting short to stem waste of water and destructive exploitation of the environment before harm is done that may be irreparable. Most of the world's water is oceanic brine. Of the waters on the land, most is frozen in Antarctica and Greenland. Only a small part of continental water is available for use and management. The discharge of rivers to the sea is a close measure of the availability of liquid water, but ground-water reservoirs have important functions as inexpensive equalizers of water supply. Soil moisture is a major factor in the water economy, and its function usually is overlooked in assessments of water use and future water demand. Despite outcries of water shortage, the principal use of water in advanced countries is as a medium for waste disposal. In reality, despite regional maldistribution of water, United States supplies are adequate, given rational management. Also, contrary to common belief, water pollution is primarily a problem of economics, not of health. A paramount problem in most parts of the world is the shortage of water development and management facilities, not a shortage of water. The International Hydrological Decade is a program to awaken people everywhere to the crucial importance of water in man's future and to promote rational approach to water problems.

  1. The NLstart2run study: Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Kluitenberg, B; van Middelkoop, M; Smits, D W; Verhagen, E; Hartgens, F; Diercks, R; van der Worp, H

    2015-10-01

    Running is a popular form of physical activity, despite of the high incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs). Because of methodological issues, the etiology of RRIs remains unclear. Therefore, the purposes of the study were to assess the incidence of RRIs and to identify risk factors for RRIs in a large group of novice runners. In total, 1696 runners of a 6-week supervised "Start to Run" program were included in the NLstart2run study. All participants were aged between 18 and 65, completed a baseline questionnaire that covered potential risk factors, and completed at least one running diary. RRIs were registered during the program with a weekly running log. An RRI was defined as a musculo-skeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back attributed to running and hampering running ability for three consecutive training sessions. During the running program, 10.9% of the runners sustained an RRI. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a higher age, higher BMI, previous musculo-skeletal complaints not attributed to sports and no previous running experience were related to RRI. These findings indicate that many novice runners participating in a short-term running program suffer from RRIs. Therefore, the identified risk factors should be considered for screening and prevention purposes.

  2. [Running and the association with anthropometric and training characteristics].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph; Zingg, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance. When all variables were investigated comparatively, body fat and running speed during training were usually the most important influencing factors. For longer running performances (over 6 hours or 100 km, respectively), the aspects of experience (number of successfully finished races) and personal best times were, however, far more important than training volume or morphological characteristics such as body fat. It was also shown that ultra runners prepare differently (lower running speed and higher running volume) as runners competing over shorter distances such as half-marathon and marathon.

  3. The NUHM2 after LHC Run 1

    DOE PAGES

    Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; ...

    2014-12-17

    We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the NUHM2, in which the soft supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking contributions to the masses of the two Higgs multiplets, m2Hu,d, vary independently from the universal soft SUSY-breaking contributions m20 to the masses of squarks and sleptons. Our analysis uses the MultiNest sampling algorithm with over 4 × 10⁸ points to sample the NUHM2 parameter space. It includes the ATLAS and CMS Higgs mass measurements as well as the ATLAS search for supersymmetric jets + /ET signals using the full LHC Run 1 data, the measurements of BR(Bs→μ⁺μ⁻) by LHCb and CMS togethermore » with other B-physics observables, electroweak precision observables and the XENON100 and LUX searches for spin-independent dark-matter scattering. We find that the preferred regions of the NUHM2 parameter space have negative SUSY-breaking scalar masses squared at the GUT scale for squarks and sleptons, m20 < 0, as well as m2Hu < m2Hd < 0. The tension present in the CMSSM and NUHM1 between the supersymmetric interpretation of (g – 2)μ and the absence to date of SUSY at the LHC is not significantly alleviated in the NUHM2. We find that the minimum χ2 = 32.5 with 21 degrees of freedom (dof) in the NUHM2, to be compared with χ2/dof = 35.0/23 in the CMSSM, and χ2/dof = 32.7/22 in the NUHM1. We find that the one-dimensional likelihood functions for sparticle masses and other observables are similar to those found previously in the CMSSM and NUHM1.« less

  4. The NUHM2 after LHC Run 1.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, O; Cavanaugh, R; Citron, M; De Roeck, A; Dolan, M J; Ellis, J R; Flächer, H; Heinemeyer, S; Malik, S; Marrouche, J; Martínez Santos, D; Olive, K A; de Vries, K J; Weiglein, G

    We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the NUHM2, in which the soft supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking contributions to the masses of the two Higgs multiplets, [Formula: see text], vary independently from the universal soft SUSY-breaking contributions [Formula: see text] to the masses of squarks and sleptons. Our analysis uses the MultiNest sampling algorithm with over [Formula: see text] points to sample the NUHM2 parameter space. It includes the ATLAS and CMS Higgs mass measurements as well as the ATLAS search for supersymmetric jets + [Formula: see text] signals using the full LHC Run 1 data, the measurements of [Formula: see text] by LHCb and CMS together with other B-physics observables, electroweak precision observables and the XENON100 and LUX searches for spin-independent dark-matter scattering. We find that the preferred regions of the NUHM2 parameter space have negative SUSY-breaking scalar masses squared at the GUT scale for squarks and sleptons, [Formula: see text], as well as [Formula: see text]. The tension present in the CMSSM and NUHM1 between the supersymmetric interpretation of [Formula: see text] and the absence to date of SUSY at the LHC is not significantly alleviated in the NUHM2. We find that the minimum [Formula: see text] with 21 degrees of freedom (dof) in the NUHM2, to be compared with [Formula: see text] in the CMSSM, and [Formula: see text] in the NUHM1. We find that the one-dimensional likelihood functions for sparticle masses and other observables are similar to those found previously in the CMSSM and NUHM1.

  5. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  6. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices. PMID:25937790

  7. Running-mass inflation model and primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Erfani, Encieh E-mail: erfani@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2011-04-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ''the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ''running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index.

  8. The effect of three surface conditions, speed and running experience on vertical acceleration of the tibia during running.

    PubMed

    Boey, Hannelore; Aeles, Jeroen; Schütte, Kurt; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2016-09-05

    Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3.06 m/s. Vertical acceleration of the lower leg was measured with an accelerometer. The vertical acceleration was significantly lower during running on the woodchip trail in comparison with the synthetic running track and the concrete, and significantly lower during running at lower speed in comparison with during running at higher speed on all surfaces. No significant differences in vertical acceleration were found between the three groups of runners at fixed speed. Higher self-selected speed due to higher performance level also did not result in higher vertical acceleration. These results may show that running on a woodchip trail and slowing down could reduce the injury risk at the tibia.

  9. Influence of footwear designed to boost energy return on running economy in comparison to a conventional running shoe.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Mcgrath, R; Brook, O; Taylor, P J; Dillon, S

    2016-01-01

    Running economy is a reflection of the amount of inspired oxygen required to maintain a given velocity and is considered a determining factor for running performance. Athletic footwear has been advocated as a mechanism by which running economy can be enhanced. New commercially available footwear has been developed in order to increase energy return, although their efficacy has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effects of energy return footwear on running economy in relation to conventional running shoes. Twelve male runners completed 6-min steady-state runs in conventional and energy return footwear. Overall, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, shoe comfort and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Moreover, participants subjectively indicated which shoe condition they preferred for running. Differences in shoe comfort and physiological parameters were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, whilst shoe preferences were tested using a chi-square analysis. The results showed that VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly lower, and shoe comfort was significantly greater, in the energy return footwear. Given the relationship between running economy and running performance, these observations indicate that the energy return footwear may be associated with enhanced running performance in comparison to conventional shoes.

  10. New catalyst, improved presulfiding result in 4+ year hydrotreater run

    SciTech Connect

    Gorra, F. ); Scribano, G. ); Christensen, P.; Anderson, K.V.; Corsaro, O.G. )

    1993-08-23

    Prompted by decreasing catalyst activity and unit run lengths, an Italian refiner made several modifications to its coker gas oil desulfurization unit equipment, catalyst, and operations. Results of the project include improved catalyst activity at start-of-run, increased unit capacity of end-of-run, and improved plant economics. The paper describes the background of the problem, the process, operational history, catalyst testing, unit modifications, catalyst loading, catalyst service life, and economics.

  11. LINEAR OPTICS DURING THE RHIC 2001 - 2 RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; CARDONA,J.; PTITSYN,V.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC 2001-2 Au and polarized proton runs used several different low-beta optics configurations. Low-beta squeezes were routinely performed through the Au acceleration ramp to optimize injection and transition optics; the polarized proton run injected and accelerated with constant low-beta optics to optimize polarization preservation. This paper summarizes tools, methods and results for linear optics measurement and correction during these runs as well as future plans.

  12. Polarization simulations in the RHIC run 15 lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Huang, H.; Luo, Y.; Ranjbar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; White, S.

    2015-05-03

    RHIC polarized proton Run 15 uses a new acceleration ramp optics, compared to RHIC Run 13 and earlier runs, in relation with electron-lens beam-beam compensation developments. The new optics induces different strengths in the depolarizing snake resonance sequence, from injection to top energy. As a consequence, polarization transport along the new ramp has been investigated, based on spin tracking simulations. Sample results are reported and discussed.

  13. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  14. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  15. An Evidence-Based Videotaped Running Biomechanics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    Running biomechanics play an important role in the development of injuries. Performing a running biomechanics analysis on injured runners can help to develop treatment strategies. This article provides a framework for a systematic video-based running biomechanics analysis plan based on the current evidence on running injuries, using 2-dimensional (2D) video and readily available tools. Fourteen measurements are proposed in this analysis plan from lateral and posterior video. Identifying simple 2D surrogates for 3D biomechanic variables of interest allows for widespread translation of best practices, and have the best opportunity to impact the highly prevalent problem of the injured runner.

  16. Does running cause osteoarthritis in the hip or knee?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Pamela; English, Michael; Willick, Stuart E

    2012-05-01

    Running is an excellent activity to promote general health and well-being. However, running injuries are common, and concern is sometimes raised that running might lead to osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints. This article reviews the relevant in vitro and in vivo literature that looks at possible associations between running and the development of osteoarthritis. Also reviewed is the limited literature on running barefoot and with minimalist footwear. Low- and moderate-volume runners appear to have no more risk of developing osteoarthritis than nonrunners. The existing literature is inconclusive about a possible association between high-volume running and the development of osteoarthritis. The early literature on running barefoot and running with minimalist footwear has primarily focused on biomechanics but has not yet focused on any effect on cartilage health. Experienced and beginner runners should be encouraged to allow the body adequate time to adapt to changes in gait biomechanics caused by changing footwear, which can be done by slowly increasing running mileage in the new footwear. Clinicians can improve the health of runners by encouraging appropriate treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, encouraging maintenance of an optimal body mass index, and correcting gait abnormalities caused by deficits in flexibility, strength, or motor control along the kinetic chain.

  17. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  18. Running Therapy: Change Agent in Anxiety and Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Running can be used effectively to produce positive physiological and psychological changes, including cardiovascular and physical fitness, reduction of anxiety, and more effective management of stress. (CJ)

  19. Running, walking, and hyperventilation causing asthma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kilham, H; Tooley, M; Silverman, M

    1979-01-01

    To examine further the relation between type of exercise, workload, ventilation, and exercise-induced asthma, we compared treadmill walking with treadmill running and treadmill running with isocapnic hyperventilation in separate studies in children and adolescents. Inspired air conditions were identical during each pair of tests. Walking and running with similar minute ventilation and oxygen consumption were followed by similar falls in peak expiratory flow rate as were running and hyperventilation with similar minute ventilation and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension. This study supports the concept that hyperventilation is a central mechanism in exercise-induced asthma. PMID:515978

  20. The evolution of marathon running : capabilities in humans.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Bramble, Dennis M

    2007-01-01

    Humans have exceptional capabilities to run long distances in hot, arid conditions. These abilities, unique among primates and rare among mammals, derive from a suite of specialised features that permit running humans to store and release energy effectively in the lower limb, help keep the body's center of mass stable and overcome the thermoregulatory challenges of long distance running. Human endurance running performance capabilities compare favourably with those of other mammals and probably emerged sometime around 2 million years ago in order to help meat-eating hominids compete with other carnivores.

  1. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort constant rate and interval running.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Daniel; O'Brien, Brendan J; Clark, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated differences in average VO2 of maximal effort interval running to maximal effort constant rate running at lactate threshold matched for time. The average VO2 and distance covered of 10 recreational male runners (VO2max: 4158 ± 390 mL · min(-1)) were compared between a maximal effort constant-rate run at lactate threshold (CRLT), a maximal effort interval run (INT) consisting of 2 min at VO2max speed with 2 minutes at 50% of VO2 repeated 5 times, and a run at the average speed sustained during the interval run (CR submax). Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence intervals. The average VO2 for INT, 3451 (3269-3633) mL · min(-1), 83% VO2max, was not significantly different to CRLT, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 84% VO2max, but both were significantly higher than CR sub-max, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 76% VO2max. The distance covered was significantly greater in CLRT, 4431 (4202-3731) metres, compared to INT and CR sub-max, 4070 (3831-4309) metres. The novel finding was that a 20-minute maximal effort constant rate run uses similar amounts of oxygen as a 20-minute maximal effort interval run despite the greater distance covered in the maximal effort constant-rate run.

  2. Terror birds on the run: a mechanical model to estimate its maximum running speed

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, R. Ernesto; Jones, Washington W

    2005-01-01

    ‘Terror bird’ is a common name for the family Phorusrhacidae. These large terrestrial birds were probably the dominant carnivores on the South American continent from the Middle Palaeocene to the Pliocene–Pleistocene limit. Here we use a mechanical model based on tibiotarsal strength to estimate maximum running speeds of three species of terror birds: Mesembriornis milneedwardsi, Patagornis marshi and a specimen of Phorusrhacinae gen. The model is proved on three living large terrestrial bird species. On the basis of the tibiotarsal strength we propose that Mesembriornis could have used its legs to break long bones and access their marrow. PMID:16096087

  3. Effects of footwear on treadmill running biomechanics in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Karsten; Riebe, Dieko; Campe, Sebastian; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Zech, Astrid

    2014-07-01

    While recent research debates the topic of natural running in adolescents and adults, little is known about the influence of footwear on running patterns in children. The purpose of this study was to compare shod and barefoot running gait biomechanics in preadolescent children. Kinematic and ground reaction force data of 36 normally developed children aged 6-9 years were collected during running on an instrumented treadmill. Running conditions were randomized for each child in order to compare barefoot running with two different shod conditions: a cushioned and a minimalistic running shoe. Primary outcome was the ankle angle at foot strike. Secondary outcomes were knee angle, maximum and impact ground reaction forces, presence of rear-foot strike, step width, step length and cadence. Ankle angle at foot strike differed with statistical significance (p < 0.001) between conditions. Running barefoot reduced the ankle angle at foot strike by 5.97° [95% CI, 4.19; 7.75] for 8 kmh(-1) and 6.18° [95% CI, 4.38; 7.97] for 10 kmh(-1) compared to the cushioned shoe condition. Compared to the minimalistic shoe condition, running barefoot reduced the angle by 1.94° [95% CI, 0.19°; 3.69°] for 8 kmh(-1) and 1.38° [95% CI, -3.14°; 0.39°] for 10 kmh(-1). Additionally, using footwear significantly increased maximum and impact ground reaction forces, step length, step width and rate of rear-foot strike. In conclusion, preadolescent running biomechanics are influenced by footwear, especially by cushioned running shoes. Health professionals and parents should keep this in mind when considering footwear for children.

  4. Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms: 'preferred movement path' and 'comfort filter'.

    PubMed

    Nigg, B M; Baltich, J; Hoerzer, S; Enders, H

    2015-10-01

    In the past 100 years, running shoes experienced dramatic changes. The question then arises whether or not running shoes (or sport shoes in general) influence the frequency of running injuries at all. This paper addresses five aspects related to running injuries and shoe selection, including (1) the changes in running injuries over the past 40 years, (2) the relationship between sport shoes, sport inserts and running injuries, (3) previously researched mechanisms of injury related to footwear and two new paradigms for injury prevention including (4) the 'preferred movement path' and (5) the 'comfort filter'. Specifically, the data regarding the relationship between impact characteristics and ankle pronation to the risk of developing a running-related injury is reviewed. Based on the lack of conclusive evidence for these two variables, which were once thought to be the prime predictors of running injuries, two new paradigms are suggested to elucidate the association between footwear and injury. These two paradigms, 'the preferred movement path' and 'the comfort filter', suggest that a runner intuitively selects a comfortable product using their own comfort filter that allows them to remain in the preferred movement path. This may automatically reduce the injury risk and may explain why there does not seem to be a secular trend in running injury rates.

  5. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  6. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter calibration during Run I: progress achieved and expectations for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Alessio; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CMS ECAL is a high-resolution, hermetic, and homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter made of 75,848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals. It relies on precision calibration in order to achieve and maintain its design performance. A set of inter-calibration procedures is carried out to normalize the differences in crystal light yield and photodetector response between channels. Different physics channels such as low mass di-photon resonances, electrons from W and Z decays and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits from minimum bias events are used. A laser monitoring system is used to measure and correct for response changes, which arise mainly from the harsh radiation environment at the LHC. The challenges of the different calibration techniques are discussed along with the performance evolution during Run I. The impact on physics performance is illustrated through the successful quest for the Higgs boson via its electromagnetic decays, and the subsequent mass measurement of the newly discovered particle. Conclusions are drawn for the performance to be expected from 2015 onwards, following the start of the LHC Run II.

  7. X-1E Engine Ground Test Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E during a ground engine test run on the NACA High-Speed Flight Station ramp near the Rogers Dry Lake. The rocket technician is keeping the concrete cool by hosing it with water during the test. This also helps in washing away any chemicals that might spill. The test crew worked close to the aircraft during ground tests. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about

  8. RUN OUTS OCCUR WHEN IRON HAS UNSEATED MOLDING SAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUN OUTS OCCUR WHEN IRON HAS UNSEATED MOLDING SAND AND RUN OUT OF THE MOLD UNDER POURING JACKETS AND SPILLS ONTO THE MOLDING PLATFORM. WORKERS GENERALLY WAIT SEVERAL MINUTES FOR THE IRON TO SOLIDIFY AND, WHILE IT IS STILL RED-HOT, REMOVE IT FROM THE PLATFORM AND SCRAP THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  9. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Measure and record the temperature of the...

  10. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Measure and record the temperature of the...

  11. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Measure and record the temperature of the...

  12. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, C.; Ahrens, L.; Huang, H.; Schoefer, V.

    2016-10-07

    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  14. 46 CFR 113.50-20 - Distribution of cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of cable runs. 113.50-20 Section 113.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Public Address Systems § 113.50-20 Distribution of cable runs. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1237-96 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-96 Section 86.1237-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-96 Dynamometer runs. Section 86.1237-96 includes text...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test run-manufacturer. 86.1437 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1437 Test run—manufacturer. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the manufacturer for its data submittal pursuant to obtaining a...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-manufacturer. 86.1437 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1437 Test run—manufacturer. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the manufacturer for its data submittal pursuant to obtaining a...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1237-96 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-96 Section 86.1237-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-96 Dynamometer runs. Section 86.1237-96 includes text...

  19. 46 CFR 113.50-20 - Distribution of cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of cable runs. 113.50-20 Section 113.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Public Address Systems § 113.50-20 Distribution of cable runs. (a)...

  20. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time....

  1. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time....

  2. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time....

  3. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time....

  4. 16 CFR 803.10 - Running of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Running of time. 803.10 Section 803.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL RULES § 803.10 Running of time....

  5. VO2 responses to running speeds above VO2max.

    PubMed

    Duffield, R; Bishop, D

    2008-06-01

    This study compared VO2, heart rate (HR) and electromyographic (iEMG) responses to speeds above the velocity associated with VO2max (v-VO2max). Eight male, middle-distance runners performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2max and v-VO2max and runs to fatigue at 100 % and 110 % v-VO2max. Breath-by-breath VO2 and HR were continuously recorded; lactate [La (-)] measured pre- and post-run and iEMG measures of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis were recorded during the first and last 20 s of each run. Analysis indicated longer time to fatigue in the 100 % v-VO2max run with no differences between conditions for VO2 or HR amplitudes or post-run [La (-)] (p > 0.05). There were significantly faster tau values (p < 0.05) in the 110 % condition in VO2 and HR. No significant correlations were observed between VO2 or HR tau values and time to fatigue. RF iEMG was significantly larger in 110 % compared to 100 % run in the first 20 s (p < 0.05). While no association between treadmill performance and VO2 response was evident, faster running speeds resulted in faster VO2 and HR responses, with no difference in amplitude or % VO2max attained. This may potentially be as a result of an increased muscle fibre recruitment stimulus during the faster running velocity resulting in faster cardiodynamic responses.

  6. Acute response to barefoot running in habitually shod males.

    PubMed

    Fleming, N; Walters, J; Grounds, J; Fife, L; Finch, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of barefoot (BF) running on lower limb kinematics and muscle activity in a group of habitually shod runners. Ten male runners with no prior BF or minimalist running experience performed 1-min bouts of treadmill running at 3 velocities in both shod and BF conditions. 2D video data were recorded in order to quantify ankle, knee and hip kinematics. Synchronous kinetic data were recorded from a force plate supporting the treadmill in order to quantify spatiotemporal variables. EMG data were collected from 6 lower limb muscles, quantifying recruitment patterns during discrete phases of the gait cycle. BF running resulted in significantly higher stride frequency and shorter ground contact times (P < .001). Additionally, BF running significantly reduced knee and hip range of motion but increased ankle range of motion during the absorptive phase of the stance. Alterations in ankle kinematics during BF running resulted from increased pre-activation of the medial (P < .05) and lateral (P < .01) gastrocnemius in addition to reductions in pre-activation of the tibialis anterior (P < .05). The results highlight that recruitment patterns and kinematics can change in as little as 30-s of BF running in individuals with no previous BF running experience.

  7. Running Records: Authentic Instruction in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The most effective way to understand what a child knows about the reading process is to take a running record. In "Running Records", Mary Shea demonstrates how teachers can use this powerful tool to design lessons that decrease reading difficulties, build on strengths, and stimulate motivation, ensuring that children develop self-sustaining…

  8. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air... steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Start cooling system; (2) Warm up the engine by the...

  9. Editorial Involvement in Regional/Split Run Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, Carol

    This document is a preliminary study of the listings of a wide variety of regional/split-run editorial practices of major American periodicals. Publications chosen for the study were selected from the tenth edition of "Magazine Regional and Split-Run Advertising," published by the Magazine Advertising Bureau of the Magazine Publishers Association.…

  10. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 89.407... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.407 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Measure and record the temperature of the...

  11. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air supplied to the... taken for each test: (1) Start cooling system; (2) Warm up the engine by the procedure described in...

  12. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air... steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Start cooling system; (2) Warm up the engine by the...

  13. 57. VIEW DOWN TENSION RUNS FROM CATWALK OVER WINDERS: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW DOWN TENSION RUNS FROM CATWALK OVER WINDERS: View towards northwest looking down the tension runs for the cables. Photograph taken from atop the catwalk over the winding machinery. The California Street cable is on the left and the Hyde Street cable on the right. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Looking northeast, foreground Clenny Run Road, duck pond and Clenny Run, with intersection of State Routes 92 and 100 beyond, Brandywine Creek State Park in background, mixed deciduous trees along top of hill - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  15. Acceleration patterns in the lower and upper trunk during running.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Masahiro; Goto, Kenta; Fukusaki, Chiho; Sasaki, Ken; Hihara, Eiji; Mizushina, Takahiro; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate 3D acceleration patterns of the lower and upper trunk during running to running gait cycle, assess the validity of stride duration estimated from acceleration patterns, investigate speed-dependent changes in acceleration, and examine the test-retest reliability of these parameters. Thirteen healthy young men performed two running trials each on a treadmill and on land at three speeds (slow, preferred, and fast). The 3D accelerations were measured at the L3 spinous process (lower trunk) and the ensiform process (upper trunk) and synchronised with digital video data. The amplitude and root mean square of acceleration and stride duration were calculated and then analysed by three-way analysis of variance to test effects of running conditions, device location, and running speed. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Marked changes in acceleration were observed in relation to foot strike during running. Stride durations calculated from the vertical accelerations were nearly equal to those estimated from video data. There were significant speed effects on all parameters, and the low test-retest reliability was confirmed in the anterior-posterior acceleration during treadmill running and the anterior-posterior acceleration at slow speed during treadmill and overground running.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The dynamometer run shall follow the diurnal heat... cooling fan(s). (3) Attach an exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipe(s). (4) Start the engine. (5) Turn...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The dynamometer run shall follow the diurnal heat... cooling fan(s). (3) Attach an exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipe(s). (4) Start the engine. (5) Turn...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The dynamometer run shall follow the diurnal heat... cooling fan(s). (3) Attach an exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipe(s). (4) Start the engine. (5) Turn...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The dynamometer run shall follow the diurnal heat... cooling fan(s). (3) Attach an exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipe(s). (4) Start the engine. (5) Turn...

  3. 46 CFR 113.50-20 - Distribution of cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution of cable runs. 113.50-20 Section 113.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Public Address Systems § 113.50-20 Distribution of cable runs. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 113.50-20 - Distribution of cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of cable runs. 113.50-20 Section 113.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Public Address Systems § 113.50-20 Distribution of cable runs. (a)...

  5. Running of scalar spectral index in multi-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2015-05-01

    We compute the running of the scalar spectral index in general multi-field slow-roll inflation. By incorporating explicit momentum dependence at the moment of horizon crossing, we can find the running straightforwardly. At the same time, we can distinguish the contributions from the quasi de Sitter background and the super-horizon evolution of the field fluctuations.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test run-manufacturer. 86.1437 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1437 Test run—manufacturer. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the manufacturer for its data submittal pursuant to obtaining a...

  7. East side of long wing of building 149 (running eastwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side of long wing of building 149 (running east-west) and east and south side of short, perpendicular wing (running north-south). Northeast corner of building 148 is at the extreme left edge of photograph. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test run-manufacturer. 86.1437 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1437 Test run—manufacturer. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the manufacturer for its data submittal pursuant to obtaining a...

  9. 46 CFR 113.50-20 - Distribution of cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of cable runs. 113.50-20 Section 113.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Public Address Systems § 113.50-20 Distribution of cable runs. (a)...

  10. Comparison of plantar loads during running on different overground surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hong, Youlian; Li, Jing-Xian; Zhou, Ji-He

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare plantar loads during running on different overground surfaces. Fifteen heel-to-toe runners participated in the study. Plantar load data were collected and analyzed using an insole sensor system during running on concrete, synthetic rubber, and grass surfaces at a running speed of 3.8 m/s. Compared with running on concrete surface, running on natural grass showed a lower magnitude of maximum plantar pressure at the total foot (451.8 kPa vs. 401.7 kPa, p = 0.016), lateral midfoot (175.3 kPa vs. 148.0 kPa, p = 0.004), central forefoot (366.3 kPa vs. 336.8 kPa, p = 0.003), and lateral forefoot (290.2 kPa vs. 257.9 kPa, p = 0.004). Moreover, running on natural grass showed a longer relative contact time compared with running on a concrete surface at the central forefoot (81.9% vs. 78.8%, p = 0.017) and lateral forefoot (75.2% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.007). No significant difference was observed in other multiple comparisons. Different surfaces affected the plantar loads while running. The differences may help us to understand potential injury mechanisms.

  11. Physiological Parameters Related to Running Performance in College Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vytvytsky, Maria; And Others

    Submaximal and maximal physiological parameters were measured on a progressive treadmill test in 11 Columbia University trackmen trained for various events. All runners were also tested in the 220, 440, 880, one-mile, and two-mile running events. Oxygen uptake was significantly related only to time in the one-mile run. Heart rates (HRs) at each…

  12. One University's Strategy for Keeping International Projects Running Smoothly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how a university tackled some of the basic challenges of internationalizing its campuses. The University of Washington created the Global Support Project, a one-stop shop for faculty and staff members doing research or running programs abroad. The project is run by senior administrators but relies on designated go-to people…

  13. Status of the CDF Run II Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    S. Nahn

    2003-04-10

    A snapshot of the status of the CDF Run II Silicon Detector is presented, with a summary of commissioning issues since the start of Run II, current performance of the detector, and the use of the data in both the trigger and offline reconstruction.

  14. Running Start Annual Progress Report, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Ron

    The Running Start program was created by the 1990 Washington State Legislature to expand educational options for public school students. Running Start allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college-level courses, tuition-free, at the 32 community and technical colleges in Washington. This annual progress report for 1996-97…

  15. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Effect of Muscle-Damaging Eccentric Exercise on Running Kinematics and Economy for Running at Different Intensities.

    PubMed

    Satkunskienė, Danguolė; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Zaičenkovienė, Kristina; Sakalauskaitė, Raminta; Rauktys, Donatas

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the changes in running kinematics and economy during running at different intensities 1 and 24 hours after a muscle-damaging bench-stepping exercise. Healthy, physically active adult women were recruited for this study. The subjects' running kinematics, heart rate, gas exchange, minute ventilation, and perceived exertion were continuously recorded during the increasing-intensity running test on a treadmill for different testing conditions: a control condition and 1 and 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise test. Two muscle damage markers, muscle soreness and blood creatine kinase (CK) activity, were measured before and 24 hours after the stepping exercise. Muscle soreness and blood CK activity were significantly altered (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test) 24 hours after the bench-stepping exercise. The stride length, stride frequency, and support time at different running intensities did not change. Twenty-four hours after the previous step exercise, ankle dorsiflexion in the support phase was significantly higher during severe-intensity running, the range of knee flexion at the stance phase was significantly lower during moderate-intensity running, and knee flexion at the end of the amortization phase was significantly lower during heavy-intensity running compared with the control values (exact p ≤ 0.05, Monte Carlo test). The running economy at moderate and heavy intensities, maximum ventilation, and maximum heart rate did not change. We conclude that, given moderate soreness in the calf muscles 24 hours after eccentric exercise, the running kinematics are slightly but significantly changed without a detectable effect on running economy.

  17. Hip Muscle Loads during Running at Various Step Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Rachel; Thelen, Darryl; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional Objectives To characterize hip muscle forces and powers during running, and to determine how these quantities change when altering step rate for a given running speed. Background Hip musculature has been implicated in a variety of running related injuries, and as such is often the target of rehabilitation interventions including resistance exercises and gait retraining. The differential contributions of the hip muscles to the task of running is not well understood, and may be important for recognizing the biomechanical mechanisms of running-related injuries and refining current treatment and prevention strategies. Methods Thirty healthy participants ran at their preferred speed at 3 different step rates: 90%, 100%, and 110% of their preferred step rate. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. A 3D musculoskeletal model was used to estimate muscle forces needed to produce the measured joint accelerations. Forces and powers of each muscle were compared across step rate conditions. Results Peak force produced by the gluteus medius during running was substantially greater than any other hip muscle, with the majority of muscles displaying a period of negative work immediately preceding positive work. The higher running step rate led to an increase in hip flexor, hamstring, and hip extensor loading during swing, but conversely substantially diminished peak force and work during loading response for several hip muscles including the gluteal muscles and piriformis. Conclusion Increasing running step rate for a given running speed heightened hamstring and gluteal muscle loading in late swing, while decreasing stance phase loading in the gluteal muscles and piriformis. These results may enable clinicians to support and refine current treatment strategies including exercise prescription and gait retraining for running-related injuries. PMID:25156044

  18. Physiological effects of wearing graduated compression stockings during running.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ajmol; Creasy, Robert H; Edge, Johann A

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the effect of wearing different grades of graduated compression stockings (GCS) on physiological and perceptual measures during and following treadmill running in competitive runners. Nine males and one female performed three 40-min treadmill runs (80 +/- 5% maximal oxygen uptake) wearing either control (0 mmHg; CON), low (12-15 mmHg; LO-GCS), or high (23-32 mmHg; HI-GCS) grade GCS in a double-blind counterbalanced order. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were measured. Perceptual scales were used pre- and post-run to assess comfort, tightness and any pain associated with wearing GCS. Changes in muscle function, soreness and damage were determined pre-run, immediately after running and 24 and 48 h post-run by measuring creatine kinase and myoglobin, counter-movement jump height, perceived soreness diagrams, and pressure sensitivity. There were no significant differences between trials for oxygen uptake, heart rate or blood lactate during exercise. HI-GCS was perceived as tighter (P < 0.05) and more pain-inducing (P < 0.05) than the other interventions; CON and LO-GCS were rated more comfortable than HI-GCS (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (P < 0.05), myoglobin (P < 0.05) and jump height (P < 0.05) were higher and pressure sensitivity was more pronounced (P < 0.05) immediately after running but not after 24 and 48 h. Only four participants reported muscle soreness during recovery from running and there were no differences in muscle function between trials. In conclusion, healthy runners wearing GCS did not experience any physiological benefits during or following treadmill running. However, athletes felt more comfortable wearing low-grade GCS whilst running.

  19. Influence of the Lower Jaw Position on the Running Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Felix; Jonas, Alexander; Kovac, Andrej; Groneberg, David Alexander; Meurer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions. Methods Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years) participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM) were used for movement pattern identification. Results Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition. Discussion The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be

  20. The Effects of Running Club Membership on Fourth Graders' Achievement of Connecticut State Standard for the Mile Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, John D.; Patterson, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a running club on the mile run times of fourth grade students. The study was conducted in a suburban elementary school setting in central Connecticut with a student body of 400. The participants for the study included 59 fourth grade students, 30 of whom were boys and 29 of whom were…

  1. Influence of running shoes and cross-trainers on Achilles tendon forces during running compared with military boots.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Military recruits are known to be susceptible to Achilles tendon pathology. The British Army have introduced footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), in an attempt to reduce the incidence of injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the Achilles tendon forces of the cross-trainer and running shoe in relation to conventional army boots. Ten male participants ran at 4.0 m/s in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon forces were obtained throughout the stance phase of running and compared using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The results showed that the time to peak Achilles tendon force was significantly shorter when running in conventional army boots (0.12 s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (0.13 s) and running shoe (0.13 s). Achilles tendon loading rate was shown to be significantly greater in conventional army boots (38.73 BW/s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (35.14 BW/s) and running shoe (33.57 BW/s). The results of this study suggest that the running shoes and cross-trainer footwear are associated with reductions in Achilles tendon parameters that have been linked to the aetiology of injury, and thus it can be hypothesised that these footwear could be beneficial for military recruits undertaking running exercises.

  2. Building a health program run by women, in a community run by men.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, R

    1995-01-01

    The author is a psychiatric nurse from the US working upon primary health education with community health promoters in Oaxaca, Mexico. Women worked to establish pharmacies in Zaragoza and Miramar. Since the health program was run by women, efforts were made to secure the approval of men. The husbands of health promoters, male town officials, and male leaders of the local coffee growers organization were courted for the better part of a month. Although many men were won over, the president of the Miramar local coffee growers organization posed resistance to the women's plans. Training sessions were held on prenatal and postnatal care, concentrating upon mental health and pregnancy, diagnosing dangerous illnesses during pregnancy, and postpartum infections. The author discusses the need for and efforts to bolster women's rights in these communities.

  3. During Running in Place, Grid Cells Integrate Elapsed Time and Distance Run.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Benjamin J; Brandon, Mark P; Robinson, Robert J; Connerney, Michael A; Hasselmo, Michael E; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-11-04

    The spatial scale of grid cells may be provided by self-generated motion information or by external sensory information from environmental cues. To determine whether grid cell activity reflects distance traveled or elapsed time independent of external information, we recorded grid cells as animals ran in place on a treadmill. Grid cell activity was only weakly influenced by location, but most grid cells and other neurons recorded from the same electrodes strongly signaled a combination of distance and time, with some signaling only distance or time. Grid cells were more sharply tuned to time and distance than non-grid cells. Many grid cells exhibited multiple firing fields during treadmill running, parallel to the periodic firing fields observed in open fields, suggesting a common mode of information processing. These observations indicate that, in the absence of external dynamic cues, grid cells integrate self-generated distance and time information to encode a representation of experience.

  4. Spent Fuel Drying System Test Results (Dry-Run in Preparation for Run 8)

    SciTech Connect

    BM Oliver; GS Klinger; J Abrefah; SC Marschman; PJ MacFarlan; GA Ritter

    1999-08-11

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a)on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of a test ''dry-run'' conducted prior to the eighth and last of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister6513U. The system used for the dry-run test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 4.0 and discussed Section 5.0.

  5. Inverted pendular running: a novel gait predicted by computer optimization is found between walk and run in birds.

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James Richard

    2010-12-23

    Idealized models of walking and running demonstrate that, energetically, walking should be favoured up to, and even somewhat over, those speeds and step lengths that can be achieved while keeping the stance leg under compression. Around these speeds, and especially with relatively long step lengths, computer optimization predicts a third, 'hybrid', gait: (inverted) pendular running (Srinivasan & Ruina 2006 Nature 439, 72-75 (doi:10.1038/nature04113)). This gait involves both walking-like vaulting mechanics and running-like ballistic paths. Trajectories of horizontal versus vertical centre of mass velocities-'hodographs'-over the step cycle are distinctive for each gait: anticlockwise for walk; clockwise for run; figure-of-eight for the hybrid gait. Both pheasants and guineafowl demonstrate each gait at close to the predicted speed/step length combinations, although fully aerial ballistic phases are never achieved during the hybrid or 'Grounded Inverted Pendular Running' gait.

  6. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  7. Biomechanics and Physiology of Uphill and Downhill Running.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Giandolini, Marlène; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-04-01

    Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor. Grade also modifies foot strike patterns, with a progressive adoption of a mid- to fore-foot strike pattern during UR, and rear-foot strike patterns during DR. In UR, lower limb muscles perform a higher net mechanical work compared to LR and DR to increase the body's potential energy. In DR, energy dissipation is generally prevalent compared to energy generation. The increased demands for work as running incline increases are met by an increase in power output at all joints, particularly the hip. This implies that UR requires greater muscular activity compared to LR and DR. Energy cost of running (C r) linearly increases with positive slope but C r of DR decreases until a minimum slope is reached at -20 %, after which C r increases again. The effects of slope on biomechanics, muscle contraction patterns and physiological responses have important implications for injury prevention and success of athletes engaged in graded running competitions.

  8. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy Despite Biomechanical Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 years. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners over the age of 65 years retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Methods Fifteen young and fifteen older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s−1. We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e. metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. Results There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2–9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (p=0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10–20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (p=0.002) and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (p<0.001). Conclusion Runners beyond 65 years of age maintain youthful running economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency, and therefore may make everyday activities easier. PMID:26587844

  9. Is midsole thickness a key parameter for the running pattern?

    PubMed

    Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Guéguen, Nils; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted differences in foot strike pattern comparing habitually shod runners who ran barefoot and with running shoes. Barefoot running results in a flatter foot landing and in a decreased vertical ground reaction force compared to shod running. The aim of this study was to investigate one possible parameter influencing running pattern: the midsole thickness. Fifteen participants ran overground at 3.3 ms(-1) barefoot and with five shoes of different midsole thickness (0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm) with no difference of height between rearfoot and forefoot. Impact magnitude was evaluated using transient peak of vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, tibial acceleration peak and rate. Hip, knee and ankle flexion angles were computed at touch-down and during stance phase (range of motion and maximum values). External net joint moments and stiffness for hip, knee and ankle joints were also observed as well as global leg stiffness. No significant effect of midsole thickness was observed on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. However, the contact time increased with midsole thickness. Barefoot running compared to shod running induced ankle in plantar flexion at touch-down, higher ankle dorsiflexion and lower knee flexion during stance phase. These adjustments are suspected to explain the absence of difference on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. This study showed that the presence of very thin footwear upper and sole was sufficient to significantly influence the running pattern.

  10. Biomechanics and energetics of running on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Voloshina, Alexandra S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2015-03-01

    In the natural world, legged animals regularly run across uneven terrain with remarkable ease. To gain understanding of how running on uneven terrain affects the biomechanics and energetics of locomotion, we studied human subjects (N=12) running at 2.3 m s(-1) on an uneven terrain treadmill, with up to a 2.5 cm height variation. We hypothesized that running on uneven terrain would show increased energy expenditure, step parameter variability and leg stiffness compared with running on smooth terrain. Subject energy expenditure increased by 5% (0.68 W kg(-1); P<0.05) when running on uneven terrain compared with smooth terrain. Step width and length variability also increased by 27% and 26%, respectively (P<0.05). Positive and negative ankle work decreased on uneven terrain by 22% (0.413 J kg(-1)) and 18% (0.147 J kg(-1)), respectively (P=0.0001 and P=0.0008). Mean muscle activity increased on uneven terrain for three muscles in the thigh (P<0.05). Leg stiffness also increased by 20% (P<0.05) during running on uneven terrain compared with smooth terrain. Calculations of gravitational potential energy fluctuations suggest that about half of the energetic increases can be explained by additional positive and negative mechanical work for up and down steps on the uneven surface. This is consistent between walking and running, as the absolute increases in energetic cost for walking and running on uneven terrain were similar: 0.68 and 0.48 W kg(-1), respectively. These results provide insight into how surface smoothness can affect locomotion biomechanics and energetics in the real world.

  11. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  12. Quadratus femoris: An EMG investigation during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Semciw, Adam I; Freeman, Michael; Kunstler, Breanne E; Mendis, M Dilani; Pizzari, Tania

    2015-09-18

    Dysfunction of hip stabilizing muscles such as quadratus femoris (QF) is identified as a potential source of lower extremity injury during functional tasks like running. Despite these assumptions, there are currently no electromyography (EMG) data that establish the burst activity profile of QF during any functional task like walking or running. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the EMG activity profile of QF while walking and running (primary aim) and describe the direction specific action of QF (secondary aim). A bipolar fine-wire intramuscular electrode was inserted via ultrasound guidance into the QF of 10 healthy participants (4 females). Ensemble curves were generated from four walking and running trials, and normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Paired t-tests compared the temporal and amplitude EMG variables. The relative activity of QF in the MVICs was calculated. The QF displayed moderate to high amplitude activity in the stance phase of walking and very high activity during stance in running. During swing, there was minimal QF activity recorded during walking and high amplitudes were present while running (run vs walk effect size=4.23, P<0.001). For the MVICs, external rotation and clam produced the greatest QF activity, with the hip in the anatomical position. This study provides an understanding of the activity demands placed on QF while walking and running. The high activity in late swing during running may signify a synergistic role with other posterior thigh muscles to control deceleration of the limb in preparation for stance.

  13. Practical neck cooling and time-trial running performance in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher James; Wild, Perry; Sunderland, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this two-part experiment was to investigate the effect of cooling the neck on time-trial performance in hot conditions (~30°C; 50% RH). In Study A, nine participants completed a 75-min submaximal (~60% V(O₂(max)) pre-load phase followed by a 15-min self-paced time-trial (TT) on three occasions: one with a cooling collar (CC(90)), one without a collar (NC(90)) and one with the collar uncooled (C(90)). In Study B, eight participants completed a 15-min TT twice: once with (CC(15)) and once without (NC(15)) a cooling collar. Time-trial performance was significantly improved in Study A in CC(90) (3,030 ± 485 m) compared to C(90) (2,741 ± 537 m; P = 0.008) and NC(90) (2,884 ± 571 m; P = 0.041). Fifteen-minute TT performance was unaffected by the collar in Study B (CC(15) = 3,239 ± 267 m; NC(15) = 3,180 ± 271 m; P = 0.351). The collar had no effect on rectal temperature, heart rate or RPE. There was no effect of cooling the neck on S100β, cortisol, prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline or dopamine concentrations in Study A. Cooling the neck via a cooling collar can improve exercise performance in a hot environment but it appears that there may be a thermal strain threshold which must be breached to gain a performance benefit from the collar.

  14. Evaluation and treatment of biking and running injuries.

    PubMed

    Oser, Sean M; Oser, Tamara K; Silvis, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    Exercise is universally recognized as a key feature for maintaining good health. Likewise, lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for chronic disease and disability, an especially important fact considering our rapidly aging population. Biking and running are frequently recommended as forms of exercise. As more individuals participate in running-related and cycling-related activities, physicians must be increasingly aware of the common injuries encountered in these pursuits. This review focuses on the evaluation and management of common running-related and cycling-related injuries.

  15. MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE RUN OUT INCLUDES THE TRAVELING TORCH WHICH CUTS SLABS TO DESIRED LENGTH, AN IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM TO INDICATE HEAT NUMBER AND TRACE IDENTITY OF EVERY SLAB, AND A DEBURRING DEVICE TO SMOOTH SLABS. AT LEFT OF ROLLS IS THE DUMMY BAR. DUMMY BAR IS INSERTED UP THROUGH CONTAINMENT SECTION INTO MOLD PRIOR TO START OF CAST. WHEN STEEL IS INTRODUCED INTO MOLD IT CONNECTS WITH BAR AS CAST BEGINS, AT RUN OUT DUMMY BAR DISCONNECTS AND IS STORED. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  16. MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE RUN OUT INCLUDES THE TRAVELING TORCH WHICH CUTS SLABS TO DESIRED LENGTH, AN IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM TO INDICATE HEAT NUMBER AND TRACE IDENTITY OF EVERY SLAB, AND A DEBURRING DEVICE TO SMOOTH SLABS. AT LEFT OF ROLLS IS THE DUMMY BAR. DUMMY BAR IS INSERTED UP THROUGH CONTAINMENT SECTION INTO MOLD PRIOR TO START OF CAST. WHEN STEEL IS INTRODUCED INTO MOLD IT CONNECTS WITH BAR AS CAST BEGINS, AT RUN OUT DUMMY BAR DISCONNECTS AND IS STORED - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  18. Towards Run-time Assurance of Advanced Propulsion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Schierman, John D.; Schlapkohl, Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers the motivation and rationale for investigating the application of run-time assurance methods as a potential means of providing safety assurance for advanced propulsion control systems. Certification is becoming increasingly infeasible for such systems using current verification practices. Run-time assurance systems hold the promise of certifying these advanced systems by continuously monitoring the state of the feedback system during operation and reverting to a simpler, certified system if anomalous behavior is detected. The discussion will also cover initial efforts underway to apply a run-time assurance framework to NASA's model-based engine control approach. Preliminary experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. Running of the scalar spectral index in bouncing cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@aei.mpg.de

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the running of the scalar index in the ekpyrotic and matter bounce cosmological scenarios, and find that it is typically negative for ekpyrotic models, while it is typically positive for realizations of the matter bounce where multiple fields are present. This can be compared to inflation, where the observationally preferred models typically predict a negative running. The magnitude of the running is expected to be between 10{sup −4} and up to 10{sup −2}, leading in some cases to interesting expectations for near-future observations.

  20. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  1. ElectroWeak symmetry breaking in Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    G. Chiarelli

    2001-11-27

    The Tevatron Run II will provide CDF and D0 with a large dataset of p{bar p} interactions collected at {radical}s = 2 TeV. They discuss the opportunity for the two experiments to improve the understanding of electroweak and top physics in the first years of data taking (Run IIa, 2fb{sup -1}) in view of the upgrades of the detectors. They also discuss the prospectives for a Higgs discovery at the Tevatron in view of the Run IIb data taking period which will deliver an additional of about 13 fb{sup -1} to each experiment.

  2. Stable Running with Asymmetric Legs: A Bifurcation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Seyfarth, Andre; Hermann, Martin

    The spring-mass model is a frequently used gait template to describe human and animal locomotion. In this study, we transform the spring-mass model for running into a boundary value problem and use it for the computation of bifurcation points. We show that the analysis of the region of stable solutions can be reduced to the calculation of its boundaries. Using the new bifurcation approach, we investigate the influence of asymmetric leg parameters on the stability of running. Like previously found in walking, leg asymmetry does not necessarily restrict the range of stable running and may even provide benefits for system dynamics.

  3. 34. ROUGH GAS MAIN RUNNING SOUTHEAST FROM THE BOP SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ROUGH GAS MAIN RUNNING SOUTHEAST FROM THE BOP SHOP TO THE DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHERS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  6. Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164324.html Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury But ... of endurance are also tough on the kidneys. "Marathon runners demonstrate transient or reverse short-term kidney ...

  7. PHOTOCOPY OF JULY 31, 1875 PHOTO OF TRIAL RUN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF JULY 31, 1875 PHOTO OF TRIAL RUN OF THE SECOND BRIDGE, courtesy of Erie Railway Company - Erie Railway, Buffalo Division, Bridge 361.66, Genesee River, State Route 436, Portageville, Wyoming County, NY

  8. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  9. 1. 20472009 SPRUCE ST. RUNS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 2047-2009 SPRUCE ST. RUNS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. SOUTH (FRONT) FACADES. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Spruce Street Area Study, 2009-2045 Spruce Street (Houses), Spruce Street, north side, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL OF SAND FILTER SYSTEM. MAIN LINE RUNS IN FOREGROUND WITH VALVES IN CONCRETE PITS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  11. Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvertdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvert-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  12. 14. Drawing showing stress for central viaduct, Walworth Run portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Drawing showing stress for central viaduct, Walworth Run portion 1885. Drawing courtesy Engineering Department, City of Cleveland. - Abbey Avenue Viaduct, Spanning Walworth Valley at Abbey Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 12. VIEW OF CANOPY OVER NORTHWEST LOADING PLATFORM, RUNNING NEARLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF CANOPY OVER NORTHWEST LOADING PLATFORM, RUNNING NEARLY THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, TOWARD US HWY. 50 IN DISTANCE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity following distance running.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J B; Brodthagen, U; Gormsen, J; Jordal, R; Nørregaard-Hansen, K; Paulev, P E

    1982-11-01

    6 long distance runners from the Danish marathon elite and 6 non-runners completed test runs of 28 and 12 km, respectively. Distance runners and non-runners showed the same responses in platelet function. We found a significant decrease in ADP induced platelet aggregability, a decreased serotonin release induced by ADP and collagen and an increase in platelet factor 4 immediately following the run. The antithrombin III levels remained constant. Euglobulin lysis time was shortened (by approximately 50%) and the plasminogen levels significantly increased. The last 2 findings indicate an equal increase in fibrinolytic activity during distance running in both groups. While short term, strenuous exercise induces platelet hyperaggregation, long term distance running induces a state of exhaustion of platelet aggregation capacity.

  16. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  17. 76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel to governor and from water wheel to tachometer (foreground). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. Changes in mechanical work during severe exhausting running.

    PubMed

    Avogadro, Patrick; Dolenec, Ales; Belli, Alain

    2003-09-01

    The possible contribution of muscular work to the increase in oxygen uptake ( VO(2)) over time during running was investigated on 11 adult males who were asked to run until exhaustion at 90 (3)% [mean (SD)] of their maximal aerobic velocity on a treadmill ergometer. Ground reaction forces, expired gases and EMG from leg muscles were collected for 30 s at min 3 and during the last minute of the run. Subjects ran for 829 (165) s and showed an increase in VO(2 )of 179 (93) ml.min(-1) between min 3 and exhaustion. Increased ventilation explained 41 (27)% of the increase in VO(2). Stride frequency slightly decreased but no significant differences were found in the mechanical work or in integrated EMG. It was concluded that, in running, the increase in VO(2 )could not be related to a drift in muscle work.

  19. The spectral index and its running in axionic curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2013-06-01

    We show that a sizable running spectral index suggested by the recent SPT data can be explained in the axionic curvaton model with a potential that consists of two sinusoidal contributions of different height and period. We find that the running spectral index is generically given by dn{sub s}/dln k ∼ 2π/ΔN (n{sub s}−1), where ΔN is the e-folds during one period of modulations. In the string axiverse, axions naturally acquire a mass from multiple contributions, and one of the axions may be responsible for the density perturbations with a sizable running spectral index via the curvaton mechanism. We note that the axionic curvaton model with modulations can also accommodate the red-tilted spectrum with a negligible running, without relying on large-field inflation.

  20. Astronaut John Glenn running as part of physical training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, participates in a strict physical training program, as he exemplifies by frequent running. Here he pauses during an exercise period on the beach near Cape Canaveral, Florida.

  1. Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running across - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Crane Wharf, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... get ovarian cancer by age 70. Does Your Family Health History Put You At Risk? Collect your ...

  3. North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the tracks; 63rd street is perpendicular to them. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 63rd Street Station, Intersection of Market & Sixty-third Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 16. BASEMENT, INTERIOR, DETAIL SHOWING AUGUR CONVEYOR; CONVEYOR RUNS DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BASEMENT, INTERIOR, DETAIL SHOWING AUGUR CONVEYOR; CONVEYOR RUNS DOWN CENTER OF SECOND BAY FROM SOUTH WALL AND THROUGH FIREWALL; LOOKING WEST - Standard Mill, 116-118 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  5. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  6. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  7. Daily running promotes spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Hojjatallah; Moloudi, Rohallah; Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Azizi-Malekabadi, Hamid; Hanninen, Osmo

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise). 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period). 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only) and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period). The results showed that chronic (30 days) and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days) treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05). The benefits in these tests were lost in three days, if the daily running session was abandoned. In group D with acute treadmill running (8 days exercise only) the difference between the Group A disappeared in one week and benefit seemed to be obtained in comparison with the controls without running program. In conclusion the chronic and daily running exercises promoted learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats. Key pointsDaily running influence on spatial memory.The velocity of learning can be influenced by running activity.Path length is important parameter for measuring the speed of learning.

  8. [Changes in body composition during an extreme endurance run].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B; Bircher, S

    2005-03-09

    We measured before, during and after a six-day-run in one athlete body weight, skinfold thickness, circumference of extremities, energy expenditure and nutritional intake. Despite an increased fat and protein intake during the race we found a significantly decrease in adipose subcutaneous tissue of the whole body and muscle mass in the active limbs whereas body weight remained stable. We presume that during running as eccentric exercise subcutaneous adipose tissue and muscle mass will be oxidised.

  9. Countermeasure for reducing vibrations of a building for running trains

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Yorio

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the with vibration reduction effect of a railway station building, by making use of special rail fastening devices and track girders for running trains set on the second floor. To estimate the vibration reduction effect, dynamic interaction between trains, supporting girders and building members was analyzed numerically. In order to make a few corrections for calculated values, correction coefficients were introduced by comparing analytical values with measured ones obtained by running trains.

  10. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    This run-flat technology is built directly into the tire, yet maintains the normal variable footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire...footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire/wheel assembly much lighter and far more survivable than normal military run-flat technology...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire, and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be

  11. Humans Running in Place on Water at Simulated Reduced Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Minetti, Alberto E.; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth’s gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. Methodology/Principal Findings We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower) gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. Conclusions/Significance The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology. PMID:22815681

  12. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  13. Spinal loading during circuit weight-training and running.

    PubMed Central

    Leatt, P; Reilly, T; Troup, J G

    1986-01-01

    Spinal shrinkage was used as an indicant of loading on the spine in circuit weight-training and running regimes. The loss of stature during two sets of a circuit of weight-training (n = 10), a 6 km run by novices (n = 9) and a 25 km run by trained runners (n = 7) was assessed in male subjects. Shrinkage was not significantly different between the weight-training regime and the 6 km run by novices, mean losses being 5.4 and 3.25 mm respectively. The rate of height loss in the experienced runners was 2.35 mm over 6 km run at 12.2 km.h-1, representing 0.4 mm.km-1 over the 6 km run, this shrinkage rate being continued over the last 19 km run at 14.7 km.h-1. The loss of height could not be predicted from a set of covariates. The magnitude of the circadian variation, mean 14.4 mm, exceeded the change in height during the 25 km run. The diurnal variation conformed to a cosine function, though a better fit was obtained with a power function equation. A marked diurnal pattern was also observed in lumbar extension. Though reversal of spinal shrinkage was observed during a night's sleep, no significant recovery occurred during a 20 min resting period immediately following the exercise regimes. These results have implications for the warm-up and timing of exercise regimes that impose significant loading on the spine. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3779339

  14. A new Mtest beamline for the 1999 fixed target run

    SciTech Connect

    C. N. Brown and T. R. Kobilarcik

    2000-05-18

    The beamline cryogenic system for the Meson area will not be run for the 1999 fixed target run. The current MTest (MT) beamline relies on cryogenic magnets. A non-cryogenic solution is proposed which can yield up to 1 x 10{sup 6} pions per cycle at 120 GeV/c per 1 x 10{sup 11} incident protons at 800 GeV/c.

  15. Injuries And Footwear (Part 2): Minimalist Running Shoes.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Grier, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    This article defines minimalist running shoes and examines physiological, biomechanical, and injury rate differences when running in conventional versus minimalist running shoes. A minimalist shoe is one that provides "minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot, because of its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices." Most studies indicate that running in minimalist shoes results in a lower physiological energy cost than running in conventional shoes, likely because of the lower weight of the minimalist shoe. Most individuals running in conventional shoes impact the ground heel first (rearfoot strike pattern), whereas most people running in minimalist shoes tend to strike with the front of the foot (forefoot strike pattern). The rate at which force is developed on ground impact (i.e., the loading rate) is generally higher when running in conventional versus minimalist shoes. Findings from studies that have looked at associations between injuries and foot strike patterns or injuries and loading rates are conflicting, so it is not clear if these factors influence injury rates; more research is needed. Better-designed prospective studies indicate that bone stress injuries and the overall injury incidence are higher in minimalist shoes during the early weeks (10-12 weeks) of transition to this type of footwear. Longer-term studies are needed to define injury rates once runners are fully transitioned to minimalist shoes. At least one longer-term minimalist-shoe investigation is ongoing and, hopefully, will be published soon.

  16. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  17. Running economy, not aerobic fitness, independently alters thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running

    PubMed Central

    Smoljanić, Jovana; Morris, Nathan B.; Dervis, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine the independent influence of running economy (RE) and aerobic fitness [maximum oxygen consumption (V̇o2max)] on thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running by conducting two studies. In study 1, seven high (HI-FIT: 61 ± 5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) and seven low (LO-FIT: 45 ± 4 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max males matched for physical characteristics and RE (HI-FIT: 200 ± 21; LO-FIT: 200 ± 18 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) ran for 60 min at 1) 60%V̇o2max and 2) a fixed metabolic heat production (Hprod) of 640 W. In study 2, seven high (HI-ECO: 189 ± 15.3 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) and seven low (LO-ECO: 222 ± 10 ml O2·kg−1·km−1) RE males matched for physical characteristics and V̇o2max (HI-ECO: 60 ± 3; LO-ECO: 61 ± 7 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) ran for 60 min at a fixed 1) speed of 10.5 km/h and 2) Hprod of 640 W. Environmental conditions were 25.4 ± 0.8°C, 37 ± 12% RH. In study 1, at Hprod of 640 W, similar changes in esophageal temperature (ΔTes; HI-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.20; LO-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.22°C; P = 0.986) and whole body sweat losses (WBSL; HI-FIT: 498 ± 66; LO-FIT: 497 ± 149 g; P = 0.984) occurred despite different relative intensities (HI-FIT: 55 ± 6; LO-FIT: 39 ± 2% V̇o2max; P < 0.001). At 60% V̇o2max, ΔTes (P = 0.029) and WBSL (P = 0.003) were greater in HI-FIT (1.14 ± 0.32°C; 858 ± 130 g) compared with LO-FIT (0.73 ± 0.34°C; 609 ± 123 g), as was Hprod (HI-FIT: 12.6 ± 0.9; LO-FIT: 9.4 ± 1.0 W/kg; P < 0.001) and the evaporative heat balance requirement (Ereq; HI-FIT: 691 ± 74; LO-FIT: 523 ± 65 W; P < 0.001). Similar sweating onset ΔTes and thermosensitivities occurred between V̇o2max groups. In study 2, at 10.5 km/h, ΔTes (1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 0.78 ± 0.28°C; P = 0.017) and WBSL (835 ± 73 vs. 667 ± 139 g; P = 0.015) were greater in LO-ECO, as was Hprod (13.5 ± 0.6 vs. 11.3 ± 0.8 W/kg; P < 0.001) and Ereq (741 ± 89 vs. 532 ± 130 W; P = 0.007). At Hprod of 640 W, ΔTes (P = 0.910) and WBSL (P = 0.710) were

  18. Running economy, not aerobic fitness, independently alters thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Smoljanić, Jovana; Morris, Nathan B; Dervis, Sheila; Jay, Ollie

    2014-12-15

    We sought to determine the independent influence of running economy (RE) and aerobic fitness [maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O 2max)] on thermoregulatory responses during treadmill running by conducting two studies. In study 1, seven high (HI-FIT: 61 ± 5 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and seven low (LO-FIT: 45 ± 4 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1)) V̇O 2max males matched for physical characteristics and RE (HI-FIT: 200 ± 21; LO-FIT: 200 ± 18 ml O2 · kg(-1) · km(-1)) ran for 60 min at 1) 60%V̇O 2max and 2) a fixed metabolic heat production (Hprod) of 640 W. In study 2, seven high (HI-ECO: 189 ± 15.3 ml O2 · kg(-1) · km(-1)) and seven low (LO-ECO: 222 ± 10 ml O2 · kg(-1) · km(-1)) RE males matched for physical characteristics and V̇O 2max (HI-ECO: 60 ± 3; LO-ECO: 61 ± 7 ml O2 · kg(-1) · min(-1)) ran for 60 min at a fixed 1) speed of 10.5 km/h and 2) Hprod of 640 W. Environmental conditions were 25.4 ± 0.8°C, 37 ± 12% RH. In study 1, at Hprod of 640 W, similar changes in esophageal temperature (ΔTes; HI-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.20; LO-FIT: 0.63 ± 0.22°C; P = 0.986) and whole body sweat losses (WBSL; HI-FIT: 498 ± 66; LO-FIT: 497 ± 149 g; P = 0.984) occurred despite different relative intensities (HI-FIT: 55 ± 6; LO-FIT: 39 ± 2% V̇O 2max; P < 0.001). At 60% V̇O 2max, ΔTes (P = 0.029) and WBSL (P = 0.003) were greater in HI-FIT (1.14 ± 0.32°C; 858 ± 130 g) compared with LO-FIT (0.73 ± 0.34°C; 609 ± 123 g), as was Hprod (HI-FIT: 12.6 ± 0.9; LO-FIT: 9.4 ± 1.0 W/kg; P < 0.001) and the evaporative heat balance requirement (Ereq; HI-FIT: 691 ± 74; LO-FIT: 523 ± 65 W; P < 0.001). Similar sweating onset ΔTes and thermosensitivities occurred between V̇O 2max groups. In study 2, at 10.5 km/h, ΔTes (1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 0.78 ± 0.28°C; P = 0.017) and WBSL (835 ± 73 vs. 667 ± 139 g; P = 0.015) were greater in LO-ECO, as was Hprod (13.5 ± 0.6 vs. 11.3 ± 0.8 W/kg; P < 0.001) and Ereq (741 ± 89 vs. 532 ± 130 W; P = 0.007). At Hprod of 640 W, ΔTes (P = 0

  19. Physiological and ergonomics factors in running shoe design.

    PubMed

    Frederick, E C

    1984-12-01

    Various features of the design of running shoes have been known to affect the performance and safety of athletes. The performance related effects of shoe design on traction and on the economy of locomotion are reviewed in this paper. Traction measurements in various types of running shoes and on various surfaces appear adequate for all but running on wet asphalt roads. Future designs should improve traction for those conditions. Effects on the economy of locomotion as small as 1% can be determined using conventional oxygen uptake measurements. The effect of carrying extra weight on the foot during running has been measured at 1% per 100 g per foot. The cost of carrying similar weights is much lower for walking or for running when the weight is carried nearer the body's centre of mass. Cushioning and other features of shoe design besides weight have been shown to have significant effects on the economy of locomotion. Optimum designs for maximising running performance should provide sufficient traction, minimal weight and maximum cushioning.

  20. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  1. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-09-29

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman's ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions.

  2. Precipitate hydrolysis experimental facility (PHEF): Run 64 report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.; Edwards, R.E.; Shah, H.B.; Young, S.R.

    1994-07-29

    The significant findings of Run 64 are: (a) Carbon dioxide was demonstrated to be an acceptable inertant for the actual hydrolysis process. However, based on the severe degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate slurry stored in the Precipitate Hold Tank (PHT) at PHEF following Run 65, further evaluation of the suitability of carbon dioxide as an inertant for the long term storage of precipitate slurries is warranted. (b) Phenylboronic acid (PBA) reaction kinetics were excellent with no detectable PBA in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. (c) PHA product was low in biphenyl (6 mg/l), diphenylamine (13 mg/l), and total high boiling organics (22 mg/l). (d) Reproduced vacuum collapse problems encountered in DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) water runs and demonstrated that the high vacuums experience during water runs could not be reproduced under normal operating conditions. (e) High benzene losses through stack and fugitive emissions were noted during Run 64. This may lead to poor decanter extraction performance long term and may be problem in DWPF, especially during long lay-ups or at low attainments. Approximately 69% of the benzene produced during Run 64 was released as benzene emissions.

  3. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  4. Collision avoidance by running insects: antennal guidance in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshichika; Tsukada, Akira; Comer, Christopher M

    2010-07-01

    Cockroaches were observed with videographic methods as escape running was initiated, but with obstacles in the path of their run. The goal was to determine the repertoire of possible responses to obstacles and the sensory cues used to trigger the responses. Intact cockroaches collided with obstacles on only about 10% of trials. The most common collision avoidance strategy was simply to stop running prior to impact. However, occasionally animals moved vertically and climbed over the barrier, or turned and navigated an edge of the obstacle, or completely reversed run direction. The avoidance strategies chosen depended on the size and configuration of the obstacle. Tests for the use of vision in detecting obstacles showed that its role, if any, is small. However, all manipulations that altered the antennal system changed behavior in a way consistent with the hypothesis that antennal mechanosensation plays a major role in collision avoidance. For example, reducing antennal length, or severing the main antennal nerve without altering the length produced significant increases in the frequency of collisions. Tests with tethered insects showed that (1) the antennae are preferentially directed forward as animals run, and (2) nearly simultaneous contact with both antennae is required to make the cockroach stop. Our data indicate that running cockroaches employ strategies that set their sensorimotor systems in a mode of readiness to deal with obstacles and they suggest that sensory information about the presence and configuration of obstacles is used to make choices, at very short latencies, about how to respond to obstructions.

  5. Inverted pendular running: a novel gait predicted by computer optimization is found between walk and run in birds

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James Richard

    2010-01-01

    Idealized models of walking and running demonstrate that, energetically, walking should be favoured up to, and even somewhat over, those speeds and step lengths that can be achieved while keeping the stance leg under compression. Around these speeds, and especially with relatively long step lengths, computer optimization predicts a third, ‘hybrid’, gait: (inverted) pendular running (Srinivasan & Ruina 2006 Nature 439, 72–75 (doi:10.1038/nature04113)). This gait involves both walking-like vaulting mechanics and running-like ballistic paths. Trajectories of horizontal versus vertical centre of mass velocities—‘hodographs’—over the step cycle are distinctive for each gait: anticlockwise for walk; clockwise for run; figure-of-eight for the hybrid gait. Both pheasants and guineafowl demonstrate each gait at close to the predicted speed/step length combinations, although fully aerial ballistic phases are never achieved during the hybrid or ‘Grounded Inverted Pendular Running’ gait. PMID:20484229

  6. Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas J; Scales, Jeffrey A

    2002-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the hindlimb muscles of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can produce maximal power during running accelerations. The mechanical power developed during single running steps was calculated from force-plate and high-speed video measurements as turkeys accelerated over a trackway. Steady-speed running steps and accelerations were compared to determine how turkeys alter their running mechanics from a low-power to a high-power gait. During maximal accelerations, turkeys eliminated two features of running mechanics that are characteristic of steady-speed running: (i) they produced purely propulsive horizontal ground reaction forces, with no braking forces, and (ii) they produced purely positive work during stance, with no decrease in the mechanical energy of the body during the step. The braking and propulsive forces ordinarily developed during steady-speed running are important for balance because they align the ground reaction force vector with the center of mass. Increases in acceleration in turkeys correlated with decreases in the angle of limb protraction at toe-down and increases in the angle of limb retraction at toe-off. These kinematic changes allow turkeys to maintain the alignment of the center of mass and ground reaction force vector during accelerations when large propulsive forces result in a forward-directed ground reaction force. During the highest accelerations, turkeys produced exclusively positive mechanical power. The measured power output during acceleration divided by the total hindlimb muscle mass yielded estimates of peak instantaneous power output in excess of 400 W kg(-1) hindlimb muscle mass. This value exceeds estimates of peak instantaneous power output of turkey muscle fibers. The mean power developed during the entire stance phase increased from approximately zero during steady-speed runs to more than 150 W kg(-1) muscle during the highest accelerations. The high power outputs observed during accelerations

  7. Mu opioid receptor modulation in the nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred for high running motivation.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2015-10-01

    The exact role of opioid receptor signaling in mediating voluntary wheel running is unclear. To provide additional understanding, female rats selectively bred for motivation of low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviors were used. Aims of this study were 1) to identify intrinsic differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) mRNA expression of opioid-related transcripts and 2) to determine if nightly wheel running is differently influenced by bilateral NAc injections of either the mu-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo5-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.25, 2.5 μg/side), or its antagonist, naltrexone (5, 10, 20 μg/side). In Experiment 1, intrinsic expression of Oprm1 and Pdyn mRNAs were higher in HVR compared to LVR. Thus, the data imply that line differences in opioidergic mRNA in the NAc could partially contribute to differences in wheel running behavior. In Experiment 2, a significant decrease in running distance was present in HVR rats treated with 2.5 μg DAMGO, or with 10 μg and 20 μg naltrexone between hours 0-1 of the dark cycle. Neither DAMGO nor naltrexone had a significant effect on running distance in LVR rats. Taken together, the data suggest that the high nightly voluntary running distance expressed by HVR rats is mediated by increased endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling in the NAc, that is disturbed by either agonism or antagonism. In summary, our findings on NAc opioidergic mRNA expression and mu-opioid receptor modulations suggest HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, express higher running levels mediated by an increase in motivation driven, in part, by elevated NAc opioidergic signaling.

  8. Biomechanics of slow running and walking with a rocker shoe.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Hijmans, Juha; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Zwerver, Johannes; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests a link between the loading of the Achilles tendon and the magnitude of the ankle internal plantar flexion moment during late stance of gait, which is clinically relevant in the management of Achilles tendinopathy. Some studies showed that rocker shoes can reduce the ankle internal plantar flexion moment. However, the existing evidence is not conclusive and focused on walking and scarce in running. Sixteen healthy runners participated in this study. Lower extremity kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) signals of triceps surae and tibialis anterior were quantified for two types of shoes during running and walking. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment was reduced significantly in late stance of running (0.27 Nm/kg; p<0.001) and walking (0.24 Nm/kg; p<0.001) with the rocker shoe compared to standard shoe. The ankle power generation and plantar flexion moment impulse were also reduced significantly when running and walking with the rocker shoe (p<0.001). No significant changes in the knee and hip moments were found in running and walking. A significant delay of the EMG peak, approximately 2% (p<0.001), was present in the triceps surae when walking with rocker shoes. There were no significant changes in the EMG peak amplitude of triceps surae in running and walking. The peak amplitude of tibialis anterior was significantly increased (64.7 μV, p<0.001) when walking with rocker shoes. The findings show that rocker shoes reduce the ankle plantar flexion moment during the late stance phase of running and walking in healthy people.

  9. Reliability and validity of the maximal anaerobic running test.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Alberts, M; Rijntjes, R P; Luhtanen, P; Rusko, H

    1996-07-01

    Physically active men (n = 13) twice performed the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) on a treadmill and once the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer. The MART consisted of n 20-s runs with 100-s recovery between the runs. The speed of the first run was 14.6 km.h-1 and the inclination 4 degrees. Thereafter, the speed was increased by 1.37 km.h-1 every run until exhaustion. During all tests oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and blood samples were taken from the fingertip 40s after each run to determine the lactate concentration (BLa). Power at submaximal BLa levels and maximal power (P5mM, P10mM and Pmax, respectively) were calculated and P was expressed as the oxygen demand of running according to the American College of Sports Medicine equation. In the MART the Pmax was 108 ml.kg-1.min-1 and peak BLa was 15.6 mM. The reliability for the power indices in the MART were as follows: r = 0.92 (p < 0.001) for Pmax r = 0.80 (p < 0.001) for P10mM and r = 0.67 (p = 0.01) for P5mM. The average contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated to be 68% but it ranged from 64% to 72% during the MART. Although four out of seven of the correlations between the corresponding variables of the MART and WAnT were significant (0.52 < r < 0.59) they were not high. It is concluded that the anaerobic energy production is high in the MART, the test is reliable, and that the treadmill and cycle ergometer test measure slightly different qualities.

  10. Effects of music interventions on emotional States and running performance.

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the

  11. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  12. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Running-Specific Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Owen N.; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of running-specific prostheses likely affects the functional abilities of athletes with leg amputations. However, each prosthetic manufacturer recommends prostheses based on subjective stiffness categories rather than performance based metrics. The actual mechanical stiffness values of running-specific prostheses (i.e. kN/m) are unknown. Consequently, we sought to characterize and disseminate the stiffness values of running-specific prostheses so that researchers, clinicians, and athletes can objectively evaluate prosthetic function. We characterized the stiffness values of 55 running-specific prostheses across various models, stiffness categories, and heights using forces and angles representative of those measured from athletes with transtibial amputations during running. Characterizing prosthetic force-displacement profiles with a 2nd degree polynomial explained 4.4% more of the variance than a linear function (p<0.001). The prosthetic stiffness values of manufacturer recommended stiffness categories varied between prosthetic models (p<0.001). Also, prosthetic stiffness was 10% to 39% less at angles typical of running 3 m/s and 6 m/s (10°-25°) compared to neutral (0°) (p<0.001). Furthermore, prosthetic stiffness was inversely related to height in J-shaped (p<0.001), but not C-shaped, prostheses. Running-specific prostheses should be tested under the demands of the respective activity in order to derive relevant characterizations of stiffness and function. In all, our results indicate that when athletes with leg amputations alter prosthetic model, height, and/or sagittal plane alignment, their prosthetic stiffness profiles also change; therefore variations in comfort, performance, etc. may be indirectly due to altered stiffness. PMID:27973573

  13. FOCAL GENERATION OF PAROXYSMAL FAST RUNS DURING ELECTROGRAPHIC SEIZURES

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Sofiane; Chauvette, Sylvain; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A cortically generated Lennox-Gastaut type seizure is associated with spike-wave/polyspike-wave discharges at 1.0–2.5 Hz and fast runs at 7–16 Hz. Here we studied the patterns of synchronization during runs of paroxysmal fast spikes. Methods Electrographic activities were recorded using multisite intracellular and field potential recordings in vivo from cats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. In different experiments, the recording electrodes were located either at short distances (<1 mm) or at longer distances (up to 12 mm). The main experimental findings were tested in computational models. Results In the majority of cases, the onset and the offset of fast runs occurred almost simultaneously in different recording sites. The amplitude and duration of fast runs could vary by orders of magnitude. Within the fast runs, the patterns of synchronization recorded in different electrodes were as following: (i) synchronous, in phase, (ii) synchronous, with phase shift, (iii) patchy, repeated in phase/phase shift transitions and (iv) non-synchronous, slightly different frequencies in different recording sites or absence of oscillatory activity in one of the recording sites; the synchronous patterns (in phase or with phase shifts) were most common. All these patterns could be recorded in the same pair of electrodes during different seizures and they were reproduced in a computational network model. Intrinsically-bursting (IB) neurons fired more spikes per cycle than any other neurons suggesting their leading role in the fast run generation. Conclusions Once started, the fast runs are generated locally with variable correlations between neighboring cortical foci. PMID:18616553

  14. Effect of Light/Dark Cycle on Wheel Running and Responding Reinforced by the Opportunity to Run Depends on Postsession Feeding Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, T. W.; Mondona, A. R.; Conrad, K. M.; Poirier, K. F.; Pickering, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during…

  15. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play.

  16. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  17. Effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature after running.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Gil-Calvo, M; Giménez, J V; Aparicio, I; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R M; Salvador Palmer, R; Llana-Belloch, S; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-08-01

    High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete's thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running in a moderate indoor environment. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30min (10min of warm-up and 20min at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in 12 regions of interest on the lower limb by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95% CI [0.11-0.45°C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ES<0.8). In conclusion, running with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete's heart rate and perception of fatigue.

  18. Enforced bipedal downhill running induces Achilles tendinosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ng, Gabriel Yin-Fat; Chung, Polly Yee-Man; Wang, Jenny Shijie; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei

    2011-01-01

    Enforced downhill running has been reported to induce tendinosis in the rat supraspinatus tendon but similar exercise failed to induce Achilles tendinosis in this animal. Due to the presence of acromial arch in the shoulder, accessing the supraspinatus tendon with physical modalities is difficult; thus this model may not be suitable for studying the treatment for tendinosis. To develop a rat model for Achilles tendinosis, we tested 14 mature Sprague-Dawley rats by dividing them into 2 groups of 7 each. The experimental group was subjected to a daily enforced downhill bipedal running program by suspending their upper bodies so that they ran with their hind limbs on a treadmill for 1 hr/day for 8 weeks. The downward inclination was 20 degrees and the speed was 17 m/min. The animals in the control group did not undergo any exercise. After 8 weeks, the Achilles tendons were harvested and subjected to histological and biomechanical analysis. Histological examination revealed tenocyte proliferation, change in tenocytes appearance, and collagen bundle disintegration in the running group. The biomechanical testing revealed significant decrease in stiffness (p = 0.002) and ultimate tensile strength (p = 0.016) in the running group than in the control group. Both the histological and biomechanical findings are suggestive of changes in the tendon of the running group that resembled the pathological changes of tendinosis in human. This new model of Achilles tendinosis in rat will be useful for studying the etiology and subsequent management strategies of this condition.

  19. Nonlinear run-ups of regular waves on sloping structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.-W.; Liang, S.-J.; Young, B.-D.; Ou, S.-H.

    2012-12-01

    For coastal risk mapping, it is extremely important to accurately predict wave run-ups since they influence overtopping calculations; however, nonlinear run-ups of regular waves on sloping structures are still not accurately modeled. We report the development of a high-order numerical model for regular waves based on the second-order nonlinear Boussinesq equations (BEs) derived by Wei et al. (1995). We calculated 160 cases of wave run-ups of nonlinear regular waves over various slope structures. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume for regular waves propagating over three plane slopes: tan α =1/5, 1/4, and 1/3. The numerical results, laboratory observations, as well as previous datasets were in good agreement. We have also proposed an empirical formula of the relative run-up in terms of two parameters: the Iribarren number ξ and sloping structures tan α. The prediction capability of the proposed formula was tested using previous data covering the range ξ ≤ 3 and 1/5 ≤ tan α ≤ 1/2 and found to be acceptable. Our study serves as a stepping stone to investigate run-up predictions for irregular waves and more complex geometries of coastal structures.

  20. Influence of compression garments on recovery after marathon running.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jessica A; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A; Walshe, Ian; Pedlar, Charles R

    2014-08-01

    Strenuous physical activity can result in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a lower limb compression garment in accelerating recovery from a marathon run. Twenty four subjects (female, n = 7; male, n = 17) completed a marathon run before being assigned to a treatment group or a sham treatment group. The treatment group wore lower limb compression tights for 72 hours after the marathon run, the sham treatment group received a single treatment of 15 minutes of sham ultrasound after the marathon run. Perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and serum markers of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (C-RP) were assessed before, immediately after, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the marathon run. Perceived muscle soreness was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the compression group at 24 hours after marathon when compared with the sham group. There were no significant group effects for MVIC, CK, and C-RP (p > 0.05). The use of a lower limb compression garment improved subjective perceptions of recovery; however, there was neither a significant improvement in muscular strength nor a significant attenuation in markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation.

  1. The coordinated movement of the spine and pelvis during running.

    PubMed

    Preece, Stephen J; Mason, Duncan; Bramah, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Previous research into running has demonstrated consistent patterns in pelvic, lumbar and thoracic motions between different human runners. However, to date, there has been limited attempt to explain why observed coordination patterns emerge and how they may relate to centre of mass (CoM) motion. In this study, kinematic data were collected from the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower limbs during over ground running in n=28 participants. These data was subsequently used to develop a theoretical understanding of the coordination of the spine and pelvis in all three body planes during the stance phase of running. In the sagittal plane, there appeared to be an antiphase coordinate pattern which may function to increase femoral inclination at toe off whilst minimising anterior-posterior accelerations of the CoM. In the medio-lateral direction, CoM motion appears to facilitate transition to the contralateral foot. However, an antiphase coordination pattern was also observed, most likely to minimise unnecessary accelerations of the CoM. In the transverse plane, motion of the pelvis was observed to lag slightly behind that of the thorax. However, it is possible that the close coupling between these two segments facilitates the thoracic rotation required to passively drive arm motion. This is the first study to provide a full biomechanical rationale for the coordination of the spine and pelvis during human running. This insight should help clinicians develop an improved understanding of how spinal and pelvic motions may contribute to, or result from, common running injuries.

  2. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Nute, M G; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine mild to moderate asthmatic adults (three males, six females) and six non-asthmatics (one male, five females) underwent endurance running training three times per week for five weeks, at self selected running speeds on a motorized treadmill. After training, the asthmatic group had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake, significantly lower blood lactate and heart rate in submaximal running, and significantly reduced time to complete a two mile treadmill run, partly attributable to the ability to exercise at a higher % VO2 max after training. These training induced changes of the asthmatic group were generally of a greater magnitude than those shown by the non-asthmatic group. Although seven of the nine asthmatics did show a reduction in the post-exercise fall in FEV1 after the five week training period, this was not statistically significant for the asthmatic group as a whole. The results of this study therefore suggest that endurance running training can improve the aerobic fitness of asthmatic adults, and may reduce the severity of exercise-induced asthma. PMID:2605441

  3. Parkinson's patient runs an ultra marathon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Daviet, J C; Roy, X; Quelven-Bertin, I; Jallageas, R; Mandigout, S; Torny, F; Monteil, J

    2014-08-01

    Studies show that physical activity involving prolonged endurance may benefit patients with Parkinson's disease by promoting the secretion and/or availability and use of dopamine. We report the case of a Parkinson's patient who took part in an ultra-marathon to show that extreme physical activity is possible and can facilitate medical treatment with a possible positive effect on brain structures. We report the case of a 48-year-old man in the initial stages of Parkinson's disease who took part in a 100-km run. Preparation included running approximately 90 km a week in six sessions. Evaluation included clinical monitoring and DaTSCAN® follow-up. After taking up running, the patient gradually stopped levodopa without worsening of symptoms as assessed on the UPDRS scale. DaTSCAN® imaging performed 3 days after the 100-km run showed partial correction of abnormalities seen 3 days before the race: improvement in binding at the putamen bilaterally and at the caudate nucleus on the right. Since then, the patient has continued to run regularly, for an average of 40 minutes on 5 days out of every 7. This case shows that demanding physical activity is possible in such circumstances and can help reduce medical treatment, potentially with a positive effect on the plasticity of the brain structures involved.

  4. VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ENHANCES CONTEXTUAL BUT NOT TRACE FEAR CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Kohman, Rachel A.; Clark, Peter J.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Venghaus, Christine E.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise improves performance on a number of hippocampus involved cognitive tasks including contextual fear conditioning, but whether exercise enhances contextual fear when the retention interval is longer than 1 day is not known. Also unknown is whether exercise improves trace conditioning, a task that requires the hippocampus to bridge the time interval between stimuli. Hence, 4-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without running wheels. To assess whether hippocampal neurogenesis was associated with behavioral outcomes, during the initial ten days, mice received Bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. After 30 days, one group of mice was trained in a contextual fear conditioning task. Freezing to context was assessed 1, 7, or 21 days post-training. A separate group was trained on a trace procedure, in which a tone and footshock were separated by a 15, 30, or 45 sec interval. Freezing to the tone was measured 24 hrs later in a novel environment, and freezing to training context was measured 48 hrs later. Running enhanced freezing to context when the retention interval was 1, but not 7 or 21 days. Running had no effect on trace conditioning even though runners displayed enhanced freezing to the training context 48 hrs later. Wheel running increased survival of new neurons in the hippocampus. Collectively, findings indicate that wheel running enhances cognitive performance on some tasks but not others and that enhanced neurogenesis is not always associated with improved performance on hippocampus tasks, one example of which is trace conditioning. PMID:21896289

  5. Compression sleeves increase tissue oxygen saturation but not running performance.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier, A; Mourot, L; Bouhaddi, M; Regnard, J; Tordi, N

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calf compression sleeves on running performance and on calf tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) at rest before exercise and during recovery period. 14 moderately trained athletes completed 2 identical sessions of treadmill running with and without calf compression sleeves in randomized order. Each session comprised: 15 min at rest, 30 min at 60% maximal aerobic velocity determined beforehand, 15 min of passive recovery, a running time to exhaustion at 100% maximal aerobic velocity, and 30 min of passive recovery. Calf StO2 was determined by near infra-red spectroscopy and running performance by the time to exhaustion. Compression sleeves increased significantly StO2 at rest before exercise (+ 6.4±1.9%) and during recovery from exercise (+ 7.4±1.7% and + 10.7±1.8% at 20th and 30th min of the last recovery period, respectively). No difference was observed between the times to exhaustion performed with and without compression sleeves (269.4±18.4 s and 263.3±19.8 s, respectively). Within the framework of this study, the compression sleeves do not improve running performance in tlim. However the StO2 results argue for further interest of this garment during effort recovery.

  6. Runs in superpositions of renewal processes with applications to discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsmeyer, Gerold; Irle, Albrecht

    2006-02-01

    Wald and Wolfowitz [Ann. Math. Statist. 11 (1940) 147-162] introduced the run test for testing whether two samples of i.i.d. random variables follow the same distribution. Here a run means a consecutive subsequence of maximal length from only one of the two samples. In this paper we contribute to the problem of runs and resulting test procedures for the superposition of independent renewal processes which may be interpreted as arrival processes of customers from two different input channels at the same service station. To be more precise, let (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 be the arrival processes for channel 1 and channel 2, respectively, and (Wn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 their be superposition with counting process . Let further be the number of runs in W1,...,Wn and the number of runs observed up to time t. We study the asymptotic behavior of and Rt, first for the case where (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 have exponentially distributed increments with parameters [lambda]1 and [lambda]2, and then for the more difficult situation when these increments have an absolutely continuous distribution. These results are used to design asymptotic level [alpha] tests for testing [lambda]1=[lambda]2 against [lambda]1[not equal to][lambda]2 in the first case, and for testing for equal scale parameters in the second.

  7. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Craig P; Grabowski, Alena M; McDermott, William J; Herr, Hugh M; Kram, Rodger

    2012-08-07

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring-mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting.

  8. Transport of plutonium in snowmelt run-off

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.; Maes, M.N.

    1990-07-01

    Plutonium in treated low-level radioactive effluents released into intermittent streams is bound by ion exchange or adsorption to bed sediments in the stream channel. These sediments are subject to transport with summer and spring snowmelt run-off. A study was made of the transport of plutonium during seven spring run-off events in Los Alamos and Pueblo canyons from the Laboratory boundary to Otowi on the Rio Grande. The melting of the snowpack during these years resulted in run-off that was large enough to reach the eastern edge of the Laboratory. Of these seven run-off events recorded at the Laboratory boundary, only five had sufficient flow to reach the Rio Grande. The volume of the five events that reached the river ranged from 5 {times} 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} to 104 {times} 10{sup 3} m{sup 3}. The five run-off events carried 119 {times} 10{sup 3} kg of suspended sediments and 1073 {times} 10{sup 3} kg of bed sediments, and transported 598 {mu}Ci of plutonium to the river. Of the 598 {mu}Ci of plutonium, 3% was transported in solution, 57% with suspended sediments, and 40% with bed sediments. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Validity of the Nike+ device during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Kane, N A; Simmons, M C; John, D; Thompson, D L; Bassett, D R; Basset, D R

    2010-02-01

    We determined the validity of the Nike+ device for estimating speed, distance, and energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Twenty trained individuals performed a maximal oxygen uptake test and underwent anthropometric and body composition testing. Each participant was outfitted with a Nike+ sensor inserted into the shoe and an Apple iPod nano. They performed eight 6-min stages on the treadmill, including level walking at 55, 82, and 107 m x min(-1), inclined walking (82 m x min(-1)) at 5 and 10% grades, and level running at 134, 161, and 188 m x min(-1). Speed was measured using a tachometer and EE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results showed that the Nike+ device overestimated the speed of level walking at 55 m x min(-1) by 20%, underestimated the speed of level walking at 107 m x min(-1) by 12%, but closely estimated the speed of level walking at 82 m x min(-1), and level running at all speeds (p<0.05). Similar results were found for distance. The Nike+ device overestimated the EE of level walking by 18-37%, but closely estimated the EE of level running (p<0.05). In conclusion the Nike+ in-shoe device provided reasonable estimates of speed and distance during level running at the three speeds tested in this study. However, it overestimated EE during level walking and it did not detect the increased cost of inclined locomotion.

  10. Social dominance rank influences wheel running behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Pérez, Héctor; Sellings, Laurie; Grieder, Taryn; Díaz, José-Luis

    2009-07-03

    Dominance hierarchies within social groups determine resource distribution. Resources, such as food and access to mating partners, can act as reinforcers. The present study examined the effect of social rank on access to wheel running-a reinforcing behavior performed by laboratory animals. Mice were identified as dominant or subordinate and given access to a running wheel access under solitary or social conditions. In the solitary condition, subordinate and dominant mice spent equal amounts of time on the running wheel. In the social condition, when one wheel was present, subordinate mice spent less time on the wheel than did dominant mice. Conversely, when two wheels were present, subordinates spent more time on the wheel than did dominant mice. When mice were given 24h access to one running wheel in the social condition, dominant mice ran more than subordinates during the dark cycle. Subordinate mice did not compensate for the lack of running wheel access by schedule shifting. These results suggest that social rank influences access to reinforcers by behavioral interference rather than by social inhibition.

  11. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.E.; Bloch, D.A.; Jones, H.H.; Marshall, W.H. Jr.; Wood, P.D.; Fries, J.F.

    1986-03-07

    Forty-one long-distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact (running) with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status. A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. Runners, both male and female, have approximately 40% more bone mineral than matched controls. Female runners, but not male runners, appear to have somewhat more sclerosis and spur formation in spine and weight-bearing knee x-ray films, but not in hand x-ray films. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

  12. Estimates of Running Ground Reaction Force Parameters from Motion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Storniolo, Jorge L L; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A

    2017-02-01

    We compared running mechanics parameters determined from ground reaction force (GRF) measurements with estimated forces obtained from double differentiation of kinematic (K) data from motion analysis in a broad spectrum of running speeds (1.94-5.56 m⋅s(-1)). Data were collected through a force-instrumented treadmill and compared at different sampling frequencies (900 and 300 Hz for GRF, 300 and 100 Hz for K). Vertical force peak, shape, and impulse were similar between K methods and GRF. Contact time, flight time, and vertical stiffness (kvert) obtained from K showed the same trend as GRF with differences < 5%, whereas leg stiffness (kleg) was not correctly computed by kinematics. The results revealed that the main vertical GRF parameters can be computed by the double differentiation of the body center of mass properly calculated by motion analysis. The present model provides an alternative accessible method for determining temporal and kinetic parameters of running without an instrumented treadmill.

  13. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J; Jesson, D E; Tang, W X

    2009-04-10

    High-temperature annealing of gallium arsenide in vacuum causes excess evaporation of arsenic, with accumulation of gallium as liquid droplets on the surface. Using real-time in situ surface electron microscopy, we found that these droplets spontaneously run across the crystal surface. Running droplets have been seen in many systems, but they typically require special surface preparation or gradient forces. In contrast, we show that noncongruent evaporation automatically provides a driving force for running droplets. The motion is predicted and observed to slow and stop near a characteristic temperature, with the speed increasing both below and above this temperature. The same behavior is expected to occur during the evaporation of similar III-V semiconductors such as indium arsenide.

  14. CDF run IIb silicon detector: The innermost layer

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Manea, C.; Wang, Z.; Behari, S.; Maksimovic, P.; Benjamin, D.; Cabrera, S.; Kruse, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Canepa,A.; Fernandez, J.P.; Booth, P.; Cooke, P.; Cascella, M.; Cardoso, G.; Derylo, G.; Flaugher, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lukens, P.; Nelson,T.; Orlov, Y.; Wester, W.; Yun, J.C.; Chertok, M.; Holbrook, B.; Lander,R.; Landry, T.; Pellett, D.; Soha, A.; Yao, W.; Ciobanu, C.I.; Junk, T.; Feng, E.J.; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Haber, C.; Lujan, P.J.; Mandelli, E.; Weber, M.; Zetti, F.; Zimmermann, S.; Goldstein, J.; Harr, R.; Hill, C.; Himmel, A.; Incandela, J.; Stuart, D.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakano, I.; Tanaka, R.; Kong, D.J.; Yang, Y.C.; Lauhakangas, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Lu, R.-S.; Min, S.N.; Okusawa,T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tavi, M.; Zucchelli, S.; Hong, S.C.; Jeon, E.J.; Joo,K.K.; Lee, J.

    2003-10-24

    The innermost layer (L00) of the Run IIa silicon detector of CDF was planned to be replaced for the high luminosity Tevatron upgrade of Run IIb. This new silicon layer (L0) is designed to be a radiation tolerant replacement for the otherwise very similar L00 from Run IIa. The data are read out via long, fine-pitch, low-mass cables allowing the hybrids with the chips to sit at higher z(/spl sim/70 cm), outside of the tracking volume. The design and first results from the prototyping phase are presented. Special focus is placed on the amount and the structure of induced noise as well as signal-to-noise values.

  15. Mitochondrial run-on transcription assay using biotin labeling.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    RNA synthesis and different posttranscriptional processes shape the transcriptome of plant mitochondria. It is believed that mitochondrial transcription in plants is not stringently controlled, and that RNA degradation has a major impact on mitochondrial steady-state transcript levels. Nevertheless, the presence of two RNA polymerases with different gene specificities in mitochondria of dicotyledonous species indicates that transcriptional mechanisms may provide a means to control mitochondrial steady-state RNA pools and gene expression. To experimentally assess transcriptional activities in mitochondria, run-on transcription assays have been developed. These assays measure elongation rates for endogenous transcripts in freshly prepared mitochondrial extracts. The mitochondrial run-on transcription protocol described here has been optimized for the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It uses mitochondria prepared from soil-grown Arabidopsis plants and employs nonradioactive labeling for the subsequent detection of run-on transcripts.

  16. Limits to running speed in dogs, horses and humans.

    PubMed

    Denny, Mark W

    2008-12-01

    Are there absolute limits to the speed at which animals can run? If so, how close are present-day individuals to these limits? I approach these questions by using three statistical models and data from competitive races to estimate maximum running speeds for greyhounds, thoroughbred horses and elite human athletes. In each case, an absolute speed limit is definable, and the current record approaches that predicted maximum. While all such extrapolations must be used cautiously, these data suggest that there are limits to the ability of either natural or artificial selection to produce ever faster dogs, horses and humans. Quantification of the limits to running speed may aid in formulating and testing models of locomotion.

  17. Update of Run 1 b results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    J. Tseng

    2002-08-13

    While the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is starting a new data run, it is also finishing analyses based on the 100 pb{sup -1} ''Run 1'' data sample collected between 1992 and 1996. In particular, the {Lambda}{sub b} lifetime has been measured using the exclusive decay channel {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}{sup 0}. The B{sup +} cross section, based upon the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +}, has been finalized, as well as the ratio of inclusive b quark cross sections at {radical}s = 630 GeV and 1800 GeV. Early results from the new data run with the displaced-track trigger, which shows great promise for b physics at CDF, are presented.

  18. Running SINDA '85/FLUINT interactive on the VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, Boris

    1992-01-01

    Computer software as engineering tools are typically run in three modes: Batch, Demand, and Interactive. The first two are the most popular in the SINDA world. The third one is not so popular, due probably to the users inaccessibility to the command procedure files for running SINDA '85, or lack of familiarity with the SINDA '85 execution processes (pre-processor, processor, compilation, linking, execution and all of the file assignment, creation, deletions and de-assignments). Interactive is the mode that makes thermal analysis with SINDA '85 a real-time design tool. This paper explains a command procedure sufficient (the minimum modifications required in an existing demand command procedure) to run SINDA '85 on the VAX in an interactive mode. To exercise the procedure a sample problem is presented exemplifying the mode, plus additional programming capabilities available in SINDA '85. Following the same guidelines the process can be extended to other SINDA '85 residence computer platforms.

  19. Using nuclear run-on transcription assays in RNAi studies.

    PubMed

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism regulating gene transcript levels either by transcriptional gene silencing or by posttranscriptional gene silencing, which act in the genome maintenance and the regulation of gene expression which is typically inferred from measuring transcript abundance. Nuclear "run-on" (or "run-off") transcription assays have been used to obtain quantitative information about the relative rates of transcription of different genes in nuclei isolated from a particular tissue or organ. Basically, these assays exploit the activity of RNA polymerases to synthesize radiolabeled transcripts that then can be hybridized to filter-bound, cold, excess single-stranded DNA probes representing genes of interest. The protocol presented here streamlines, adapts, and optimizes nuclear run-on transcription assays for use in RNAi studies.

  20. Comments on Injector Proton Beam Study in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    During the entire period of injector proton study in run 2014, it seems that the beam transverse emittance out of Booster is larger than that in run 2013. The emittance measured at the BtA transfer line and also the transmission from Booster late to AGS late are presented for this argument. In addition to this problem, it seems that the multiturn Booster injection, which defines the transverse emittance, needs more attention. Moreover, for high intensity operations, the space charge effect may be already relevant in RHIC polarized proton runs. With the RHIC proton intensity improvement in the next several years, higher Booster input intensity is needed, therefore, the space charge effect at the Booster injection and early ramp may become a new limiting factor.

  1. Pacing strategy during the initial phase of the run in triathlon: influence on overall performance.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Le Meur, Yann; Bieuzen, Francois; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bernard, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the best pacing strategy to adopt during the initial phase of a short distance triathlon run for highly trained triathletes. Ten highly trained male triathletes completed an incremental running test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, a 10-km control run at free pace and three individual time-trial triathlons (1.5-km swimming, 40-km cycling, 10-km running) in a randomised order. Swimming and cycling speeds were imposed as identical to the first triathlon performed and the first run kilometre was done alternatively 5% faster (Tri-Run(+5%)), 5% slower (Tri-Run(-5%)) and 10% slower (Tri-Run(-10%)) than the control run (C-Run). The subjects were instructed to finish the 9 remaining kilometres as quickly as possible at a free self-pace. Tri-Run(-5%) resulted in a significantly faster overall 10-km performance than Tri-Run(+5%) and Tri-Run(-10%) (p < 0.05) but no significant difference was observed with C-Run (p > 0.05) (2,028 +/- 78 s vs. 2,000 +/- 72 s, 2,178 +/- 121 s and 2,087 +/- 88 s, for Tri-Run(-5%), C-Run, Tri-Run(+5%) and Tri-Run(-10%), respectively). Tri-Run(+5%) strategy elicited higher values for oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate at the end of the first kilometre than the three other conditions. After 5 and 9.5 km, these values were higher for Tri-Run(-5%) (p < 0.05). The present results showed that the running speed achieved during the cycle-to-run transition is crucial for the improvement of the running phase as a whole. Triathletes would benefit to automate a pace 5% slower than their 10-km control running speed as both 5% faster and 10% slower running speeds over the first kilometre involved weaker overall performances.

  2. μ distortions or running: A guaranteed discovery from CMB spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the implications of a PIXIE-like experiment, which would measure μ -type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a level of σμ=(1 /n )×10-8 , with n ≥1 representing an improved sensitivity (e.g. n =10 corresponds to PRISM). Using Planck data and considering the six-parameter Λ CDM model, we compute the posterior for μ8≡μ ×108 and find μ8=1.5 7-0.13+0.11 (68% C.L.). This becomes μ8=1.2 8-0.52+0.30 (68% C.L.) when the running αs of the spectral index is included. We point out that a sensitivity of about 3 ×PIXIE implies a guaranteed discovery: μ distortion is detected or αs≥0 is excluded (both at 95% C.L. or higher). This threshold sensitivity sets a clear benchmark for CMB spectrometry. For a combined analysis of PIXIE and current Planck data, we discuss the improvement on measurements of the tilt ns and the running αs and the dependence on the choice of the pivot. A fiducial running of αs=-0.01 (close to the Planck best fit) leads to a detection of negative running at 2 σ for 5 ×PIXIE . A fiducial running of αs=-0.02 , still compatible with Planck, requires 3 ×PIXIE to rule out αs=0 (at 95% C.L.). We propose a convenient and compact visualization of the improving constraints on the tilt, running and tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  3. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Boveia, A.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The CDF Run II silicon detector with its 8 layers of double- and single-sided silicon microstrip sensors and a total 722,432 readout channels is one of the largest silicon detector devices currently in use by a HEP experiment. We report our experience commissioning and operating this complex device during the first 4 years of Run II. As the luminosity delivered by the Tevatron increases, we have observed measurable effects of radiation damage in studies of charge collection and noise versus applied bias voltage at many different integrated luminosities. We discuss these studies and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector.

  4. Fast Bunch Integrators at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas; Briegel, Charles; Fellenz, Brian; Vogel, Greg; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The Fast Bunch Integrator is a bunch intensity monitor designed around the measurements made from Resistive Wall Current Monitors. During the Run II period these were used in both Tevatron and Main Injector for single and multiple bunch intensity measurements. This paper presents an overview of the design and use of these systems during this period. During the Run II era the Fast Bunch integrators have found a multitude of uses. From antiproton transfers to muti-bunch beam coalescing, Main Injector transfers to halo scraping and lifetime measurements, the Fast Bunch Integrators have proved invaluable in the creation and maintenance of Colliding Beams stores at Fermilab.

  5. Setting Standards for Medically-Based Running Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Herman, Daniel C.; Lear-Barnes, Leslie; Barnes, Robert; Chen, Cong; Greenberg, Scott; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Setting standards for medically based running analyses is necessary to ensure that runners receive a high-quality service from practitioners. Medical and training history, physical and functional tests, and motion analysis of running at self-selected and faster speeds are key features of a comprehensive analysis. Self-reported history and movement symmetry are critical factors that require follow-up therapy or long-term management. Pain or injury is typically the result of a functional deficit above or below the site along the kinematic chain. PMID:25014394

  6. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  7. Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; Pizzi, Assunta; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; de Angelis, Marco; Ferrari, Marco

    1995-04-01

    Vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation was investigated on volunteers as well as muscular dystrophy patients during a walking test, and on volunteers during a free running by a continuous wave near infrared instrument. The data were analyzed using an oxygenation index independent on pathlength changes. Walking did not significantly affect the oxygenation of volunteers and patients. A relative deoxygenation was found only during free running indicating an unbalance between oxygen supply and tissue oxygen extraction. Preliminary measurements of exercising muscle oxygen saturation were performed by a 110 MHz frequency-domain, multisource instrument.

  8. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  9. Top quark mass measurement at CDF Run-II

    SciTech Connect

    T. Maruyama

    2004-05-11

    CDF has resumed the top quark mass measurement with upgraded detectors and Tevatron complex. High statistics should allow us to determine the top mass with an uncertainty of a few GeV/c{sup 2} by the end of Run II. The current measured value, using an integrated luminosity of {approx} 108 pb{sup -1}, is 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7} (stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2} (lepton + jets with one b-jet tagged mode: the current best mode), which is consistent with RunI measurements.

  10. Biomechanics: independent evolution of running in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Hermanson, John W

    2005-03-17

    Most tetrapods have retained terrestrial locomotion since it evolved in the Palaeozoic era, but bats have become so specialized for flight that they have almost lost the ability to manoeuvre on land at all. Vampire bats, which sneak up on their prey along the ground, are an important exception. Here we show that common vampire bats can also run by using a unique bounding gait, in which the forelimbs instead of the hindlimbs are recruited for force production as the wings are much more powerful than the legs. This ability to run seems to have evolved independently within the bat lineage.

  11. The Higgs in context: the impact of the Run 1 discovery and its shaping of Run 2 at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Mateos, David

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC in 2012 culminated many decades of work and theoretical speculation. Its sheer discovery has not only ruled out many other theories of EW symmetry breaking, but also given it a mass and a set of properties. The measurement of the values of these properties has wide-ranging implications across different fields in fundamental physics. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important Run 1 measurements in Higgs physics, and how those measurements have shaped and continue to shape our understanding of high energy physics. In addition, I will survey some of the important measurements and searches that were statistically limited in Run 1, but take renewed importance with the Run 2 dataset.

  12. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    DOE PAGES

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; ...

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  13. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  14. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The accurate determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to new physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. This document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  15. Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2011-03-01

    The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation.

  16. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Running Start: 1999-2000 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This progress report analyzes the outcomes of the Running Start Program, part of Washington's 1990 "Learning by Choice Law," which was designed to expand educational options for high school students. The program qualified high school juniors and seniors to take college-level classes at the state's community and technical colleges and…

  18. Running Start: 2001-02 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This report analyzes the outcomes of the Running Start Program, part of Washington State's 1990 "Learning by Choice Law," which was designed to expand educational options for high school students. The program allowed high school juniors and seniors to take college-level classes at the state's community and technical colleges and earn…

  19. Running Start: 2000-01 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sally Zeiger

    This document is a report on Washington State's Running Start program, which allows eleventh- and twelfth-grade high school students to take college courses for free at any of the 34 state community and technical colleges or at Washington State, Eastern Washington, or Western Washington universities. The program, which was started in 1990, is…

  20. Precursors of Running Away during Adolescence: Do Peers Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Adams, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Although peer influence is a salient predictor of delinquency, how it operates in the etiology of runaway behavior is not fully understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study demonstrates the importance of taking peers into account in understanding the etiology of running away. The findings suggest…

  1. Distance Running and the Elementary-Age Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Armstrong, Tess

    2013-01-01

    Distance running is often underutilized in elementary physical education due to three common misconceptions about using this activity with young children: (1) it is not enjoyable, (2) it is not safe, and (3) children will get mentally "burned out." Through reviewing the literature and offering guidelines, practical tips, instant…

  2. The Bittersweet Task of Running a Grant Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Running a grant program for the first time can feel overwhelming. The work is time-consuming, requires attention to many details, and is accompanied by pressure from applicants who are desperate for money and prompt decisions. This article presents a list of all of the factors educators have to consider. From establishing a timeline and drafting…

  3. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1237-96 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-96 Dynamometer runs. Section 86.1237-96 includes text...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1237-96 - Dynamometer runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-96 Dynamometer runs. Section 86.1237-96 includes text...

  6. More Colleges Hiring Private Companies to Run Bookstores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    Dozens of colleges have hired leasing companies to run their bookstores in recent years in the hope of stemming losses, increasing store profits, improving service, and reducing administrative burdens. Leasing is expected to continue with universities facing new legislative restrictions on their commercial activities. (MLW)

  7. Children's Conceptual Development: A Long-Run Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Ozbek, Merve

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to investigate conceptual change process. It is specifically aimed to probe children's initial ideas and how or to what way those ideas alter in the long run. A total of 18 children volunteered and participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted. The children were asked to define the concept of evaporation, explain…

  8. Responses to Intensity-Shifted Auditory Feedback during Running Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Reilly, Kevin J.; Archibald, Erin; Cai, Shanqing; Guenther, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Responses to intensity perturbation during running speech were measured to understand whether prosodic features are controlled in an independent or integrated manner. Method: Nineteen English-speaking healthy adults (age range = 21-41 years) produced 480 sentences in which emphatic stress was placed on either the 1st or 2nd word. One…

  9. Staying in the Clinical Ballpark while Running the Evidence Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Viesselman, John O.

    2005-01-01

    Leimomi was a 16-year-old female of Asian Pacific Island descent born and raised on Oahu who was referred to the Department of Health's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division (CAMHD) by her public school student services coordinator for running away, chronic truancy, aggressiveness, and drug abuse. She had been diagnosed with systemic lupus…

  10. Long-Run Trends in School Productivity: Evidence from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew; Ryan, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Outside the United States, very little is known about long-run trends in school productivity. We present new evidence using two data series from Australia, where comparable tests are available back to the 1960s. For young teenagers (aged 13-14), we find a small but statistically significant fall in numeracy over the period 1964-2003 and in both…

  11. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2003-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

  13. On the Lifetime Prevalence of Running Away from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pergamit, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one in five U.S. youths will run away from home before age 18. Almost 30 percent of these youth will do so three or more times, greatly increasing their risk of violence, crime, drugs, prostitution, STDs, and many other problems. Employing new methodology to yield estimates not available elsewhere, this paper follows a nationally…

  14. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.507-08... manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of...

  15. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy and Manufacturer's Average Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.507-08... manufacturer shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines....57; or (2) With all engines operating, 115 percent of the horizontal distance from the start of...

  17. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines....57; or (2) With all engines operating, 115 percent of the horizontal distance from the start of...

  18. Comparing Switch Costs: Alternating Runs and Explicit Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2007-01-01

    The task-switching literature routinely conflates different operational definitions of switch cost, its predominant behavioral measure. This article is an attempt to draw attention to differences between the two most common definitions, alternating-runs switch cost (ARS) and explicit-cuing switch cost (ECS). ARS appears to include both the costs…

  19. Social Studies and the "Dummy Run." Current Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Roberta

    1997-01-01

    Identifies "dummy runs" as those educational approaches and exercises that are unrelated to any real-life experience or goal. For example, writing a model business letter to a fictitious business. Maintains that social studies educators should avoid this approach and emphasize "real world" relevance and citizenship education.…

  20. The Effects of Treadmill Running on Aging Laryngeal Muscle Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kletzien, Heidi; Russell, John A.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of Evidence NA (animal study) Objective Age-related changes in laryngeal muscle structure and function may contribute to deficits in voice and swallowing observed in elderly people. We hypothesized that treadmill running, an exercise that increases respiratory drive to upper airway muscles, would induce changes in thyroarytenoid muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms consistent with a fast-slow transformation in muscle fiber type. Study Design Randomized parallel group controlled trial. Methods Fifteen young adult and 14 old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received either treadmill running or no exercise (5 days/week/8 weeks). Myosin heavy chain isoform composition in the thyroarytenoid muscle was examined at the end of 8 weeks. Results Significant age and treatment effects were found. The young adult group had the greatest proportion of superfast contracting MHCIIL. The treadmill running group had the lowest proportion of MHCIIL and the greatest proportion of MHCIIx. Conclusion Thyroarytenoid muscle structure was affected both by age and treadmill running in a fast-slow transition that is characteristic of exercise manipulations in other skeletal muscles. PMID:26256100

  1. ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF HISTORICAL COASTAL OREGON SALMON RUNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing the abundance of salmon in Oregon's rivers and streams is a high priority public policy objective. Salmon runs have been reduced from pre-development conditions (typically defined as prior to the 1850s), but it is unclear by how much. Considerable public and private ...

  2. Climate Verification Using Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A robust method previously used to detect observed intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) climate regimes was adapted to test whether climate models could reproduce IMD variations in U.S. surface temperatures during 1919-2008. This procedure, called the running Mann Whitney Z (MWZ) method, samples data ranki...

  3. Lessons Learned in Starting and Running a Neighborhood Networks Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This guide shares information about setting up and operating Neighborhood Networks centers. (These centers operate in Department of Housing and Urban Development-assisted or -insured housing nationwide to help low-income people boost their basic skills and find good jobs, learn to use computers and the Internet, run businesses, improve their…

  4. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust...

  6. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600.507-12 Section 600.507-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for...

  7. What Research Tells the Coach About Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costill, David L.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findins concerning distance running with interpretations, for practical applications, and to point out areas of needed research. Chapter 1, "Describing the Distance Runner," considers the following aspects in relation to the distance runner: a) anatomical characteristics, b) aging, c) strength…

  8. Retiring the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model is significantly improved--although certainly not perfected--by trimming it of the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. Problems with the SRAS curve are shown first for the AD/AS model that casts the AD curve as identifying the equilibrium level of output associated…

  9. Running versus Weight Lifting in the Treatment of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyne, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise in treatment of clinical depression in women. Forty women with a depressive disorder were randomly assigned to eight-week running (aerobic), weight-lifting (nonaerobic), or wait-list control condition. Both exercise conditions significantly reduced depression; exercise conditions appeared…

  10. 7. OVERVIEW OF FLUME LINE RUNNING ALONG NORTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERVIEW OF FLUME LINE RUNNING ALONG NORTH SIDE OF TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK CANYON TOWARD SIPHON CANYON FROM A POINT APPROXIMATELY ONE QUARTER MILE EAST OF FORBAY. EAST END OF DOUBLE-BARREL SIPHON IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE AT PHOTO RIGHT CENTER BELOW CLOUDS. VIEW TO EAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  11. The human gluteus maximus and its role in running.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Raichlen, David A; Pontzer, Herman; Bramble, Dennis M; Cutright-Smith, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other non-human primates. Here we employ electromyographic and kinematic analyses of human subjects to test the hypothesis that the human gluteus maximus plays a more important role in running than walking. The results indicate that the gluteus maximus is mostly quiescent with low levels of activity during level and uphill walking, but increases substantially in activity and alters its timing with respect to speed during running. The major functions of the gluteus maximus during running are to control flexion of the trunk on the stance-side and to decelerate the swing leg; contractions of the stance-side gluteus maximus may also help to control flexion of the hip and to extend the thigh. Evidence for when the gluteus maximus became enlarged in human evolution is equivocal, but the muscle's minimal functional role during walking supports the hypothesis that enlargement of the gluteus maximus was likely important in the evolution of hominid running capabilities.

  12. The physiological consequences of acceleration during shuttle running.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, R; French, D; Thompson, K G; Hayes, P R

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the acceleration demands associated with changing direction and the subsequent physiological consequences of acceleration during running at 3 submaximal speeds. 10 male professional footballers completed four 600 m running bouts at 3 speeds (2.50, 3.25 & 4.00 m·s(-1)). Each bout was in the format of either: i) 3 laps of a 200 m track (CON), ii) ten 60 m shuttles (S60), iii) twenty 30 m shuttles (S30), or iv) thirty 20 m shuttles (S20). Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), blood lactate concentration (BLa) and RPE (Borg CR-10) were recorded for each bout. A single change of direction required 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 s of acceleration at running speeds of 2.50, 3.25 and 4.00 m s(-1) respectively. An increase in time spent accelerating produced a linear increase in BLa (r=0.43-0.74) and RPE (r=0.81-0.93) at all speeds. Acceleration increases linearly with change of direction frequency during submaximal shuttle running. Increased time spent accelerating elicits proportional increases in perceived exertion, BLa and HRPEAK. The current study further underlines the need to consider acceleration when quantifying training load during activities involving numerous changes of direction.

  13. 6. OVERVIEW OF FLUME LINE RUNNING ALONG NORTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERVIEW OF FLUME LINE RUNNING ALONG NORTH SIDE OF TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK CANYON. METAL HAND-RAILS WERE ADDED AS A SAFETY FEATURE IN THE EARLY 1990s. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  14. Correlated Observations, the Law of Small Numbers and Bank Runs.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gergely; Kiss, Hubert János

    2016-01-01

    Empirical descriptions and studies suggest that generally depositors observe a sample of previous decisions before deciding if to keep their funds deposited or to withdraw them. These observed decisions may exhibit different degrees of correlation across depositors. In our model depositors decide sequentially and are assumed to follow the law of small numbers in the sense that they believe that a bank run is underway if the number of observed withdrawals in their sample is large. Theoretically, with highly correlated samples and infinite depositors runs occur with certainty, while with random samples it needs not be the case, as for many parameter settings the likelihood of bank runs is zero. We investigate the intermediate cases and find that i) decreasing the correlation and ii) increasing the sample size reduces the likelihood of bank runs, ceteris paribus. Interestingly, the multiplicity of equilibria, a feature of the canonical Diamond-Dybvig model that we use also, disappears almost completely in our setup. Our results have relevant policy implications.

  15. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  16. 1. Aerial view of turnpike path running diagonally up from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view of turnpike path running diagonally up from lower left (present-day Orange Turnpike alignment) and containing on towards upper right through tree clump in center of the bare spot on the landscape, and on through the trees. View looking south. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  17. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the... flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. (C) Turn off all the fans... of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the...