Science.gov

Sample records for ctv-susceptible sour orange

  1. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  2. Sour orange fine root distribution after seventeen years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Belowground responses to CO2 enrichment remain understudied relative to aboveground parameters. Further, there is a paucity of information on the long-term effects of CO2 on tree species. Sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.), grown in an Avondale loam in Phoenix, AZ, were exposed to ambient and e...

  3. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: A review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida and a look at the future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida, but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced. Research was directed towards the selection and...

  4. GISH, AFLP and PCR-RFLP analysis of an intergeneric somatic hybrid combining Goutou sour orange and Poncirus trifoliata.

    PubMed

    Fu, C H; Chen, C L; Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2004-11-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids combining Goutou sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) with trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf] were produced by electrofusion and their genetic inheritance analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Sixteen mini-calluses were obtained after 20 days of culture; they all developed into embryoids on EME500 medium. Following several subcultures on shoot induction medium for a total culture period of 6 months, shoots regenerated. The plants grew vigorously with a well-developed root system and exhibited the trifoliate leaf character of P. trifoliata. Ploidy analysis verified that all of the regenerates were tetraploids (2 n=4 x=36) as expected. GISH analysis confirmed that 18 chromosomes came from trifoliate orange and the remaining 18 from Goutou sour orange, as with most symmetric somatic hybrid plants; moreover, chromosome translocations were also observed in one plant. AFLP analysis of 16 regenerates and their fusion parents indicated that all of the somatic hybrids except one were genetically uniform. Analysis of the somatic hybrid cytoplasmic genomes with universal primers revealed that their chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) banding patterns were identical to those of the mesophyll parent trifoliate orange, while their mitochondria (mt) genomes were of the callus parent sour orange. The potential of GISH in Citrus somatic hybrid analysis is discussed.

  5. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F; Keremane, Manjunath L

    2013-09-06

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed.

  6. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard F.; Keremane, Manjunath L.

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid) in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed. PMID:24046764

  7. Increased infestation of Asian citrus psyllids on cold treated sour orange seedlings: Its possible relation to biochemical changes in leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold-stressed sour orange seedling (Citrus aurantium L.) attracted significantly more Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) during 5h and 24h recovery periods compared to control plants in choice test experiment. Cold stressed plants were held/ placed at 6 ± 1°C for 6 days and then ...

  8. Deep sequencing and analysis of small RNAs in sweet orange grafted on sour orange infected with two citrus tristeza virus isolates prevalent in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Grazia; Scuderi, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Rosario; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Russo, Marcella; Lombardo, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Catara, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Two representative isolates of a citrus tristeza virus population in Sicily, SG29 (aggressive) and Bau282 (mild), were sequenced via viral small RNAs (vsRNA) produced in budlings of sweet orange grafted on sour orange. Phylogenetic relationships with Mediterranean and exotic isolates revealed that SG29 clustered within the "VT-Asian" subtype, whereas Bau282 belonged to the cluster T30. The study confirms that molecular data need to be integrated with bio-indexing in order to obtain adequate information for risk assessment.

  9. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-04-20

    Microwave assisted extraction technique was used to extract pectin from sour orange peel. Box-Behnken design was used to study the effect of irradiation time, microwave power and pH on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of pectin. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest yield of pectin (29.1%) were obtained at pH of 1.50, microwave power of 700W, and irradiation time of 3min. DE values of pectin ranged from 1.7% to 37.5%, indicating that the obtained pectin was low in methoxyl. Under optimal conditions, the galacturonic acid content and emulsifying activity were 71.0±0.8% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the emulsion stability value ranged from 72.1% to 83.4%. Viscosity measurement revealed that the solutions of pectin at low concentrations showed nearly Newtonian flow behavior, and as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical zinc[sup +2] activities for sour orange determined with chelator-buffered nutrient solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Swietlik, D.; Zhang, L. )

    1994-07-01

    Chelator-buffered nutrient solutions were used to study the effect of different levels of Zn activity in the rhizosphere on growth and nutritive responses of various tissues of sour orange seedlings. The seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in a hydroponic culture containing from 5 to 69 [mu]m and 5 to 101 [mu]m total Zn in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. Zn[sup +2] activities were calculated with a computerized chemical equilibrium model, and buffered by inclusion of a chelator, diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA), at 74 and 44 [mu]m in excess of the sum of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively. The use of DTPA-buffered solutions proved successful in imposing varying degrees of Zn deficiency. The deficiency was confirmed by leaf symptomatology, leaf chemical analyses, i.e., <16 mg[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] Zn, and responses to foliar sprays and application of Zn to the roots. Growth parameters varied in their sensitivity to Zn deficiency, i.e., root dry weight < leaf number and white root growth < stem dry weight < leaf dry weight < shoot elongation and leaf area. The critical activities, expressed as pZn = [minus]log(Zn[sup +2]), were [approximately]10.2 [+-] 0.2 for root dry weight, 10.1 [+-] 0.2 for leaf number and white root growth, 10.0 [+-] 0.2 for stem dry weight, 9.9 [+-] 0.2 for leaf dry weight, and 9.8 [+-] 0.2 for shoot growth and leaf area. Increases in growth were observed in response to Zn applications even in the absence of visible Zn-deficiency symptoms. Seedlings containing > 23 mg[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] Zn in leaves did not respond to further additions of Zn to the nutrient solution. Zinc foliar sprays were less effective than Zn applications to the roots in alleviating severe Zn deficiency because foliar-absorbed Zn was not translocated from the top of the roots and thus could not correct Zn deficiency in the roots.

  12. Effects of atmosphere CO[sub 2] enrichment on regrowth of sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium; rutaceae) after coppicing

    SciTech Connect

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Sixteen sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were grown out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, in eight clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained at four different atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations for a period of 2 years. Over the last year of this period, the trees were coppiced five times. The amount of dry matter harvested at each of these cuttings was a linear function of the atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration to which the trees were exposed. For a 75% increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] from 400 to 700 microliter per liter ([mu]L liter[sup [minus]1]), total aboveground biomass rose, in the mean, by a factor of 3.19; while for a 400 to 800 [mu]L liter[sup [minus]1] doubling of the air's CO[sub 2] content, it rose by a factor of 3.92. The relative summer (mean air temperature of 32.8 C) response to CO[sub 2] was about 20% greater than the relative winter (mean air temperature of 16.4 C) response. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The effect of long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the intrinsic water-use efficiency of sour orange trees.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, S W; Idso, S B; Kimball, B A; Burns, J M; Sinha, A; Stott, L

    2003-01-01

    Every two months of 1992, as well as on three occasions in 1994-1995, we obtained leaf samples together with samples of surrounding air from eight well-watered and fertilized sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) trees that were growing out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, USA. These trees had been planted in the ground as small seedlings in July of 1987 and enclosed in pairs by four clear-plastic-wall open-top chambers of which two have been continuously maintained since November of that year at a CO2 concentration of 400 micromol mol(-1) and two have been maintained at 700 micromol mol(-1). In September 2000, we also extracted north-south and east-west oriented wood cores that passed through the center of each tree's trunk at a height of 45 cm above the ground. Stable-carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) derived from these leaf, wood and air samples were used to evaluate each tree's intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). The grand-average result was an 80% increase in this important plant parameter in response to the 300 micromol mol(-1) increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration employed in the study. This increase in sour orange tree iWUE is identical to the long-term CO2-induced increase in the trees' production of wood and fruit biomass, which suggests there could be little to no change in total water-use per unit land area for this species as the air's CO2 content continues to rise. It is also identical to the increase in the mean iWUE reported for 23 groups of naturally occurring trees scattered across western North America that was caused by the historical rise in the air's CO2 content that occurred between 1800 and 1985.

  14. The resistance of sour orange to Citrus tristeza virus is mediated by both the salicylic acid and RNA silencing defence pathways.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, Neus; Velázquez, Karelia; Vives, María Carmen; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Pina, José Antonio; Flores, Ricardo; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2016-09-02

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) induces in the field the decline and death of citrus varieties grafted on sour orange (SO) rootstock, which has forced the use of alternative decline-tolerant rootstocks in affected countries, despite the highly desirable agronomic features of the SO rootstock. Declining citrus plants display phloem necrosis below the bud union. In addition, SO is minimally susceptible to CTV compared with other citrus varieties, suggesting partial resistance of SO to CTV. Here, by silencing different citrus genes with a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector, we have examined the implication of the RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA) defence pathways in the resistance of SO to CTV. Silencing of the genes RDR1, NPR1 and DCL2/DCL4, associated with these defence pathways, enhanced virus spread and accumulation in SO plants in comparison with non-silenced controls, whereas silencing of the genes NPR3/NPR4, associated with the hypersensitive response, produced a slight decrease in CTV accumulation and reduced stunting of SO grafted on CTV-infected rough lemon plants. We also found that the CTV RNA silencing suppressors p20 and p23 also suppress the SA signalling defence, with the suppressor activity being higher in the most virulent isolates. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sour Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetzel, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Presents four activities that involve chemical reactions with vinegar, lemon juice, or orange juice. These activities can be used to teach about acid-base reactions and acids as chemical catalysts. (WRM)

  17. Sour Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetzel, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Presents four activities that involve chemical reactions with vinegar, lemon juice, or orange juice. These activities can be used to teach about acid-base reactions and acids as chemical catalysts. (WRM)

  18. Heightened sour preferences during childhood.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A

    2003-02-01

    Basic research has revealed that the chemical sensory world of children is different from that of adults, as evidenced by their heightened preferences for sweet and salty tastes. However, little is known about the ontogeny of sour taste preferences, despite the growing market of extreme sour candies. The present study investigated whether the level of sourness most preferred in a food matrix and the ability to discriminate differences in sour intensity differed between 5- to 9-year-old children and their mothers, by using a rank-by-elimination procedure embedded in the context of a game. Mothers also completed a variety of questionnaires and children were asked several questions to assess whether children's temperament and food preferences and habits related to sour preferences. The results indicated that, although every mother and all but two of the children (92%) were able to rank the gelatins from most to least sour, more than one-third (35%) of the children, but virtually none of the adults, preferred the high levels of sour taste (0.25 M citric acid) in gelatin. Those children who preferred the extreme sour tastes were significantly less food neophobic (P < 0.05) and tended to experience a greater variety of fruits when compared with the remaining children (P = 0.11). Moreover, the children's preference for sour tastes generalized to other foods, such as candies and lemons, as reported by both children and mothers. These findings are the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that sour taste preferences are heightened during childhood and that such preferences are related to children's food habits and preferences. Further research is needed to unfold the relationship between the level of sour taste preferred and the actual consumption of sour-tasting foods and flavors in children.

  19. Sour-water stripper efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Won, K.W.

    1983-04-01

    The sour waters from the synthetic fuel industries will contain substantial percentages of carbon dioxide, phenolics, hydrogen cyanide, acetic, and other carboxylic acids. The use of multi-component-dependent stage efficiencies for sour-water stripper caluclations is discussed. It was established from actual operating data on sour-water strippers that the more volatile a component in a mixture, the lower the stage efficiency of that compound. (JMT)

  20. Heightened Sour Preferences During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Basic research has revealed that the chemical sensory world of children is different from that of adults, as evidenced by their heightened preferences for sweet and salty tastes. However, little is known about the ontogeny of sour taste preferences, despite the growing market of extreme sour candies. The present study investigated whether the level of sourness most preferred in a food matrix and the ability to discriminate differences in sour intensity differed between 5- to 9-year-old children and their mothers, by using a rank-by-elimination procedure embedded in the context of a game. Mothers also completed a variety of questionnaires and children were asked several questions to assess whether children’s temperament and food preferences and habits related to sour preferences. The results indicated that, although every mother and all but two of the children (92%) were able to rank the gelatins from most to least sour, more than one-third (35%) of the children, but virtually none of the adults, preferred the high levels of sour taste (0.25 M citric acid) in gelatin. Those children who preferred the extreme sour tastes were significantly less food neophobic (P < 0.05) and tended to experience a greater variety of fruits when compared with the remaining children (P = 0.11). Moreover, the children’s preference for sour tastes generalized to other foods, such as candies and lemons, as reported by both children and mothers. These findings are the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that sour taste preferences are heightened during childhood and that such preferences are related to children’s food habits and preferences. Further research is needed to unfold the relationship between the level of sour taste preferred and the actual consumption of sour-tasting foods and flavors in children. PMID:12588738

  1. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  2. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species.

  3. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  4. A sulphur budget for sour gas plants

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Rowe

    1976-01-01

    The principal aim of this project is to produce a mass balance for the SO2 that is emitted into the atmosphere from sour gas plants in various localities in Alberta. Partial sulphur budgets for two plants at dissimilar locations are shown to exhibit major differences. The rise and dispersion of sour gas plant plumes have been investigated in...

  5. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized by the...

  6. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized by the...

  7. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized by the...

  8. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... Sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized by the...

  9. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  10. Review of sour service definitions

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.R.; Boah, J.K.

    1996-08-01

    Case histories and laboratory test data are presented to compare the predictive utility of NACE MR0175 with three alternatives. With some exceptions, the MR0175 definition is useful and conservative for most cases. The definition based on water phase pH and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) partial pressure, proposed in European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) pub. 16, is not recommended since it does not predict sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in refining environments and presents higher risk of SSC of sweet service materials in certain Arabian Gulf production environments. A modified definition of sour service is proposed, which uses the MR0175 definition except in cases of very low water phase pH. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations.

  12. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  13. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  14. Diisopropanolamine biodegradation potential at sour gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gieg, L.M.; Greene, E.A.; Coy, D.L.; Fedorak, P.M.

    1998-12-31

    The potential for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a sour gas treatment chemical, diisopropanolamine (DIPA), was studied using contaminated aquifer materials from three sour gas treatment sites in western Canada. DIPA was found to be readily consumed under aerobic conditions at 8 C and 28 C in shake flask cultures incubated with aquifer material from each of the sites, and this removal was characterized by first-order kinetics. In addition, DIPA biodegradation was found to occur under nitrate-, Mn(IV)-, and Fe(III)-reducing conditions at 28 C, and in some cases at 8 C, in laboratory microcosms. DIPA loss corresponded to consumption of nitrate, and production of Mn(II) and Fe(II) in viable microcosms compared to corresponding sterile controls. A threshold DIPA concentration near 40 mg/L was observed in the anaerobic microcosms. This report provides the first evidence that DIPA is biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, and the data suggest that biodegradation may contribute to DIPA attenuation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in aquifers contaminated with this sour gas treatment chemical.

  15. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  16. Fertilisation and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Breksa, Andrew P; Mishchuk, Darya O; Fake, Cindy E; O'Mahony, Michael A; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2012-09-15

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilisation and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using (1)H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertiliser and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, amino acid and organic acid composition. To determine whether the difference in sugar concentration was enough for the consumer to detect, a sensory experiment was performed in which two orange juice samples were prepared to resemble the sweet/sour taste balance of juice from mandarin oranges in which foliar fertilisation was either applied or not. In a test using non-trained individuals, 68% could correctly identify which juice had a sourer, or less sweet, taste. The implications of this study could impact citrus growers, and ultimately aid in development of fruit with superior sensory quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

  18. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-10-10

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR.... Acidified sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized...

  20. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR.... Acidified sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized...

  1. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR.... Acidified sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized...

  2. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR.... Acidified sour cream contains not less than 18 percent milkfat; except that when the food is characterized...

  3. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  4. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide on sour orange tree specific gravity and anatomy

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Wiemann; David Kretschmann; Alan Rudie; Bruce A. Kimball; Sherwood B. Idso

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 for a period of 17 years resulted in small but statistically significant decreases in wood basic specific gravity and number of rays per millimeter. Other anatomical characteristics (percentages of tissues, number of vessels per square millimeter, vessel diameters, and fiber wall thickness) were...

  5. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide on sour orange tree specific gravity and anatomy.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 for a period of 17 years resulted in small but statistically significant increases in wood basic specific gravity and number of rays per mm. Other anatomical characteristics (percentages of tissues, number of vessels per square mm, vessel diameters, and...

  6. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Philadelphus L.: mock orange

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    The mock oranges - Philadelphus spp. - have been placed in several families: Saxifragaceae (Harrington 1954), Hydrangeaceae (Hitchcock and others 1961), and more recently, the Philadelphaceae (Hickman 1993). Hydrangeaceae, however, is the most widely accepted placement (Cronquist and others 1997; USDA NRCS 2001). There are about 50 to 65 species of mock orange,...

  8. Sweet and Sour Preferences During Childhood: Role of Early Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. PMID:12430162

  9. Yellow metal (UNS C69100) for sour service

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.; Inglis, W.; Fowler, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    UNS C69100, a ``yellow metal``, copper-based alloy, is used extensively in the European Oil and Gas Industry. The work reported herein was designed to assess the susceptibility of the material to sour environments, in terms of general corrosion and cracking. A series of sour environmental tests was conducted at ambient temperature and at elevated temperature and pressure. The ambient temperature tests indicated high resistance to sulphide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC). Additionally, tests including free sulphur exhibited no evidence of cracking. The high temperature and pressure tests also showed no tendency to SSCC. The corrosion rate tests at ambient temperature indicated corrosion rates well below those of carbon steel tested in an identical environment. Hydrogen permeation measurements confirmed the corrosion rate measurements. This alloy should be considered for sour service use. Further work will be undertaken to confirm the high temperature properties.

  10. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  11. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  12. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  13. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  14. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  16. Reservoir Souring - latest developments for application and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Folwell, Benjamin D; Wirekoh, Alexander; Frenzel, Max; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2017-04-08

    Sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) have been identified in oil field fluids since the 1920s. SRP reduce sulphate to sulphide, a toxic and corrosive species that impacts on operational safety, metallurgy and both capital and operational cost. Differences in water cut, temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry can impact on the observed H2S concentration, meaning that an increase in H2S concentration does not always correlate with activity of SRP. However it wasn't until the 1990s that SRP activity was accepted as the leading cause of reservoir souring (i.e. an increase in H2S concentrations) in water flooded fields. The process of sulphate-reduction has been well documented at the genetic, enzymatic and physiological level in pure cultures under laboratory conditions. DNA sequencing has also identified new groups of microorganisms, such as archaea which are capable of contributing to reservoir souring. This has led to some recent advances in microbial control and detection, however, despite this, many of the methods used routinely for microbial control and detection are over a century old. We therefore look towards emerging and novel mitigation technologies that may be used in mitigating against reservoir souring, along with tried and tested methods Modelling and prediction is another important but often under-used tool in managing microbial reservoir souring. To be truly predictive, models need to take into account not only microbial H2S generation but also partitioning and mineral scavenging. The increase in 'big data' available through increased integration of sensors in the digital oil field and the increase in the DNA sequencing capabilities through next-generation sequencing (NGS) therefore offer a unique opportunity to develop and refine microbial reservoir souring models. We therefore review a number of different reservoir souring models and identify how these can be used in the future. With this comprehensive overview of the current and emerging

  17. Sour gas distribution in the Amudaria Basin, Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, D.; Ivlev, A.; Shkutnik, E.

    1995-08-01

    The Amudaria Basin is the main sour-gas bearing region in Central Asia. In this region, sour gases occur in Upper Jurassic carbonate-reservoir rocks as well as in terrigenous rocks of Cretareous age, but the Upper Jurassic sulfate-carbonate complex is the main sour-gas bearing and producing complex. The chemical and isotopic composition of fluids in Upper Jurassic rocks show that sulfate reduction is the main process responsible for sour gas formation in the central part of the basin, where Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporites occur. The H{sub 2}S content of gases varies widely (0 to 10 percent by volume), even within similar carbonate traps located close to one another in the same temperature zone. Analyses of sour-gas distribution and composition in fluids in these areas indicate the main factors which control the variation of H{sub 2}S content in Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon pools in the same temperature zones. These factors include (1) the carbonate sediment facies type (shelf, barrier reef, deep water facies), and (2) within the same facies, the characteristics of traps and pools (tight, gentle, structural, phase-type, etc). The most favorable conditions for H{sub 2}S accumulation occur in hydrocarbon pools confined to the barrier reef flat and the parts of the shelf closest to it. The least favorable conditions are in pools confined to local reefs or carbonate build-ups located within the deep-water facies zone. These results are important for the prediction of H{sub 2}S in hydrocarbon pools. In most cases, H{sub 2}S in the Cretaceous complex is epigenetic. With the exception of Central Karakum zone H{sub 2}S distribution in this complex depends on the distribution and composition of Upper Jurassic evaporites.

  18. Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J.; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Bayley, Douglas L.; Spielman, Andrew I.; Feldman, Roy S.; Mackler, Scott A.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities. PMID:19812697

  19. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

    PubMed

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Bayley, Douglas L; Spielman, Andrew I; Feldman, Roy S; Mackler, Scott A; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-10-08

    The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts") suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  20. A field study of microbiological growth and reservoir souring

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.D.; Surinach, P.

    1997-08-01

    The souring of normally sweet production systems is a significant problem which can have implications to continued oilfield operations. Such problems are commonly approached by gathering of field sample and laboratory analysis or by simple test kits. This paper describes an alternative approach which includes the use of specialized field sampling and analysis procedures and portable equipment that can be moved from site to site. A case study is presented that illustrates the use of these procedures and equipment. In the present case, it was learned that whereas souring was occurring in oil producing wells, no major infection of SRB was found. Evaluation of the injection wells indicated only limited inflection. Based on field studies it was found that the problem was likely due to maintenance of a sessile SRB population in the injection system due to a combination of general heterotrophic bacteria and accumulation of solids followed by growth of mesophilic SRB in the formation after injection. Remedial actions were developed based on field data and this mechanism of reservoir souring.

  1. Hazy Orange Orb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-02

    Titan atmosphere makes Saturn largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural color view from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Titan north polar hood is visible at top, and a faint blue haze also can be detected above the south pole at bottom.

  2. Identification and Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sour Dough Sponges.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yoshida, I; Uchimura, T; Ohara, N; Kozaki, M

    1992-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in four samples of sour dough sponges were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. In each sponge, there were one or two species of the genus Lactobacillus: L. reuteri and L. curvatus in San Francisco sour dough sponge, L. brevis and L. hilgardii in panettone sour dough sponge produced in Italy, L. sanfrancisco from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Germany, and L. casei and L. curvatus from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Switzerland. For all isolates except the L. reuteri strains oleic acid, a component of the Tween 80 added to the medium, was essential for growth. It was of interest that lactobacilli requiring oleic acid were the predominant flora of lactic acid bacteria in the microbial environment of sour dough sponges.

  3. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  4. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  5. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  6. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  7. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  8. A proton current associated with sour taste: distribution and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Jeremy D.; Ye, Wenlei; Liman, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    Sour taste is detected by taste receptor cells that respond to acids through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The cells that detect sour express the protein PKD2L1, which is not the sour receptor but nonetheless serves as a useful marker for sour cells. By use of mice in which the PKD2L1 promoter drives expression of yellow fluorescent protein, we previously reported that sour taste cells from circumvallate papillae in the posterior tongue express a proton current. To establish a correlation between this current and sour transduction, we examined its distribution by patch-clamp recording. We find that the current is present in PKD2L1-expressing taste cells from mouse circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papillae but not in a variety of other cells, including spinal cord neurons that express PKD2L1. We describe biophysical properties of the current, including pH-dependent Zn2+ inhibition, lack of voltage-dependent gating, and activation at modest pH values (6.5) that elicit action potentials in isolated cells. Consistent with a channel that is constitutively open, the cytosol of sour taste cells is acidified. These data define a functional signature for the taste cell proton current and indicate that its expression is mostly restricted to the subset of taste cells that detect sour.—Bushman, J. D., Ye, W., Liman, E. R. A proton current associated with sour taste: distribution and functional properties. PMID:25857556

  9. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  11. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  12. Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.

    PubMed

    Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P

  13. Design of dual lateral completion in a sour gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.W.

    1997-11-01

    For the Siedenburg Z-6a sour gas well, completion options for separate stimulation and single or commingled production of both laterals are addressed, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The drilling and well completion concept and necessary modifications of downhole equipment due to existing well conditions are described. Coiled tubing runs proved to be a key issue in the project; the design of required coiled tubing tools is described. The implementation of the project and completion equipment, which was applied for the first time within Mobil, are presented and conclusions for future projects are summarized.

  14. Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring Processes Using Reactive Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Surasani, V.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to oil reservoir souring. Souring typically occurs when (sea)water is injected into the oil reservoir to maintain pressure and sweep remnant oil through the reservoir. Because biogenesis of hydrogen sulfide has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems, we strive to develop predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recent laboratory sediment column experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. In this study, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that is based on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics revealed through the column experimental data. The model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes. The growth and inhibition dynamics of the sulfate reducing bacterial population are explicitly simulated and constrained by energetics. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results show that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Ongoing research is focusing on extending the reactive transport model to mechanistically understand, quantify, and predict souring and desouring processes within heterogeneous reservoirs as a step toward optimizing field scale souring control strategies.

  15. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  16. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  17. A proton current associated with sour taste: distribution and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Jeremy D; Ye, Wenlei; Liman, Emily R

    2015-07-01

    Sour taste is detected by taste receptor cells that respond to acids through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The cells that detect sour express the protein PKD2L1, which is not the sour receptor but nonetheless serves as a useful marker for sour cells. By use of mice in which the PKD2L1 promoter drives expression of yellow fluorescent protein, we previously reported that sour taste cells from circumvallate papillae in the posterior tongue express a proton current. To establish a correlation between this current and sour transduction, we examined its distribution by patch-clamp recording. We find that the current is present in PKD2L1-expressing taste cells from mouse circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papillae but not in a variety of other cells, including spinal cord neurons that express PKD2L1. We describe biophysical properties of the current, including pH-dependent Zn(2+) inhibition, lack of voltage-dependent gating, and activation at modest pH values (6.5) that elicit action potentials in isolated cells. Consistent with a channel that is constitutively open, the cytosol of sour taste cells is acidified. These data define a functional signature for the taste cell proton current and indicate that its expression is mostly restricted to the subset of taste cells that detect sour.

  18. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  19. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  20. A polyphasic study on the taxonomic position of industrial sour dough yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mäntynen, V H; Korhola, M; Gudmundsson, H; Turakainen, H; Alfredsson, G A; Salovaara, H; Lindström, K

    1999-02-01

    The sour dough bread making process is extensively used to produce wholesome palatable rye bread. The process is traditionally done using a back-slopping procedure. Traditional sour doughs in Finland comprise of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The yeasts present in these doughs have been enriched in the doughs due to their metabolic activities, e.g. acid tolerance. We characterized the yeasts in five major sour bread bakeries in Finland. We found that most of the commercial sour doughs contained yeasts which were similar to Candida milleri on the basis of 18S rDNA and EF-3 PCR-RFLP patterns and metabolic activities. Some of the bakery yeasts exhibited extensive karyotype polymorphism. The minimum growth temperature was 8 degrees C for C. milleri and also for most of sour dough yeasts.

  1. Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Corsetti, A; Rossi, J

    1995-11-01

    Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced with yeast alone, yeast fermentation with heterofermentative LAB present was faster whereas that with homofermentative LAB (L. plantarum DC400, L. farciminis CF3) present was slower and produced more CO2. Combining L. brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 with S. cerevisiae 141 decreased bacterial cell numbers and souring activity. However, addition of fructose to the sour-dough overcame these problems as well as activating S. cerevisiae 141.

  2. Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Westerbeek, Annemarie; Wolterink, Sascha; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall preference for intense and new stimuli. Eighty-nine children 7-12 years old carried out a rank-order procedure for preference and category scale for perceived intensity for four gelatins (i.e. 0.0 M, 0.02 M, 0.08 M, 0.25 M added citric acid) and four yellow cards that differed in brightness. In addition, we measured their willingness to try a novel candy and their flow and buffering capacity of their saliva. Fifty-eight percent of the children tested preferred one of the two most sour gelatins. These children had a higher preference for the brightest color (P < 0.05) and were more likely to try the candy with the unknown flavor (P < 0.001) than children who did not prefer the most sour gelatins. Preference for sour taste was not related with differences in rated sour intensity, however those who preferred sour taste had a higher salivary flow (P < 0.05). These findings show that a substantial proportion of young children have a preference for extreme sour taste. This appears to be related to the willingness to try unknown foods and preference for intense visual stimuli. Further research is needed to investigate how these findings can be implemented in the promotion of sour-tasting food such as fruit.

  3. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  5. Ionotropic Receptors Mediate Drosophila Oviposition Preference through Sour Gustatory Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-09-25

    Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt. One pair of taste sensilla features two GRNs that respond only to a subset of carboxylic acids and high concentrations of salt. All sour GRNs prominently express two Ionotropic Receptor (IR) genes, IR76b and IR25a, and we show that both these genes are necessary for the detection of acids. Furthermore, we establish that IR25a and IR76b are essential in sour GRNs of females for oviposition preference on acid-containing food. Our investigations reveal that acids activate a unique set of taste cells largely dedicated to sour taste, and they indicate that both pH/proton concentration and the structure of carboxylic acids contribute to sour GRN activation. Together, our studies provide new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of sour taste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of microbial souring of oil in a porous media column

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.

    1996-06-01

    Oil reservoir souring is a major problem in industry due to H{sub 2}S toxicity, corrosion, plugging, and sulfide concentrations in natural gas. Reservoir souring was simulated in Berea sandstone columns and cores using native mixed microbial consortia from two oil fields. Similar souring activity was seen with both consortia growing as a biofilm in columns and cores at 60{degrees}C. Most of the souring activity occurred at the beginning of the columns. This simulated injection well souring, in which sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfate and carbon sources, are all available at the well bore. Biomass and precipitated iron sulfide accumulated uniformly along the column length and caused plugging. More plugging was found in systems with lower initial permeabilities, and most of this plugging was due to iron sulfide precipitation. Several novel methods were discovered to inhibit souring in the columns and cores. Addition of 10 ppm nitrate stimulated both native consortia to quickly and completely inhibit active souring, and 5 ppm maintained the inhibition. Nitrite was produced at 80-100% of the nitrate level added through incomplete denitrification by nitrate-reducing bacteria, and nitrite was found to be the inhibitory agent. Direct continuous addition of 10-12 ppm nitrite also inhibited souring; but pulse addition was found to be more effective than continuous addition at the same total addition rate. In the 20-hour residence time of the reactor, 10-20% of the nitrite was consumed. Nitrite addition appeared to decrease plugging in the core system. Removal of nitrate or nitrite allowed souring to resume after it had been inhibited for as long as three months. Nitrite was a more effective and longer lasting inhibitor than was glutaraldehyde, a biocide routinely used in oil fields and other industrial applications.

  7. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  8. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  9. Process for alleviating sulfur deposition in sour gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kettner, R.

    1982-03-30

    Process is disclosed for treating a well penetrating a subterranean formation which is productive of sour gas in order to alleviate sulfur deposition. An alkyl naphthalene base sulfur solvent is circulated into the well and recovered from the well in admixture with the produced gas. The injected solvent comprises an alkyl naphthalene mixture containing C1-C4 alkyl naphthalenes in an amount within the range of 70-90 weight percent and higher boiling naphthalenes in an amount within the range of 5-15 weight percent. The sulfur solvent contains no more than a 10 weight percent of naphthalene and has an initial boiling point of at least 2300 C, a flash point greater than 1010 C, and a freezing point of less than 00 C. The solvent mixture may be dissolved in a carrier oil for introduction into the well.

  10. Anode materials for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, Nemanja

    Novel anode catalysts have been developed for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Sour natural gas comprises light hydrocarbons, and typically also contains H2S. An alternative fuel SOFC that operates directly on sour natural gas would reduce the overall cost of plant construction and operation for fuel cell power generation. The anode for such a fuel cell must have good catalytic and electrocatalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion, sulfur-tolerance, resistance to coking, and good electronic and ionic conductivity. The catalytic activity and stability of ABO3 (A= La, Ce and/or Sr, B=Cr and one or more of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, or Co) perovskites as SOFC anode materials depends on both A and B, and are modified by substituents. The materials have been prepared by both solid state and wet-chemical methods. The physical and chemical characteristics of the materials have been fully characterized using electron microscopy, XRD, calorimetry, dilatometry, particle size and area, using XPS and TGA-DSC-MS. Electrochemical performance was determined using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic cell testing, electrochemical impedance analysis, and conductivity measurements. Neither Ce0.9Sr0.1VO3 nor Ce0.9 Sr0.1Cr0.5V0.5O3 was an active anode for oxidation of H2 and CH4 fuels. However, active catalysts comprising Ce0:9Sr0:1V(O,S)3 and Ce0.9Sr 0.1Cr0.5V0.5(O,S)3 were formed when small concentrations of H2S were present in the fuels. The oxysulfides formed in-situ were very active for conversion of H2S. The maximum performance improved from 50 mW cm-2 to 85 mW cm -2 in 0.5% H2S/CH4 at 850°C with partial substitution of V by Cr in Ce0.9Sr0.1V(O,S)3. Selective conversion of H2S offers potential for sweetening of sour gas without affecting the hydrocarbons. Perovskites La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5X 0.5O3--delta, (henceforth referred to as LSCX, X=Ti, Mn, Fe, Co) are active for conversion of H2, CH4 and 0.5% H2S/CH4. The order of activity in the different fuels depends on

  11. Orange River, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-738-036 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- The astronauts used a 70mm handheld camera to expose this frame of the west-flowing Orange River, which constitutes the international boundary between Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. The railroad and highway connecting the two countries is seen as a ribbon crossing the corner of the view. The broad color difference between strong browns/reds in the northern half of the view and lighter yellows in the southern corresponds to two land surfaces. The darker is a higher, flat land surface developed on horizontal Nama Sandstone’s, with rock surfaces widely coated with a dark manganese stain, typical of desert regions. This region is known as Namaqualand and borders the Namib Desert. Where rivers have cut down into this surface, the lighter underlying rock and soil colors show up.

  12. Evaluation of corrosion testing techniques for selection of corrosion resistant alloys for sour gas service

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, R.B.; Hibner, E.L.

    1996-08-01

    Slow strain rate (SSR) and C-ring stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have historically been used to screen alloys for sour gas environments. The relevance of these testing techniques in predicting actual field corrosion behavior was evaluated for age-hardenable nickel base alloy 925 (UNS N09925) and alloy 718 (UNS N07718). While SSR testing provides an acceptable accelerated screening tool for ranking alloys in sour oil field environments, C-ring SCC testing ranks alloys higher in sour environments than SSR testing.

  13. Application of alkylnaphthalene absorption oil as a sulfur solvent in sour-gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilken, G. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on elemental sulfur which is soluble in sour gas and often precipitates in sour-gas wells during production. Prevention of sulfur deposition in the production equipment requires the application of a sulfur solvent. An aqueous alkaline solvent is inadequate at increasing formation-water inflow resulting in severe carbonate precipitation. The new solvent is based on a mixture of alkylnaphthalenes diluted in a mineral oil. Both can combine physically with the precipitated sulfur. The performance of the solvent during circulation, its regeneration, and its behavior in corrosion inhibition is outlined. Application of this solvent improved the production of the treated sour-gas wells.

  14. Global Analyses of Small Interfering RNAs from Sour Orange seedlings Infected with Different Citrus tristeza virus Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific regulatory mechanism in development and maintenance of genome integrity and functions in plant antiviral defense mechanisms. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key mediators of RNA silencing. To study CTV-host interactions and disease expression, profiles of v...

  15. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  16. The Role of Volcanic Sour Gas on the Alteration of Martian Basalt: Insights from Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, G.; Treguier, E.; D'Uston, C.; Pinet, P.; Toplis, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    We assess the chemical constraints of the alteration of basaltic material by a cold aqueous phase under atmospheric sour gas containing SO3. Secondary chemistry and mineralogy are calculated by a geochemical simulator and compared to MER data.

  17. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  18. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  19. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  20. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  1. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  2. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B.; Bushman, Jeremy D.; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M.; Wilson, Courtney E.; Cooper, Alexander J.; Chick, Wallace S.; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Nelson, Mark T.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Liman, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn2+-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K+ current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K+ channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K+ current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn2+-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K+ channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids. PMID:26627720

  3. The K+ channel KIR2.1 functions in tandem with proton influx to mediate sour taste transduction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenlei; Chang, Rui B; Bushman, Jeremy D; Tu, Yu-Hsiang; Mulhall, Eric M; Wilson, Courtney E; Cooper, Alexander J; Chick, Wallace S; Hill-Eubanks, David C; Nelson, Mark T; Kinnamon, Sue C; Liman, Emily R

    2016-01-12

    Sour taste is detected by a subset of taste cells on the tongue and palate epithelium that respond to acids with trains of action potentials. Entry of protons through a Zn(2+)-sensitive proton conductance that is specific to sour taste cells has been shown to be the initial event in sour taste transduction. Whether this conductance acts in concert with other channels sensitive to changes in intracellular pH, however, is not known. Here, we show that intracellular acidification generates excitatory responses in sour taste cells, which can be attributed to block of a resting K(+) current. We identify KIR2.1 as the acid-sensitive K(+) channel in sour taste cells using pharmacological and RNA expression profiling and confirm its contribution to sour taste with tissue-specific knockout of the Kcnj2 gene. Surprisingly, acid sensitivity is not conferred on sour taste cells by the specific expression of Kir2.1, but by the relatively small magnitude of the current, which makes the cells exquisitely sensitive to changes in intracellular pH. Consistent with a role of the K(+) current in amplifying the sensory response, entry of protons through the Zn(2+)-sensitive conductance produces a transient block of the KIR2.1 current. The identification in sour taste cells of an acid-sensitive K(+) channel suggests a mechanism for amplification of sour taste and may explain why weak acids that produce intracellular acidification, such as acetic acid, taste more sour than strong acids.

  4. Sour-gas sweetening during offshore drillsteam tests; A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, R.L. )

    1990-03-01

    This case history details the use of a sour-gas sweetener on two exploratory well drillstem tests (DST's) offshore California. Also included is a brief description of the process and comments on future plans. This case history is intended to show that the process can be applied effectively in a sour-gas offshore DST. It shows performance on each of the exploratory wells and explains the solutions initiated to mitigate problems incurred in subsequent DST's.

  5. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  6. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  7. In vitro enamel erosion associated with commercially available original-flavor and sour versions of candies.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Stephanie N; Marshall, Teresa A; Qian, Fang; Wefel, James S

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to acidic foods and beverages is thought to increase the risk of developing dental erosion. The authors hypothesized that the erosion potential of sour candies was greater than the erosion potential of original-flavor versions of the candies. The authors measured the pH and titratable acidity of candies dissolved in artificial saliva or water. They then measured the lesion depths of enamel surfaces exposed to candy slurries for 25 hours. Statistical analyses included two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to identify differences between original-flavor and sour candies, as well as correlations to identify relationships between lesion depths, pH and titratable acidity. The study results show that lesion depths generally were greater after exposure of enamel to sour candies than they were after exposure of enamel to original-flavor candies, as well as for candies dissolved in water compared with those dissolved in artificial saliva. Lesion depths were negatively associated with the initial slurry pH and positively associated with titratable acidity. Both original-flavor and sour versions of candies are potentially erosive, with sour candies being of greater concern. Although saliva might protect against the erosive effects of original-flavor candies, it is much less likely to protect against the erosive effects of sour candies. People at risk of developing candy-associated erosion, particularly those with a high intake of candy, pocketing behaviors or decreased salivary flow, should receive preventive guidance regarding candy-consuming habits.

  8. In vitro enamel erosion associated with commercially available original and sour candies

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Stephanie N.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Qian, Fang; Wefel, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to acidic foods and beverages is thought to increase risk of dental erosion. We hypothesized that the erosion potential of sour candies was greater than the erosion potentials of original candies. Methods The pH and titratable acidity of candies dissolved in artificial saliva or water were measured. Lesion depths of enamel surfaces exposed to candy slurries for 25 hours were measured. Statistics included two sample t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to identify differences between original and sour candies and correlations to identify relationships between lesion depths, pH and titratable acidity. Results Lesion depths were generally higher following exposure to sour candies compared to original candies, and for candies dissolved in water compared to artificial saliva. Lesion depths were negatively associated with initial slurry pH and positively associated with titratable acidity. Conclusions Both original and sour candies are potentially erosive, with sour candies being of greater concern. Although saliva might protect against the erosive effects of original candies, saliva is much less likely to protect against the erosive effects of sour candies. Clinical Implications Individuals at risk for candy-associated erosion, particularly those with high intakes, pocketing behaviors or decreased salivary flow, should be provided preventive guidance regarding candy habits. PMID:19571054

  9. Frequency distribution of zinc in leaves with and without zinc-deficiency symptoms, all collected from a single orange tree

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Alexander, G.V.; Kinnear, J.; Procopiou, J.; Haritou-Andriotaki, A.; Papanicolaou, X.

    1982-07-01

    Leaves with zinc-deficiency symptoms had a lower Zn concentration than corresponding leaves without symptoms and of the same age from the same orange (Citrus senensis L.) tree on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock grown in Rhodes, Greece. There was considerable overlap, however, with the frequency distribution of each group approximating a normal curve. But both kinds of leaves combined showed a more normal distribution. Some leaves with symptoms had higher zinc concentrations than some without symptoms. There was a threefold range in Zn concentration for each group of leaves. Zinc-deficient leaves had less phosphorus, calcium, and manganese and more iron, aluminum, silicon, and titanium (the so-called dust elements) than did leaves with no deficiency symptoms. Some of these elements gave normal curves for both Zn-deficient and non-Zn-deficient leaves.

  10. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2013-03-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation (t 1), the base temperature (T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date (t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  11. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  12. Investigations on the binding of human hemoglobin with orange I and orange II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2012-08-01

    The interactions between human hemoglobin and orange I (or orange II) were investigated by UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra techniques, and molecular modeling method. Orange I and orange II effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of human hemoglobin by static quenching. The processes of the binding orange I and orange II on human hemoglobin were spontaneous molecular interaction procedure with hydrogen bonds, van der Waals force, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions according to van't Hoff equation and molecular modeling. There is a single class of binding site of orange I (orange II) in human hemoglobin and the molecular modeling study shows that orange I and orange II are dipped into α(2) chain. The results of CD, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated a small loss of α-helical secondary structure of human hemoglobin induced by orange I and orange II.

  13. HIP clad nickel base Alloy 625 for deep sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, W.K.; Pendley, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process was used to clad nickel base Alloy 625 to AISI 4130 low alloy steel. The performance of the HIP clad material in the corrosive environment characteristic of deep, sour oil and gas wells was evaluated in laboratory tests. Included in the test program were NACE TM-01-77 sulfide stress cracking tests, chloride stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling MgCl /SUB 2'/ , and pitting and crevice corrosion tests. The HIP clad 625 performed excellently, displaying essentially the same corrosion resistance as wrought 625. Specifically the HIP clad 625 resisted sulfide stress cracking at applied stresses as high as 120% of yield strength and resisted chloride stress corrosion cracking at stresses exceeding 100% of yield. The HIP clad 625 also displayed immunity to pitting and crevice corrosion, with corrosion rates of <0.025 mm/y (1 mil/y). The 4130 base metal, however, was attacked severly in all tests. SEM/EDX analysis of the 625/4130 interface demonstrated that dilution of the cladding by the base metal was essentially eliminated.

  14. Inhibitors, cladded trees protect sour gas wells in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, K.M. )

    1994-06-13

    Continuous chemical inhibition has prevented corrosion downhole, and tests indicate that Inconel 625 cladding will protect the christmas trees on wells producing sour gas from the Thamama C reservoir. Metallic corrosion is a costly problem. Estimates indicate that corrosion costs the oil industry several billion dollars per year. In addition, oil companies spend over $100 million/year on corrosion inhibitors for combating downhole tubular and casing corrosion. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (Adnoc) has successfully completed wells in extremely harsh operating conditions with high temperatures, pressures, and high concentrations of H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], and brine. Such environments require special materials for downhole and surface equipment. The Thamama C reservoir, in an onshore gas field, produces gas containing H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] in the range of 0.7--8.0 mole % and 4.0--8.0 mole %, respectively. The Thamama C gas-gathering system comprises 19 wells connected to four trunk lines that transport produced gas and associated condensate to a central processing plant. The paper discusses material and inhibitor selection.

  15. Burst test of a vessel under wet sour gas conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarz, K.E.; Bowker, J.; Orr, R.

    1997-09-01

    A sour burst test of a pressure vessel is described and the results given. The vessel was inspected for existing defects, material properties tested, integrity analyzed and artificial defects introduced before the vessel was subjected to a worst-case environment causing hydrogen charging. The vessel had existing hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and some vertical weld defects. Laboratory materials testing in the hydrogen-charging environment showed the vessel was susceptible to HIC damage, showed no yield strength reduction, reduced plastic ductility in rising load but exhibited a brittleness under high plastic strain. No existing or artificial defect initialed the final burst. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) initiated at a weld produced with temper-bead capping passes but no post weld heat treatment. The vessel survived to 1.2 times actual yield or more than four times its license pressure but the vessel did exhibit a decrease in plastic ductility. Monitoring during the burst test showed that the vessel had been significantly charged with hydrogen.

  16. Characterization of thermophilic consortia from two souring oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R F; Nielsen, P H

    1996-09-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen.

  17. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a(-/-) mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a(+/+) and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice by crossing Skn-1a(-/-) mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(+/+) mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X2-expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(+/+) and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes.

  19. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  20. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  1. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  2. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  3. Integrated Microbial Trait Based-Reactive Transport Modeling Approach Towards Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs. Biogenesis of H2S (souring) has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems. Understanding the processes that control the rates and patterns of sulfate reduction is a crucial step in developing a predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. In this study, we describe the development of a microbial trait-based model that is coupled to a reactive transport model. The model represents several anaerobic microbial functional guilds with different resource acquisition (e.g., electron donor, sulfate) traits. The integrated model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial community dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes as revealed in a recent laboratory column experiment comparing the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results shows that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Model parameters derived through modeling of the column data are utilized in subsequent field-scale model simulations across a set of reservoir relevant environmental conditions. This integrated model demonstrates that interactions between SRBs and other heterotrophs can significantly impact the occurrence and extent of H2S production.

  4. Sour rot-damaged grapes are sources of wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; González, Sara; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Querol, Amparo; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2008-11-01

    Yeast species of sound and sour rot-damaged grapes were analysed during fermentation and grape ripening in the vineyard, using general and selective culture media. During 2003 and 2004 vintages, microvinifications were carried out with sound grapes to which different amounts of grapes with sour rot were added. The wine spoilage species Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered during fermentations with sour rot, reaching 5.00 log CFU mL(-1) (2003) and 2.48 log CFU mL(-1) (2004) at the end of fermentation. The study of yeast populations during the sour rot ripening process (2005 vintage) showed that the veraison-damaged grapes always exhibited higher total yeast counts and a much greater diversity of species. From a total of 22 ascomycetous species, 17 were present only in damaged grapes. The most frequent species were Issatchenkia occidentalis and Zygoascus hellenicus. The spoilage species Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus were consistently isolated exclusively from damaged grapes. This work demonstrates that one of the most dangerous wine spoilage species, Z. bailii, is strongly associated with sour rot grapes and survives during fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The use of selective media provides a more accurate characterization of grape contamination species.

  5. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  6. Quality evaluation of sour and duke cherries cultivated in south-west Europe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Rodrigo; Morales-Corts, María Remedios; Gómez-Sánchez, María Ángeles

    2013-08-15

    The results of many studies describing sour cherry polyphenols and their positive effects on human health have been reported. However, there are no detailed studies concerning the physical quality of fresh fruits of sour and duke cherry. Several physical, chemical and colour fruit-characteristics of 10 sour and duke cherry cultivars cultivated for industrial use in south-west Europe were investigated during a 3-year (2008-2010) period. Some of the cultivars showed distinctive and interesting agronomical characters, such as low susceptibility to fruit cracking and high soluble solids and total polyphenol levels. This was the case with the duke cherry cultivar Guindo Garrafal Negro. Its fruits were quite sweet (18.49°Brix), resistant to cracking (6.34%) and rich in polyphenols (17.16 g gallic acid kg(-1) dry weight). Other relevant cherry cultivars were Guindo Tomatillo and Seixas, which had large and fleshy fruits (4.71 and 3.69 cm(3), respectively) and Guindo Silvestre, for which the lowest fruit cracking values (3.12%) were recorded. Sour and duke cherries are rich in healthy compounds such as polyphenols. Studies including the physical, chemical and colour properties of sour and duke cherry fruits are very interesting to engineers in the design of equipment for harvesting and post-harvest technology. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  8. Quality of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Hanne; Tellefsen, Siri Birgitte Geiner; Dahl, Annette Veberg

    2009-10-01

    In this study, photooxidation of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties was investigated. The sour cream was light exposed for 36 h with a standard fluorescent light tube, simulating storage conditions in many Norwegian grocery stores. Three different cups were evaluated: a white cup, a cup with medium light barrier (LB), and a cup with high LB. The quality of the sour cream was evaluated by sensory analysis and front face fluorescence spectroscopy. The sour cream stored in white cups became very rancid during the light exposure, with a rancid flavor score of 7.8 on a scale from 1 to 9, where 9 is the highest intensity. Cups with high LB gave best protection against the light. The sensory assessors could not distinguish between sour cream stored in cups with high LB and sour cream stored in the dark. The rancid flavor intensity for the cups with medium LB was significantly different (P < 0.05) from both the white cup and the cup with high LB. The sensory flavor intensities indicated that with 36 h of light exposure, only a cup with high LB will protect the sour cream sufficiently. The fluorescence measurements corresponded well with the sensory analysis as the photosensitizers were somewhat degraded for sour cream stored in cups with medium LB and most degraded in the white cups. For the cups with high LB, the fluorescence peaks that originated from the photosensitizers were all intact. Dairy products such as sour cream will develop off-odor and taste faults ("sunlight taste") in a few hours if exposed to sufficient fluorescent lightning in the grocery stores. A light barrier can be incorporated in the packaging material to protect the dairy products from the light. Our experiment showed that the incorporation of a black pigment into 1 of the 3 plastic layers in the cup for packaging of sour cream protected the sour cream from degradation when exposed to light.

  9. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. Failure life determination of oilfield elastomer seals in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kennelley, K.J.; Abrams, P.I. ); Vicic, J.C. ); Cain, D. )

    1989-01-01

    Previous screening tests of various oilfield elastomers in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments indicated that hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR), tetrafluoroethylene-propylene (TFE/P), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), and perfluorinated rubber (FFKM) elastomers may perform satisfactorily in these environments. This paper describes subsequent failure life tests conducted with the subject elastomers in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide test environment at several elevated temperatures (> 135{degrees}C). The materials were tested in the form of O-rings (size 214), which were used to seal an autoclave containing the test environment at 14 MPa gas pressure. The results were used to extrapolate time to failure at a common reference temperature of 135{degrees}C. The performance of EPDM and HNBR in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide mixture substantially exceeded a projected 20-year service life at 135{degrees}C, while FFKM and TFE/P did not.

  12. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  13. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  14. Purple is the new Orange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blood orange and Cara cara-like citrus varieties with purple or red fruit color, increased antioxidants and modified flavor could be the next generation of cultivars produced via genetic engineering. These varieties are being developed by enhancing the presence of anthocyanin and lycopene pigments...

  15. Biorefinery of waste orange peel.

    PubMed

    Angel Siles López, José; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-03-01

    Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research.

  16. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease.

  17. Near-infrared Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Early Detection of Sour Skin Disease in Vidalia Sweet Onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sour skin is a major onion disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia). It not only causes substantial economic loss from diseased onions but also could lead to pulmonary infection in humans. It is critical to prevent onions infected by sour skin from entering storage rooms or ...

  18. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Garofulić, Ivona Elez; Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4-7 and 13-17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4-7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder.

  19. 5-HT3A -driven green fluorescent protein delineates gustatory fibers innervating sour-responsive taste cells: A labeled line for sour taste?

    PubMed

    Stratford, J M; Larson, E D; Yang, R; Salcedo, E; Finger, T E

    2017-07-01

    Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)-the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid). This acid stimulation also evokes c-Fos in the laterally adjacent mediodorsal spinal trigeminal nucleus (DMSp5), but this trigeminal activation is not associated with the presence of 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers as it is in the nTS. Rather, the neuronal activation in the trigeminal complex likely is attributable to direct depolarization of acid-sensitive trigeminal nerve fibers, for example, polymodal nociceptors, rather than through taste buds. Taken together, these findings suggest that transmission of sour taste information involves communication between Type III taste cells and 5-HT3 -expressing afferent nerve fibers that project to a restricted portion of the nTS consistent with a crude mapping of taste quality information in the primary gustatory nucleus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  1. Invasive Drosophila suzukii facilitates Drosophila melanogaster infestation and sour rot outbreaks in the vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, R.; Xuéreb, A.; Benoit, L.; Chapuis, M. P. ; Gibert, P.

    2017-01-01

    How do invasive pests affect interactions between members of pre-existing agrosystems? The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is suspected to be involved in the aetiology of sour rot, a grapevine disease that otherwise develops following Drosophila melanogaster infestation of wounded berries. We combined field observations with laboratory assays to disentangle the relative roles of both Drosophila in disease development. We observed the emergence of numerous D. suzukii, but no D. melanogaster flies, from bunches that started showing mild sour rot symptoms days after field collection. However, bunches that already showed severe rot symptoms in the field mostly contained D. melanogaster. In the laboratory, oviposition by D. suzukii triggered sour rot development. An independent assay showed the disease increased grape attractiveness to ovipositing D. melanogaster females. Our results suggest that in invaded vineyards, D. suzukii facilitates D. melanogaster infestation and, consequently, favours sour rot outbreaks. Rather than competing with close species, the invader subsequently permits their reproduction in otherwise non-accessible resources and may cause more frequent, or more extensive, disease outbreaks. PMID:28405407

  2. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  3. Sweet and Sour: Attenuating Sulfidogenesis in an Advective Flow Column System with Perchlorate or Nitrate Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrektson, A. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Piceno, Y.; Boussina, A.; Jin, Y.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Tom, L.; Hu, P.; Conrad, M. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biogenesis in oil reservoirs is a primary cause of souring and of associated costs in reservoir and pipeline maintenance. In addition to the corrosive effects of the H2S itself, abiotic and biological oxidation also generates sulfuric acid, further degrading metallic surfaces. Amending these environments with perchlorate (ClO4-) resolves these problems by inhibition of biological sulfate reduction and re-oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur by dissimilatory (per)chlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB). Triplicate flow through columns packed with San Francisco bay sediment were flushed with bay water ([SO4=] = 25-30 mM) containing yeast extract with 50 mM inhibitor concentrations (NO3-or ClO4-) decreasing to 25 mM and finally 12.5 mM. Influent and effluent geochemistry was monitored and DNA was prepared from the sediment bed for microbial community analysis. Souring was reversed by both treatments (at 50 mM) compared to the control columns that had no ion addition. Nitrate began to re-sour when treatment concentration was decreased to 25 mM but treatment had to be decreased to 12.5 mM before the perchlorate treated columns began to re-sour. However, the treated columns re-soured to a lesser extent than the control columns. Phylochip microbial community analyses indicated microbial community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Isotopic analysis of sulfate showed trends that broadly agreed with the geochemistry but also suggested further sulfur cycling was occurring. This study indicates that perchlorate shows great promise as an inhibitor of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms are involved in this process.

  4. Sweet and sour cherry phenolics and their protective effects on neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin; Kim, Young Jun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Lee, Chang Y

    2005-12-28

    The identification of phenolics from various cultivars of fresh sweet and sour cherries and their protective effects on neuronal cells were comparatively evaluated in this study. Phenolics in cherries of four sweet and four sour cultivars were extracted and analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and their antineurodegenerative activities. Total phenolics in sweet and sour cherries per 100 g ranged from 92.1 to 146.8 and from 146.1 to 312.4 mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. Total anthocyanins of sweet and sour cherries ranged from 30.2 to 76.6 and from 49.1 to 109.2 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that anthocyanins such as cyanidin and peonidin derivatives were prevalent phenolics. Hydroxycinnamic acids consisted of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid derivatives. Glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were also found. Generally, sour cherries had higher concentrations of total phenolics than sweet cherries, due to a higher concentration of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. A positive linear correlation (r2 = 0.985) was revealed between the total anthocyanins measured by summation of individual peaks from HPLC analysis and the total anthocyanins measured by the pH differential method, indicating that there was in a close agreement with two quantifying methods for measuring anthocyanin contents. Cherry phenolics protected neuronal cells (PC 12) from cell-damaging oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner mainly due to anthocyanins. Overall results showed that cherries are rich in phenolics, especially in anthocyanins, with a strong antineurodegenerative activity and that they can serve as a good source of biofunctional phytochemicals in our diet.

  5. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Murphy, Christopher S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We report that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as a screen of 12 variants yielded 8 that exhibit photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins can be switched into a green state, and two orange variants can be photoconverted to the far red. The orange highlighters are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibit the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent protein described to date. PMID:19363494

  6. Cryptoxanthin structural isomers in oranges, orange juice, and other fruits.

    PubMed

    Schlatterer, Jörg; Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2005-08-10

    Citrus fruits contain a wide range of bioactive compounds. Their carotenoid fraction is inter alia dominated by structural cryptoxanthin isomers as beta-cryptoxanthin and zeinoxanthin. Both xanthophylls were identified in saponified citrus fruit extracts by comparison to reference compounds extracted from corn and by their typical fragmentation pattern in LC-(APCI)MS analyses. alpha-Cryptoxanthin, another structural cryptoxanthin isomer usually found in carrot leaves, was not identified in the citrus fruits studied. Cryptoxanthin concentrations of direct orange juices (D) and reconstituted juices (C) were compared. Although the respective mean values [beta-cryptoxanthin, 62 (C) versus 110 microg/100 g (D); zeinoxanthin, 22 (C) versus 37 microg/100 g (D)] were statistically distinguishable (P < 0.05%), a doubtless classification is not possible because the concentration ranges overlap. To identify esters of structural cryptoxanthin isomers in native orange juice extracts, four saturated acyl esters were synthesized. LC-(APCI)MS studies revealed for the first time that the dominant acylation partners of both xanthophylls were C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0 in nearly equal amounts of roughly one-third, whereas C10:0 and C18:1 were present at lower extents of 5-14%; other acylation partners were not identified. The presented method is appropriate to gain deeper insight into the pattern of structural cryptoxanthin isomers of citrus fruits. Knowledge of acylated cryptoxanthin isomers may be important in the evaluation of the bioavailability of individual esters in future human digestion studies.

  7. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet-Orange-Like Hybrids and Standard Sweet Oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida, and ‘Ambersweet’. All hybrids are ...

  8. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  9. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  19. Cloning, sequencing and application of the LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri.

    PubMed

    Turakainen, Hilkka; Korhola, Matti

    2005-07-30

    We have cloned by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sequenced a LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri CBS 8195 and studied its chromosomal location. The LEU2 coding sequence was 1092 nt long encoding a putative beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase protein of 363 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region had 71.6% identity to S. cerevisiae LEU2 sequence. On the protein level, the identity of C. milleri Leu2p to S. cerevisiae Leu2p was 84.1%. The CmLEU2 DNA probe hybridized to one to three chromosomal bands and two or three BamHI restriction fragments in C. milleri but did not give any signal to chromosomes or restriction fragments of C. albicans, S. cerevisiae, S. exiguus or Torulaspora delbrueckii. Using CmLEU2 probe for DNA hybridization makes it easy to quickly identify C. milleri among other sour dough yeasts.

  20. Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chen, C I; Reinsel, M A; Mueller, R F

    1994-07-01

    Microbial souring (H2S production) in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic upflow porous media reactor at 60 degrees C using microbial consortia obtained from oil reservoirs. Multiple carbon sources (formate, acetate, propionate, iso- and n-butyrates) found in reservoir waters as well as sulfate as the electron acceptor was used. Kinetics and rates of souring in the reactor system were analyzed. Higher volumetric substrate consumption rates (organic acids and sulfate) and a higher volumetric H(2)S production rate were found at the from part of the reactor column after H(2)S production had stabilized. Concentration gradients for the substrates (organic acids and sulfate) and H(2)S were generated along the column. Biomass accumulation throughout the entire column was observed. The average specific sulfate reduction rate (H(2)S production rate) in the present reactor after H(2)S production had stabilized was calculated to be 11062 +/-2.22 mg sulfate-S/day g biomass.

  1. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  2. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  3. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. ...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  8. Gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction at 140{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.H.; Smalley, P.C.; Oxtoby, N.H.

    1995-06-01

    Natural gas in the Permian-Triassic Khuff Formation of Abu Dhabi contains variable amounts of H{sub 2}S. Gas souring occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction of anhydrite by hydrocarbon gases. Sour gas is observed only in reservoirs hotter than a critical reaction temperature: 140{degrees}C. Petrographic examination of core from a wide depth range showed that the anhydrite reactant has been replaced by calcite reaction product only in samples deeper than 4300 m. Gas composition data show that only reservoirs deeper than 4300 m contain large quantities of H{sub 2}S (i.e., >10%). At present-day geothermal gradients, 4300 m is equivalent to 140{degrees}C. Fluid inclusion analysis of calcite reaction product has shown that calcite growth only became significant at temperatures greater than 140{degrees}C. Thus, three independent indicators all show that 140{degrees}C is the critical temperature above which gas souring by thermochemical sulfate reduction begins. The previously suggested lower temperature thresholds for other sour gas provinces (80-130{degrees}C) derive from gas composition data that may not allow adequately either for the reservoir temperature history or for the migration of gas generated at higher temperatures into present traps. Conversely, published proposals for higher threshold temperature (180-200{degrees}C) derive from short duration experimental data that are not easily extrapolated to geologically realistic temperatures and time scales. Therefore, the temperature of 140{degrees}C derived from our study of the Khuff Formation may be the best estimate of temperature required for in-situ thermochemical sulfate reduction to produce the high H{sub 2}S concentrations encountered in deep carbonate gas reservoirs.

  9. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  10. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW).

  11. Distribution of sulfur deposition near a wellbore in a sour gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinghong; Yang, Xuefeng; He, ShunLi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-02-01

    Elemental sulfur precipitates from sour gas when reservoir pressure and temperature decrease. Sulfur deposition in a formation may significantly reduce the inflow performance of sour gas wells. This paper develops a micro-mechanical migration model and experiments which describe the law of sulfur precipitation, plugging and distribution near a wellbore. Based on the analysis of the sulfur deposition law and micro-mechanical migration theory, elemental sulfur mechanical models in pores are presented. The critical velocity of sulfur is calculated and the rule of precipitated sulfur distribution near a wellbore is deduced. Reservoir cores and supersaturated sour gas are utilized to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in sulfur damage experiments, and the main influential factor is analysed. According to the models and experimental results, precipitated sulfur can decrease reservoir permeability. The liquid bridge force is the most important factor to affect reservoir permeability due to sulfur deposition. Precipitated sulfur cannot be carried away from pores if the liquid bridge force is considered; the critical velocity increases as the diameter of the sulfur particles increases, which may cause serious formation damage. Moreover, it can be seen from the results that the biggest volume of sulfur deposition does not occur at the bottom but near the bottom of a borehole. These results can be used to describe the profile of dynamic sulfur deposition and help a reservoir engineer to develop a plan for removing the sulfur near a wellbore.

  12. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by an enrichment from sour water coproduced with petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.G.; Sublette, K.L.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    We have previously demonstrated that the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobe Thiobacillus denitrificans may be readily cultured aerobically or anoxically in batch and continuous reactors on hydrogen sulfide under sulfide-limiting conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of T. denitrificans (strain F) was isolated by enrichment and recently used in a successful field test of a microbial process for the treatment of sour water coproduced with petroleum at an Amoco Production Co. site in Wyoming. Prior to the initiation of this field test, it was determined that the sour water at this site contained low concentrations of indigenous autotrophs, which could grow on thiosulfate as an energy source. Samples of this sour water have now been used to produce an enrichment culture for sulfide oxidizers. This enrichment has been characterized with respect to hydrogen sulfide oxidation, response to oxygen, pH and temperature optima, and sulfide tolerance. The enrichment was shown to be strictly aerobic and to grow on sulfide as an energy source with complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The enrichment has a tolerance of sulfide comparable to that of T. denitrificans strain F. However, the enrichment has a higher optimum temperature (35{degrees}C) than strain F and was shown to oxidize sulfides over a much broader range of pH values.

  13. Potential of Spanish sour-sweet pomegranates (cultivar C25) for the juice industry.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Calín-Sánchez, A; Bagatar, B; Hernández, F; Legua, P; Martínez-Font, R; Melgarejo, P

    2012-04-01

    Commercial juices of sweet pomegranates and fresh juices of sour-sweet pomegranates were analysed for organic acids, sugars, antioxidant activity, volatile composition, sensory profile and consumer liking. Organic acids and sugars were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, while volatiles were extracted using hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. Malic acid was predominant in sweet juices while citric acid in sour-sweet samples. Fructose and glucose were found as the predominant sugars in all juices. A total of 18 compounds were found in pomegranate aroma profile, including monoterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, monoterpenoids and linear hydrocarbons; the most abundant compounds were 3-carene, α-terpinene and α-terpineol. The total concentration of volatiles ranged from 2.0 up to 5.1 mg/L, with commercial samples presenting higher total concentrations due to the presence of peel volatiles. The high potential of sour-sweet pomegranate fruits for the juice industry was supported by (a) the high values of positive attributes, such as colour and fresh pomegranate flavour and (b) the high overall liking of consumers.

  14. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. I. Yeasts responsible for the leavening action.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, T F; Kline, L; Miller, M W

    1971-03-01

    Two hundred isolates from San Francisco sour dough French bread fermentations (40 from each of five different bakeries) were screened by fermentation tests and for their ability to grow in the presence of cycloheximide (Actidione). All of the isolates from four of the bakeries and 70% of those from the fifth were unable to utilize maltose but grew well on other sugars, even in the presence of cycloheximide. The remaining few isolates from the fifth bakery utilized maltose but not galactose and were inhibited by cycloheximide. No bakers' yeast types were found. Sixteen of the maltose-negative and five of the galactose-negative isolates were subjected to more rigorous taxonomic procedures. All of the maltose-negative isolates were identified as asporogenous strains of Saccharomyces exiguus (Torulopsis holmii) and the galactose-negative ones, as S. inusitatus. The predominance of S. exiguus, its vigor in the particular acidic environment of the sour dough, and the correlation of its numbers with the leavening function constitute strong evidence on the role of this organism in the sour dough system.

  15. Effect of processing conditions on acidification properties of wheat sour doughs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Benedito de Barber, C; Collar Esteve, C

    1994-06-01

    The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and lactic and acetic acids production have been investigated for wheat sour doughs with and without yeast addition, inoculated with two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (B33, B39). To study the effect of flour extraction rate (0.54, 11.11 and 1.68% ash content), dough yield (DY) (160, 200 and 240 of sour dough/100 g flour), and fermentation temperature (25, 30 and 35 degrees C) a response surface regression, factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis were used. Results from factor analysis point out that the extraction rate of fluor governs TTA and acetic acid content; this factor accounts for the 53% of variability of the data. Dough yield is highly correlated with lactic acid content, explaining 27% of the total variance. Finally, temperature explains the remaining 16% of variation, but it is not related to any analytical variable. From K-means clustering analysis, flour extraction rate of 1.68% ash content leads to the highest TTA and acetic acid values, whereas DY of 240 g sour dough/100 g flour gives the greatest lactic acid content, and DY of 160 leads to the lowest levels of TTA and organic acids.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin profile of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Damar, Irem; Ekşi, Aziz

    2012-12-15

    The antioxidant capacities, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin content of eleven types of sour cherry juice obtained from different varieties of sour cherries were investigated. Antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic content and monomeric anthocyanin contents of the juices were within the ranges 20.0-37.9 mmol/L, 1510-2550 and 350.0-633.5mg/L, respectively. The main anthocyanin compound in sour cherry juice was cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside at concentrations between 140.3 and 320.9 mg/L. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside was followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside within a concentration range of 25.5-85.5mg/L. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside contents were relatively low (2.6-21.5 and 2.0-9.9 mg/L). Anthocyanin capacity and total polyphenol content were fairly well correlated (r=0.742, p<0.01), whereas the correlation between antioxidant capacity and monomeric anthocyanin content was insignificant (r=0.423, p>0.05). The correlation between antioxidant capacity - cya-3-glucosylrutinoside (r=0.606, p<0.01) and antioxidant capacity - cya-3-rutinoside (r=0.628, p<0.01) was significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactive Transport Model of Microbial Reservoir Souring and Remediation in Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Zheng, L.; Arora, B.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Microorganisms mediate the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil bearing geological formations. H2S has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems. Oil reservoir souring results from coupled thermal, chemical, biological and hydrological interactions across a range of spatiotemporal scales. At the macroscale, fluid flows in the fractures and matrix determine the delivery of electron donors and acceptors to the microbes, and the flux of H2S throughout the reservoir. At the microscale, microbes reduce sulfate while oxidizing available electron donors for growth. Accumulation of the microbial biomass can in turn impact flows in the fractured geological formation. Understanding the processes that control the rates and patterns of sulfate reduction is a crucial step in developing a predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recently, a novel fractured sandstone experiment was conducted to explore souring and desouring (perchlorate treatment) across controlled thermal gradient (also in this session). In this work, a reactive transport model (RTM) of the fractured sandstone was developed. Observed spatiotemporal data from the fractured sandstone experiment such as tracer, thermal state, effluent sulfide, sulfate and perchlorate concentrations were used to constrain the model transport and reaction process rates. The model captured the spatiotemporal trends of the chemical species and microbial populations that emerged as a result of feedbacks between microbes, flow and the minerals. This work demonstrates modeling to be a powerful tool for elucidating the interacting factors governing biogenesis of H2S.

  18. Antifungal properties of organic extracts of eight Cistus L. species against postharvest citrus sour rot.

    PubMed

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Talibi, I; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Saadi, B; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of methanol and chloroform extracts of eight Cistaceae species to control citrus sour rot decay, caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii, was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Methanol extracts of these plant species exhibited more interesting activity against G. citri-aurantii, in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, compared with chloroforme extracts. Under in vitro trials, obtained results showed that methanol extracts of all tested plants revealed a highest significant antifungal activity with inhibition zones that ranged between 12·33 and 16·33 mm in diameter. All tested methanol extracts totally inhibited spore germination when tested at 10 mg ml(-1) . Incidence of sour rot was significantly lowered to 11·11% when fruits were treated with Cistus populifolius and Cistus ladanifer methanol extracts compared with 100% in the control. The disease severity was lowered to 5·19% and 6·04% when fruits were treated with the same methanol extracts respectively. The methanol Cistus extracts had sufficient antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo against G. citri-aurantii to consider its use in the citrus industry after it has been tested under production and natural infection conditions. Such natural products therefore represent a viable alternative approaches for sour rot postharvest management of citrus. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Variations in sour gas concentrations in the NSB [open quote]A[close quote] field, offshore north Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Reaves, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Sour gas concentrations in DST samples from the NSB [open quote]A[close quote] field show wide variations. This can be observed in tests from different wells, different tests from the same well and different samples from the same test. H[sub 2]S measurements show the most obvious variations, from less than 0.5% to greater than 5%. CO[sub 2] measurements also vary beyond normal sampling or analytical errors. Geological considerations suggest that these variations are not controlled by subsurface reservoir properties. DST rate and volume data suggest that variations in sour gas concentrations are controlled by the production of formation water. Minimum sour gas concentrations occur in DST samples with water production rates which match those predicted for water vapor condensation. Elevated SW gas concentrations occur in DST's in which produced water either exceeds or falls short of water vapor condensation predictions. In the case of excess water production, the source of the elevated sour gas concentrations is clear. Formation water in equilibrium with a gas phase containing the minimum sour gas concentration, 28% CO[sub 2] and 0.5% HA would contain a dissolved gas with 80% CO[sub 2] and 10% H[sub 2]S. Exsolution of this dissolved gas during DST operations would result in substantial increases in sour gas concentrations. In tests with water deficits, it is probable that liquids are being trapped in the subsurface, but this cannot be proved. These observations have been extended to a database on sour gas concentrations in north Sumatra and have had a substantial impact on assessments of the exploration and resource potential of this area.

  20. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  1. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  2. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  9. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  10. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  12. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  13. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  14. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  15. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  16. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  17. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  19. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  20. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  1. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  2. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  5. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  6. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  9. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  10. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  11. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. II. Isolation and characterization of undescribed bacterial species responsible for the souring activity.

    PubMed

    Kline, L; Sugihara, T F

    1971-03-01

    A medium was developed which permitted isolation, apparently for the first time, of the bacteria responsible for the acid production in the 100-year-old San Francisco sour dough French bread process. Some of the essential ingredients of this medium included a specific requirement for maltose at a high level, Tween 80, freshly prepared yeast extractives, and an initial pH of not over 6.0. The bacteria were gram-positive, nonmotile, catalase-negative, short to medium slender rods, indifferent to oxygen, and producers of lactic and acetic acids with the latter varying from 3 to 26% of the total. Carbon dioxide was also produced. Their requirement for maltose for rapid and heavy growth and a proclivity for forming involuted, filamentous, and pleomorphic forms raises a question as to whether they should be properly grouped with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

  12. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically.

  13. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on porphyria cutanea tarda and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... on " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " that there was sufficient evidence ...

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  15. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P < 0.05). Cattle in the sweet rangeland had significantly lower tick loads than those in the sour rangeland in all the seasons except the hot-dry season. The Nguni breed had lower (P < 0.05) tick loads of R. appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended.

  16. Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed.

  17. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  18. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  19. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  20. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  1. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  2. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  3. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  4. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  8. ACRIDINE ORANGE BINDING BY MICROCOCCUS LYSODEIKTICUS

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Roland F.

    1964-01-01

    Beers, Roland F., Jr. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md). Acridine orange binding by Micrococcus lysodeikticus. J. Bacteriol. 88:1249–1256. 1964.—Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells bind acridine orange (AO) reversibly. The adsorption isotherm is consistent with a highly cooperative-type binding similar to that observed with polyadenylic acid. The cells exhibit a strong buffering action on the concentration of free AO which remains constant (1 μg/ml) over a range from 5 to 95% saturation of the cells by AO. The cells stain either fluorescent orange or green. The fraction stained orange is directly proportional to the quantity of dye adsorbed, indicating that these cells bind a fixed amount of AO (10% of dry weight). The green-stained cells contain less than 1% of the AO bound to orange-stained cells. The results suggest that the abrupt increase in amount of AO bound by the orange-stained cells occurs when the concentration of free AO reaches a threshold concentration. Similar results were obtained with Bacillus cereus. Mg increases the free AO concentration and the extent of binding capacity of the cells. PMID:14234778

  9. Sulfidogenesis and Control in Fractured Rock: Laboratory Experiments and Implication for Souring Intervention in Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Geller, J. T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfidogenesis in oil reservoirs, referred to as souring, is commonly encountered during sea water flooding. A better understanding of the souring process and effective control is of great interest to the oil industry. While a large fraction of global oil reserve is found in fractured rock, understanding of sulfidogenesis and control in fractured rock is next to non-existent. Complex and contrasting flow properties between fracture and matrix result in heterogeneous thermal and reaction gradients, posing great challenges to both experimental and modeling studies. We conducted the first experiment on biogenic sulfidogenesis and control in fractured rock. A 2D flow cell was used and straight fractures were created in order to reduce complexity, producing datasets more amenable to models. Heating was applied to simulate temperature gradients from colder sea-water injection. Perchlorate treatment was performed following sulfidogenesis as a thermodynamic control strategy. Synthetic sea water (SSW) with acetate was used as the growth media. Inoculations were carried out with sulfate reducing and perchlorate reducing microbes. A set of control and monitoring methods was applied including temperature, optical and infrared imaging, distributed galvanic sensing and fluid sampling as well as influent/effluent monitoring. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the experiment. Our experiment captured the dynamics of sulfur cycling in fractured rocks. Time-lapse optical imaging recorded the evolution of microbial biomass. Infrared imaging revealed the thermal gradient and the impacts from flow. Such data was essential for the identification of a mesophilic zone and it's co-location with sufidogenesis. Galvanic-potential signals provided the critical dataset for tracking spatial sulfide distribution over time. Our experiment demonstrated for the first time the role of heterogeneous flow and temperature controlling sulfidogenesis and treatment in fractured rock

  10. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szalóki-Dorkó, Lilla; Ladányi, Márta; Ficzek, Gitta; Stéger-Máté, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3) were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L) than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L). The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18%, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19% were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L) than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L) before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production. PMID:27904369

  11. ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE AT SOUR GAS PROCESSING PLANT SITES-PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen

    1999-02-01

    Alkanolamines are commonly used by the natural gas industry to remove hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other acid gases from the natural gas in which they occur (''sour'' gas if hydrogen sulfide is present). At sour gas-processing plants, as at all plants that use alkanolamines for acid gas removal (AGR), spills and on-site management of wastes containing alkanolamines and associated reaction products have occasionally resulted in subsurface contamination that is presently the focus of some environmental concern. In 1994, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated a three-phase program to investigate the natural attenuation processes that control the subsurface transport and fate of the most commonly used alkanolamine in Canada, monoethanolamine (MEA). Funding for the MEA research program was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), Gas Research Institute (GRI), Environment Canada, and the National Energy Board of Canada. The MEA research program focused primarily on examining the biodegradability of MEA and MEA-related waste materials in soils and soil-slurries under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions, evaluating the mobility of MEA in soil and groundwater and the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques for removing contaminants and toxicity from MEA-contaminated soil. The presently inactive Okotoks sour gas-processing plant, owned by CanOxy in Alberta, Canada, was the source of samples and field data for much of the laboratory-based experimental work and was selected to be the location for the field-based efforts to evaluate remediation techniques. The objective of the research program is to provide the natural gas industry with ''real world'' data and insights developed under laboratory and field conditions regarding the effective and environmentally sound use of biological methods for the remediation of soil

  12. Effect of Liberibacter infection (huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John; Narciso, Jan; Irey, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Some anecdotal reports suggest that infection of citrus trees with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how Las infection affects juice quality with respect to cultivar, maturity, or processing method. Hamlin, Midsweet, and Valencia oranges were harvested over 2 y from trees that tested negative (Las-) or positive (Las+) for Las from different groves and included normal looking (nonsymptomatic) and symptomatic fruit (small, green, and lopsided) from Las+ trees. In the 1st year, fruit were manually juiced, while in the 2nd year, a commercial process was used. Juice from Las+ trees was compared to juice from Las- trees in difference-from-control tests, and by descriptive analysis. Results showed large variability due to tree, harvest date, and cultivar. Juice from Hamlin Las+ trees tended to be more bitter and sour than its Las- counterpart. In contrast, hand processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to have some off-flavor and bitterness compared to control, but the following year, commercially processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to be only slightly more sour than juice from Las- trees for the April harvest, and to be sweeter for the June harvest. When juice from individual replicates was pooled to be more representative of a commercial situation, there was no difference between Las+ and Las- juice in Valencia. Trained panel differences were noted for juice from Hamlin Las+ fruit, especially for symptomatic fruit. Assumptions that juice made from oranges harvested from Huanglongbing (from infection with Liberibacter sp.) affected trees is off-flavored appeared to be generally more true for Hamlin juice than for Midsweet or Valencia, especially for Hamlin juice made from symptomatic fruit. For Midsweet and Valencia, flavor differences between juice made from fruit harvested from diseased or

  13. Orange Is the New Blue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Measurements from NASA MESSENGER MLA instrument during the spacecraft greater than four-year orbital mission have mapped the topography of Mercury northern hemisphere in great detail. This enhanced color mosaic shows (from left to right) Munch (61 km/38 mi.), Sander (52 km/32 mi.), and Poe (81 km/50 mi.) craters, which lie in the northwest portion of the Caloris basin. The smooth volcanic plains that fill the Caloris basin appear orange in this image. All three craters are superposed on these volcanic plains and have excavated low-reflectance material, which appears blue in this image, from the subsurface. Hollows, typically associated with low-reflectance material, dot the rims of Munch and Poe and cover the floor of Sander. These images were acquired as high-resolution targeted color observations. Targeted color observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions higher than the 1-kilometer/pixel 8-color base map. During MESSENGER's one-year primary mission, hundreds of targeted color observations were obtained. During MESSENGER's extended mission, high-resolution targeted color observations are more rare, as the 3-color base map is covering Mercury's northern hemisphere with the highest-resolution color images that are possible. Date acquired: July 03, 2011, July 04, 2011 Image Mission Elapsed Time (MET): 218204186, 218204190, 218204194, 218246487, 218246491, 218246495 Image ID: 458397, 458398, 458399, 460433, 460434, 460435 Instrument: Wide Angle Camera (WAC) of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 42° N Center Longitude: 154° E Projection: Equirectangular Resolution: 239 meters/pixel Scale: Munch crater is approximately 61 km (38 mi.) in diameter Incidence Angle: 43°, 42° Emission Angle: 35°, 13° Phase Angle: 79°, 55° http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19421

  14. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    PubMed Central

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Raseleka, Keneilwe; Getz, Wayne M.; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    Background Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS. Methods In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi) culture with three concentrations of bacteria (102, 104, 107 colony forming units/ml), followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C) and outdoor (33°C) temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days). Results M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (107cfu/ml), M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C), approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%), giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours). Conclusions This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Genome-Wide 6K SNP Array for Diploid Sweet Cherry and Tetraploid Sour Cherry

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Cameron; Bassil, Nahla; Main, Dorrie; Ficklin, Stephen; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cindy; Mockler, Todd C.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Wilhelm, Larry; Iezzoni, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb) of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome) and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome). Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269) and sour (n = 330) cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery, genome

  16. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid in sour lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during post-harvest pathogenesis by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Rozy; Sumbali, Geeta

    2005-04-01

    During hot and humid seasons, extensive rot of sour lime was observed to be caused by Aspergillus flavus. In view of this, investigations were undertaken to obtain data on the production of various toxins by A. flavus during post harvest pathogenesis of sour lime. Sixty percent of the pathogenic A. flavus isolates were detected to be aflatoxin B(1) producers in sour lime tissue. It was also noted that thirty three percent of aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates had the potential to coproduce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Such aflatoxigenic isolates produced quantitatively more CPA (ranging from 250.0 to 2501.3 microg/kg) than aflatoxin B(1) (ranging from 141.3 to 811.7 microg/kg) in the affected sour lime. This study demonstrates for the first time that sour lime are a favourable substrate for aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid production by A. flavus isolates. This is of great concern to the health of consumers.

  17. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    PubMed

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toluene depletion in produced oil contributes to souring control in a field subjected to nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Park, Hyung Soo; Nathoo, Safia; Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Thomas R; Miner, Kirk; Ertmoed, Ryan; Benko, Aaron; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2012-01-17

    Souring in the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field, which has a low bottom-hole temperature (30 °C), results from the presence of 0.8 mM sulfate in the injection water. Inclusion of 2 mM nitrate to decrease souring results in zones of nitrate-reduction, sulfate-reduction, and methanogenesis along the injection water flow path. Microbial community analysis by pyrosequencing indicated dominant community members in each of these zones. Nitrate breakthrough was observed in 2-PW, a major water- and sulfide-producing well, after 4 years of injection. Sulfide concentrations at four other production wells (PWs) also reached zero, causing the average sulfide concentration in 14 PWs to decrease significantly. Interestingly, oil produced by 2-PW was depleted of toluene, the preferred electron donor for nitrate reduction. 2-PW and other PWs with zero sulfide produced 95% water and 5% oil. At 2 mM nitrate and 5 mM toluene, respectively, this represents an excess of electron acceptor over electron donor. Hence, continuous nitrate injection can change the composition of produced oil and nitrate breakthrough is expected first in PWs with a low oil to water ratio, because oil from these wells is treated on average with more nitrate than is oil from PWs with a high oil to water ratio.

  20. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  1. 'Striking a Sour Note': Assessing the Influence of Consonant and Dissonant Music on Taste Perception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report two experiments designed to investigate the consequences of manipulating the harmonic content of background music on taste perception. The participants in the present study evaluated samples of mixed fruit juice whilst listening to soundtracks that had either been harmonised with consonant or dissonant musical intervals. Each sample of juice was rated on three computer-based scales: One scale was anchored with the words sour and sweet, while the other two scales involved hedonic ratings of the music and of the juice. The results of an internet-based pre-test revealed that participants reliably associated the consonant soundtracks with sweetness and the dissonant soundtracks with sourness. The results of the on-site experiments demonstrated that participants rated the juices as tasting significantly sweeter in the consonant than in the dissonant music condition, irrespective of the melody or instrumentation that were evaluated. These results therefore provide empirical support for the claim that the crossmodal correspondence between a higher level musical attribute (namely, harmony) and basic taste can be used to modify the evaluation of the taste of a drink.

  2. A novel objective sour taste evaluation method based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Aoki, Soichiro; Kouno, Emi; Ogasawara, Masashi; Onaka, Takashi; Miura, Yutaka; Mamiya, Kanji

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important themes in the development of foods and drinks is the accurate evaluation of taste properties. In general, a sensory evaluation system is frequently used for evaluating food and drink. This method, which is dependent on human senses, is highly sensitive but is influenced by the eating experience and food palatability of individuals, leading to subjective results. Therefore, a more effective method for objectively estimating taste properties is required. Here we show that salivary hemodynamic signals, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, are a useful objective indicator for evaluating sour taste stimulus. In addition, the hemodynamic responses of the parotid gland are closely correlated to the salivary secretion volume of the parotid gland in response to basic taste stimuli and respond to stimuli independently of the hedonic aspect. Moreover, we examined the hemodynamic responses to complex taste stimuli in food-based solutions and demonstrated for the first time that the complicated phenomenon of the "masking effect," which decreases taste intensity despite the additional taste components, can be successfully detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate near-infrared spectroscopy as a novel tool for objectively evaluating complex sour taste properties in foods and drinks.

  3. Combined effect of fermentation, sun-drying and genotype on breadmaking ability of sour cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Pedro Maldonado; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Dufour, Dominique; Toro, Andrés Giraldo; Sánchez, Teresa; Calle, Fernando; Santander, Martín Alonso Moreno; Ceballos, Hernán; Delarbre, Jean Louis; Tran, Thierry

    2013-10-15

    The influence of genotype and post-harvest treatments on expansion ability of sour cassava starch was investigated using 13 cassava genotypes from Colombia. Starches from cassava grown at 1000 m and 1700 m.a.s.l (3 lowland and 10 highland clones respectively) were modified by fermentation (0 or 30 days) and drying (oven or sun) treatments. RVA average peak viscosity decreased regularly from 952 cP in native starch to 699 cP in fermented and sun-dried starch. Granule size analysis revealed that fermentation hydrolysed lowland and highland granules by exocorrosion and endocorrosion respectively. This result was corroborated by significantly higher RVA breakdown and lower intrinsic viscosity in highland clones, reflecting different sensitivity to fermentation. For the first time, amylose contents ranging from 15.7 to 21.7% were correlated with expansion ability (3.0-8.6 mL/g) of sour cassava starch. Therefore the combination of cassava genotypes (mainly amylose content) and post-harvest treatments is key for expansion ability. Supra-molecular granule structure influenced sensitivity to fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave-vacuum drying of sour cherry: comparison of mathematical models and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Motavali, Ali; Najafi, Gholam Hassan; Abbasi, Solayman; Minaei, Saeid; Ghaderi, Abdurrahman

    2013-08-01

    Drying characteristics of sour cherries were determined using microwave vacuum drier at various microwave powers (360, 600, 840, 1200 W) and absolute pressures (200, 400, 600, 800 mbars). In addition, using the artificial neural networks (ANN), trained by standard Back-Propagation algorithm, the effects of microwave power, pressure and drying time on moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR) were investigated Based on the evaluation of experimental data fitting with semi-theoretical and empirical models, the Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate one. Furthermore, the ANN model was able to predict the moisture ratio and drying rate quite well with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9961 and 0.9958 for training, validation and testing, respectively. The prediction Mean Square Error of ANN was about 0.0003, 0.0071 and 0.0053 for training, validation and testing, respectively. This parameter signifies the difference between the desired outputs (as measured values) and the simulated values by the model. The good agreement between the experimental data and ANN model leads to the conclusion that the model adequately describes the drying behavior of sour cherries, in the range of operating conditions tested.

  5. Chronic exposure to sour gas emissions: meeting a community concern with epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, W O; Dales, R E; Schechter, M T; Suissa, S; Tousignant, P; Steinmetz, N; Hutcheon, M E

    1989-01-01

    For 25 years residents of a rural area in southwestern Alberta have complained of health problems attributed to sour gas emissions from nearby natural gas refineries. We undertook a large epidemiologic study of the current health status and the selected morbidity rates among 2152 people in the exposed area. We established two comparison groups: one was a demographically similar unexposed population and the other a demographically different group also exposed to sour gas emissions in another region. The methods included a cross-sectional survey of current residents and separate historical cohort studies involving registry linkage to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality. The cross-sectional survey involved a comprehensive health questionnaire, standardized clinical examinations by physicians blinded to the subjects' symptoms and concerns, and several laboratory tests. We were able to contact just under 60% of the people who we knew had moved from each area since 1958 and found no evidence of selective migration for health reasons. Although the residents of the exposed area reported an excess number of symptoms and health problems there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, incidence of cancer, reproductive problems, major ailments, hair levels of arsenic and certain metals or respiratory function between the groups. PMID:2790604

  6. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Živoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  7. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  8. Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.I.; Reinsel, M.A.; Mueller, R.F. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    Microbial souring (H[sub 2]S production) in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic upflow porous media reactor at 60 C using microbial consortia obtained from oil reservoirs. Multiple carbon sources (formate, acetate, propionate, iso and n-butyrates) found in reservoir waters as well as sulfate as the electron acceptor were used. Kinetics and rates of souring in the reactor system were analyzed. Higher volumetric substrate consumption rates (organic acids and sulfate) and a higher volumetric H[sub 2]S production rate were found at the front part of the reactor column after H[sub 2]S production had stabilized. Concentration gradients for the substrates (organic acids and sulfate) and H[sub 2]S were generated along the column. Biomass accumulation throughout the entire column was observed. The average specific sulfate reduction rate (H[sub 2]S production rate) in the present reactor after H[sub 2]S production had stabilized was calculated to be 11.62 [+-] 2.22 mg sulfate-S/day g biomass.

  9. Orange juice quality with an emphasis on flavor components.

    PubMed

    Kealey, K S; Kinsella, J E

    1978-01-01

    This review studies the chemistry of the flavor of citrus juices with emphasis on the components of the flavor of orange juice and their origin in the different parts of the orange fruit. Citrus processing and the nature of the various products as they affect flavor are discussed. The composition of peel oil, aroma oil, orange juice, orange essence, and orange essence oil is presented. The relationship between flavor and color are discussed and the role of lipid components as they affect flavor stability and off-flavors are described. Spoilage resulting from microbes is briefly treated. The nutritional value of orange juice is cited.

  10. Sour Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fight songs such as "The Victors" and "Notre Dame Victory March" have become part of the American music lexicon. Along with their sister songs, alma maters, they stir memories of carefree college days, elicit feelings of pride, and sometimes--especially fight songs--poke fun at athletic foes. They are the embodiment of…

  11. Sour Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fight songs such as "The Victors" and "Notre Dame Victory March" have become part of the American music lexicon. Along with their sister songs, alma maters, they stir memories of carefree college days, elicit feelings of pride, and sometimes--especially fight songs--poke fun at athletic foes. They are the embodiment of…

  12. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on sour orange wood specific gravity, modulus of elasticity, and microfibril angle

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann; James Evans; Mike Wiemann; Bruce A. Kimball; Sherwood B. Idso

    2007-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of Earth’s atmosphere continues to rise. Plants in general are responsive to changing CO2 concentrations, which suggests changes in agricultural productivity in the United States and around the world. The ability of plants to absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and then store carbon in their structure or sequester it in the soil has...

  13. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  14. BIODESULF(TM), A Novel Biological Technology for the Removal of H2S From Sour Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.; Stashick, J.J.; Johnson, P.E.; Kaushik, N.K.

    1997-10-01

    The state-of-the-art technologies for the removal of sulfur compounds from Sour Natural Gas (SNG) are not cost-effective when scaled down to approximately 2-5 MMSCFD. At the same time, the SNG Production is increasing at 3-6 TCF/Yr and -78 TCF potential reserves are also sour. Assuming only 3% treatment of this potential SNG market is for small volume processing, the potential U.S. Market is worth $0.14 to $0.28 billion. Therefore, the Gas Processing Industry is seeking novel, cost-effective, environmentally compatible and operator friendly technologies applicable to the small volume producers in the range of less than 1 MMSCFD to - 5 MMSCFD. A novel biological process, BIODESTJLFTM (patent pending), developed at ARCTECH removes H{sub 2}S and other sulfur contaminants that make the Natural Gas Sour. The removal is accomplished by utilizing an adapted mixed microbial culture (consortium). A variety of anaerobic microbial consortia from ARCTECH`s Microbial Culture Collection were grown and tested for removal of H{sub 2}S. One of these consortia, termed SS-11 was found to be particularly effective. Utilizing the SS-11 consortium, a process has been developed on a laboratory-scale to remove sulfur species from Sour Natural Gas at well head production pressures and temperatures. The process has been independently evaluated and found to be promising in effectively removing H{sub 2}S and other sulfur species cost effectively.

  15. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  16. Effect of alloy nickel content vs PREN on the selection of austenitic oil country tubular goods for sour gas service

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Tassen, C.S.; Skogsberg, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    Traditionally, in the selection of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) for sour gas service, Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA`s) are screened first by their pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) and then by environmental cracking data generated in sour brine environments. The theory is that a pit occurs first, which provides a stress-riser for initiation of anodic chloride stress corrosion cracking (KC). Among the primary CRA`s currently used in the cold worked condition for OCTG in sour gas wells are alloy 825 (UNS N08825) and alloy 28 (UNS N08028). While alloy 28 has a somewhat higher PREN than alloy 825, alloy 825 has a significantly higher nickel content. Slow strain rate (SSR) tests conducted in severe sour brine environments showed that the higher nickel content of alloy 825 results in better stress corrosion cracking resistance than that exhibited by alloy 28. The effect of nickel content on chloride SCC resistance of austenitic alloys was originally reported by H.R. Copson in 1959. This suggests that in some cases for austenitic alloys, the nickel content of the CRA may be more important than the PREN in OCTG selection.

  17. Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

    2010-08-01

    A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases.

  18. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  19. Effectiveness of preharvest applications of fungicides on preharvest bunch rot and postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postharvest sour rot of ‘Redglobe’ grapes, also called “non-Botrytis slip skin”, “breakdown disorder”, “soft tissue breakdown”, or “melting decay” has affected this cultivar worldwide. The disorder causes berries to discolor, split, lose internal structure, and decay from veraison to harvest (Camero...

  20. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  1. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  2. A Research on Sour Sensation Mechanism of Fungiform Taste Receptor Cells Based on Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Taste receptor cells as the fundamental units of taste sensation are not only passive receivers to outside stimulus, but some primary process for the signals and information. In this paper, an innovation on acquisition of taste receptor cells was introduced and larger amount of cells could be obtained. A multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) system was applied in signal recording, which is used in non-invasive, multiple and simultaneous extracellular recording of taste receptor cells. The cells were treated with sour solutions of different pHs, and the relations between concentration of hydrogen and firing rate were observed. Firing rates on pH 7, pH 4 and pH 2 were approximately 1.38±0.01 (MEAN±SE)/s, 1.61±0.07/s and 2.75+0.15/s.

  3. Identifying Optimal Zeolitic Sorbents for Sweetening of Highly Sour Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi S; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2016-05-10

    Raw natural gas is a complex mixture comprising methane, ethane, other hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. For sour gas fields, selective and energy-efficient removal of H2 S is one of the crucial challenges facing the natural-gas industry. Separation using nanoporous materials, such as zeolites, can be an alternative to energy-intensive amine-based absorption processes. Herein, the adsorption of binary H2 S/CH4 and H2 S/C2 H6 mixtures in the all-silica forms of 386 zeolitic frameworks is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adsorption of a five-component mixture is utilized to evaluate the performance of the 16 most promising materials under close-to-real conditions. It is found that depending on the fractions of CH4 , C2 H6 , and CO2 , different sorbents allow for optimal H2 S removal and hydrocarbon recovery.

  4. Petroleum refinery stripped sour water treatment using the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Rion; Gerhardt, Matthew B; Burlingham, Fran; De Las Casas, Carla; Gill, Everett; Flippin, T Houston

    2011-11-01

    A pilot study was performed over 91 days to determine if the activated sludge process could treat a segregated stripped sour water (SSW) stream from a petroleum refinery. The study was performed in two periods. The first period was terminated after 19 days, as a result of excessive sludge bulking. The elimination of sludge bulking during the 70-day second period is attributed to operational changes, which included aerating the influent to oxidize reduced sulfur, adjusting the influent pH, and adding micronutrients to satisfy biological requirements. The pilot plant provided a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of up to 93%. Nitrification was achieved, with effluent ammonia values < 1 mg-N/L. These results indicate that direct treatment of SSW with the activated sludge process is possible and has direct application to full-scale petroleum refinery wastewater plant upgrades.

  5. Stopping a water crossflow in a sour-gas producing well

    SciTech Connect

    Hello, Y. Le; Woodruff, J.

    1998-09-01

    Lacq is a sour-gas field in southwest France. After maximum production of 774 MMcf/D in the 1970`s, production is now 290 MMcf/D, with a reservoir pressure of 712 psi. Despite the loss of pressure, production is maintained by adapting the surface equipment and well architecture to reservoir conditions. The original 5-in. production tubing is being replaced with 7-in. tubing to sustain production rates. During openhole cleaning, the casing collapsed in Well LA141. The primary objective was to plug all possible hydraulic communication paths into the lower zones. The following options were available: (1) re-entering the well from the top and pulling the fish before setting cement plugs; (2) sidetracking the well; and (3) drilling a relief well to intercept Well LA141 above the reservoirs. The decision was made to start with the first option and switch to a sidetrack if this option failed.

  6. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage.

  7. Histological analysis of pollen-pistil interactions in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    PubMed

    Madureira, Hérika Chagas; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Da Cunha, Maura; Klein, Denise Espellet

    2012-08-01

    The success of sexual plant reproduction is directly influenced by specific interactions between the pollen and pistil. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the steps of pollination in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims). In the compatible interaction, pollen tubes grow through stigma projections towards the ovary. The pollen grain surface was found to be spheroidal and to consist of heteroreticulate exine with six colpi. Furthermore, analysis in vivo of pollen-pistil interactions indicated that stigmas of flowers 24 hours before anthesis are unable to discriminate compatible (genetically unrelated) and incompatible (genetically related) pollen grains. Taken together, these results provide insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying pollination in passion fruit plants.

  8. Iron control in west Texas sour-gas wells provides sustained production increases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.L.; Dill, W.R.; Besler, M.R.; McFatridge, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Permian Basin operators have recorded sustained production increases in oil wells by preventing precipitation of iron sulfide and other sulfur-containing species. This improvement has resulted largely from cleaning out tubing before acidizing and from preventing the precipitation of ferrous sulfide and the formation of elemental sulfur by simultaneous use of iron chelants and sulfide-control agents. Previously used methods gave only temporary production increases that terminated when iron dissolved by the stimulation acid reprecipitated in the pay zone and damage the formation after the stimulation acid was spent. This paper describes a method to optimize iron sulfide control, methods to minimize reprecipitation, and case histories from the Permian Basin that show improved methods to control iron in sour-well environments.

  9. Microbially-enhanced redox solution reoxidation for sweetening sour natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, C.

    1995-06-01

    About twenty five percent of natural gas produced in the United States is sour containing significant volumes of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. Liquid redox processes remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Aqueous solution of chelated ferric ions oxidize the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The reduced iron chelate is then oxidized by contact with air and recycled. This requires expensive equipment for regeneration, costly chemicals and the process is usually energy intensive. Recent studies show that the ferric ion regeneration rates are substantially enhanced in presence of acidophilic bacteria. The specific objectives of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes utilizing biologically-enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes, such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox.

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  11. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the..., testing and race in conjunction with the Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat...

  12. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  13. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  14. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  15. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  16. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  17. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  18. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  20. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  1. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  3. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  4. Inheritance of resistance to orange rust in sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is an economically important disease in the Florida sugarcane industry. In this study, orange rust reactions of seedlings in progenies originating from 12 crosses between female and male parents with differing resistance to orange rust (three of each category...

  5. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  6. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  9. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  11. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and associated...

  12. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119...

  13. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  14. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  15. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  16. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  17. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  18. 59 FR- Unshu Oranges From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-03-21

    ... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations governing the importation and interstate movement of Unshu oranges from Japan by... pv. citri (Hasse) Dye. The strain of citrus canker that occurs in Japan infects the twigs,...

  19. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  20. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  1. Osage-orange: a pioneering stewardship species

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; James D. Burton

    1997-01-01

    Osage-orange, a small tree with a number of unique characteristics, played an important role in the settlement of the prairies. One of the more significant contributions was in the use of the species for hedges. The thorny, low-spreading crowns provided excellent fencing when properly main tamed. This use, plus its later used in skelterbelts, exert a continuing...

  2. Inheritance of flower color in periwinkle: orange-red corolla and white eye.

    PubMed

    Sreevalli, Y; Kulkarni, R N; Baskaran, K

    2002-01-01

    The commonly found flower colors in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)--pink, white, red-eyed, and pale pink center--are reported to be governed by the epistatic interaction between four genes--A, R, W, and I. The mode of inheritance of an uncommon flower color, orange-red corolla and white eye, was studied by crossing an accession possessing this corolla color with a white flowered variety (Nirmal). The phenotype of the F(1) plants and segregation data of F(2) and backcross generations suggested the involvement of two more interacting and independently inherited genes, one (proposed symbol E) determining the presence or absence of red eye and another (proposed symbol O) determining orange-red corolla.

  3. Consequences of excessive use of Amlarasa (sour taste): A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Panara, Kalpesh B; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2014-04-01

    Palatability is an important factor for choice of food by an individual. Amlarasa (sour taste) is one of the main organoleptic entities in foods of present day, which always tempts the consumer to take it now and then. According to classical Ayurvedic texts, balanced intake of Amlarasa in diet helps to maintain physiological health, but its excessive intake produces some signs and symptoms such as dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation. To establish the relationship between excessive use of sour predominant diets and signs/symptoms produced by it. A case-control survey study was designed wherein total of 178 volunteers were interviewed personally. Subjects with particular symptoms consider as a cases while healthy volunteers as controls. To measure the excessive intake of Amlarasa, quantity and frequency of common food articles such as mango, tomato, lime, butter milk, tamarind, curd, fermented items etc., are taken into consideration. Data was arranged in to 2 × 2 table and odd ratio was calculated for each symptom. Odds ratio for dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation with 95% confidence interval were found 1.95 (0.97-3.93), 2.45 (1.12-5.40), 2.76 (0.96-7.98), 2.21 (1.09-4.53), 0.86 (0.32-2.32), 2.28 (1.02-5.05) and 4.85 (1.09-10.24) respectively. Study reveals that Amlarasa is a risk factor for joint inflammation, dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn and papules. Study supports the Ayurvedic classical claim regarding Atiyoga of Amlarasa.

  4. Toxicity Evaluation of Microemulsion (Nano Size) of Sour Cherry Kernel Extract for the Oral Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Anayatollah; Motaharitabar, Eisa; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Rezaie, Annahita; Kalantari, Heibatullah

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the recent years nanostructured materials have been the focus of researches due to their wide-spread possibilities to provide new shapes and structures for some materials. Microemulsions can provide uniform nano-sized droplets for templating. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically-stable systems of oil, water and surfactant with a 20-200 nm droplet size. They can be prepared as oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil (w/o) or bicontinuous systems, depending on the equilibrium spontaneous curvature of the surfactant layer at the oil-water interface. Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a system designed to improve and enhance the bioavailability of bioflavonoids in the Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel extract by developing a novel delivery system, i.e. microemulsion (nanosized particles). Materials and Methods: Microemulsion formulations were prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20), cosurfactant (propylene glycol) (3:1 ratio), and oil phase (olive oil). The prepared microemulsions were evaluated regarding their mean droplet size, transparency, viscosity, and pH. Sour cherry kernel extract microemulsion was orally administered to mice at doses of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% for 10 days. On the last day, their blood as well as their liver and kidney were used for biochemical and histopathological analyses, respectively. Results: Biochemical factors levels and the pathological study indicated that there were not significant differences in microemulsion extracts compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Not only no toxicity evidence of this product was observed in the dose range used in foods or healthcare, but also it improved the cardiac function recovery. PMID:24644434

  5. Compositional and functional properties of buttermilk: a comparison between sweet, sour, and whey buttermilk.

    PubMed

    Sodini, I; Morin, P; Olabi, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2006-02-01

    Buttermilk is a dairy ingredient widely used in the food industry because of its emulsifying capacity and its positive impact on flavor. Commercial buttermilk is sweet buttermilk, a by-product from churning sweet cream into butter. However, other sources of buttermilk exist, including cultured and whey buttermilk obtained from churning of cultured cream and whey cream, respectively. The compositional and functional properties (protein solubility, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties) of sweet, sour, and whey buttermilk were determined at different pH levels and compared with those of skim milk and whey. Composition of sweet and cultured buttermilk was similar to skim milk, and composition of whey buttermilk was similar to whey, with the exception of fat content, which was higher in buttermilk than in skim milk or whey (6 to 20% vs. 0.3 to 0.4%). Functional properties of whey buttermilk were independent of pH, whereas sweet and cultured buttermilk exhibited lower protein solubility and emulsifying properties as well as a higher viscosity at low pH (pH sour, and whey buttermilks showed higher emulsifying properties and lower foaming capacity than milk and whey because of the presence of milk fat globule membrane components. Furthermore, among the various buttermilks, whey buttermilk was the one showing the highest emulsifying properties and the lowest foaming capacity. This could be due to a higher ratio of phospholipids to protein in whey buttermilk compared with cultured or sweet buttermilk. Whey buttermilk appears to be a promising and unique ingredient in the formulation of low pH foods.

  6. A field demonstration of sour produced-water remediation by microbial treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L. ); Morse, D.E.; Raterman, K.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sour produced waters by microbial treatment was evaluated under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe Thiobacillus denitrificans was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the lease automatic custody transfer (LACT) Unit 10 at the Salt Creek field in Wyoming. Field produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flow rate of 5,000 B/D with a potential maximum of 98,000 B/D. Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), 100 mg/L sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107 F. An aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to this water to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. Pilot operations were initiated in Oct. 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000-bbl pit with 40 lbm of dry-weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lbm/D sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused on process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading owing to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. From this evidence, the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T. denitrificans appears to represent a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  7. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    PubMed

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was <0.625 mg/mL. Under in vivo conditions, incidence of sour rot was lowered to 8.33% when fruits were treated with aqueous extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  9. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  10. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  12. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  13. Elastomer-induced crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel heat exchanger plates in sour amine service

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.G.; Baron, J.J.; Moffat, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    Types S31600 and S31254 stainless steel heat exchanger plates have suffered crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking under gaskets in rich amine service in a sour gas plant. The gasket material, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), has been used successfully for many years at other sour gas plants. Laboratory testing has duplicated the corrosion observed and shown that the mechanism is synergistic sulfide-halide attack. The use of a bromine plus chlorine-activated curing system for the EPDM rubber gaskets provided the necessary halides. Laboratory testing identified some nickel-based superalloys which were resistant to this corrosion and also demonstrated that essentially halogen-free, peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets do not cause attack of S31600 or S31254. The heat exchanger packs were replaced with S31600 plates and peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets having a specified total halogen concentration of 200 ppm maximum. Field operating experience has been excellent.

  14. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  15. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  16. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  17. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, John A.; Ren, ZuoJun; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Heck, Gerard L.; Mummalaneni, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to salty [NaCl and NaCl+benzamil (Bz)] and sour (HCl, CO2, and acetic acid) taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin+Ca2+, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), and thapsigargin (Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor) under open-circuit or lingual voltage-clamp conditions. An increase in TRC [Ca2+]i attenuated the tonic Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response and the apical membrane Na+ conductance. A decrease in TRC [Ca2+]i enhanced the tonic Bz-sensitive and Bz-insensitive NaCl CT responses and apical membrane Na+ conductance but did not affect CT responses to KCl or NH4Cl. An increase in TRC [Ca2+]i did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. A decrease in [Ca2+]i did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. In a subset of TRCs, a positive relationship between [H+]i and [Ca2+]i was obtained using in vitro imaging techniques. U73122 inhibited the tonic CT responses to NaCl, and thapsigargin inhibited the tonic CT responses to salty and sour stimuli. The results suggest that salty and sour taste qualities are transduced by [Ca2+]i-dependent and [Ca2+]i-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in a BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate ion channels and cotransporters involved in the salty and sour taste transduction mechanisms and in neural adaptation. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release. PMID:22956787

  18. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Desimone, John A; Ren, Zuojun; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Heck, Gerard L; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Lyall, Vijay

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to salty [NaCl and NaCl+benzamil (Bz)] and sour (HCl, CO(2), and acetic acid) taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin+Ca(2+), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), and thapsigargin (Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor) under open-circuit or lingual voltage-clamp conditions. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) attenuated the tonic Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response and the apical membrane Na(+) conductance. A decrease in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) enhanced the tonic Bz-sensitive and Bz-insensitive NaCl CT responses and apical membrane Na(+) conductance but did not affect CT responses to KCl or NH(4)Cl. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. A decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. In a subset of TRCs, a positive relationship between [H(+)](i) and [Ca(2+)](i) was obtained using in vitro imaging techniques. U73122 inhibited the tonic CT responses to NaCl, and thapsigargin inhibited the tonic CT responses to salty and sour stimuli. The results suggest that salty and sour taste qualities are transduced by [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent and [Ca(2+)](i)-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate ion channels and cotransporters involved in the salty and sour taste transduction mechanisms and in neural adaptation. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release.

  19. Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

    1994-09-01

    The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  1. Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Rahele; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Maftoonazad, Neda

    2014-10-01

    Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments.

  2. Starch Flocculation by the Sweet Potato Sour Liquid Is Mediated by the Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Yang; Li, Xinhua; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Huajiang; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we focused on the mechanism underlying starch flocculation by the sweet potato sour liquid. The traditional microbial techniques and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus was dominant flocculating microorganism in sour liquid. In total, 86 bacteria, 20 yeasts, and 10 molds were isolated from the sour liquid and only eight Lactobacillus species exhibited flocculating activity. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 strain with a high flocculating activity was isolated and identified, and the mechanism of starch flocculation was examined. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 cells formed chain-like structures on starch granules. Consequently, these cells connected the starch granules to one another, leading to formation of large flocs. The results of various treatments of L1 cells indicated that bacterial surface proteins play a role in flocculation and L1 cells adhered to the surface of starch granules via specific surface proteins. These surface starch-binding proteins were extracted using the guanidine hydrochloride method; 10 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: three of these proteins were glycolytic enzymes; two were identified as the translation elongation factor Tu; one was a cell wall hydrolase; one was a surface antigen; one was lyzozyme M1; one was a glycoside hydrolase; and one was an uncharacterized proteins. This study will paves the way for future industrial application of the L1 isolate in starch processing and food manufacturing.

  3. Sour gas plant subsurface remediation technology research and demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.

    1994-04-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), formerly the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA), and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. The first phase of the project was completed in 1990, and consisted of a comprehensive review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Clean Water Act (1980). That review indicated that all but one of the 45 sour gas plants for which data were available exhibited some form of impact on soil and groundwater quality. The study identified the most frequently occurring contamination situations at the sites and classified them by source, type of contaminant, and the hydrogeological characteristics of the contaminated setting. The project steering committee subsequently selected the Strachan Gas Plant, located near Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada, as a field research and remediation technology demonstration site. Research to be performed under this agreement is for activities in the areas of soil vapor extraction (SVE), bioventing, and bioremediation, all focusing on residual contamination in the unsaturated, or vadose, zone at the site, as well as evaluations of biological treatment of groundwater and ex situ soil remediation using solvent extraction in conjunction with photooxidation, solvent extraction in conjunction with microwave irradiation, and low-temperature thermal desorption.

  4. An endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis from Lawsonia inermis L. produces lawsone, an orange-red pigment.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Hatnagar; Rajani, Pijakala; Vasanthakumari, Madhugiri Mallaiah; Kumara, Patel Mohana; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, R

    2017-07-01

    Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is an orange red dye used as a popular skin and hair colorant. The dye is produced in the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L, often referred to as the "henna" tree. In this study, we report the production of lawsone by an endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis isolated from the leaf tissues of Lawsonia inermis. The fungus produced the orange-red dye in potato dextrose agar and broth, independent of the host tissue. Presence of lawsone was confirmed spectrometrically using HPLC and ESI-MS/MS analysis. The fragmentation pattern of lawsone was identical to both standard lawsone and that extracted from plant tissue. This is a first report of lawsone being produced by an endophytic fungus, independent of the host tissue. The study opens up interesting questions on the possible biosynthetic pathway through which lawsone is produced by the fungus.

  5. Sour sweets and acidic beverage consumption are risk indicators for dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Jenny Bogstad; Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Tveit, Anne B; Sandvik, Leiv; Mulic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between dental erosive wear and potential background, behavioural and dietary risk indicators and to assess whether there is a dose-response relationship between the level of acidic beverage consumption and dental erosive wear among adolescents. Of 846 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) scheduled for dental recall examinations, 795 (94%) accepted to participate. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their background (gender and age), tooth-brushing frequency and dietary habits (the amount and frequency of acidic food and beverage consumption as well as the chosen method and manner of consuming acidic drinks). The association between the presence of erosive lesions and the possible risk indicators was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Of all participants examined, 37% had ≥3 surfaces with dental erosions and were considered to be affected individuals. In the present study, multivariate logistic analyses revealed a significant association between the dental erosive wear and high consumption of sour sweets and sports drinks. The tooth-brushing frequency was not significantly associated with dental erosive wear. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the results are the first to indicate a dose-response relationship between the daily consumption of acidic drinks and dental erosive wear.

  6. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice.

    PubMed

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  7. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  8. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.

    PubMed

    Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

    2004-05-15

    The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively.

  9. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  10. Determination of sulphur saturation in dolomitic sour gas reservoir using computer assisted tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kantzas, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of very sour gas dolomitic reservoirs suspected of having large amounts of sulphur. This sulphur shows up on the form of inclusions in cores and thin-sections. There is no laboratory method currently available for the determination of the total sulphur in the reservoir rock. Solvent extraction was used for partial removal of the sulphur from two pieces of core. A preliminary project established the value of X-ray Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) Scanning in determining residual sulphur after extraction. A procedure was established and used for the determination of the sulphur content in a number of core pieces of a target reservoir. The sulphur saturation was calculated using a computer model developed in-house. It is the first time such an approach has been attempted. The results showed a wide saturation range of the sulphur present in the core. The average sulphur saturation of eight core peices has been estimated at 34.1%. The core porosity was corrected to consider the volume occupied by the sulphur as part of the fluid volume.

  11. Successful removal of zinc sulfide scale restriction from a hot, deep, sour gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Kenrick, A.J.; Ali, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    Removal of zinc sulfide scale with hydrochloric acid from a hot, deep, Norphlet Sandstone gas well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a 29% increase in the production rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near-wellbore area. The presence of zinc sulfide is explained by the production of 25 ppm H{sub 2}S gas, and the loss of 50--100 bbl of zinc bromide fluid to the formation. Although zinc sulfide scale has been successfully removed with hydrochloric acid in low-to-moderate temperature wells, no analogous treatment data were available for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) Norphlet wells. Therefore laboratory testing was initiated to identify suitable acid systems for scale removal, and select a high quality corrosion inhibitor that would mitigate detrimental effects of the selected acid on downhole tubulars and surface equipment. This case history presents the first successful use of hydrochloric acid in removing zinc sulfide scale from a HTHP Norphlet sour gas well.

  12. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    PubMed Central

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice. PMID:27904351

  13. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars.

  14. Targeted Metabolomic Analysis of Polyphenols with Antioxidant Activity in Sour Guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum Nied.) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Silva, Carmen Tatiana; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-12-23

    Psidium is a genus of tropical bushes belonging to the Myrtaceae family distributed in Central and South America. The polar extract of Psidium friedrichsthalianum Nied. was partitioned with ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, and the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS assays, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited both the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Due to the complexity of this fraction, an analytical method for the comprehensive profiling of phenolic compounds was done by UPLC-ESI/QqQ in MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) mode. In this targeted analysis, 22 phenolic compounds were identified, among which several hydroxybenzoic, phenylacetic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found. This is the first time that (+)-catechin, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, and (-)-epicatechin have been reported as constituents of sour guava. A fractionation by exclusion size, C18-column chromatography, and preparative RRLC (rapid resolution liquid chromatography) allowed us to confirm the presence of ellagic acid and isomeric procyanidins B, well-known bioactive compounds. The content of phenolic compounds in this fruit shows its potential for the development of functional foods.

  15. GC-olfactometric characterization of aroma volatiles from the thermal degradation of thiamin in model orange juice.

    PubMed

    Dreher, J Glen; Rouseff, Russell L; Naim, Michael

    2003-05-07

    Model orange juice solutions containing 0.024 mM thiamin hydrochloride were stored for up to 8 weeks at 35 degrees C in amber glass containers. Volatiles were evaluated, primarily, using gas chromatography (GC) with olfactometry but also with flame ionization detector, pulsed-flame photometer detector (PFPD) (sulfur specific), and MS detection. Both 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) and its dimer, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide (MFT-MFT) were identified thus confirming that thiamin could serve as the precursor to these potent off-flavors in thermally degraded citrus juices. Thirteen aroma active components were observed. MFT and MFT-MFT were observed after only a few days storage, and produced 33% of the total aroma activity after 7 d storage. Both compounds were observed olfactometrically earlier than they could be detected using PFPD. Other aroma-active compounds included 4,5-dimethylthiazole (skunky, earthy), 3-thiophenethiol (meaty, cooked), 2-methyl-4,5-dihydro-3(2H)-thiophenone (sour-fruity, musty, green), 2-acethylthiophene (burnt), 2-formyl-5-methylthiophene (meaty), and 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio) furan (meaty).

  16. FLOW BEHAVIOUR OF CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Shimon; Berk, Zeki

    1970-07-01

    Orange concentrate, at the 60-65° Brix concentration level, is a non-Newtonian fluid with yield stress and time dependent behaviour. While recovery from low-rate shear is reversible, shear at high rate causes irreversible destruction of the viscous structure. Part of this effect is due to disintegration of pulp particles. Pulpless concentrate (serum) is also non-Newtonian, but yield stress and time dependent behaviour are present only when pectin concentration is high. Depectinized serum is Newtonian. The effect of temperature on flow properties of all three types of material was studied.

  17. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  18. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  19. Chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variation in orang utans.

    PubMed

    Ryder, O A; Chemnick, L G

    1993-01-01

    Wild-born orang utans held in zoos do not have their geographic origins defined, which has complicated comparisons of the two subspecies of orang utans (Bornean orang utans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, and Sumatran orang utans, P. pygmaeus abelii). The resulting confusion concerning the subspecies identity of individual orang utans and a larger controversy over the desirability of utilizing subspecies designations in orang utan breeding programs has focused attention on the need for a phylogenetic analysis of the species and an examination of the appropriateness of the subspecific designations. Previous studies have suggested that an inversion in the second chromosome pair (PPY2) is a diagnostic subspecies marker and that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic markers may also be used to identify the subspecies origin of individual orang utans. In an effort to assist zoological parks in examining the question of genetic divergence of orang utan subspecies, we have studied the chromosomes of 144 orang utans, including 58 wild-born individuals. To gain insight into phylogenetic divisions of these apes, mtDNA restriction cleavage site variation has been investigated in 14 individuals whose karyotypic status was known. These investigations have confirmed the existence of two phylogenetic lineages of orang utans based on mtDNA cleavage patterns and demonstrated that these lineages correspond with the two populations characterized by the G-banded morphology of the second pair of chromosomes. The two orang utan phylogenetic units comprise individuals that generally conform to the recognized allopatric, morphological subspecies. Based on current knowledge, the view that the named orangutan subspecies each constitute a distinct phylogenetic lineage more consistent with species-level divergence is supported.

  20. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  1. Acridine orange as a biosensitive photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Bauld, Reg; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Acridine orange (AO), a biosensitive molecule that is customarily used for labeling nucleic acids including DNA and RNA, is here investigated as a cost effective, water soluble, and photoactive material for the fabrication of potentially biosensitive organic photovoltaics. The electronic energy levels of AO are determined using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effect of anticrystallization agents, as well as low-temperature annealing, on the work function of AO is investigated: amorphous AO films are shown to possess a significantly higher work function than microcrystalline AO films and the work function also increases by annealing. Photo-induced processes in AO films are investigated by considering the changes of the KPFM signal under illumination. We demonstrate that acridine orange is able to photogenerate electron-hole pairs at rates comparable to the most commonly used solar-grade photovoltaic materials, including polythiophenes. In addition, the effect of the morphology of different types of AO thin films spun from different solvents is studied in bilayer photovoltaic devices fabricated from stacks of AO and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin films.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium with xylenol orange

    SciTech Connect

    Antepenko, R J

    1982-05-14

    High purity hydride forming metal films are used as hydrogen isotope occluders and function as electrodes in neutron generator tubes. This use of zirconium occluder films requires reliable analytical methods for routine determination of the zirconium film weight in a production environment. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated for the determination of zirconium films. The method is based upon the formation of a highly colored zirconium complex with xylenol orange in a dilute perchloric acid medium. Dilute hydrofluoric acid is used in this procedure to selectively dissolve the zirconium film off the substrate. A perchloric acid fuming step is used to remove hydrofluoric acid from the solution. The zirconium solutions are depolymerized before complex formation by heating in 2 N perchloric acid. The zirconium complex exhibits a maximum absorbance in 0.2 to 0.3 M perchloric acid at a wavelength of 531 nanometers. Beer's law is obeyed for zirconium concentrations through 2.1 parts per million. Molybdenum, at concentrations equal to zirconium, does not interfere with the xylenol orange method.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  4. Acid Stimulation (Sour Taste) Elicits GABA and Serotonin Release from Mouse Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijen A.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT), ATP, and norepinephrine (NE) have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably co-expressing GABAB receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour) taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca2+-dependent; removing Ca2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III) cells and not from Receptor (Type II) cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion [1], the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses. PMID:22028776

  5. Immunocytochemical organization and sour taste activation in the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract of mice.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Jennifer M; Thompson, John A; Finger, Thomas E

    2017-02-01

    Sensory inputs from the oropharynx terminate in both the trigeminal brainstem complex and the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). Taste information is conveyed via the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves, while general mucosal innervation is carried by the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves. In contrast, the caudal nTS receives general visceral information largely from the vagus nerve. Although the caudal nTS shows clear morphological and molecularly delimited subdivisions, the rostral part does not. Thus, linking taste-induced patterns of activity to morphological subdivisions in the nTS is challenging. To test whether molecularly defined features of the rostral nTS correlate with patterns of taste-induced activity, we combined immunohistochemistry for markers of various visceral afferent and efferent systems with c-Fos-based activity maps generated by stimulation with a sour tastant, 30 mM citric acid. We further dissociated taste-related activity from activity arising from acid-sensitive general mucosal innervation by comparing acid-evoked c-Fos in wild-type and "taste blind" P2X2 /P2X3 double knockout (P2X-dbl KO) mice. In wild-type mice, citric acid stimulation evoked significant c-Fos activation in the central part of the rostral nTS-activity that was largely absent in the P2X-dbl KO mice. P2X-dbl KO mice, like wild-type mice, did exhibit acid-induced c-Fos activity in the dorsomedial trigeminal brainstem nucleus situated laterally adjacent to the rostral nTS. This dorsomedial nucleus also showed substantial innervation by trigeminal nerve fibers immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a marker for polymodal nociceptors, suggesting that trigeminal general mucosal innervation carries information about acids in the oral cavity. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:271-290, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    SciTech Connect

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40/sub 0/C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18/sup 0/C. Photorespiration was not detected.

  7. Desulfovibrio alaskensis sp. nov., a sulphate-reducing bacterium from a soured oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Feio, Maria J; Zinkevich, Vitaly; Beech, Iwona B; Llobet-Brossa, Enric; Eaton, Peter; Schmitt, Jürgen; Guezennec, Jean

    2004-09-01

    A novel sulphate-reducing bacterium (Al1T) was recovered from a soured oil well in Purdu Bay, Alaska. Light and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that cells were Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The carbon and energy sources used by the isolate and the salinity, temperature and pH ranges facilitating its growth proved to be typical of a partial lactate-oxidizing, moderately halophilic, mesophilic, sulphate-reducing bacterium. Analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that C(18 : 0), isoC(15 : 0) and isoC(17 : 1)omega7c were the predominant species. Fatty acid profile and complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated the similarity between strain Al1T and members of the genus Desulfovibrio. The position of strain Al1T within the phylogenetic tree indicated that it clustered closely with Desulfovibrio vietnamensis DSM 10520T (98.9 % sequence similarity), a strain recovered from a similar habitat. However, whole-cell protein profiles, Fourier-transform infrared studies and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that, in spite of the high level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, there is sufficient dissimilarity at the DNA sequence level between D. vietnamensis DSM 10520T and strain Al1T (10.2 % similarity) to propose that strain Al1T belongs to a separate species within the genus Desulfovibrio. Based on the results obtained, the name Desulfovibrio alaskensis sp. nov. is therefore proposed, with Al1T (= NCIMB 13491T = DSM 16109T) as the type strain.

  8. Investigation of the stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel weldments in sour conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, M.J.; Bradshaw, R.; Cottis, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Duplex stainless steels are increasingly widely used in the oil and gas production industry for a variety of applications. The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of wrought material is reasonably well understood, and limits of use are placed upon these alloys in NACE MR0175, for sour service. However, the SCC behavior of weldments is less well understood, and this has limited the use of welded material in H{sub 2}S-containing conditions. The SCC resistance of duplex stainless steels is influenced by their microstructure as well as their chemical composition and the objective of the research reported in this paper is to investigate the SCC behavior of welded 22%Cr and 25%Cr alloys in a simulated oilfield environment. Mechanized orbital TIG was used to butt weld 168mm outside diameter tubes. The shielding gas contained nitrogen additions of up to 10% (in the case of UNS S32760) and 7% (in the case of UNS S31803). Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was conducted on cross-weld specimens in sodium chloride solutions overpressured with varying partial pressures of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The SSRT results, in terms of ductility parameters and secondary cracking, are correlated with fractography and metallurgical examination of crack morphology in order to establish the effects of the welding process and the nitrogen content of the shielding gas. It was found that the nitrogen uptake from the shielding gas has a detrimental effect on SCC resistance of duplex stainless steel weldments. While this effect is only modes, it is in direct contrast to the beneficial effect it has on pitting corrosion resistance.

  9. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. ...

  14. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  16. [Effect of sour TCM compound recipe on insulin resistance in experimental rats with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya-bing; Luo, Ruo-yin; Zhao, Li

    2005-05-01

    To study the effect of sour TCM compound Recipe (SCCR) on insulin resistance in experimental rats with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), under the guidance of TCM doctrine of "sour restrains sweet". Model rats of DM2 were established by 8 weeks' feeding with high calorie forage combined with intraperitoneal injection of small dose of streptozotocin, and treated with SCCR (15 g/kg of crude drug/day). Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha), combining capacity and constant of insulin receptor in liver were determined before treatment and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment, and the insulin sensitive index was calculated. The data were compared with those in the model group (untreated), sweet TCM compound recipe group and bitter TCM compound group (treated with sweet and bitter Chinese drugs respectively) and the control group (treated with dimethyldiguanide). SCCR could markedly reduce the FBG, serum FFA and TNF-alpha levels in rat model of DM2, stimulate the secretion of insulin, raise the combining capacity and constant of insulin receptor in liver and improve the insulin sensitivity, as compared with the effect of sweet or bitter Chinese compound recipe, the difference was significant (P < 0.05). SCCR could improve the glucose metabolic disorder and ameliorate the degree of insulin resistance in DM2 model rats, with the effect superior to those with sweet or bitter taste, which illustrates primarily that the therapeutic principle of "sour restrains sweet" of TCM is true of science in a certain degree and having its guiding significance in clinical practice.

  17. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  18. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  19. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's and...

  20. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V; Elk, M; Li, X; Santo Domingo, J W

    2016-08-01

    The effect of cyanide (CN(-) ) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying bacterial enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN(-) used in the batch assays were 0·03, 0·06, 0·1 and 1·0 mg l(-1) . There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN(-) . A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0·1 mg l(-1) CN(-) . Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN(-) dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric haeme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA-based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. The effect of cyanide on nitrifying bacteria was characterized by measuring physiological and transcriptional response. Cyanide was inhibitory to nitrification at concentrations that may be found in industrial waste. The RNA-based function-specific assays represent a mechanistic approach for better understanding the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Moreover, the relative abundance of RNA transcripts can be used to closely track in situ nitrifying bacterial activity which can be used to predict inhibition events, thereby providing a metric to potentially improve performance of

  1. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  2. Effect of grain size on stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloy G-3 (UNS N06985) OCTG in sour gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Tassen, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    Limited corrosion data exists on the effect of grain size on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) to sour gas environments. Among the primary Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA`s) currently used in the cold worked condition for OCTG in sour gas wells is alloy G-3 (UNS N06985). Slow strain rate (SSR) tests conducted in a severe sour brine environment representative of Mobile Bay type conditions showed that the grain size of alloy G-3 OCTG has no discernible effect on stress corrosion cracking resistance. Also, no effect of grain size on intergranular attack (IGA) susceptibility was observed in the Streicher Test, ASTM Standard Test Method G28A.

  3. Solvent-Switching Gelation and Orange-Red Emission of Ultrasmall Copper Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-01-18

    By tuning the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the small cluster Cu3 L can be selectively synthesized to develop a stable and highly fluorescent material, as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further characterizations, including absorbance spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD demonstrate the formation of tiny Cu nanoclusters (NCs). In water, the as-prepared Cu NCs can exhibit high orange fluorescence via solution evaporation to eliminate hydrogen-bonding, and in dimethylformamide, a strong orange fluorescent gel is obtained by solvent induction to enhance the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions. More importantly, the Cu NCs in their substantial form exhibit nonlinear optical properties upon two-photon excitation. These results will shed light on Cu and related cluster applications in two-photon biological imaging, optical power limiting, and solar energy conversion.

  4. Polyphosphate gel/methyl orange supramolecular composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galembeck, André; Silva, Sidicleia B. C.; Silva, José Augusto P.; Del Nero, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this work were to investigate theoretically the optical properties of methyl orange (MO) and the synthesis of new supramolecular composites based on the incorporation of this dye in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The theoretical methodology was based in semiempirical (AM1 and INDO/S-CI) and ab initio (3-21G*) methods. Our results reveal the existence of different electronic patterns for the acidic and basic forms of these molecules. Also, we present a theoretical spectroscopic study for the molecules including interactions with water molecules. MO was successfully incorporated in its acidic form within the host matrix, leading to pink-red transparent self-standing films. The dye could be converted to its basic form upon exposure to ammonia vapor. The spectrum of MO basic form within the gel network differs from its behavior in aqueous solution.

  5. Nonlinear optical characterization of Disperse Orange 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata; Fedus, Kamil; Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Boudebs, Georges

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with different concentrations were investigated by Z-scan D4σ technique employing 12 ps and 17 ps pulses of Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The comparison of the experimental results at both wavelengths demonstrates the strong influence of the resonant phenomena related to the linear absorption on the nonlinear response at 532 nm. In particular, DO3 solution was found to exhibit negative resonant nonlinear refraction with negligible saturable and multi-photon absorption. Moreover, the competition between negative and positive nonlinear refractive indices (n2) of the solute and the solvent was observed at low concentrations. The linear dependence of n2 on the latter quantity allowed to estimate an effective second-order hyperpolarizability of DO3 molecule at 532 nm.

  6. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  8. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly.

  9. Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Brezinsky

    2008-01-15

    The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was

  10. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  11. Synephrine as a Specific Marker for Orange Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bader, Matthias; Lang, Tatjana; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas

    2017-06-14

    To validate the suitability of synephrine, known to be a highly abundant alkaloid in oranges, as a dietary biomarker for orange consumption, a highly sensitive and robust stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) as well as an ECHO method, using the analyte itself as a pseudointernal standard injected into the analysis run to provide an "echo peak" of the analyte, was developed to quantitate synephrine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in citrus juices and human urine before and after the ingestion of orange juice. A citrus juice screening revealed high synephrine concentrations of 150-420 nmol/mL in orange (n = 11) and tangerine (n = 2) juices, whereas 20-100 times lower levels were found in juice from grapefruit (n = 14), lemon (n = 5), pomelo (n = 2), and lime (n = 4). Application of the SIDA to quantitate synephrine in sulfatase/glucuronidase-treated urine samples (n = 10) after orange juice consumption showed an increase of synephrine from trace levels (0.1 ± 0.1 nmol/mL) in the 2-day washout phase to a maximum concentration of 8.9 (±5.5) nmol/mL found 4 h after ingestion of orange juice. Whereas proline betaine was recently reported as a dietary biomarker indicating the ingestion of any citrus product and Chinese artichoke, synephrine can be used a reliable additional biomarker with high specificity for orange and tangerine.

  12. Apollo 17 "Orange soil" and meteorite impact on liquid lava

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    THE 'orange soil' from Shorty Crater differs greatly from ordinary lunar soils in that it consists of ???99% 10-300 ??m smooth shiny spherules and broken fragments of spherules of transparent orange glass, about 20% of which contain partly crystallized to opaque material. The remaining 1 % is chiefly crystalline basalt fragments. Although the colour of the individual orange spherule varies with thickness from yellow-orange to red-brown, all orange glass in our sample (74220, 70; 0.25 g) has a uniform index of refraction (??? 1.712). By contrast, other lunar soils contain spherules ranging from 1.50 to 1.75. The orange glass is also completely free of bubbles, to the limit of resolution of the light microscope, whereas bubbles are present in many other spherule samples. The spherules generally appear spherical in a normal microscope mount, but when viewed from two directions many are found to be oblate spheroids with axial ratios varying from near 1.00 to as low as 0.42 (Fig. 1a). Some have fissioned during free flight1 and all stages of the fission process are found, as described for the Apollo 11 samples. Only a few spherules seem to have been distorted by landing while still soft. One notable exception is the occurrence of small spherules of orange glass conforming and adhering to the surface of larger black spherules (Fig. 1b). ?? 1973 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Characterization of Sugar and Polyphenolic Diversity in Floral Nectar of Different 'Oblačinska' Sour Cherry Clones.

    PubMed

    Guffa, Basem; Nedić, Nebojša M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Tosti, Tomislav B; Gašić, Uroš M; Natić, Maja M; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M

    2017-09-01

    'Oblačinska' sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which 'quality' affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 'Oblačinska' sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Fourteen sugars and six sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Eleven polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Antifungal modes of action of Saccharomyces and other biocontrol yeasts against fungi isolated from sour and grey rots.

    PubMed

    Nally, M C; Pesce, V M; Maturano, Y P; Rodriguez Assaf, L A; Toro, M E; Castellanos de Figueroa, L I; Vazquez, F

    2015-07-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the putative modes of action of 59 viticultural yeasts (31 Saccharomyces and 28 non-Saccharomyces) that inhibited fungi isolated from sour and grey rot in grapes. Inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, enzyme activities (laminarinases, chitinases), antifungal volatiles, competition for nutrients (siderophores, Niche Overlap Index (NOI)), inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length and induction of resistance were assayed. Biofungicide yeasts were classified into "antifungal patterns", according to their mechanisms of action. Thirty isolates presented at least two of the mechanisms assayed. We propose that inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, laminarinases, competition for nutrients, inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length, and antifungal volatiles by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces viticultural yeasts is used as putative biocontrol mechanisms against phytopathogenic fungi. Twenty-four different antifungal patterns were identified. Siderophore production (N)and a combination of siderophore production and NOI>0.92 (M)were the most frequent antifungal patterns observed in the biofungicide yeasts assayed. Elucidation of these mechanisms could be useful for optimization of an inoculum formulation, resulting in a more consistent control of grey and sour rot with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces biocontrol yeasts.

  15. Individual differences in sour and salt sensitivity: detection and quality recognition thresholds for citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-05-01

    Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris-Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another.

  16. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  17. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective.

  18. Individual Differences in Sour and Salt Sensitivity: Detection and Quality Recognition Thresholds for Citric Acid and Sodium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris–Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another. PMID:23413310

  19. Anthocyanin composition, antioxidant efficiency, and α-amylase inhibitor activity of different Hungarian sour cherry varieties (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Homoki, Judit R; Nemes, Andrea; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Balogh, Péter; Gál, Ferenc; Al-Asri, Jamil; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Babinszky, László; Remenyik, Judit

    2016-03-01

    Five Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were studied to determine their anthocyanin contents and their possible inhibitory properties. The water and methanol soluble antioxidant capacities were separately assessed by photoluminescence showing values ranged from 3.4μgmg(-1) to 15.4μgmg(-1), respectively. The "VN1" variety (selected from "Csengődi csokros") showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The anthocyanin content, measured by pH differential method or isolated by solid phase extraction, was the highest also in "VN1". Correlation was found between the anthocyanin content and the high antioxidant capacity. The main anthocyanin components were cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The presence of malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Sour cherry extracts and selected anthocyanins inhibited the human salivary alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis competitively. The lowest IC50 value, 55μgmL(-1) or 80μM, was measured for malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside, for which possible binding modes within the alpha-amylase active site could be investigated in silico using molecular docking and molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes.

    PubMed

    Locke, Devin P; Hillier, LaDeana W; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Nazareth, Lynne V; Muzny, Donna M; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Nelson, Joanne O; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L; Fowler, Gerald R; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Eichler, Evan E; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Della Valle, Giuliano; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A; Smit, Arian F A; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L; Siepel, Adam; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H; Ryder, Oliver A; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Weinstock, George M; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R; Gibbs, Richard A; Wilson, Richard K

    2011-01-27

    'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new

  1. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy William; Goodwin, Verona Marie; Stefani, Dennis; Strosher, Lisa

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H(2)S at concentrations up to 100ppm and that the H(2)S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90ppm H(2)S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50ppm H(2)S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20ppm H(2)S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H(2)S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear pyknosis, edema and separation of cells in

  3. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges or...

  4. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  5. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  6. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  7. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  8. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646; telephone...

  9. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  10. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who develop chronic B- ... care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ...

  11. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  12. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who develop chronic B- ... care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ...

  13. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  14. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

  15. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  16. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  17. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of orange juice pectinesterases.

    PubMed

    Braddock, R J; Bryan, C R; Burns, J K

    2001-02-01

    Pectinesterase (PE) was extracted from orange juice and pulp with 1 M NaCl, desalted, and separated using capillary electrophoresis (CE) gel procedures (CE-SDS-CGE) and isoelectric focusing (CE-IEF). PE resolved as a single peak using noncoated fused silica columns with CE-SDS-CGE. CE-IEF separation of PE required acryloylaminoethoxyethanol-coated columns, which had limited stability. Thermal stability of PE extracts before and after heating at 75 degrees C for 30 min and at 95 degrees C for 5 min established heat labile and heat stabile fractions with identical PE migration times by CE-SDS-CGE or CE-IEF. Peak magnitude decreased to a constant value as heating time increased at 75 degrees C. Regression analysis of CE-SDS-CGE peak migration times of molecular weight (MW) standards estimated both heat labile and heat stable PE at MW approximately 36 900. Traditional SDS-PAGE gel separation of MW standards and active PE isolated by IEF allowed estimation of MW approximately 36 000. CE-SDS-CGE allowed presumptive, but not quantitative, detection of active PE in fresh juice.

  18. Kimberley, Orange Free State, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-727-059 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Plains of the Orange Free State, South Africa are featured in this 70mm frame exposed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. If the photograph is oriented with the largest clouds at the top edge, so that the cloud shadows fall to the upper right of each cloud, then north is to the top. The Vaal River flows along the top and through the upper left of the photograph; the reservoir of the Bloemhofdam on the Sand River can be seen between clouds at the upper right of the photograph. Kimberley can be seen as a gray smudge southeast of a contorted set of bends in the Vaal river (upper left center). With high magnification four dark dots, large open-pit mine shafts, can be seen within the gray smudge of the city. Kimberley, the capital of Northern Cape Province, was founded in 1878 after the discovery of diamonds in 1969 - 71, and reached by railway in 1885. Diamond mining and gem cutting remain prominent in the economy. The reddish soil and scattered salt pans (playa lakes) across the plateau suggest the semi-arid climate, suitable for cattle ranching. Reservoirs on most streams now provide water for the towns as well as irrigation for agriculture.

  19. CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox and TDA gas phase H{sub 2}S conversion technologies for sour gas treating

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, D.A.; Deberry, D.W.; Srinivas, G.

    1999-07-01

    Sour natural gas that contains hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) accounts for 15 to 25% of the gas processed in the US. Worldwide, as much as 30% of the gas reserves are sour. The need for more cost-effective approaches to process subquality gas is becoming more evident as new drilling occurs deeper within existing fields and in new fields. These types of producing zones tend to be sour. Gas containing very small amounts of sulfur (e.g., less than 0.2 long tons per day (LTPD)) can be cost-effectively treated with nonregenerable scavengers. This can be performed by injecting a liquid scavenger directly into a pipe containing the sour gas (direct injection) or by passing the sour gas through a tower containing a liquid or solid scavenger. Gas containing more than 25 to 30 LTPD of sulfur is generally processed by first separating the acid gases with an amine unit and then processing the amine offgas in a Claus plant to produce molten elemental sulfur. However, gas streams with sulfur amounts between 0.2 and 25 LTPD have generally posed treatment challenges to industry. This paper describes two emerging technologies for treating gases containing H{sub 2}S--the CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox process and the TDA gas phase direct oxidation process. Both convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur and both are being pilot tested during 1999. Radian International is commercializing both processes. CrystaSulf appears to be well suited to treat sour streams containing between 0.2 and 25 LTPD of sulfur. CrystaSulf can achieve sulfur control efficiencies of 99.8% or greater and can be applied directly to sour streams or to tailgases from amine units or Clause plants. The TDA direct oxidation process provides a cost effective way to treat amine unit tailgas and in a single stage can achieve 85 to 97% sulfur control efficiencies for that stream. Following successful pilot plant testing, both processes will be available commercially.

  20. Encapsulation of orange oil in a spray dried double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Edris, A; Bergnståhl, B

    2001-04-01

    Encapsulation is an important technique being used to protect sensitive food materials like flavours from deterioration. The capsule wall isolates them from the atmospheric oxygen, moisture, temperature and light. Encapsulation also masks some objectionable flavours, e.g. fish oil and some bitter antibiotics. In this study orange oil was encapsulated in the inner compartment of a double emulsion belonging to the type O1-W-O2 where O1 is orange oil, W is water and O2 is vegetable oil. In order to make orange oil double emulsion suitable for use in dry mixes, it was secondarily coated with wall materials of lactose and caseinate using spray drying technique. Entrapment of orange oil in such structure is also expected to slow down the release of volatiles and guarantee more protection for orange oil against atmospheric conditions. This method may have a potential application in different types of food or pharmaceutical products where maximum protection for flavours or slow release are required. This study includes detailed preparation of the spray dried double emulsion, evaluation of the encapsulation efficiency using light and scanning electron microscope and calculation of the yield percent of the encapsulated oil. In a separate paper we will examine the efficiency of spray dried double emulsion to control the release of orange oil by GC.

  1. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Ahadi, Zeinab; Fallah Tafti, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST) and green tea group (GT). The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); beta cell function (b%), insulin sensitivity (S%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL) unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL). The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004). The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention.      Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1  PMID:25242840

  2. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  3. Synthesis and Optical Spectroscopy of YPO4:Eu3+ Orange-Red Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Z.; Hassairi, M. A.; Dammak, M.

    2017-08-01

    YPO4: x mol.% Eu3+ phosphors with different dopant concentrations ( x = 3, 5, 8, 11, 13) have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were applied for detailed structural characterization. Under excitation at wavelength of 395 nm, the photoluminescence spectra displayed the 5D0 → 7F J ( J = 1, 2, 3, 4) intra-4 f shell transitions related to Eu3+ ion. The radiative lifetime was estimated using the Ω 2 and Ω 4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The highest luminescence intensity was achieved for an optimal europium concentration of 11 mol.%. The critical energy-transfer distance for Eu3+ ions was evaluated to be 10.74 Å. We also studied the temperature-dependent photoluminescence and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. It was found that Eu3+-doped YPO4 exhibited good thermal stability and its emission intensity decreased slightly above room temperature. In addition, the color purity of this phosphor was as high as 91% for the YPO4:13% Eu3+ sample, making it a potential orange-red phosphor for application in ultraviolet-pumped white light-emitting diodes.

  4. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  5. Synthesis and Optical Spectroscopy of YPO4:Eu3+ Orange-Red Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Z.; Hassairi, M. A.; Dammak, M.

    2017-03-01

    YPO4:x mol.% Eu3+ phosphors with different dopant concentrations (x = 3, 5, 8, 11, 13) have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were applied for detailed structural characterization. Under excitation at wavelength of 395 nm, the photoluminescence spectra displayed the 5D0 → 7F J (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) intra-4f shell transitions related to Eu3+ ion. The radiative lifetime was estimated using the Ω 2 and Ω 4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The highest luminescence intensity was achieved for an optimal europium concentration of 11 mol.%. The critical energy-transfer distance for Eu3+ ions was evaluated to be 10.74 Å. We also studied the temperature-dependent photoluminescence and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. It was found that Eu3+-doped YPO4 exhibited good thermal stability and its emission intensity decreased slightly above room temperature. In addition, the color purity of this phosphor was as high as 91% for the YPO4:13% Eu3+ sample, making it a potential orange-red phosphor for application in ultraviolet-pumped white light-emitting diodes.

  6. Orosensory contributions to dysphagia: a link between perception of sweet and sour taste and pharyngeal delay time.

    PubMed

    Pauloski, Barbara R; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    Pharyngeal delay is a significant swallowing disorder often resulting in aspiration. It is suspected that pharyngeal delay originates from sensory impairment, but a direct demonstration of a link between oral sensation and pharyngeal delay is lacking. In this study involving six patients with complaints of dysphagia, taste sensation of the oral tongue was measured and subsequently related to swallowing kinematics. It was found that a response bias for sour taste was significantly correlated with pharyngeal delay time on paste, highlighting oral sensory contributions to swallow motor dysfunctions. Investigating the precise nature of such a link between oral sensation and dysphagia would constitute a basis for understanding the disorder. The results of this study highlight oral sensory contributions to pharyngeal swallow events and provide impetus to examine this link in larger samples of dysphagic patients.

  7. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

  8. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  9. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    PubMed

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials.

  10. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  11. PHOTOMICROGRAPH - SPHERE FRAGMENTS - "ORANGE" SOIL - APOLLO 17 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-04

    S73-15171 (4 Jan. 1973) --- These orange glass spheres and fragments are the finest particles ever brought back from the moon. Ranging in size from 20 to 45 microns (about 1/1000 of an inch) the particles are magnified 160 times in this photomicrograph made in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The orange soil was brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen. Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt discovered the orange soil at Shorty Crater during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA). This lunar material is being studied and analyzed by scientists in the LRL. The orange particles in this photomicrograph, which are intermixed with black and black-speckled grains, are about the same size as the particles that compose silt on Earth. Chemical analysis of the orange soil material has shown the sample to be similar to some of the samples brought back from the Apollo 11 (Sea of Tranquility) site several hundred miles to the southwest. Like those samples, it is rich in titanium (8%) and iron oxide (22%). But unlike the Apollo 11 samples, the orange soil is unexplainably rich in zinc ? an anomaly that has scientists in a quandary. This Apollo 17 sample is not high in volatile elements, nor do the minerals contain substantial amounts of water. These would have provided strong evidence of volcanic activity. On the other hand, the lack of agglutinates (rocks made up of a variety of minerals cemented together) indicates that the orange glass is probably not the product of meteorite impact -- strengthening the argument that the glass was produced by volcanic activity.

  12. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  13. Solid state yellow and orange lasers for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Veena; Karpov, Vladimir; Linton, Claudette; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Telford, William G

    2008-06-01

    Diode and DPSS lasers emitting a variety of wavelengths are now commonly incorporated into flow cytometers, greatly increasing our capacity to excite a wide variety of fluorochromes. Until recently, however, virtually no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry that was compatible with smaller instrumentation. In this study, we evaluate several new solid state laser systems that emit from the 570 to 600 nm as excitation sources for flow cytometry. DPSS 580, 589, and 592 nm sources were integrated into a cuvette-based flow cytometer (BD LSR II) and a stream-in-air cell sorter (FACSVantage DiVa), and used to excite a variety of yellow, orange, and red excited fluorochromes, including Texas Red, APC, and its tandem conjugates, and the genetically encoded red fluorescent protein HcRed and the more recently developed Katushka. All laser sources were successfully incorporated into the indicated flow cytometry platforms. The yellow and orange sources (particularly 592 nm) were ideal for exciting Texas Red, and provided excitation of APC and its tandems that was comparable to a traditional red laser source, albeit at higher power levels than red sources. Yellow and orange laser light was optimal for exciting HcRed and Katushka. Practical yellow and orange laser sources are now available for flow cytometry. This technology fills an important gap in the laser wavelengths available for flow, now almost any fluorochrome requiring visible light excitation can be accommodated.

  14. Bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin is greater from pasteurized orange juice than from fresh oranges - a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Julian K; Rolke, Christa L; Breusing, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Högel, Josef; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-01

    Orange fruits and products thereof represent important dietary sources of carotenoids, particularly β-cryptoxanthin. Since previous studies reported a positive effect of vegetable processing on carotenoid absorption, our objective was to compare the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from either fresh navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) or pasteurized orange juice. The study was designed as a randomized 2-way cross-over study. Twelve volunteers consumed two meals delivering 744 μg of β-cryptoxanthin from either fresh navel oranges or pasteurized orange juice. Eight blood samples were collected over 9.5 h after test meal consumption and analyzed using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, carotenoid bioaccessibility was assessed after in vitro digestion of the same test foods. β-cryptoxanthin bioavailability from pasteurized orange juice was 1.8-fold higher than from fresh oranges (P = 0.011). Similarly, mean absorption of the non-dose adjusted carotenoids lutein (P = 0.301), zeaxanthin (P = 0.216), and zeinoxanthin (P = 0.090) were slightly higher from orange juice, although not reaching statistical significance. The in vitro digestion revealed a 5.3-fold higher bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin from orange juice. Dietary fiber contents in the test foods were inversely associated with carotenoid bioavailability. Orange juice represents a more bioavailable source of β-cryptoxanthin than fresh oranges. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Malaria of the orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1976-09-28

    The primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of Plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. The field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the Sepilok Forest Reserve of eastern Sabah. Two visits were made to Sepilok, the first in February and March, 1972, and the second (by W.P.) in January 1974. On the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to Sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and Aotus monkeys for experimental work. The arboreal habitat of the orang-utan in the dipterocarp forests of eastern Sabah is described. In the Sepilok Forest Reserve dwell gibbons and leaf-monkeys, in addition to a small population of semi-domesticated and wild, free-ranging orang-utans of various ages. Although numerous species of anopheline mosquitoes have been collected in eastern Sabah, longitudinal studies are not available. Anopheles balabacensis was caught both attracted to orang-utans and to man at Sepilok. This species which is the main vector of human malaria in the north of Borneo, is suspected also of transmitting orang-utan malaria in this part of Sabah. Repeated blood examinations have been made on a number of orang-utans in the centre since 1966 and a high prevalence of infection was recorded with Plasmodium pitheci. In 1966 10 out of 19 animals had demonstrable parasitaemia. Detailed case histories are presented to show the course of parasitaemia in several orang-utans. Infections of P. pitheci were found to run a very chronic course. During the 1972 expedition a second, previously undescribed malaria parasite of the orang-utan was discovered, and was named P. silvaticum. The new parasite was successfully transmitted both by blood inoculation and, later, by sporozoite inoculation, into splenectomized chimpanzees. Although both species of malaria parasite may cause transitory signs of illness, orang-utans in general appear to be little discomforted by the infection. The animals do however suffer from

  16. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  17. [Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments.

  18. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  19. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee; Cunniff, Lori

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  20. Orange juice (poly)phenols are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; van der Hooft, Justin; Clifford, Michael N; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Kellerhals, Michele B; Crozier, Alan

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols by monitoring urinary flavanone metabolites and ring fission catabolites produced by the action of the colonic microbiota. Our objective was to identify and quantify metabolites and catabolites excreted in urine 0-24 h after the acute ingestion of a (poly)phenol-rich orange juice by 12 volunteers. Twelve volunteers [6 men and 6 women; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.9-37.2] consumed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before first drinking 250 mL pulp-enriched orange juice, which contained 584 μmol (poly)phenols of which 537 μmol were flavanones, and after a 2-wk washout, the procedure was repeated, and a placebo drink was consumed. Urine collected for a 24-h period was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 14 metabolites were identified and quantified in urine by using HPLC-MS after orange juice intake. Hesperetin-O-glucuronides, naringenin-O-glucuronides, and hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate were the main metabolites. The overall urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites corresponded to 16% of the intake of 584 μmol (poly)phenols. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 8 urinary catabolites were also excreted in significantly higher quantities after orange juice consumption. These catabolites were 3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, hippuric acid, 3'-hydroxyhippuric acid, and 4'-hydroxyhippuric acid. These aromatic acids originated from the colonic microbiota-mediated breakdown of orange juice (poly)phenols and were excreted in amounts equivalent to 88% of (poly)phenol intake. When combined with the 16% excretion of metabolites, this percentage raised the overall urinary excretion to ∼ 100% of

  1. Pucker up: the effects of sour candy on your patients' oral health. A review of the dental erosion literature and pH values for popular candies.

    PubMed

    Robyn, R Loewen; Robert, J Marolt; John, D Ruby

    2008-01-01

    Although the harmful effects of acidic beverages on teeth have been well established and communicated through a variety of clinical articles and public education pieces, the Minnesota Dental Association's Public Relations Committee has determined that the new and emerging concern of the erosive effects of sour candy on the dentition should be brought to the attention of dental professionals and the public alike. Furthermore, since the serious irreversible damage caused by erosion is difficult and costly to treat, early detection and the initiation of preventive strategies are paramount to minimizing long-term consequences. The following article should serve as a review of the general topic of erosion, and should provide additional information about the increasing prevalence of erosion and the specific risks of sour candy consumption.

  2. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  3. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality.

  4. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  5. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), North... Elizabeth Brady Road Extension between US 70 Business and US 70 Bypass in Orange County, North Carolina. The...

  6. Quantitative studies and taste reconstitution experiments of the sour and lingering mouthful orosensation in a debittered extract of traditional Japanese dried and fermented skipjack tuna (hongarebushi).

    PubMed

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lubian, Elisabetta; Mueller, Stefan; Shi, Feng; Koenig, Thorsten

    2013-04-03

    Hongarebushi, Japanese dried skipjack tuna and a high quality ingredient of Japanese dashi, was investigated for its taste active composition. The recent investigation focused on a debittered fish fraction, which revealed a strong umami and salt impact accompanied with a pleasant and pronounced sourness. Whereas the umami and salt tastes could be correlated to monosodium glutamate (MSG), ribonucleotides, and mineral salts, the pleasant sourness was not exclusively induced by organic acids. The essential compound imparting the sour orosensation, persistence, and mouthfulness of the debittered skipjack tuna extract was investigated, and omission experiments emphasized the impact of N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG) on the overall taste sensation of the debittered fish extract. This metabolite, which is known to be present as a minor constituent in animal- and plant-derived foods, was quantified in this study for the first time in seafood, soybean products, dried shiitake mushrooms, and dried fish in notable amounts. Furthermore, it was described for the first time as an essential taste contributor to the nonvolatile profile of a foodstuff, in this case of a debittered extract of hongarebushi.

  7. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of wastewater pollutants: titanium dioxide mediated degradation of methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange.

    PubMed

    Antharjanam, Sudhadevi; Philip, Robert; Suresh, Das

    2003-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes such as methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange in aqueous suspensions of TiO2 has been investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetics of degradation was studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and catalyst concentration, and types of titanium dioxide used and in the presence of electron acceptors and electron donors. The degradation rates of the dyes have been found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. Carbon dioxide yield measurements indicate that only partial mineralization occurs in the initial phase of oxidation.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production.

    PubMed

    Siles, José Angel; de Los Angeles Martín, María; Martín, Antonio; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2007-03-07

    A study of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C). Prior to anaerobic treatment the raw wastewater was subjected to physicochemical treatment using aluminum sulfate as a flocculant and to pH reduction using a solution of sulfuric acid. The reactor was batch fed at COD loads of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 g of COD. The process was very stable for all of the loads studied, with mean pH and alkalinity values of 7.5 and 3220 mg of CaCO3/L, respectively. The anaerobic digestion of this substrate was found to follow a first-order kinetic model, from which the specific rate constants for methane production, K(G), were determined. The K(G) values decreased considerably from 0.0672 to 0.0078 L/(g h) when the COD load increased from 1.5 to 5.0 g of COD, indicating an inhibition phenomenon in the system studied. The proposed model predicted the behavior of the reactor very accurately, showing deviations of <5% between the experimental and theoretical values of methane production. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 295 mL of CH4 STP/g of COD removed, whereas the mean biodegradability of the substrate (TOC) was 88.2%. A first-order kinetic model for substrate (TOC) consumption allowed determination of the specific rate constants for substrate uptake, K(C), which also decreased with increasing loading, confirming the above-mentioned inhibition process. Finally, the evolution of the individual volatile fatty acid concentrations (acetic, C2; propionic, C3; butyric, C4; isobutyric, iC4; valeric, C5; isovaleric, iC5; and caproic, C6) with digestion time for all loads used was also studied. The main acids generated were acetic and propionic for all loads studied, facilitating the conversion into methane.

  10. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  13. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as the...

  14. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... prescribed under the Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in... handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as...

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  16. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY... order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International Trade Commission..., 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012)...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  18. 78 FR 52079 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade Requirements on Valencia and Other Late Type Oranges AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... prescribed under the marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  20. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

  1. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  3. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This event...

  4. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  5. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange Bowl...

  6. 78 FR 37779 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Untreated Oranges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Collection; Untreated Oranges, Tangerines, and Grapefruit From Mexico Transiting the United States to Foreign... approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges...: For information on the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit...

  7. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  8. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  9. 78 FR 4383 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Signal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX The Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast... Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Signal), located in Orange, Texas. The notification conforming to the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  11. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  12. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas. The...

  13. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  14. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed in...

  15. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit...

  16. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  18. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed in...

  19. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  20. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  1. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  2. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  3. Determinants of flavor acceptability during the maturation of navel oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel oranges of differing maturities were harvested at regular intervals for three successive seasons and evaluated for external color, percent juice, soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Fruit from each harvest date were rated by a sensory panel for flavor likeability (hedonic ...

  4. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  5. Storage temperature effects on blood orange fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, P; Bellomo, S E; Intelisano, S

    2001-07-01

    Orange fruits of two blood varieties (Tarocco and Moro) were stored at 8 degrees C and 22 degrees C for 85 and 106 days, respectively, and analyzed periodically for standard quality parameters (total soluble solids, total acidity, ascorbic acid, juice yield, and rind color) and sensory influencing parameters (anthocyanins, and total and free hydroxycinnamic acids). A decrease in total acidity (TA) and juice yield during storage was observed for both cultivars; total soluble solids (TSS) increased only in the Tarocco oranges stored at 8 degrees C. The increase in TSS observed for Tarocco and the simultaneous decrease in TA in both varieties resulted in a higher maturity index (TSS/TA) for the two cultivars. No loss of vitamin C was noted in Tarocco orange at either temperature, whereas a sharp reduction in vitamin C occurred in the first 50 days of storage for Moro. A significant increase in anthocyanin content was observed in Tarocco and Moro stored at 8 degrees C. Overlong storage induces extensive hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic derivatives to free acids in Moro orange and these, in turn, could develop the malodorous vinylphenols.

  6. Asian citrus psyllid, huanglongbing and the orange jasmine conundrum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive pest in Florida because it vectors a bacterium ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Soon after finding HLB in Florida, concerns arose that orange jasmine in urban areas wo...

  7. Formation of Diketopiperazines by Penicillium italicum Isolated from Oranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter M.; Kennedy, Barry P. C.; Harwig, Joost; Chen, Y-K.

    1974-01-01

    Prolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine and 12,13-dehydroprolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine, known metabolites of Aspergillus ustus, were produced in low yield by Penicillium italicum in liquid culture and on unsterilized orange peel. PMID:4441068

  8. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-11-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers.

  9. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Andrés, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

  10. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  11. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  12. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  13. Control of Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum) in Southern Alaska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange hawkweed is a perennial European plant and an escaped ornamental that has colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. This plant is forming near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was cond...

  14. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  15. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  16. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  17. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  18. Regulation of Orange Carotenoid Protein Activity in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Thurotte, Adrien; Lopez-Igual, Rocio; Wilson, Adjélé; Comolet, Léa; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Xiao, Fugui; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism. Absorption of strong blue-green light by the OCP induces carotenoid and protein conformational changes converting the orange (inactive) OCP into a red (active) OCP. Only the red orange carotenoid protein (OCP(r)) is able to bind to phycobilisomes, the cyanobacterial antenna, and to quench excess energy. In this work, we have constructed and characterized several OCP mutants and focused on the role of the OCP N-terminal arm in photoactivation and excitation energy dissipation. The N-terminal arm largely stabilizes the closed orange OCP structure by interacting with its C-terminal domain. This avoids photoactivation at low irradiance. In addition, it slows the OCP detachment from phycobilisomes by hindering fluorescence recovery protein interaction with bound OCP(r). This maintains thermal dissipation of excess energy for a longer time. Pro-22, at the beginning of the N-terminal arm, has a key role in the correct positioning of the arm in OCP(r), enabling strong OCP binding to phycobilisomes, but is not essential for photoactivation. Our results also show that the opening of the OCP during photoactivation is caused by the movement of the C-terminal domain with respect to the N-terminal domain and the N-terminal arm.

  19. Risky Business: An Analysis of Orange County's Investment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, John H.; Fairclough, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The investment strategy of Orange County (California), which led to insolvency of its investment pool, is analyzed and lessons applicable to institutions of higher education are examined. Focus is on two elements: leveraged investment strategy that depended on stable or declining interest rates, and a liquidity crisis. It is concluded that…

  20. Building a Model System of Developmental Services in Orange County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Russ, Shirley; Regalado, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 10, the California Children and Families First Act, which provides for an excise tax on tobacco products to fund parent education, health and child care programs that promote early childhood development for 0-5s. Since the adoption of its first Strategic Plan (2000), the Orange County First 5…

  1. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Grassroots Efforts in Orange County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Callista Lee

    In 1979, a March of Dimes task force investigation in Orange County, California found a direct correlation between the rising number of low birth weight babies and the rising number of births to teens. Sparked by this investigation, the Coalition Concerned with Adolescent Pregnancy (CCAP), an independent non-profit agency, was formed. CCAP's…

  2. Risky Business: An Analysis of Orange County's Investment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, John H.; Fairclough, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The investment strategy of Orange County (California), which led to insolvency of its investment pool, is analyzed and lessons applicable to institutions of higher education are examined. Focus is on two elements: leveraged investment strategy that depended on stable or declining interest rates, and a liquidity crisis. It is concluded that…

  3. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  4. Optimizing spray drying conditions of sour cherry juice based on physicochemical properties, using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Arasb Dabbagh; Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of main spray drying conditions such as inlet air temperature (100-140 °C), maltodextrin concentration (MDC: 30-60%), and aspiration rate (AR) (30-50%) on the physicochemical properties of sour cherry powder such as moisture content (MC), hygroscopicity, water solubility index (WSI), and bulk density were investigated. This investigation was carried out by employing response surface methodology and the process conditions were optimized by using this technique. The MC of the powder was negatively related to the linear effect of the MDC and inlet air temperature (IT) and directly related to the AR. Hygroscopicity of the powder was significantly influenced by the MDC. By increasing MDC in the juice, the hygroscopicity of the powder was decreased. MDC and inlet temperature had a positive effect, but the AR had a negative effect on the WSI of powder. MDC and inlet temperature negatively affected the bulk density of powder. By increasing these two variables, the bulk density of powder was decreased. The optimization procedure revealed that the following conditions resulted in a powder with the maximum solubility and minimum hygroscopicity: MDC = 60%, IT = 134 °C, and AR = 30% with a desirability of 0.875.

  5. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    PubMed

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  6. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival during fermentation of soured milk products detected by culture and quantitative real time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, B; Slana, I; Roubal, P; Pavlik, I; Kralik, P

    2012-07-02

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), etiological agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, is able to survive extreme conditions like very low pH (stomach), high temperature (pasteurization) or low temperature (refrigerated storage). Cheese, infant powder milk, cream and other milk and dairy products might thus be considered as possible sources of MAP for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of two MAP field isolates during fermentation of three different types of soured milk products (SMP; yogurt, acidophilus milk and kefir) under laboratory conditions. Pasteurized MAP-free milk was artificially contaminated with 10(6)MAPcells/mL and survival and absolute numbers of MAP were monitored during fermentation (4 or 16 h) and after six weeks of storage at 4°C by culture and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Viability of MAP was determined by culture using Herrold's egg yolk medium and Middlebrook 7H10 with antibiotics, supplemented with Mycobactin J and incubated at 37°C for up to 12 weeks. The absolute numbers of MAP were quantified by previously published qPCR assays targeting F57 and IS900 loci in MAP genome. We herein confirm that MAP can survive pH reduction, however, longer exposure to pH below 4 in SMP seems to be critical because it inhibits growth. Therefore, it is suggested that probiotic cultures that can decrease pH below 4 during fermentation could provide better inactivation of MAP in SMP.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical formation of iron oxidation products on steel immersed in sour acid media.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Espejel, Antonio; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Cabrera-Sierra, Román; Romero-Romo, Mario; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Arce-Estrada, Elsa M

    2011-03-03

    From electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, potential steps, and EIS), XRD, and SEM-EDX, the kinetics and mechanism of anodic film formation applying anodic potential steps on steel immersed in sour acid media was determined. It was found, from a thermodynamic analysis, based on equilibrium phase diagrams of the system considered in this work, that iron oxidation may produce different new solid phases, depending on the applied potential, the first being the iron oxidation associated with formation of FeS((c)) species, which in turn can be reoxidized to FeS(2(c)) or even to Fe(2)O(3(c)) at higher potential values. From analysis of the corresponding experimental potentiostatic current density transients, it was concluded that the electrochemical anodic film formation involves an E(1)CE(2) mechanism, whereby the first of the two simultaneous processes were the Fe electrochemical oxidation (E(1)) followed by FeS precipitation (C) that occurs by 3D nucleation and growth limited by mass transfer reaction and FeS oxidation (E(2)) forming a mix of different stoichiometry iron sulphides and oxides. From EIS measurements, it was revealed that the anodic film's charge transfer resistance diminishes as the potential applied for its formation becomes more anodic, thus behaving poorly against corrosion.

  8. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  9. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  10. Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

  11. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  12. A FRET-facilitated photoswitching using an orange fluorescent protein with the fast photoconversion kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Oksana M.; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins photoswitchable with non-cytotoxic light irradiation and spectrally distinct from multiple available photoconvertible green-to-red probes are in high demand. We have developed a monomeric fluorescent protein, called PSmOrange2, which is photoswitchable with blue light from an orange (ex./em. at 546 nm/561 nm) to a far-red (ex./em. at 619 nm/651 nm) form. Compared to another orange-to-far-red photoconvertable variant, PSmOrange2 has blue-shifted photoswitching action spectrum, 9-fold higher photoconversion contrast, and up to 10-fold faster photoswitching kinetics. This results in the 4-fold more PSmOrange2 molecules being photoconverted in mammalian cells. Compared to common orange fluorescent proteins, such as mOrange, the orange form of PSmOrange has substantially higher photostability allowing its use in multicolor imaging applications to track dynamics of multiple populations of intracellular objects. The PSmOrange2 photochemical properties allow its efficient photoswitching with common two-photon lasers and, moreover, via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from green fluorescent donors. We have termed the latter effect a FRET-facilitated photoswitching and demonstrated it using several sets of interacting proteins. The enhanced photoswitching properties of PSmOrange2 make it a superior photoconvertable protein tag for flow cytometry, conventional microscopy, and two-photon imaging of live cells. PMID:22900938

  13. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Thermal stability of ricin in orange and apple juices.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Zhang, Zhe; Tolleson, William H

    2010-05-01

    Ricin is a potent protein toxin that could be exploited for bioterrorism. Although ricin may be detoxified using heat, inactivation conditions in foods are not well characterized. Two brands of pulp-free orange juice and 2 brands of single-strength apple juice (one clarified and the other unclarified) containing 100 microg/mL added ricin were heated at 60 to 90 degrees C for up to 2 h. With increasing heating times and temperatures the heat-treated juices exhibited decreasing detectability of ricin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytotoxicity to cultured cells. Z-values for ricin inactivation in orange juices were 14.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C and 17 +/- 4 degrees C using cytotoxicity assays, compared to 13.4 +/- 1.5 degrees C and 14 +/- 2 degrees C determined by ELISA. Although insignificant differences were apparent for z-values measured for the 2 orange juice brands, significant differences were found in the z-values for the 2 brands of apple juice. The z-values for ricin inactivation in the clarified and unclarified apple juices were 21 +/- 4 degrees C and 9.5 +/- 1.1 degrees C, determined by cytotoxicity assays, and 20 +/- 2 degrees C and 11.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C, respectively, using ELISA. Overall, there were no significant differences between results measured with ELISA and cytotoxicity assays. Ricin stability in orange juice and buffer was evaluated at 25 degrees C. Half-lives of 10 +/- 3 d and 4.9 +/- 0.4 d, respectively, indicated that active ricin in juice could reach consumers. These results indicate that ricin in apple and orange juices can remain toxic under some processing and product storage conditions. Ricin is a potent toxin that is abundant in castor beans and is present in the castor bean mash by-product after cold-press extraction of castor oil. U.S. Health and Human Services recognizes that ricin could be used for bioterrorism. This study reports the stability of ricin in apple and orange fruit juices at temperatures ranging from 60 to

  15. Specificity of the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein: influences of orange carotenoid protein and phycobilisome structures.

    PubMed

    Jallet, Denis; Thurotte, Adrien; Leverenz, Ryan L; Perreau, François; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed a photoprotective mechanism that decreases the energy arriving at the reaction centers by increasing thermal energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PB), the extramembranous light-harvesting antenna. This mechanism is triggered by the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), which acts both as the photosensor and the energy quencher. The OCP binds the core of the PB. The structure of this core differs in diverse cyanobacterial strains. Here, using two isolated OCPs and four classes of PBs, we demonstrated that differences exist between OCPs related to PB binding, photoactivity, and carotenoid binding. Synechocystis PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) OCP, but not Arthrospira platensis PCC 7345 (hereafter Arthrospira) OCP, can attach echinenone in addition to hydroxyechinenone. Arthrospira OCP binds more strongly than Synechocystis OCP to all types of PBs. Synechocystis OCP can strongly bind only its own PB in 0.8 m potassium phosphate. However, if the Synechocystis OCP binds to the PB at very high phosphate concentrations (approximately 1.4 m), it is able to quench the fluorescence of any type of PB, even those isolated from strains that lack the OCP-mediated photoprotective mechanism. Thus, the determining step for the induction of photoprotection is the binding of the OCP to PBs. Our results also indicated that the structure of PBs, at least in vitro, significantly influences OCP binding and the stabilization of OCP-PB complexes. Finally, the fact that the OCP induced large fluorescence quenching even in the two-cylinder core of Synechococcus elongatus PBs strongly suggested that OCP binds to one of the basal allophycocyanin cylinders.

  16. 78 FR 1763 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ....16 per 7/10- bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Committee locally....16 per 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Texas orange and... expenditures of $1,340,800 and an assessment rate of $0.16 per 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and...

  17. "Sour gas" hydrothermal jarosite: Ancient to modern acid-sulfate mineralization in the southern Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lueth, V.W.; Rye, R.O.; Peters, L.

    2005-01-01

    deeply circulating meteoric water. Jarosite ??34S values range from -24??? to 5???, overlapping the values for barite and gypsum at the high end of the range and for sulfides at the low end. Most ??34S values for barite are 10.6??? to 13.1???, and many ??34S values for gypsum range from 13.1??? to 13.9??? indicating that a component of aqueous sulfate was derived from Permian evaporites (??34 S=12??2???). The requisite H2SO4 for jarosite formation was derived from oxidation of H2S which was likely largely sour gas derived from the thermochemical reduction of Permian sulfate. The low ??34S values for the precursor H2S probably resulted from exchange deeper in the basin with the more abundant Permian SO42- at ???150 to 200 ??C. Jarosite formed at shallow levels after the pH buffering capacity of the host rock (typically limestone) was neutralized by precipitation of earlier minerals. Some limestone-hosted deposits contain caves that may have been caused by the low pH of the deep basin fluids due to the addition of deep-seated HF and other magmatic gases during periods of renewed rifting. Caves in other deposits may be due to sulfuric acid speleogenesis as a result of H2S incursion into oxygenated groundwaters. The isotopic data in these "sour gas" jarosite occurrences encode a record of episodic tectonic or hydrologic processes that have operated in the rift over the last 10 my. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  19. Impact of nitrate-mediated microbial control of souring in oil reservoirs on the extent of corrosion.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of microbial control of souring on the extent of corrosion was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in an SRB consortium enriched from produced water from a Canadian oil reservoir. The average corrosion rate induced by the SRB consortium (1.4 g x m(-2) x day(-1)) was faster than that observed in the presence of strain Lac6 (0.2 g x m(-2) x day(-1)). Examination of the metallic coupons at the end of the tests indicated a uniform corrosion in both cases. Addition of CVO and 10 mM nitrate to a fully grown culture of Lac6 or the SRB consortium led to complete removal of sulfide from the system and a significant increase in the population of CVO, as determined by reverse sample genome probing. In the case of the SRB consortium addition of just nitrate (10 mM) had a similar effect. When grown in the absence of nitrate, the consortium was dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. strains Lac15 and Lac29, while growth in the presence of nitrate led to dominance of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3. The addition of CVO and nitrate to the Lac6 culture or nitrate to the SRB consortium accelerated the average corrosion rate to 1.5 and 2.9 g x m(-2) x day(-1), respectively. Localized corrosion and the occurrence of pitting were apparent in both cases. Although the sulfide concentration (0.5-7 mM) had little effect on corrosion rates, a clear increase of the corrosion rate with increasing nitrate concentration was observed in experiments conducted with consortia enriched from produced water.

  20. Comparison of microbial communities involved in souring and corrosion in offshore and onshore oil production facilities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Chuma; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Lumactud, Rhea; An, Dongshan; Park, Hyung Soo; Voordouw, Johanna; Lomans, Bart P; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-04-01

    Samples were obtained from the Obigbo field, located onshore in the Niger delta, Nigeria, from which oil is produced by injection of low-sulfate groundwater, as well as from the offshore Bonga field from which oil is produced by injection of high-sulfate (2,200 ppm) seawater, amended with 45 ppm of calcium nitrate to limit reservoir souring. Despite low concentrations of sulfate (0-7 ppm) and nitrate (0 ppm), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were present in samples from the Obigbo field. Biologically active deposits (BADs), scraped from corrosion-failed sections of a water- and of an oil-transporting pipeline (both Obigbo), had high counts of SRB and high sulfate and ferrous iron concentrations. Analysis of microbial community composition by pyrosequencing indicated anaerobic, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation to be a dominant process in all samples from the Obigbo field, including the BADs. Samples from the Bonga field also had significant activity of SRB, as well as of heterotrophic and of sulfide-oxidizing NRB. Microbial community analysis indicated high proportions of potentially thermophilic NRB and near-absence of microbes active in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. Anaerobic incubation of Bonga samples with steel coupons gave moderate general corrosion rates of 0.045-0.049 mm/year, whereas near-zero general corrosion rates (0.001-0.002 mm/year) were observed with Obigbo water samples. Hence, methanogens may contribute to corrosion at Obigbo, but the low general corrosion rates cannot explain the reasons for pipeline failures in the Niger delta. A focus of future work should be on understanding the role of BADs in enhancing under-deposit pitting corrosion.