Science.gov

Sample records for cu fe alloys

  1. Cu precipitation dynamics in Fe-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.-P.; Wang, H.-Y.; Liu, Z.-C.

    2008-02-01

    The precipitation of copper during aging at 600°C in high-purity Fe-Cu alloy was examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, Nano-scale copper-rich clusters with B2-like structure were observed during either solution treatment or aging, which should play important role on precipitation strengthening. In addition, the precipitation process has been analyzed in terms of the evolution of microstructure by Monte Carlo method. An description of the coherent precipitation of copper in iron, based on vacancy diffusion mechanism, thermally activated jump frequencies and cohesive energy was discussed to deal with simultaneous precipitation of metastable and stable phases of Cu-containing steel during aging, which gives an estimation of the precipitation dynamics, as well as the evolution of Cu precipitates in a wide range of temperature.

  2. Nanostructured FeZrCuB alloys prepared by mechanosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R. D.; Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Freitas, J. C. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2007-08-01

    Nanostructured Fe{sub 84}Zr{sub 9}B{sub 6}Cu{sub 1} alloys were prepared by the mechanosynthesis method, following two alternative routes. In the first procedure, the alloy was directly obtained from the milling of the powder mixture of all elemental components. The resulting alloy was partially nanocrystalline, with dispersion of nanograins in an amorphous matrix. In the second route, Cu and B elemental powders were progressively added to a previously milled Fe{sub 90}Zr{sub 10} alloy. A nearly single amorphous phase was consequently obtained. The dispersion of nanograins was easily recovered in this case, after annealing the milled alloy. The hyperfine magnetic properties of the amorphous phase prepared by milling were comparable to those found in similar melt-spun alloys. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies, associated with the first and second crystallization stages, were found to be lower for the milled alloy when compared with the corresponding melt-spun alloy, an effect associated with the larger number of defects induced by the mechanosynthesis process.

  3. Irradiation-induced patterning in dilute Cu-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumphy, B.; Chee, S. W.; Vo, N. Q.; Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P.; Ghafari, M.

    2014-10-01

    Compositional patterning in dilute Cu1-xFex (x ≈ 12%) induced by 1.8 MeV Kr+ irradiation was studied as a function of temperature using atom probe tomography. Irradiation near room temperature led to homogenization of the sample, whereas irradiation at 300 °C and above led to precipitation and macroscopic coarsening. Between these two temperatures the irradiated alloys formed steady state patterns of composition where precipitates grew to a fixed size. The size in this regime increased somewhat with temperature. It was also observed that the steady state concentrations of Fe in Cu matrix and Cu in the Fe precipitates both greatly exceeded their equilibrium solubilities, with the degree of supersaturation in each phase decreasing with increasing temperature. In the macroscopic coarsening regime, the Fe-rich precipitates showed indications of a “cherry-pit” structure, with Cu precipitates forming within the Fe precipitates. In the patterning regime, interfaces between Fe-rich precipitates and the Cu-rich matrix were irregular and diffuse.

  4. Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential for the Fe-Cu alloy system and cascade simulations on pure Fe and Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-Joo; Wirth, Brian D.; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Kwon, Junhyun; Kwon, Sang Chul; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2005-05-01

    A modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) interatomic potential for the Fe-Cu binary system has been developed using previously developed MEAM potentials of Fe and Cu. The Fe-Cu potential was determined by fitting to data on the mixing enthalpy and the composition dependencies of the lattice parameters in terminal solid solutions. The potential gives a value of 0.65eV for the dilute heat of solution and reproduces the increase of lattice parameter of Fe with addition of Cu in good agreement with experiments. The potential was used to investigate the primary irradiation defect formation in pure Fe and Fe-0.5at.%Cu alloy by a molecular dynamics cascade simulation study with a PKA energy of 2keV at 573K . A tendency for self-interstitial atom-Cu binding, the formation of mixed (Fe-Cu) dumbbells and even Cu-Cu dumbbells was observed. Given a positive binding energy between Cu atoms and self-interstitials, Cu transport by an interstitial diffusion mechanism could be proposed to contribute to the formation of Cu-rich precipitates and irradiation-induced embrittlement in nuclear structural steels.

  5. Magnetic properties of Fe-Cu alloys prepared by pulsed electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noce, R. D.; Gomes, O. D. M.; de Magalhães, S. D.; Wolf, W.; Guimarães, R. B.; de Castro, A. C.; Pires, M. J. M.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Givord, D.; Barthem, V. M. T. S.

    2009-11-01

    FexCu100-x metastable alloys were prepared by pulsed electrodeposition for 5Fe-rich alloys crystallize in the bcc structure of α-Fe and the Fe-poor ones in the fcc structure of Cu. The magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic Fe-rich alloys (x>50) are reminiscent of those observed in Fe-Cu alloys prepared by other methods. The Curie temperature decreases regularly with decreasing x. In the Fe-poor alloys (x≤30), the observed properties indicate that Fe-rich clusters form within a Cu-rich matrix. In the x=10 alloy, the Fe clusters are found to be superparamagnetic at room temperature, but a superferromagnetic order develops below a critical temperature of about 120 K. It is suggested that the intercluster coupling is mediated by Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions which are predominantly positive due to the very short intercluster distances.

  6. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu.

    PubMed

    Wille, Catharina G; Al-Kassab, Tala'at; Kirchheim, Reiner

    2011-05-01

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure.

  7. Abnormal magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Zhao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, Y.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yang, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetization behaviors in Sm-Ni-Fe-Cu alloys at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that the hysteresis loops show wasp-waisted character at low temperatures, which has been proved to be related to the existence of multi-phases, the Fe/Ni soft magnetic phases and the CaCu5-type hard magnetic phase. A smooth-jump behavior of the magnetization is observed at T>5 K, whereas a step-like magnetization process appears at T<5 K. The CaCu5-type phase is responsible for such abnormal magnetization behavior. The magnetic moment reversal model with thermal activation is used to explain the relation of the critical magnetic field (Hcm) to the temperature (T>5 K). The reversal of the moment direction has to cross over an energy barrier of about 6.6×10-15 erg. The step-like jumps of the magnetization below 5 K is proposed to be resulted from a sharp increase of the sample temperature under the heat released by the irreversible domain wall motion.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of copper clustering in Fe-Cu alloys under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.; Kwon, S. C.; Hong, J. H.

    2004-10-01

    We present the computational approach for studying the microstructures of Cu clusters in Fe-Cu alloys by combining the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Monte Carlo methods. The MD simulation is used to characterize the primary damage resulting from the displacement cascade in Fe. Then, using the Metropolis Monte Carlo methods, the microstructure of the Cu clusters is predicted under the assumption that the system will evolve towards the equilibrium state. The formation of the Cu clusters is apparent for Fe-Cu alloys of a higher Cu content (1.0 w/o), whereas the degree of Cu clustering is not significant for the lower Cu content (0.1 w/o) alloys. The atomic configuration of the Cu-vacancy complex under irradiation, produced by this simulation, is in a fair agreement with the experiments. The simulation is expected to provide important information on the Cu-cluster morphology, which is useful for experimental data analysis.

  9. Metastable Demixing of Supercooled Cu-Co and Cu-Fe Alloys in an Oxide Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, D.; Robinson, M. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the liquid separation in supercooled Cu-Co and Cu-Fe alloys was performed using a melt fluxing which permits high supercooling to be achieved. Moreover, this method renders it possible to directly measure binodal temperatures and establish metastable liquid miscibility gap (LMG). All phase-separated samples at compositions ranging from 10 to 80 wt pct Co or to 83 wt pct Fe were found to exhibit droplet-shaped morphologies, in spite of various droplet distributions. Uniformly dispersed microstructures were obtained as the minority component was less than 20 vol.%; while beyond this percentage, serious coarsening was brought about. Calculations of the miscibility gap in the Cu-Co system and Stokes movement velocity of Co and Fe droplets in Cu matrix were made to analyze the experimental results.

  10. Single magnetic domain precipitates of Fe/Co and Fe and Co in Cu matrix produced from (Fe-Co)/Cu metastable alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Larica, C.; Nunes, E.

    2001-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe2Co and (Fe2Co)0.30 Cu0.70 alloys prepared by high energy ball milling have been studied basically by x-ray, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. For the Fe2Co alloy case, the Mössbauer measurements indicate that the sample with 160 hours of milling has two magnetic components with the same average hyperfine parameters: one magnetic crystalline component associated with the bcc Fe2Co phase and another component attributed to the small particles of the same bcc Fe2Co phase (SP-Fe2Co). (Fe2Co)0.30Cu0.70 alloys have been prepared by milling in two different ways: (1) starting from the mixture of Fe2Co milled alloy and pure Cu powders (sample I) and (2) milling of the elemental powder mixture of Fe, Co and Cu (sample II). The x-ray diffraction and bulk magnetization results of samples I and II indicate the formation of a (Fe2Co)0.30Cu0.70 supersaturated solid solution, with features of a ferromagnetic material and Tc at about (420+/-1) K. High temperature magnetization measurements of the (Fe/Co)Cu milled materials show particle precipitation effects. Heat treatment at 675 and 875 K of the final milled materials leads to different results: in the sample I case to the precipitation of single magnetic Fe/Co particles into the Cu matrix, and in the case of sample II the precipitation of single magnetic particles of Fe and of Co into the Cu matrix.

  11. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Microstructure and Properties of a Cu-Fe-P Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiyi; Shen, Leinuo; Cao, Feng; Jia, Yanlin; Liao, Kaiju; Wang, Mingpu

    2015-04-01

    A Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P (wt.%) alloy was designed, and its comprehensive properties, especially electrical conductivity and temper-softening resistance of the designed alloy, were higher than those of traditional Cu-Fe-P alloys. The microstructure of this alloy was investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The particle of secondary phase was confirmed to be Fe2P with x-ray spectroscopy and digital diffractogram. By virtue of precipitation hardening and work hardening, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P alloy were 498 MPa and 62% IACS, respectively. The electrical conductivity of this alloy can be up to 92% IACS due to the complete precipitation of Fe2P. After repeating the cold rolling and aging process for three times, the tensile strength, elongation, and conductivity of this alloy were 467 MPa, 22%, and 78% IACS, respectively. Due to the low driving force of recrystallization and the pinning effect of fine dispersed Fe2P, the alloy with low deformation rate showed excellent softening resistance. The designed alloy can be used as a high-strength, high-electrical-conductivity lead-frame alloy.

  12. Specific heat capacity and dendritic growth kinetics of liquid peritectic Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. C.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Wei, B.

    2016-08-01

    The specific heat and dendritic growth of highly undercooled peritectic Fe-Cu alloys were investigated by electromagnetic levitation technique. The specific heat values of liquid peritectic Fe92.8Cu7.2 and hyperperitectic Fe88.5Cu11.5 alloys were determined to be 40.4 and 39.58 J·mol-1·K-1 over wide temperature ranges. The measured growth velocities rose rapidly with increasing undercooling, which reached 69 and 68 m·s-1 at the maximum undercoolings of 401 K (0.23 TL) and 468 K (0.27 TL). The microstructures of peritectic Fe-Cu alloys were refined significantly with enhanced undercooling. Theoretical analyses showed that almost segregationless solidification was realized if undercooling was sufficiently large.

  13. Effect of Boron and Cerium on Corrosion Resistance of Cu -Fe -P Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Lu, Lei; Lu, De-ping; Liu, Ke-Ming; Chen, Zhi-bao; Zhai, Qi-jie

    2016-03-01

    The effects of B and Ce on the corrosion resistance of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P alloy were investigated by salt spray and electrochemical tests. The corrosion morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion products were characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The impurity content was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The conductivity was measured using an eddy current conductivity meter. The grains of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P alloy were refined by the addition of B and Ce. The electrochemical corrosion process of alloy is retarded due to purification effect of B and Ce. After the addition of a trace amount of B, the corrosion resistance of the alloy decreased. The corrosion resistance of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P-0.025B-0.05Ce was better than that of Cu-0.22Fe-0.06P-0.025B due to the fact that the purification effect of Ce is better than that of B. The main corrosion products of the Cu-Fe-P alloys in a NaCl solution are Cu2Cl(OH)3 and Cu2O. The addition of trace amounts of B and Ce did not change the components of the corrosion product.

  14. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  15. Microstructure properties and microhardness of rapidly solidified Al64Cu20Fe12Si4 quasicrystal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaköse, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents differences in the microstructure and microhardness properties of conventional casting (ingot) and rapidly solidified Al64Cu20Fe12Si4 quasicrystal (QC) alloys. The phases present in the Al64Cu20Fe12Si4 ingot alloy were determined to be icosahedral quasicrystalline (IQC) Ψ-Al65Cu20Fe15, cubic β-AlFe, tetragonal θ-Al2Cu, and monoclinic λ-A13Fe4 phases, whereas only IQC Ψ-Al65Cu20Fe15 and cubic β-AlFe phases were identified in the rapidly solidified alloy. The microhardness value of the melt spun alloy was measured to be approximately 790 kg/mm2. Microhardness increases with increasing solidification rates.

  16. Magnetic properties of Fe-Cu alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, I. L.; Freeland, J. W.; Walker, J. C.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe_xCu_1-x alloys are difficult to study due to the low mutual solid solubility of the components. These alloys can be formed by co-sputtering onto a cold substrate, however, they retain fcc phase only for x < 0.6footnote[1]C.L. Chien et. al. Phys.Rev. B 33, 3247 (1986). In this work Fe_xCu_1-x alloys were grown epitaxially by co-deposition onto the Cu(100) substrate. Using this technique we can stabilize the alloy in fcc phase across the entire Fe concentration range. During growth, the substrate was maintained at 0^0C to prevent clustering. Crystal structure was monitored by in-situ RHEED and ex-situ X-ray diffraction. The correlation between structural and magnetic properties of the alloys as well as their dependence on the film thickness were studied by SQUID magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Initial results showed a non-zero quadrupole splitting of the room temperature Mössbauer absorption line indicating the random distribution of iron in the Cu matrix. Both low temperature Mössbauer and SQUID measurements on the alloys with low iron concentration showed significant reduction of the average magnetic moment and T_c.

  17. Effect of Mn on the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties in Cu-Fe-Co Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Basu Mallick, A.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2011-02-01

    An attempt was made to study the effect of Mn addition on the formation of supersaturated solid solution of Co and Fe in Cu during ball milling and precipitation of the solute-rich phases during subsequent annealing of the ball-milled product. It is demonstrated that the addition of Mn in the ternary CuFeCo powder blend enhances the metastable solubility of Fe and Co in Cu and facilitates the formation of the nanocrystalline supersaturated single-phase solid solution. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) also revealed notable influence of Mn on the morphological evolution of the ball-milled and annealed alloy powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the FeCo phase having the bcc Bravais lattice forms after annealing at and above 620 K (350 °C) in both alloys. Estimation of magnetic properties showed that Mn addition in the CuFeCo alloy improved the coercivity, remanence, and magnetic saturation.

  18. New Fe-Co-Ni-Cu-Al-Ti Alloy for Single-Crystal Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Bazhenov, V. E.; Moiseev, A. V.; Kireev, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A new alloy intended for single-crystal permanent magnets has been suggested. The new alloy has been designed based on the well-known Fe-Co-Ni-Cu-Al-Ti system and contains to 1 wt % Hf. The alloy demonstrates an enhanced potential ability for single-crystal forming in the course of unidirectional solidification of ingot. Single-crystal permanent magnets manufactured from this alloy are characterized by a high level of magnetic properties. When designing the new alloy, computer simulation of the phase composition and calculations of solidification parameters of complex metallic systems have been performed using the Thermo-Calc software and calculation and experimental procedures based on quantitative metallographic analysis of quenched structures. After the corresponding heat treatment, the content of high-magnetic phase in the alloy is 10% higher than that in available analogous alloys.

  19. Solubility and magnetic properties enhancement in bi-phase nanostructure Cu-Fe-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, B. N.; Basumallick, A.; Nath, D. N.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve solubility and magnetic properties, the ball milling technology was used for the production of 50Cu-40Fe-10Mn (wt%) alloy. The effect of Mn content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu-Fe alloy was also investigated in detail. Microstructure and magnetic properties of the alloy were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometry. The results showed that a complete solid solution of the alloy was produced after 30 h of milling. Quantitative phase analysis of X-ray diffraction data revealed that the milled alloy obtained after isothermal annealing at 550 °C for 1 h consisted of Cu (54.52 wt%), α-Fe (36.49 wt%) and MnO (8.99 wt%). The milled alloy obtained after annealing at 450 °C for 1 h leads to the maximum values of magnetic properties such as coercivity=438 Oe, remanent magnetization=14.3 emu/g, and saturation magnetization=51 emu/g.

  20. Photoemission Electron Microscopy Study of Ultrathin FeNi Alloy Films on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yu; Johnson, Tracey; Giacomo, Jason; Chiang, Shirley; Zhu, Xiangdong; Land, Donald; Nolting, Frithjof; Scholl, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    We are studying the system of FeNi/Cu(111) to understand and control the surface/interface magnetism relevant to the application of the giant magnetoresistive effect to magnetic recording heads. We used the Photoemission Electron Microscope (PEEM2) at the Advanced Light Source to observe the domain structures of the alloy films. PEEM has the unique capability of imaging the film's magnetic structure with high spatial resolution and elemental specificity. At two different thicknesses, we have made sixteen samples and studied the dependence of magnetic structure on varying Fe concentration and substrate quality. Samples with higher Fe content were non-magnetic at room temperature. We speculate this is a structure-driven effect related to the "Invar effect" in the bulk alloy. The PEEM images clearly show that Fe and Ni form a good alloy and have the same domain structures with their magnetization aligned. Further, we find a strong thickness and concentration dependence of the magnetic domain structures.

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiTiFeAlCu High-Entropy Alloys with Exceptional Nano-precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Wang, Sibing; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Three novel NiTiFeAlCu high-entropy alloys, which consist of nano-precipitates with face-centered cubic structure and matrix with body-centered cubic structure, were fabricated to investigate microstructures and mechanical properties. With the increase in Ni and Ti contents, the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is enhanced, while the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is lowered. Plenty of dislocations can be observed in the Ni32Ti32Fe12Al12Cu12 high-entropy alloy. The size of nano-precipitates decreases with the increase in Ni and Ti contents, while lattice distortion becomes more and more severe with the increase in Ni and Ti contents. The existence of nano-precipitates, dislocations and lattice distortion is responsible for the increase in the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy, but it has an adverse influence on the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy. Ni20Ti20Fe20Al20Cu20 alloy exhibits the substantial ability of plastic deformation and a characteristic of steady flow at 850 and 1000 °C. This phenomenon is attributed to a competition between the increase in the dislocation density induced by plastic strain and the decrease in the dislocation density due to the dynamic recrystallization.

  2. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of NiTiFeAlCu High-Entropy Alloys with Exceptional Nano-precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Wang, Sibing; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Three novel NiTiFeAlCu high-entropy alloys, which consist of nano-precipitates with face-centered cubic structure and matrix with body-centered cubic structure, were fabricated to investigate microstructures and mechanical properties. With the increase in Ni and Ti contents, the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is enhanced, while the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy is lowered. Plenty of dislocations can be observed in the Ni32Ti32Fe12Al12Cu12 high-entropy alloy. The size of nano-precipitates decreases with the increase in Ni and Ti contents, while lattice distortion becomes more and more severe with the increase in Ni and Ti contents. The existence of nano-precipitates, dislocations and lattice distortion is responsible for the increase in the strength of NiTiFeAlCu alloy, but it has an adverse influence on the plasticity of NiTiFeAlCu alloy. Ni20Ti20Fe20Al20Cu20 alloy exhibits the substantial ability of plastic deformation and a characteristic of steady flow at 850 and 1000 °C. This phenomenon is attributed to a competition between the increase in the dislocation density induced by plastic strain and the decrease in the dislocation density due to the dynamic recrystallization.

  3. Recrystallization Behavior of CoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nokeun; Watanabe, Ikuto; Terada, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Liaw, Peter K.; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the recrystallization behavior of a cold-rolled CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA). Two different face-centered cubic phases having different chemical compositions and lattice constants in the as-cast specimen have different chemical compositions: One phase was the Cu-lean matrix and the other was the Cu-rich second phase. The second phase remained even after a heat treatment at 1373 K (1100 °C) and Cu enriched more in the Cu-rich second phase. The calculated mixing enthalpies of both Cu-lean and Cu-rich phases in the as-cast and heat-treated specimens explained that Cu partitioning during the heat treatment decreased the mixing enthalpy in both phases. In the specimens 90 pct cold rolled and annealed at 923 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C), recrystallization proceeded with increasing the annealing temperature, and ultrafine recrystallized grains with grain sizes around 1 μm could be obtained. The microhardness tended to decrease with increasing the fraction recrystallized, but it was found that the microhardness values of partially recrystallized specimens were much higher than those expected by a simple rule of mixture between the initial and cold-rolled specimens. The reason for the higher hardness was discussed based on the ultrafine grain size, sluggish diffusion expected in HEAs, and two-phase structure in the CoCrCuFeNi alloy.

  4. Assessment of Post-eutectic Reactions in Multicomponent Al-Si Foundry Alloys Containing Cu, Mg, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2015-07-01

    Post-eutectic reactions occurring in Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing different proportions of Cu, Mg, and Fe were thoroughly investigated in the current study. As-cast microstructures were initially studied by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the microconstituents of each alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was then used to examine the phase transformations occurring during the heating and cooling processes. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation under equilibrium and in nonequilibrium conditions. The Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was predicted to precipitate from the liquid phase, either at the same temperature or earlier than the θ-Al2Cu phase depending on the Cu content of the alloy. The AlCuFe-intermetallic, which was hardly observed in the as-cast microstructure, significantly increased after the solution heat treatment in the alloys containing high Cu and Fe contents following a solid-state transformation of the β-Al5FeSi phase. After the solution heat treatment, the AlCuFe-intermetallics were mostly identified with the stoichiometry of the Al7Cu2Fe phase. Thermodynamic calculations and microstructure analysis helped in determining the DSC peak corresponding to the melting temperature of the N-Al7Cu2Fe phase. The effect of Cu content on the formation temperature of π-Al8Mg3FeSi6 is also discussed.

  5. A NiFeCu alloy anode catalyst for direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Huaiyu; Yang, Guangming; Park, Hee Jung; Jung, Doh Won; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a new anode catalyst based on a NiFeCu alloy is investigated for use in direct-methane solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The influence of the conductive copper introduced into the anode catalyst layer on the performance of the SOFCs is systematically studied. The catalytic activity for partial oxidation of methane and coking resistance tests are proposed with various anode catalyst layer materials prepared using different methods, including glycine nitrate process (GNP), physical mixing (PM) and impregnation (IMP). The surface conductivity tests indicate that the conductivities of the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (PM) and NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalysts are considerably greater than that of NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (GNP), which is consistent with the SEM results. Among the three preparation methods, the cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer performs best on CH4-O2 fuel, especially under reduced temperatures, because the coking resistance should be considered in real fuel cell conditions. The cell containing the NiFe-ZrO2/Cu (IMP) catalyst layer also delivers an excellent operational stability using CH4-O2 fuel for 100 h without any signs of decay. In summary, this work provides new alternative anode catalytic materials to accelerate the commercialization of SOFC technology.

  6. Effect of annealing on VmHn complexes in hydrogen ion irradiated Fe and Fe-0.3%Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jin, Shuoxue; Lu, Eryang; Wang, Baoyi; Zheng, Yongnan; Yuan, Daqing; Cao, Xingzhong

    2015-04-01

    The effect of annealing on VmHn complexes and Cu precipitate behaviours in hydrogen ion irradiated Fe and Fe-0.3%Cu alloys was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy using a slow positron beam. The results of S parameters indicated that the room temperature irradiation was benefit for the formation of the VmHn complex compared to the elevated temperature irradiation. The S-W results confirmed the formation of Cu precipitates in Fe-0.3%Cu even at the irradiation dose of 0.1 dpa. The formation of the evident S value peaks in the damage region after annealing treatment suggested that the VmHn complexes were broken and a larger of hydrogen atoms were escaping. The residual vacancy defects would migrate towards both the surface region and the opposite direction with the increasing annealing temperature.

  7. Equation of State of an AlCoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gong; Xiao, Daihong; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Lijun; Liaw, Peter K.; Li, Yanchun; Liu, Riping

    2015-08-01

    The pressure-volume (P-V) relationship of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) at room temperature has been studied using in situ high-pressure energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation at high pressures. The equation of state of the AlCoCrCuFeNi HEA is determined by the calculation of the radial distribution function. The experimental results indicate that the HEA keeps a stable face-centered-cubic + body-centered-cubic structure in the experimental pressure range from 0 GPa to 24 GPa.

  8. Brazing characteristics of a Zr-Ti-Cu-Fe eutectic alloy filler metal for Zircaloy-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung G.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    A Zr-Ti-Cu-Fe quaternary eutectic alloy was employed as a new Be-free brazing filler metal for Zircaloy-4 to supersede physically vapor-deposited Be coatings used conventionally with several disadvantages. The quaternary eutectic composition of Zr58Ti16Cu10Fe16 (at.%) showing a low melting temperature range from 832 °C to 853 °C was designed by a partial substitution of Zr with Ti based on a Zr-Cu-Fe ternary eutectic system. By applying an alloy ribbon with the determined composition, a highly reliable joint was obtained with a homogeneous formation of predominantly grown α-Zr phases owing to a complete isothermal solidification, exhibiting strength higher than that of Zircaloy-4. The homogenization of the joint was rate-controlled by the diffusion of the filler elements (Ti, Cu, and Fe) into the Zircaloy-4 base metal, and the detrimental segregation of the Zr2Fe phase in the central zone was completely eliminated by an isothermal holding at a brazing temperature of 920 °C for 10 min.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  10. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe85.7Si0.5B9.5P3.5Cu0.8)99C1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (Hc)~4.5 A/m, high Bs~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60-100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors

  11. Magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-Co(Cu)-Al-B amorphous alloys prepared by nonequilibrium techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Eckert, J.; Roth, S.; Löser, W.; Ram, S.; Schultz, L.

    2002-03-01

    The amorphous alloys Nd40Fe40Co5Al8B7, Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8, and Nd57Fe20Cu5Al10B8 were prepared by copper mold casting, melt spinning, and mechanical alloying. Despite their similar x-ray diffraction patterns, samples display different magnetic and thermal behavior correlated with the method of preparation. The fully amorphous melt-spun ribbons exhibit relatively soft magnetic properties with coercivities ≈40 kA/m at room temperature and a Curie temperature (TC)≈474 K. Apparently only the mold-cast cylinders of 3 mm diameter show hard magnetic behavior with a coercivity in the range of 258-270 kA/m (depending on composition) and have approximately the same TC as that of the melt-spun ribbons. An additional magnetic transition at 585 K due to the presence of Nd2Fe14B phase in the case of Nd40Fe40Co5Al8B7 cast rod has been observed. Heat treatment above crystallization temperature in as-cast Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8 and Nd57Fe20Cu5Al10B8 samples destroys the hard magnetic properties. In contrast, mechanically alloyed amorphous samples are soft magnetic with maximum coercivity up to 11 kA/m but show an entirely different TC≈680-740 K, which is rather characteristic of an Fe solid solution. The magnetic properties are discussed in terms of different local atomic environment and cluster sizes in amorphous samples prepared by different methods.

  12. Containerless electromagnetic levitation melting of Cu-Fe and Ag-Ni alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, G. J.; Ethridge, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of producing silver or copper alloys containing finely dispersed nickel or iron particles, respectively, by utilizing containerless electromagnetic levitation casting techniques was investigated. A levitation coil was designed to successfully levitate and melt a variety of alloys including Nb-Ge, Cu-Fe, Fe-C, and Ag-Ni. Samples of 70 Cu-30 Fe and 80 Ag-20 Ni (atomic %), prepared by mechanical pressing of the constituent powders, were levitated and heated either to the solid plus liquid range of the alloys or to the fully liquid region. The samples were then solidified by passing helium gas into the bell jar or they were dropped into a quenching oil. The structure of the samples which were heated to the solid plus liquid range consists of uniform distribution of Fe or Ni particle in their respective matrices. A considerable amount of entrapped gas bubbles were contained. Upon heating for longer periods or to higher temperatures, the bubbles coalesced and burst, causing the samples to become fragmented and usually fall out of the coil.

  13. Unusual Solidification Behavior of the Suction-Cast Cu-Zr-Al-Y Alloy Doped with Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozieł, Tomasz; Cios, Grzegorz; Latuch, Jerzy; Pajor, Krzysztof; Bała, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The effect of iron addition on the microstructure of the Cu-Zr-Al-Y glass-forming alloy was studied. Despite a high superficial cooling rate, small Fe additions (1.5 and 3 pct) induced formation of crystalline CuZr and AlCu2Zr phases on the outer layers of suction-cast rods. As the melt composition near the solid/liquid interface was depleted in Fe, the remaining melt vitrified at a relatively low cooling rate.

  14. Development of FeSiBNbCu Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys with High B s and Good Manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangpei; He, Aina; Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Jiancheng; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    In order to develop Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetic flux density ( B s) and good manufacturability, the effect of the Nb content on the thermal stability, microstructural evolution and soft magnetic properties of Fe78- x Si13B8Nb x Cu1 ( x = 0, 1, 2 and 3) alloys were investigated. It is found that proper Nb addition is effective in widening the optimum annealing temperature range and refining the α-Fe grain in addition to enhancing the soft magnetic properties. For the representative Fe76 Si13B8Nb2Cu1 alloy, the effective annealing time can be over 60 min in the optimal temperature range of 500-600°C. FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with desirable soft magnetic properties including high B s of 1.39 T, low coercivity ( H c) of 1.5 A/m and high effective permeability ( μ e) of 21,500 at 1 kHz have been developed. The enhanced soft magnetic performance and manufacturability of the FeSiBNbCu nanocrystalline alloys are attributed to the high activated energy for the precipitation of α-Fe(Si) and the second phase. These alloys with excellent performance have promising applications in electromagnetic fields like inductors.

  15. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Howell, R H; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A

    2001-01-01

    Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from a high number density of nanometer sized Cu-Mn-Ni rich precipitates (CRPs) and sub-nanometer matrix features, thought to be vacancy-solute cluster complexes (VSC). However, questions exist regarding both the composition of the precipitates and the defect character and composition of the matrix features. We present results of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) characterization of irradiated and thermally aged Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn alloys. These complementary techniques provide insight into the composition and character of both types of nanoscale features. The SANS measurements indicate populations of CRPs and VSCs in both alloys. The CRPs are coarser in the Fe-Cu alloy and the number densities of CRP and VSC increase with the addition of Mn. The PAS involved measuring both the positron lifetimes and the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in the high momentum region to provide elemental sensitivity at the annihilation site. The spectra in Fe-Cu-Mn specimens thermally aged to peak hardness at 450 C and irradiated at 288 C are nearly identical to elemental Cu. Positron lifetime and spectrum measurements in Fe-Cu specimens irradiated at 288 C clearly show the existence of long lifetime ({approx}500 ps) open volume defects, which also contain Cu. Thus the SANS and PAS provide a self-consistent picture of nanostructures composed of CRPs and VSCs and tend to discount high Fe concentrations in the CRPs.

  16. Effect of prior aging and flat rooling on the structure and magnetic properties of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Co-Cu system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, B. A.; Kolchin, A. E.; Kal'ner, Yu. V.

    1986-09-01

    In alloys based on Fe-33% Cr-12% Co-2% Cu alloyed with 1% Al (alloy 2) or 1.5% Nb (alloy 3) the temperature for quenching to α-solid solution is reduced from 1050 (alloy 1) to 1000 (alloy 2) or 950°C (alloy 3). The temperature for the start of α-solid solution decomposition for the alloys is 935-640°C.

  17. Superferromagnetism in mechanically alloyed fcc Fe23Cu77 with bimodal cluster size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N. J. O.; Amaral, J. S.; Amaral, V. S.; Costa, B. F. O.; LeCaër, G.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic measurements, x-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize a nanostructured fcc Fe23Cu77 at.% alloy prepared by high-energy ball-milling, addressing in particular the effect of clustering on the nature of the interacting magnetic entities. The interpretation of magnetization measurements leads to the conclusion that grains, whose mean size is ~16 nm, contain two populations of magnetic Fe-rich nanoclusters with a bimodal size distribution. These two sets of clusters contain about 14 and 400 Fe atoms and have magnetic moments of 30 µB and 860 µB, respectively. The inter-cluster ferromagnetic interactions that lead to superferromagnetism with a Curie temperature TC~220 K can be described by a mean field determined by the smaller clusters only, which account for 90% of the magnetization.

  18. Wetting and interface phenomena in the molten Sn/CuFeNiCoCr high-entropy alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G. F.; Li, Z. K.; Ye, H.; He, C. L.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-11-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial characteristics of the molten Sn on a CuFeNiCoCr high-entropy alloy (HEA) substrate were investigated by the sessile drop method. Oxidation of the CuCoNiFeCr HEA surface inhibited the interaction between the molten Sn and the CuCoNiFeCr HEA substrate, leading to a very poor wetting at 573 K, 623 K and 673 K. However, the equilibrium contact angle decreased monotonously with the temperature increasing in the temperature range of 673-923 K. Moreover, the interfacial microstructure depended on temperature. An intermetallic compound existed at the interface between the molten Sn and the CuFeNiCoCr HEA substrate, and the interface thickness varied with the wetting temperature. The wetting process of the molten Sn on the CuFeNiCoCr HEA substrate consisted of three stages according to the wetting temperature.

  19. Composition of α- F e nanoparticles precipitated from CuFe alloy studied by hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubániová, Denisa; Cesnek, Martin; Milkovi c, Ondrej; Kohout, Jaroslav; Miglierini, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles prepared by precipitation from solid solution of saturated binary Cu-Fe alloy were studied by transmission electron microscopy, high-energy X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that the investigated as-prepared nanoparticles contained two phases. The major phase was determined as α- F e and the minor phase as γ- F e 2 O 3. Furthermore, additionally annealed samples in Ar protective atmosphere were investigated. Results showed clear decrease in contribution of α- F e phase and also revealed the presence of various iron oxides (maghemite, magnetite, hematite and wűstite).

  20. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  1. Stacking faults and structural characterization of mechanically alloyed Ni50Cu10(Fe2B)10P30 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimi, M.; Azabou, M.; Escoda, L.; Suñol, J. J.; Khitouni, M.

    2015-04-01

    The nanocrystalline NiCu(Fe2B)P alloy was prepared by mechanically alloying of the elemental powders in a high-energy ball mill under argon atmosphere. The transformations occurring in the material during milling were studied by X-ray diffraction. Microstructure parameters, such as crystallite size, microstrains, stacking faults probability, and dislocations density were determined from the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphology of the samples as a function of milling times. On further milling (40h), a nanocrystalline matrix, where nanocrystalline Fcc-Ni(Cu, Fe, P), Fe2B and Bcc-Fe(B) phases were embedded, was obtained. The phase transformations are related to the increase of dislocation and accumulation of stacking faults. The nanostructure formation caused by mechanical alloying are commonly attributed to the generation and movement of dislocations.

  2. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W .L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  3. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Zhai, W; Zhang, X M; Wei, B

    2015-11-10

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  4. Structure and properties of cast and splat-quenched high-entropy Al-Cu-Fe-Ni-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, V. F.; Kushnerov, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the composition and cooling rate of the melt on the microhardness, phase composition, and fine-structure parameters of as-cast and splat-quenched (SQ) high-entropy (HE) Al-Cu-Fe-Ni-Si alloys was studied. The quenching was performed by conventional splat-cooling technique. The cooling rate was estimated to be 106 K/s. Components of the studied HE alloys were selected taking into account both criteria for designing and estimating their phase composition, which are available in the literature and based on the calculations of the entropy and enthalpy of mixing, and the difference between atomic radii of components as well. According to X-ray diffraction data, the majority of studied Al-Cu-Fe-Ni-Si compositions are two-phase HE alloys, the structure of which consists of disordered solid solutions with bcc and fcc structures. At the same time, the Al0.5CuFeNi alloy is single-phase in terms of X-ray diffraction and has an fcc structure. The studied alloys in the as-cast state have a dendritic structure, whereas, after splat quenching, the uniform small-grained structure is formed. It was found that, as the volume fraction of bcc solid solution in the studied HE alloys increases, the microhardness increases; the as-cast HE Al-Cu-Fe-Ni-Si alloys are characterized by higher microhardness compared to that of splat-quenched alloys. This is likely due to the more equilibrium multiphase state of as-cast alloys.

  5. Effect of decomposition of the Cr-Fe-Co rich phase of AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy on magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Wanderka, N; Kiefer, K; Siemensmeyer, K; Banhart, J

    2011-05-01

    Splat-quenched, as-cast and aged (2h at 600 °C after casting) AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloys were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe (3D-AP). 3D-AP revealed anti-correlated fluctuations of the Cr and Fe-Co compositions in Cr-Fe-Co-rich regions of the as-cast alloy. The ferromagnetic behavior of AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy was correlated with the decomposition of the Cr-Fe-Co-rich regions into ferromagnetic Fe-Co-rich and antiferromagnetic Cr-rich domains, the size of which was determined by statistical analysis of 3D-AP data. The splat-quenched alloy showed a softer magnetic behavior as compared to the as-cast and aged alloys. The aged alloy possessed a higher saturation magnetization and coercivity as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  6. The Property Research on High-entropy Alloy AlxFeCoNiCuCr Coating by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoyang; Ma, Mingxing; Cao, Yangxiaolu; Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Xiaohui; Gu, Yu

    High-entropy alloys have been found to have novel microstructures and unique properties. The main method of manufacturing is vacuum arc remelting. As in situ cladding laser cladding has capability of achieving a controllable dilution ratio, fabricating highentropy alloy by laser cladding is of great significance and potential for extensive use. In this study, a novel AlxFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy system was manufactured as the thin layer of the substrate by laser cladding; also high temperature hardness, abrasion performance, corrosion nature of the AlxFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy were tested under the different ratio of aluminum. This study shows higher aluminum clad exhibit higher hardness, better abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance.

  7. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  8. Influence of surface topography on RBS measurements: case studies of (Cu/Fe/Pd) multilayers and FePdCu alloys nanopatterned by self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, M.; Perzanowski, M.; Zabila, Y.; Zarzycki, A.; Marszałek, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper the influence of surface topography on Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is discussed. (Cu/Fe/Pd) multilayers with total thickness of about 10 nm were deposited by physical vapor deposition on self-organized array of SiO2 nanoparticles with the size of 50 nm and 100 nm. As a reference, the multilayered systems were also prepared on flat substrates under the same conditions. After the deposition, morphology of the systems was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while chemical analysis was performed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It was found that the RBS spectra and determined compositions for flat and patterned multilayers differ. The difference is discussed by taking into account the effect of additional inelastic scattering and energy straggling occurring due to developed topography of patterned systems. Then, the multilayers were annealed in 600 °C in order to obtain FePdCu alloy. The phenomenon of solid-state dewetting resulted in the formation of isolated alloy islands on the top of SiO2 nanoparticles. The SEM and RBS analysis were repeated showing correlation between the size distribution of obtained alloy islands and broadening of peaks appearing in RBS spectra. Invited talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8–12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  9. From kesterite to stannite photovoltaics: Stability and band gaps of the Cu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Taizo; Goto, Yosuke; Kamihara, Yoichi; Matoba, Masanori; Yasuoka, Kenji; Burton, Lee A.; Walsh, Aron

    2014-01-01

    Kesterite semiconductors, particularly Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), have attracted attention for thin-film solar cells. We investigate the incorporation of Fe into CZTS to form the Cu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4 solid-solution for tuning the lattice spacing and band gap. First-principles calculations confirm a phase transition from kesterite (Zn-rich) to stannite (Fe-rich) at Fe/Zn ˜ 0.4. The exothermic enthalpy of mixing is consistent with the high solubility of Fe in the lattice. There is a linear band-gap bowing for each phase, which results in a blue-shift of photo-absorption for Fe-rich alloys due to the confinement of the conduction states. We propose compositions optimal for Si tandem cells.

  10. Change in magnetic properties of a cold rolled and thermally aged Fe-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. G.; Ryu, K. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Takahashi, S.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in magnetic properties of a Fe-1%Cu model alloy due to a cold rolling and a thermal aging has been evaluated to simulate the radiation damage of reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plant. The thermal aging was conducted at 500 °C with different aging times in series. The hysteresis loops, magnetic Barkhausen noise (BN) and Vickers microhardness were measured for prestrained, strained, and thermal aged samples. The coercivity increased by a plastic strain and decreased by thermal aging, The BN decreased in the prestrained and strained samples but large changes were observed in the strained sample. These results were interpreted in terms of the domain wall motion signified by a change in the mean free path associated with microinternal stress and copper rich precipitates.

  11. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  12. FePtCu alloy thin films: Morphology, L1{sub 0} chemical ordering, and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Brombacher, C.; Schletter, H.; Daniel, M.; Matthes, P.; Joehrmann, N.; Makarov, D.; Hietschold, M.; Albrecht, M.; Maret, M.

    2012-10-01

    Rapid thermal annealing was applied to transform sputter-deposited Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}/Cu bilayers into L1{sub 0} chemically ordered ternary (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} alloys with (001) texture on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. It was found that for thin film samples, which were processed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 30 s, the addition of Cu strongly favors the L1{sub 0} ordering and (001) texture formation. Furthermore, it could be revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction that the observed reduction of the ordering temperature with Cu content is accompanied by an increased amount of nucleation sites forming L1{sub 0} ordered grains. The change of the structural properties with Cu content and annealing temperature is closely related to the magnetic properties. While an annealing temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C induces strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in binary Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49} films, the addition of Cu systematically reduces the PMA. However, due to the enhancement of both the A1-L1{sub 0} phase transformation and the development of the (001) texture with increasing Cu content, lowering of the annealing temperature leads to a shift of the maximum perpendicular magnetic anisotropy towards alloys with higher Cu content. Thus, for an annealing temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C, the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy is found for the (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 91}Cu{sub 9} alloy. The smooth surface morphology, adjustable PMA, and high degree of intergranular exchange coupling make these films suitable for post-processing required for specific applications such as for sensorics or magnetic data storage.

  13. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  14. Study on the microstructures and the magnetic properties of precipitates in a Cu75-Fe5-Ni20 alloy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung; Takeda, Mahoto; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hiroi, Zenji; Kim, Geun-Woo; Bae, Dong-Sik; Lee, Chan-Gyu; Koo, Bon-Heun

    2012-02-01

    The microstructural evolutions of precipitates formed in a Cu75-Fe5-Ni20 alloy on isothermal annealing at 873 K and 1073 K have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nano-scale magnetic particles were formed randomly in the Cu-rich matrix after receiving a short annealing due to phase decomposition in the alloy. With increasing the isothermal annealing time, however, the striking features that two or more nano-scale particles with a cubic shape and a rod shape were aligned linearly along (100) directions were observed on isothermal annealing at 873 K and 1073 K, respectively. To investigate electro-magnetic properties of precipitates in a Cu-Fe-Ni alloy, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer and physical property measurement system (PPMS) were also complemented. The present study revealed significant influences that the magnetic properties of the specimens were closely related to the microstructures in the Cu-Fe-Ni alloy, which microstructures significantly depend on the isothermal annealing temperature.

  15. Improved magnetic and electrical properties of Cu doped Fe-Ni invar alloys synthesized by chemical reduction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Ziya, Amer Bashir; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Ibrahim, Ather; Atiq, Shabbar; Ahmad, Naseeb; Shakeel, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar

    2016-12-01

    Fe-Ni-Cu invar alloys of various compositions (Fe65Ni35-xCux, x=0, 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4 and 1.8) were synthesized via chemical reduction route. These alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The lattice parameter and the crystallite size of the investigated alloys were calculated and the line broadening indicated the nano-crystallites size of alloy powder. The particle size was estimated from SEM and it decreases by the incorporation of Cu and found to be in the range of 24-40 nm. The addition of Cu in these alloys appreciably enhances the saturation magnetization and it increases from 99 to 123 emu/g. Electrical conductivity has been improved with Cu addition. The thermal conductivity was calculated using the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  16. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  17. Auger electron diffraction study of Fe 1- xNi x alloys epitaxially grown on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. G.; Foy, E.; Chevrier, F.; Krill, G.; Asensio, M. C.

    1999-08-01

    We have combined Auger electron diffraction (AED), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to examine the structure of Fe xNi 1- x alloys when the Fe content approaches 65%. At this concentration, the 'invar effect' takes place, so the magnetization falls to zero, and the thermal expansion coefficient is very small. The Fe xNi 1- x alloys, grown as metastable thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(100) substrates, were studied as a function of the x stoichiometry. In contrast to the related bulk alloy compounds, we observe the collapse of the fcc-to-bcc structural transition in the Fe-rich films. Furthermore, the local atomic structure around Fe and Ni in the alloy has been simultaneously determined by the angular intensity distributions of Fe L 3VV (703 eV) and Ni L 3VV (848 eV) Auger electrons measured as a function of polar and azimuthal angles. For the films deposited at room temperature, we have confirmed the pseudomorphic growth morphology and the uniformity of the alloys.

  18. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  19. Solidification of Liquid Distributed in its Primary Matrix Phase of Al-10Cu-Fe Alloy and Their Tribological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. Sankara; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Solidification behavior of liquid phase entrained in its primary solid has been investigated. A hypoeutectic alloy based on Al-Cu-Fe system containing Fe and Si was thermal cycled between semisolid regions to low temperatures. The freezing characteristics of the liquid were recorded in inverse rate cooling curves. The continuous network of the liquid phase progressively changed into isolated droplets with their different size and size distribution. Such droplets revealed undercooling of the melt varying from 20 to 35 °C below the eutectic temperature of the alloy. This behavior of melt undercooling is discussed in light of independent nucleation events associated with freezing of droplets. Solidification structure of droplets revealed particulate eutectic phases in contrast to lamellar eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region of the as-cast alloy. The droplet distribution and their solidification structure resulted in an improvement in tribological characteristics of the alloy. This effect is correlated with features of wear surfaces generated on the matting surfaces.

  20. Analysis of Magnetic Minor Hysteresis Loops in Thermally Aged and Cold-rolled Fe-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, F.; Kobayashi, S.; Murakami, T.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron irradiation causes the formation of Cu precipitate in reactor pressure vessel steel and makes the steel susceptible to rupture. In the present study, we have examined magnetic minor hysteresis loops of Fe-1wt%Cu alloy after thermally ageing at 753 K and subsequent cold rolling to elucidate the effects of Cu precipitation on magnetic properties. Minor-loop coefficients, obtained from scaling power laws between field-dependent parameters of minor hysteresis loops, decrease with ageing time and show a local maximum around 200 min, reflecting the growth of Cu precipitates with ageing. For the alloy cold-rolled after ageing, the minor-loop properties linearly increase with reduction and show a good relationship with mechanical properties such as DBTT and hardness. These observations indicate that the analysis method using magnetic minor loops can be an useful technique of nondestructive evaluation of irradiation embrittlement and subsequent deformation hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels.

  1. Effects of Fe and Bi Minor Alloying on Mechanical, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavifard, M. H.; Sabri, M. F. M.; Said, S. M.; Shnawah, D. A.; Badruddin, I. A.; Rozali, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of adding 0.05 wt.% Fe and 1 wt.% or 2 wt.% Bi on the mechanical, thermal, and microstructural properties of Sn-0.7Cu solder alloy have been investigated. Addition of 0.05% Fe did not change the morphology of the microstructure, so the mechanical properties and melting behavior remained unchanged. Analyses showed that, besides inclusion of Fe in Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC), a few FeSn2 IMCs formed in interdendritic regions. On the other hand, addition of 2% Bi to Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Fe alloy increased the yield strength by 97%, from 19.7 MPa to 38.84 MPa. This is because addition of Bi degraded interdendritic regions by reducing the amount of Cu6Sn5 IMC particles and refining primary β-Sn dendrites. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry indicated that Bi reduced the melting temperature by 4°C from 232.2°C to 228.1°C for the 2% Bi alloy.

  2. Microstructural Modification of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloys by Fe/Bi-Addition for Achieving High Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Said, Suhana Mohd; Mahdavifard, Mohammad Hossein; Sukiman, Nazatul Liana; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we studied the Fe/Bi-bearing tin-copper (Sn-0.7Cu) solders for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The microstructure was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron (BSE) detector, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The microstructure study showed that Fe forms very few FeSn2 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and does not significantly alter the microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu, whereas Bi controls the size of inter-dendritic regions containing Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs of the alloy, as well as significantly refines its primary β-Sn dendrites. Moreover, Bi atoms dissolve in β-Sn matrix, which in turn strengthen the solder by the Bi solid solution strengthening mechanism. Such microstructural modification leads to significant improvements in various mechanical properties of the alloy, including shear strength, impact toughness, and hardness values. Shear tests were performed with a 0.25 mm/min shear speed. The results showed that shear strength improves from 16.57 MPa to 38.36 MPa with the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, raising by about 130%. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for samples with the help of a Charpy impact testing machine with a 5.4 m/s impact speed. The results revealed that the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu improves its impact absorbed energy by over 35%, increasing it from 7.5 J to 10.3 J. Vickers hardness tests were carried out for the test samples with a 245.2 mN applied load and 10 s dwell time. The results showed that the hardness number improves from 9.89 to 24.13 with Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, increasing by about 140%.

  3. Growth morphology of single-crystal grains obtained by directional crystallisation of an Al-Cu-Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surowiec, Marian; Bogdanowicz, Wlodzimierz; Krawczyk, Jacek; Formanek, Bolesław; Sozanska, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Quasicrystalline as well as crystalline faceted single grains of four phases were obtained during directional crystallisation of an Al-Cu-Fe alloy by the Bridgman technique. The monoclinic λ phase, Al13(Cu, Fe)4, dominating at high temperatures formed single-crystal lamellae 0.5 mm to 1 mm thick. A second type of attractive morphological form exhibiting flux dissolution terraces was observed on spherical single crystals of β phase Al(Fe, Cu). Rectangular, hexagonal and octagonal shaped dissolution terraces were revealed at the positions of two-, three- and four-fold symmetry axes, respectively. A single quasicrystalline ψ phase, Al6Cu2Fe, exhibited icosahedral symmetry with growth forms of a dodecahedron with pentagonal facets. The flux dissolution of the β phase apparently plays an essential role in a peritectic reaction leading to quasicrystalline ψ phase formation. Polygonal single grains of ω phase Al7Cu2Fe exhibiting tetragonal symmetry formed the fourth type of thermodynamically stable growth forms. Single grains of the ω phase crystallised in the form of pellets with an octagonal cross-section. The growth morphology of the stable phases was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the growth forms described was confirmed by X-ray microanalysis using a scanning electron microscope, whereas the phase composition was determined using electron selected area diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction.

  4. Investigation of the Enthalpy/Entropy Variation and Structure of Cu-Al-Mn-Fe Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbay, C. Aksu; Gudeloglu, S.; Genc, Z. Karagoz

    2015-04-01

    Cu-based Cu-Al-Mn-Fe shape memory alloys were produced in an arc melter under vacuum. The crystal structure of the fabricated alloys were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis results indicated that the martensitic phase of the samples have an M18R structure. The characteristic transformation temperatures, thermodynamic parameters, and the activation energy values of the samples according to Kissinger and Ozawa methods were determined by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The austenite transformation temperatures of the samples were found as , respectively. Also, the calculated activation energy values of the samples according to Kissinger and Ozawa methods are compared with each other. The effect of the presence of Al and Fe in the samples on the thermodynamic parameters is studied in this work.

  5. EXAFS study on solute precipitation in FeCu alloy induced by energetic electron bombardments and thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Y.; Yoshizaki, H.; Nakagawa, Shou; Okamoto, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Saitoh, Y.; Hori, F.; Iwase, A.

    2015-07-01

    The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement is a useful tool for the observation of local atomic arrangements around selected atoms. We performed EXAFS measurements for the electron-irradiated and the thermally-aged Fe-0.6 wt.% Cu alloy and compared the experimental result with that of the simulation by the FEFF simulation code in order to investigate the local atomic structure around Cu atoms. Cu precipitates which were produced by the thermal aging at 773 K transformed from the bcc structure to the fcc structure as the precipitates grow large enough. However, for electron-irradiated specimens, although the hardness greatly increased, the transformation of Cu precipitates from the bcc to the fcc structure was not clearly confirmed. This result indicates that small sized Cu precipitates which had the bcc structure were produced by the electron irradiation and they could hardly coarsen during the irradiation.

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC MICROWAVE PROPERTIES OF Fe82B17Cu1 BALL MILLED ALLOY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, N.; Fan, X. D.; Wang, J. W.; You, C. Y.; Lu, Z. X.; Ge, L. L.

    2013-07-01

    High saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy are helpful for getting a high frequency electromagnetic microwave absorption performance. The α-Fe possesses a high saturation magnetization. Fe-B phases exhibit a relatively higher magnetic anisotropy and higher resistivity than α-Fe simultaneously. In this work, we made nanocrystalline powders of Fe82B17Cu1, mainly consisting of α-Fe and Fe2B phases, by ball milling and post-annealing. Electromagnetic microwave characterization shows that Fe82B17Cu1 powders possess a relative high permeability and considerable permittivity. Due to a good electromagnetic impedance matching, a good electromagnetic microwave absorption property (RL < -35 dB) has been achieved at 3.6 GHz. The experimental frequency and the matching thickness are coincident with the quarter wavelength matching condition.

  7. Electrical resistivity measurement of Fe-0.6%Cu alloy irradiated by neutrons at 14-19 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Yokotani, T.; Sato, K.; Hori, F.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical resistivity measurement is a useful experimental method for investigating the recovery of defects that are induced by irradiation in metals and alloys. In this study, an Fe-0.6%Cu alloy, used to model steel from old commercial reactor pressure vessels, was irradiated by neutrons at a low temperature range of 14-19 K with a dose of about 1.3 × 1020 neutrons/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR); electrical resistivity measurement was performed during irradiation and after annealing of the irradiated sample from 20 K to 300 K to investigate the migration of point defects in the Fe-0.6%Cu alloy. The electrical resistivity was measured at 14-19 K. With the increase in the irradiation dose, the electrical resistivity increased linearly. Four peaks appeared at 70 K, 100 K, 150 K, and 260 K, in the change of electrical resistivity during annealing of the irradiated sample up to 300 K. The former two peaks were caused by the recombination of interstitials and vacancies, and the latter two peaks were caused by the formation of interstitial clusters and the migration of vacancies. Compared with previous electron irradiation results, the former two peaks represent new data, as does the ratio of recombination caused by close-pair and correlation to that caused by migrations of mixed-interstitials Fe-Cu and vacancies decreased in neutron irradiation.

  8. Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter deposition

    DOE PAGES

    An, Zhinan; Jia, Haoling; Wu, Yueying; ...

    2015-05-04

    The concept of high configurational entropy requires that the high-entropy alloys (HEAs) yield single-phase solid solutions. However, phase separations are quite common in bulk HEAs. A five-element alloy, CrCoCuFeNi, was deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering and confirmed to be a single-phase solid solution through the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the solid-solution phase is presumed to be due to the high cooling rate of the sputter-deposition process.

  9. Dependence of the specific features of two PAPVD methods: Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) and Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (PMS) on the structure of Fe-Cu alloy layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Chodun, Rafal; Nietubyc, Robert; Minikayev, Roman; Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the study of the structural properties of the alloy layers prepared by two different, impulsively working PAPVD methods: the Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (PMS) and the Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD). The Fe-Cu alloy layers were synthesized. The results of our investigation revealed a nanocrystalline structure of the layers. The differences in the phase composition of the Fe-Cu alloy layers produced by these two methods were observed. The synthesis of the Fe-Cu layers by using the Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering method resulted in obtaining the two-phase, polycrystalline structures (fcc-Cu and bcc-Fe). In this case the clear evidence of mixing between the iron and copper atoms was not observed. The Fe-Cu layers deposited by the Impulse Plasma Deposition method were characterized by the non-equilibrium phase composition - the presence of one-phase supersaturated solid solution (fcc-Cu(Fe) or bcc-Fe(Cu)) was formed in immiscible systems. These results suggest a short-distance diffusion between the neighboring nanoparticles of the two metals (Cu and Fe) occurring during the IPD layers growth.

  10. Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekdim, Atef; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-04-01

    increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena.

  11. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu0.8(Fe1 - xCox)0.2 alloy powders manufactured by a mechanical alloying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yong Goo; Yu, Seong Cho; Kim, Won Tae

    1996-04-01

    Changes in structural and magnetic properties during mechanical alloying and heat treatment were studied in Cu0.8(Fe1-xCox)0.2 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) alloys using x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetometry. Supersaturated solid solutions with a fcc crystal structure were obtained in all alloys by mechanical alloying. The grain sizes of the solid solutions were about 20 nm. Magnetization of the supersaturated solid solutions could be explained by a mixture of two types of particles showing paramagnetism and ferromagnetism. The variation in magnetization with Co content in the solutions was similar to the Slater-Pauling curve. Fe-Co with a bcc structure precipitates during annealing of the Cu0.8Fe0.1Co0.1 alloy. With increasing annealing temperature ferromagnetic behavior becomes dominant due to a coarsening of the precipitates.

  12. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  13. Influence of the milling conditions on the magnetoresistive properties of a Cu 80(Fe 0.7Co 0.3) 20 granular alloy elaborated by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J. M.

    2005-04-01

    High-energy ball milling was used to prepare a magnetoresistive granular alloy composed of Fe 70Co 30 magnetic clusters dispersed in a Cu matrix. Two milling processes were tested. The first process consists of milling a mixture of pure Cu, Fe and Co powders. The second process consists of milling a mixture of Cu and Fe 70Co 30 powders. The first milling process leads to the formation of a Cu-Fe-Co solid solution after 20 h of milling. This solid solution was subjected to annealing treatments to obtain a granular structure. After annealing at 415 °C for 1 h, the magnetoresistance reaches its optimum (16% at 5 K). With the second process, the Fe 70Co 30 phase is directly dispersed in the Cu matrix. After 20 h of milling, the structure of the powder is similar to that obtained from the first process followed by annealing at 415 °C, but the magnetoresistance is lower (5% at 5 K).

  14. Sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co Alloy to Matte Phase by Carbothermic Reduction of Calcium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eui Hyuk; Nam, Chul Woo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) is proposed as an alternative sulfur source to convert the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy to the matte phase. Solid carbon was used as a reducing agent and the influence of oxide fluxes on the sulfurization efficiency at 1673 K (1400 °C) in a CO-CO2-SO2-Ar atmosphere was investigated. When CaSO4 was equilibrated with the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy without any reducing agent, it was reduced by Fe in the liquid alloy, resulting in the formation of FeS. The sulfurization efficiency was about 56 pct, even though an excess amount of CaSO4 (gypsum equivalent, G eq = 1.7) was added. Adding solid carbon as the reducing agent significantly shortened the equilibration time from 36 to 3.5 hours and increased the sulfurization efficiency from 56 to 91 pct, even though the amount of carbon was lower than the theoretical equivalent for carbothermic reduction of CaSO4, viz. C eq = 0.7. Although CaS (not FeS) was formed as a primary reaction product, it continuously reacted with CaSO4, forming CaO-rich slag. Neither the carbothermic reduction time nor the sulfurization efficiency were affected by the addition of Al2O3 (-SiO2) fluxes, but the equilibration time fell to 2.5 hours with the addition of Al2O3-Fe2O3 flux because the former systems produced primarily calcium silicate and calcium aluminate, which have relatively high melting points, whereas the latter system produced calcium ferrite, which has a lower melting point. Consequently, calcium sulfate (waste gypsum) can replace expensive pure sulfur as a raw material in the sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy with small amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3) as a flux material. The present results can be used to improve the recovery of rare metals, such as Ni and Co, from deep sea manganese nodules.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of amorphous and nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schmool, D.S.; Gorria, P.; Barandiaran, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    Alloys with composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 22.5{minus}x}B{sub x}, where x=6 and 9, have been studied from the as-cast state, through various stages of crystallization, in annealing range of 300{endash}650{degree}C, by the technique of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The annealing was performed isothermally at preset temperatures to produce nanocrystalline structures in an amorphous matrix. Both the nanocrystalline structures and the surrounding amorphous matrix are ferromagnetic, and will therefore contribute to the FMR spectra. The spectral features, resonance field, intensity, and linewidth have been used to characterize the structurally related changes in the sample during the crystallization process. The major changes in the spectra are observed to occur in the region of the crystallization peak in the differential thermal analysis curves for these samples. The FMR spectra exhibit a complex in-plane angular variation, which is understood in terms of preferential orientation of the magnetization vector in the direction of the ribbon, and shape effects. The square cut samples give rise to multipeaked spectra when the external magnetic field is applied in an {open_quotes}off-square{close_quotes} direction. This is the first report of the appearance of a second resonance feature of this type. This is explained as arising from the magnetic confinement of the nanocrystallites in the amorphous matrix, producing spin waves localized at the interface of the two phases. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  17. Effect of Nb and Cu on the crystallization behavior of under-stoichiometric Nd-Fe-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, D.; Martín-Cid, A.; Madugundo, R.; Garitaonandia, J. S.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a complete study of the influence of Nb and Cu addition on the crystallization behavior of Nd-lean Nd-Fe-B melt-spun alloys. Alloys with compositions Nd10-x-y Fe84B6Nb x Cu y (x  =  1, y  =  0 and x  =  0.5, y  =  0.5) were melt-spun at different wheel speeds (15-40 m s-1) to obtain samples in amorphous, highly disordered and nanocrystalline structures. The crystallization process, induced by different heat treatments, was studied by means of differential thermal analysis and x-ray powder thermodiffraction. Magnetic properties of as-made and heat-treated ribbons were measured by magnetometry. The as-made amorphous samples showed a crystallization to the 2:14:1 hard magnetic phase at T 1 ~ 350 °C. Doping with Nb results in an increase of T 1, and addition of Cu lowers T 1. This behavior is explained in terms of an inhibition of grain growth by Nb and a nucleation enhancement by Cu additions. During the crystallization process, a secondary phase (identified as a bcc-Fe-rich phase) is formed. The amount of such a phase increases with the annealing temperature. Coercivity increases upon annealing reaching maxima at 700-750 °C. This can be explained in terms of competition between the two phases formed: the 2:14:1 hard phase and the soft bcc-Fe-rich phase. The highest coercivity of the Nd-lean samples is observed when the microstructure is appropriate and both phases are exchange-coupled.

  18. Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-10-01

    Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

  19. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  20. Non-isothermal kinetic parameters and models of crystallization for amorphous Fe-Co-Nb-Cu-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang; Liang, Difei

    2013-02-01

    The non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements are often used to study kinetics of amorphous alloys. However non-isothermal kinetic parameters and models of amorphous alloy crystallization process were unclear. In our research, amorphous (FexCo1-x)NbCuB (x=0.33, 0.5 and 0.75) alloys were produced in the form of ribbon by a single roller melt-spinning method. DSC curves at heating rate 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 K/min were obtained. Kissinger, Ozawa and model-free methods obtain identical activation energies at each exothermic peak of all compositions. We conclude that first exothermic reaction is determined by the migration activation energy of Fe or Co atom; second reaction determined by the energy between parent and product boride phases; and the third reaction determined by the energy between parent α-FeCo phase and product bcc-Fe/fcc-Co phases. We hypothesized a non-isothermal kinetic modelf(α)=α(1, which fit our experiment results well. In this model, m depends on nucleus shape and growth dimension, and n are determined by lattice positions participated in new phase formation.

  1. Exact ab initio transport coefficients in bcc Fe-X (X=Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, Si) dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Luca; Nastar, Maylise; Garnier, Thomas; Domain, Christophe; Olsson, Pär

    2014-09-01

    Defect-driven diffusion of impurities is the major phenomenon leading to formation of embrittling nanoscopic precipitates in irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Diffusion depends strongly on the kinetic correlations that may lead to flux coupling between solute atoms and point defects. In this work, flux coupling phenomena such as solute drag by vacancies and radiation-induced segregation at defect sinks are systematically investigated for six bcc iron-based dilute binary alloys, containing Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, and Si impurities, respectively. First, solute-vacancy interactions and migration energies are obtained by means of ab initio calculations; subsequently, self-consistent mean field theory is employed in order to determine the exact Onsager matrix of the alloys. This innovative multiscale approach provides a more complete treatment of the solute-defect interaction than previous multifrequency models. Solute drag is found to be a widespread phenomenon that occurs systematically in ferritic alloys and is enhanced at low temperatures (as for instance RPV operational temperature), as long as an attractive solute-vacancy interaction is present, and that the kinetic modeling of bcc alloys requires the extension of the interaction shell to the second-nearest neighbors. Drag occurs in all alloys except Fe(Cr); the transition from dragging to nondragging regime takes place for the other alloys around (Cu, Mn, Ni) or above (P, Si) the Curie temperature. As far as only the vacancy-mediated solute migration is concerned, Cr depletion at sinks is foreseen by the model, as opposed to the other impurities which are expected to enrich up to no less than 1000 K. The results of this study confirm the current interpretation of the hardening processes in ferritic-martensitic steels under irradiation.

  2. Preparation of soft magnetic films of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy by facing targets sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Masahiko; Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Ichihara, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    1998-06-01

    Soft magnetic thin films of nanocrystalline Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy were deposited using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) apparatus. It was found that the Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B single layers thinner than 100 nm revealed good soft magnetic properties, of which the saturation magnetization 4πMs and the relative permeability μr were 11.3 kG and 500, respectively. However, when these films were thicker than 100 nm, their soft magnetic properties degraded due to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand, the soft magnetic properties of the post-annealed films were improved owing to the release of stress in the films. Especially, μr of the post-annealed films with thickness of 120 nm increased drastically up to around 6200. Furthermore, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B/Al multilayers revealed superior soft magnetic properties due to the magnetostatic coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers. These multilayers post-annealed at 300 °C revealed softer magnetic properties than single layers. They exhibited very low coercivity Hc of 0.63 Oe, large 4πMs of 13.2 kG and high μr of 4600.

  3. Local atomic structure investigation of AlFeCuCrMgx (0.5, 1, 1.7) high entropy alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulik, Ornov; Patra, N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-02-01

    The present paper reports local atomic structure investigation of novel AlFeCuCrMgx (x=0.5, 1, 1.7) high entropy alloys (HEAs) produced by mechanical alloying using Fe, Cr and Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. XANES spectra measured at Fe and Cr K-edges resemble that of the respective pure metal foils, while the spectrum measured at Cu K-edge manifests the presence of some other phases in the as-milled alloys. The radial distribution functions (RDFs) obtained from Fourier transformation of EXAFS spectra support the formation of disordered BCC structure.

  4. THERMODYNAMICS OF FE-CU ALLOYS AS DESCRIBED BY A CLASSIC POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, A; Caro, M; Lopasso, E M; Turchi, P A; Farkas, D

    2005-04-14

    The Fe-Cu system is of relevance to the nuclear industry because of the deleterious consequences of Cu precipitates in the mechanical properties of Fe. Several sets of classical potentials are used in molecular dynamics simulations studies of this system, in particular that proposed by Ludwig et al. (Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 6, 19 (1998)). In this work we extract thermodynamic information from this interatomic potentials. We obtain equilibrium phase diagram and find a reasonable agreement with the experimental phases in the regions of relevance to radiation damage studies. We compare the results with the predicted phase diagram based on other potential, as calculated in previous work. We discuss the disagreements found between the phase diagram calculated here and experimental results, focusing on the pure components and discuss the applicability of these potentials; finally we suggest an approach to improve existing potentials for this system.

  5. Magnetic properties of Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystalline magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia del Muro, M.; Batlle, X.; Zquiak, R.; Tejada, J.; Polak, C.; Groessinger, R.

    1994-03-01

    Several ribbons of composition Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 16.5}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} were prepared by annealing the as-quenched samples between 525 C and 700 C, which induced nucleation of nanocrystallites of Fe bcc-type composition. Mean grain sizes were obtained from X-ray diffraction. Static magnetic properties were measured with both a Magnet Physik Hysteresis-Graph (up to 200 Oe) and a SHE S.Q.U.I.D. Magnetometer (up to 50 kOe). Soft magnetic parameters (coercive field and initial permeability) were very sensitive to grain size. The ZFC magnetization at low field showed a broad peak at a temperature T{sub M}, thus signaling a certain distribution of nanocrystalline sizes, and T{sub M} strongly decreased when the mean grain size decreased. Isothermal magnetization curves at low temperature showed the expected asymptotic behavior of a random magnet material at low and high fields.

  6. EXAFS Studies and Microwave Magnetic Properties of FeGaB Thin Films and FeCuZr Ball-Milled Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinsheng

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is a spectroscopic technique which can investigate the physical and chemical structure of materials at the atomic scale. X-rays are applied in this technique to be near and above the binding energy of a particular core electronic level of a particular atomic species. Over the last decades, XAFS has emerged as a highly informative probe of the local structure around selected atomic species in solids, liquids, and molecular gases. It offers both element specificity and local structure sensitivity. Foremost among its strengths are its ability to probe the local atomic environments of different elements in the sample by selecting the corresponding incident X-ray energy. In the first part of this thesis, FeGaB alloys, which are of value as soft magnetic materials having relatively large magnetostriction coefficient, were fabricated in which varying amounts of boron were added to the host FeGa alloy to investigate its impact upon local atomic structure and magnetic and microwave properties. The impact of B upon the local atomic structure in FeGaB films were investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. EXAFS fitting results revealed a contraction of lattice parameters with the introduction of B. The Debye-Waller factor determined from EXAFS fitting gradually increases as a function of boron addition and abruptly increases during the structural evolution from crystalline to amorphous. Upon the onset of this transition the static and microwave magnetic properties became exceptionally softer, with values of coercivity and ferromagnetic linewidth reducing dramatically. In the second part of this thesis, metastable alloys of the composition FeCuZr were synthesized by high energy ball milling and measured by EXAFS . The fitting results demonstrate that nanocrystalline or amorphous alloys have been obtained depending on the Zr content.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on Morphology of Fe-Rich Intermetallics in Hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu-Ni Alloy with 1.26 pct Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Meng; Wu, Shusen; Wan, Li; Lü, Shulin

    2013-12-01

    Cobalt is generally considered as the element that can neutralize the negative effects of iron in Al alloys, such as inducing fracture and failure for stress concentration. Nevertheless, Fe-rich intermetallics would be inclined to form coarse plate-like δ-Al4(Fe, Co, Ni)Si2 particles when the content of Fe was high, which could also cause inferior mechanical properties. The dissolution and transformation of δ-Al4(Fe, Co, Ni)Si2 phase in solution heat-treated samples of Al-20Si-1.85Cu-1.05Ni-1.26Fe-1.35Co alloy were studied using optical microscopy, image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of solution heat treatment time ranging from 0 to 9 hours at 783.15 K (510 °C) on mechanical properties were also investigated. The coarse plate-like δ-Al4(Fe, Co, Ni)Si2 particles varied slowly through concurrent dissolution along widths and at the plate tips as solution treatment time increased, which could be explained from diffusion-induced grain boundary migration. Solution heat treatment also has an important influence on mechanical properties. The maximum ultimate tensile strength and yield strength after T6 treatment were 258 and 132 MPa, respectively, while the maximum hardness was 131 HB. Compared with those of the samples in the as-cast state, they increased by 53, 42, and 28 pct, respectively. Moreover, δ-Al4(Fe, Co, Ni)Si2 phase, which appears as a coarse plate-like particle in two dimensions, is actually a cuboid in three dimensions. The length of this cuboid is close to the width, while the height is much smaller.

  8. Effect of the substitution of Fe by Co on the magnetic properties and microstructure of nanocrystalline (Fe 1-xCo x) 86Hf 7B 6Cu 1 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiubing; Ferenc, Jarosław; Kulik, Tadeusz; Slawska-Waniewska, Anna; Xu, Binshi

    2004-12-01

    (Fe1-xCox)86Hf7B6Cu1 (x = 0 - 1) alloys were investigated as candidates for soft magnetic materials for elevated temperature applications. The lattice parameter of nanoscale precipitate decreases with the increasing of Co content because of the large Co solubility in the α (α‧) -Fe(Co) solid solution. However, it is a little larger than that of the crystalline phase in the Fe(Co) binary alloy. The Curie temperature of amorphous alloys studied monotonously increases with the increase of Co content. The nanocrystallized alloy with Co content of x = 0.4 exhibits both the higher magnetization and lower coercivity at the elevated temperature, being the optimum alloy among the alloys studied for high temperature applications.

  9. Tribological Properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 High-Entropy Alloy in Different Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Shengguo; Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Teng; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihua; Qiao, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the environmental effect on the mechanical behavior of high-entropy alloys, the tribological properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 are studied systematically in dry, simulated rainwater, and deionized water conditions against the Si3N4 ceramic ball at a series of different normal loads. The present study shows that both the friction and wear rate in simulated rainwater are the lowest. The simulated rainwater plays a significant role in the tribological behavior with the effect of forming passive film, lubricating, cooling, cleaning, and corrosion. The wear mechanism in simulated rainwater is mainly adhesive wear accompanied by abrasive wear as well as corrosive wear. In contrast, those in dry condition and deionized water are abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and surface plastic deformation. Oxidation contributes to the wear behavior in dry condition but is prevented in liquid condition. In addition, the phase diagram of Al x CrCuFeNi2 is predicted using CALPHAD modeling, which is in good agreement with the literature report and the present study.

  10. Nanocrystalline Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 alloys: Soft magnets for vehicle electrification technologies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipling, K. E.; Daniil, M.; Willard, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the effect of substituting Co and Ni for Fe on the crystallization behavior, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 (x = 0-22.00). The magnetization generally decreases and the coercivity increases with increasing x, whereas the Curie temperature of the amorphous phase increases significantly (from 73 °C at x = 0 to 570 °C at x = 22.00). There is thus an optimum composition near x = 5.50 exhibiting excellent soft magnetic properties at 300-500 °C. The higher magnetization and Curie temperature as compared with Fe-based alloys, and smaller Co content as compared with (Fe,Co)-based alloys, make this alloy attractive as an affordable high-temperature soft magnetic material.

  11. Structure-Property Relationship of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe Shape Memory Alloys in Different Quenching Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of heat treatments using various quenching media on the phase transformation parameters and microstructure parameters. The effects of different quenching methods, step-quenched and up-quenched, in various media were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry, field emission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vicker's hardness. The variations of the structure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe shape memory alloys were linked to the variations of morphology, type, and stabilization of the obtained phase. From the DSC results, the use of ice water as a quenching medium produced the highest transformation temperatures, while a brine solution-quenching medium resulted in the highest change of the entropy and enthalpy. Additionally, it was found that the best grain refinement was observed through the use of an oil-quenching medium, due to its high cooling rate.

  12. Influence of ECAP on Densification Behaviour in the PM Aluminium Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Fe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidulská, Jana; Kvačkaj, Tibor; Kočiško, Róbert; Bidulský, Róbert; Grande, Marco Actis

    2010-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to show how ECAP influences the densification behaviour of PM aluminium alloys. An aluminium based powder (Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Fe) was used as material to be investigated. After applying different compacting pressures, specimens were dewaxed in a ventilated furnace at 400 °C for 60 min. Sintering was carried out in a vacuum furnace at 610 °C for 30 min. The specimens were ECAPed for 1 pass. Optical characterization was carried out on the minimum of 10 different image fields. The results were measured for each pore individually in order to describe the dimensional and morphological porosity characteristics. ECAP influences the porosity distribution in terms of the severe shear deformation involved.

  13. Nature of the interfaces between the constituent phases in the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl.

    PubMed

    Welk, Brian A; Williams, Robert E A; Viswanathan, Gopal B; Gibson, Mark A; Liaw, Peter K; Fraser, Hamish L

    2013-11-01

    The interfaces between the phase separated regions in the dendritic grains of laser-deposited samples of the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl have been studied using aberration-corrected analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). The compositional variations have been determined using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in (S)TEM. It was found that between B2, consisting mainly of Al, Ni, Co, and Fe, and disordered bcc phase, consisting mainly of Cr and Fe, there is a transition region, approximately 1.5 nm in width, over which the chemical composition changes from the B2 to that of the bcc phase. The crystal structure of this interfacial region is also B2, but with very different sublattice occupancy than that of the adjacent B2 compound. The structural aspects of the interface between the ordered B2 phase and the disordered bcc phase have been characterized using high angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in STEM. It has been determined that the interfaces are essentially coherent, with the lattice parameters of the two B2 regions and the disordered bcc phase being more or less the same, the uncertainty arising from possible relaxations from the proximity of the surfaces of the thin foils used in imaging of the microstructures. Direct observations show that there is a planar continuity between all three constituent phases.

  14. Elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys studied by the combinatorial thin film approach and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Reeh, S; Kasprzak, M; Klusmann, C D; Stalf, F; Music, D; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Schneider, J M

    2013-06-19

    The elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn-X (X = Cr, Co, Ni, Cu) alloys with additions of up to 8 at.% X were studied by combinatorial thin film growth and characterization and by ab initio calculations using the disordered local moments (DLM) approach. The lattice parameter and Young's modulus values change only marginally with X. The calculations and experiments are in good agreement. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of transition metal alloyed Fe-Mn can be predicted by the DLM model.

  15. Morphology, structural and thermal characterization of nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimi, M.; Suñol, J. J.; Khitouni, M.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical alloying process has been used to prepare nanocrystalline Ni50Cu30(Fe2B)10P10 alloy from powder mixture. The transformations occurring in the material during milling were studied with the use of X-ray diffraction. In addition, lattice microstrain, average crystallite size, dislocation density and the lattice parameter were determined. The patterns so obtained were analyzed using the Maud program. The final product of the mechanical alloying process after 30h of milling was nanocrystalline Ni, Cu3P and Fe2B phases with a mean crystallite size in the range of a few nanometers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the morphology of the samples as a function of milling times. Thermal behaviour of the milled powders was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  16. Magnetic entropy change in amorphous and partially crystallized Fe-Mo-Cu-B alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świerczek, Jan; Kupczyk, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Microstructure of the amorphous Fe76Mo10Cu1B13 ribbons in the as-quenched state and after the annealing at 723 K for 0.5 h is studied by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the as-cast state α-Fe medium range ordered (MRO) regions are revealed and become the nuclei of crystalline grains. Nanograins 6 nm in the average diameter are observed in the sample subjected to the heat treatment. Mössbauer spectrum at 300 K of the annealed sample is decomposed into three subspectra ascribed to the amorphous paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases and interface. At room temperature nanograins do not contribute to the spectra in the form of a single sextet due to magnetic relaxations. At 77 K the single sextet can be evidently introduced and its hyperfine parameters indicate the existence of the α-Fe(Mo) crystalline phase. The Curie point (TC) of the amorphous phase in the annealed samples shifts from 277 K in the as-cast state to 320 K after the annealing. The maximum of the magnetic entropy change (- ΔSM) in the as-quenched state occurs at temperature around TC of the amorphous phase and distinctly decreases after the annealing and shifts towards higher temperature but lower than TC of the amorphous remainder. - ΔSM in the superparamagnetic temperature range, i.e. above the Curie temperature of the amorphous phase obeys the phenomenological relation: - ΔSM = a(T)Bm / T + b B.m 2 / (T - Θ) 2 . The excellent | ΔSM | × Bm-2 = f(Bm-1) linear dependences for both, as-quenched and annealed samples are observed.

  17. Elevated-Temperature Corrosion of CoCrCuFeNiAl0.5Bx High-Entropy Alloys in Simulated Syngas Containing H2S

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N; Nielsen, Benjamin C; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-01

    High-entropy alloys are formed by synthesizing five or more principal elements in equimolar or near equimolar concentrations. Microstructure of the CoCrCuFeNiAl{sub 0.5}B{sub x} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1) high-entropy alloys under investigation is composed of a mixture of disordered bcc and fcc phases and borides. These alloys were tested gravimetrically for their corrosion resistance in simulated syngas containing 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 % H{sub 2}S at 500 °C. The exposed coupons were characterized using XRD and SEM. No significant corrosion was detected at 500 °C in syngas containing 0 and 0.01 % H{sub 2}S while significant corrosion was observed in syngas containing 0.1 and 1 % H{sub 2}S. Cu{sub 1.96}S was the primary sulfide in the external corrosion scale on the low-boron high-entropy alloys, whereas FeCo{sub 4}Ni{sub 4}S{sub 8} on the high-boron high-entropy alloys. Multi-phase Cu-rich regions in the low-B high-entropy alloys were vulnerable to corrosive attack.

  18. Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ∼20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ∼31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled

  19. Effect of aluminum on fine structure and distribution of chemical elements in high-entropy alloys Al x FeNiCoCuCr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Makarenko, S. Yu.; Volosevich, P. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    Electron-microscopic and X-ray diffraction methods have been used to study the fine structure of cast high-entropy alloys (HEAs) Al x FeNiCoCuCr ( x = 1, 1.5, 1.8). Disperse precipitates with dimensions of 130-400 and 10-20 nm have been revealed, the character of distribution of which, as well as the amounts, dimensions, and shapes, change with increasing aluminum content. In the equiatomic HEA, copper-containing particles with an fcc structure have been found; in the alloy with x = 1.8, particles of bcc Al4Cu9 dominate. It has been shown that the most uniform distribution over the matrix is characteristic of Co, unlike other elements, among which Cu and Cr are distributed in the alloy extremely nonuniformly and predominantly enter into the precipitated particles and into clusters in the interparticle spaces, respectively.

  20. Evolution of fcc Cu clusters and their structure changes in the soft magnetic Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 (NANOMET) and FINEMET alloys observed by X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Nishijima, M.; Takenaka, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Ofuchi, H.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    It is known that Cu plays an essential role in reducing the grain size of precipitated bcc Fe(Si) nanocrystallites in a nanocrystalline soft-magnetic Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 (NANOMET®) alloys like as an Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 (FINEMET®). However, significant differences are there between two alloys; NANOMET has much higher iron content (˜85%) than FINEMET (73.5%) and the former contains P instead of Nb for the latter. In the present work, the local structure around Cu in FINEMET was measured by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) at 20 K and compared with those of NANOMET during nanocrystallization. Definite differences between NANOMET and FINEMET are found in the way of the evolution of Cu clusters during nanocrystallization. In FINEMET, an fcc structure of Cu is recognized in an as-quenched ribbon indicating existence of a small number of Cu clusters or a very small size of Cu clusters which is stable up to 450 °C, while the fcc Cu clusters are developed rapidly above 450 °C. An fcc structure of the Cu clusters in FINEMET is retained all the way to the end of the nanocrystallization. On the contrary, for NANOMET the local structure around Cu changes in a sequence as "amorphous → fcc → bcc → fcc" by annealing. The reasons of such different behaviors of the local structure around Cu during nanocrystallization are discussed in terms of different contributions of Cu clusters in bcc Fe precipitation between FINEMET and NANOMET. A significantly fast crystallization process with an extraordinary large heat release can be another reason for the transition of the local structure around Cu from fcc to bcc for NANOMET.

  1. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of the Effect of Mn on the Nanostructural Features formed in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Glade, S C; Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A; Howell, R H

    2003-02-27

    The size, number density and composition of the nanometer defects responsible for the hardening and embrittlement in irradiated Fe-0.9wt.% Cu and Fe-0.9wt.% Cu-1.0wt% Mn model reactor pressure vessel alloys were measured using small angle neutron scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopy. These alloys were irradiated at 290 C to relatively low neutron fluences (E > 1 MeV, 6.0 x 10{sup 20} to 4.0 x 10{sup 21} n/m{sup 2}) in order to study the effect of manganese on the nucleation and growth of copper rich precipitates and secondary defect features. Copper rich precipitates were present in both alloys following irradiation. The Fe-Cu-Mn alloy had smaller precipitates and a larger number density of precipitates, suggesting Mn segregation at the iron matrix-precipitate interface which reduces the interfacial energy and in turn the driving force for coarsening. Mn also retards the precipitation kinetics and inhibits large vacancy cluster formation, suggesting a strong Mn-vacancy interaction which reduces radiation enhanced diffusion.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to quinary Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, A. Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-07

    Fe-based Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15}, Fe{sub 84}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 82}Si{sub 2}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, and Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} (NANOMET{sup ®}) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (B{sub s}) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔH{sub x1} and ΔH{sub x2}) and their crystallization temperatures (T{sub x1} and T{sub x2}), respectively. The ratio ΔH{sub x1}/ΔH{sub x2} measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (V{sub f}) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to 0.75 for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (G{sub α-Fe} and G{sub amor}) shows that a relationship G{sub α-Fe} ∼ G{sub amor} holds for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, whereas G{sub α-Fe} < G{sub amor} for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy at T{sub x1} and that an extremely high V{sub f} = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B

  3. Crystallization Kinetics of Fe76.5-x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x (x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyo Yun; Stoica, Mihai; Yi, Seonghoon; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    The influence of Cu on crystallization kinetics of Fe76.5-x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x (x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) bulk amorphous alloys was investigated by isothermal and isochronal differential scanning calorimetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The thermal analysis revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous matrix proceeds through at least two exothermic events. The Cu-free glassy alloy forms by primary crystallization the metastable Fe23C6 phase, while upon 0.5 at. pct Cu addition the primary crystallized phase is α-Fe. The activation energy for crystallization, calculated using both Kissinger and Ozawa methods, decreases from about 500 kJ/mol to about 330 kJ/mol. Further increase of Cu addition to 1 at. pct promotes the concomitant crystallization of several phases, as α-Fe, FeB, Fe3C, and Fe2P. In order to understand the crystallization behavior of the alloys as a function of Cu content, the Avrami exponent n, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, was in details analyzed. The current study reveals that the minor Cu addition plays a crucial role at the initial stage of the crystallization. Among the studied alloys, the glassy samples with 0.5 at. pct Cu addition have the optimum compositional condition for the single α-Fe formation with a high nucleation rate.

  4. Crystallization Kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyo Yun; Stoica, Mihai; Yi, Seonghoon; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The influence of Cu on crystallization kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) bulk amorphous alloys was investigated by isothermal and isochronal differential scanning calorimetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The thermal analysis revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous matrix proceeds through at least two exothermic events. The Cu-free glassy alloy forms by primary crystallization the metastable Fe23C6 phase, while upon 0.5 at. pct Cu addition the primary crystallized phase is α-Fe. The activation energy for crystallization, calculated using both Kissinger and Ozawa methods, decreases from about 500 kJ/mol to about 330 kJ/mol. Further increase of Cu addition to 1 at. pct promotes the concomitant crystallization of several phases, as α-Fe, FeB, Fe3C, and Fe2P. In order to understand the crystallization behavior of the alloys as a function of Cu content, the Avrami exponent n, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, was in details analyzed. The current study reveals that the minor Cu addition plays a crucial role at the initial stage of the crystallization. Among the studied alloys, the glassy samples with 0.5 at. pct Cu addition have the optimum compositional condition for the single α-Fe formation with a high nucleation rate.

  5. Core-shell heterostructures of SnM (M = (Fe, Ni, and Cr) or Cu) alloy nanowires @ CNTs on metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Cai, Mei; Balogh, Michael P.; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-04-01

    Sn alloy nanowires encapsulated in carbon nanotubes (SnM (M = (Fe, Ni, and Cr) or Cu) @ CNTs) were prepared in situ by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, in which Sn came from a vaporized precursor while the alloy elements were supplied by the substrate. The heterostructures were grown on two types of substrates including stainless steel with high catalytic effectiveness and Cu substrates with low catalytic effectiveness for generating graphite layers, respectively. Pure Sn powder and C2H4 were employed to provide Sn and carbon precursors. The products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) mapping. The morphology, structure and composition of the nanomaterials depended significantly on the surface conditions of the substrates. While SnCu alloy nanowires encapsulated in carbon nanotubes were grown on the Cu substrate, carbon nanotubes filled with alloy nanowires and porous carbon fibers decorated internally with alloy particles were observed on the stainless steel substrate. The growth mechanisms of the heterostructures were proposed.

  6. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fei

    2004-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  7. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Akiya, T. Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Liu, J.; Hono, K.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  8. Enhancement of Curie Temperature (T c) and Magnetization of Fe-Ni Invar alloy Through Cu Substitution and with He+2 Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sajjad Ahmad; Ziya, Amer Bashir; Ibrahim, Ather; Atiq, Shabbar; Usman, Muhammad; Ahmad, Naseeb; Shakeel, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic properties of ternary Fe-Ni-Cu invar alloys are affected by ion irradiation, which goes on increasing with increasing ion fluence (Φ), and by increasing Cu content. In the present study, the ions used are He+2 with 2 MeV energy and with 1 × 1013 cm-2, 1 × 1014 cm-2, 5 × 1014 cm-2, 1 × 1015 cm-2 and 5 × 1015 cm-2 fluence (dose) for irradiation purpose. The face centered cubic structure of the alloy was investigated after ion irradiation using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and found unchanged. However, the peaks become broader with increasing ion dose. Additionally, the lattice fluctuations were observed in XRD study. Curie temperature (T c) is also increased after irradiation. Many factors are considered here for the reason for increasing T c, such as the stopping of incident ions, atomic mixing effect at micro scale level owing to ion irradiation, which might change local concentration and ordering already reported in diffuse scattering, and as a result the Fe-Fe interatomic distance and the Fe-Fe coupling are changed. A comparative study shows that the effect of irradiation on T c and magnetization with increasing ion fluence is more distinctive than the addition of Cu.

  9. Phase transition from fcc to bcc structure of the Cu-clusters during nanocrystallization of Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 soft magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Masahiko; Matsuura, Makoto; Takenaka, Kana; Takeuchi, Akira; Ofuchi, Hironori; Makino, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    A role of Cu on the nanocrystallization of an Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy was investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Cu K-edge XAFS results show that local structure around Cu is disordered for the as-quenched sample whereas it changes to fcc-like structure at 613 K. The fcc Cu-clusters are, however, thermodynamically unstable and begin to transform into bcc structure at 638 K. An explicit bcc structure is observed for the sample annealed at 693 K for 600 s in which TEM observation shows that precipitated bcc-Fe crystallites with ˜12 nm are homogeneously distributed. The bcc structure of the Cu-clusters transforms into the fcc-type again at 973 K, which can be explained by the TEM observations; Cu segregates at grain boundaries between bcc-Fe crystallites and Fe3(B,P) compounds. Combining the XAFS results with the TEM observations, the structure transition of the Cu-clusters from fcc to bcc is highly correlated with the preliminary precipitation of the bcc-Fe which takes place prior to the onset of the first crystallization temperature, Tx1 = 707 K. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that an interfacial energy density γ between an fcc-Cu cluster and bcc-Fe matrix dominates at a certain case over the structural energy between fcc and bcc Cu, ΔGfcc - bcc, which causes phase transition of the Cu clusters from fcc to bcc structure.

  10. Microstructural characterization of selected AEA/UCSB model FeCuMn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.M.; Stoller, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    A set of 22 model ferritic alloys was purchased as part of a collaborative research program by the AEA Harwell Laboratory and the University of California at Santa Barbara. Nine of these alloys were selected by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a series of ion irradiation experiments investigating dispersed barrier hardening. These nine alloys contain varying amounts of copper, manganese, titanium, carbon, and nitrogen. The alloys have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy in the as-received condition to provide a baseline for comparison with the irradiated specimens. A description of the microstructural observations is provided for future reference. This summary focuses on the type and size distributions of the precipitates present; grain size and dislocation measurements are also included.

  11. Phase Evolution and Thermal Analysis of Nanocrystalline AlCrCuFeNiZn High Entropy Alloy Produced by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinya, N. T. B. N.; Sajith Babu, C.; Sivaprasad, K.; Susila, P.; Kishore Babu, N.; Baburao, J.

    2013-10-01

    A multi-component nanocrystalline AlCrCuFeNiZn high entropy alloy with 12 nm crystallite size was successfully synthesized using high energy ball milling. The progress of solid solution formation during milling was analyzed using XRD. A major portion of the HEA is observed to be BCC in crystal structure after 30 h of milling. Thermal analysis showed that HEA powders exhibited exponential oxidation characteristics. Thermal analysis showed that low activation energy was sufficient to start recrystallization because of high energy stored in the milled powders. The crystallite size after consolidation is in nanocrystalline range due to the sluggish diffusion of atoms and nanotwinning. After consolidation, the crystallite size is around 79 nm. Samples sintered at 850 °C for 2 h exhibited high hardness values of 700 ± 15 HV1.0, major volume fraction of the phases are having FCC crystal structure along with a minor phase having BCC crystal structure. Due to positive enthalpy mixing of Cu with other elements, decomposition of BCC to new FCC phases occurs.

  12. Microstructural Characteristic of the Al-Fe-Cu Alloy During High-Speed Repetitive Continuous Extrusion Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiamin; Teng, Jie; Ji, Xiankun; Kong, Xiangxin; Jiang, Fulin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    High-speed repetitive continuous extrusion forming process (R-Conform process) was performed on the Al-Fe-Cu alloy. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results show that a significant improvement of tensile ductility concurs with a considerable loss of tensile strength before four passes, after that the process on mechanical properties variation tends to be steady, indicating an accelerated mechanical softening occurs when comparing to low-speed R-Conform process. Microstructure characterization indicates that the accumulated strain promotes the transformation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries, thus leading to the acceleration of continuous dynamic recrystallization process, and the precipitates are broken, spheroidized and homogeneously distribute in Al matrix as increasing R-Conform passes. Massive microshear bands are observed after initial passes of R-Conform process, which may promote continuous dynamic recrystallization and further grain refinement during high-speed R-Conform process.

  13. Anomalous transport and thermal properties of NiTi and with Cu and Fe-doped shape memory alloys near the martensitic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, B. D.; Wei, W. C.; Chang, P. C.; Kuo, Y. K.; Wu, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    The temperature dependent electrical and thermal properties including electrical resistivity (ρ), specific heat (CP), Seebeck coefficient (S) and thermal conductivity (κ) have been studied for the polycrystalline NiTi, Ti50Ni40Cu10 and Ti50Ni48.5Fe1.5 shape memory alloys from 10-400 K. It was found that the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient exhibit a typical metallic behavior throughout the temperature range investigated. A significant thermal hysteresis between warming and cooling was observed in all the three alloys which is a manifestation of the first-order nature of martensitic transitions. Our results indicate the presence of two stage martnesite transformations, i.e. B2 → B19 → B19' for Ti50Ni40Cu10 while B2 → R → B19' for NiTi and Ti50Ni48.5Fe1.5 alloys. An analysis on the measured thermal conductivity reveals that the anomalous feature in κ at the B19 ↔ B19' transformation for Ti50Ni40Cu10 is essentially attributed to the electronic contribution, while an enormously large peak in warming run observed at the B19 → B2 transformation is due to the change in lattice thermal conductivity.

  14. Creation of a sharp cube texture in ribbon substrates of Cu-40% Ni- M ( M = Fe, Cr, V) ternary alloys for high-temperature second generation superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Suaridze, T. R.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the process of texture formation in ribbons made of Cu-Ni- M ( M = Fe, Cr, V) ternary alloys have been studied upon cold rolling deformation to a degree of 99% and subsequent recrystallization annealing. The possibility of obtaining a perfect cube texture in a thin ribbon made of copper-nickel-based ternary alloys with additives of iron, chromium, and vanadium has been shown, which opens the prospects of the use of these alloys as substrates in the technology of production of tapes of high-temperature second-generation superconductors. Optimal annealing regimes have been determined, which make it possible to obtain a perfect biaxial texture close to single-crystalline one with the content of cube-oriented grains {001}<100>±10° more than 99% on the surface of the textured ribbon.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of the kinetics of decomposition and the formation of precipitates at grain boundaries of the general type in dilute BCC Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar'kin, I. N.; Kar'kina, L. E.; Korzhavyi, P. A.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of decomposition of a polycrystalline Fe-Cu alloy and the formation of precipitates at the grain boundaries of the material have been investigated theoretically using the atomistic simulation on different time scales by (i) the Monte Carlo method implementing the diffusion redistribution of Cu atoms and (ii) the molecular dynamics method providing the atomic relaxation of the crystal lattice. It has been shown that, for a small grain size ( D 10 nm), the decomposition in the bulk of the grain is suppressed, whereas the copper-enriched precipitates coherently bound to the matrix are predominantly formed at the grain boundaries of the material. The size and composition of the precipitates depend significantly on the type of grain boundaries: small precipitates (1.2-1.4 nm) have the average composition of Fe-40 at % Cu and arise in the vicinity of low-angle grain boundaries, while larger precipitates that have sizes of up to 4 nm and the average composition of Fe-60 at % Cu are formed near grain boundaries of the general type and triple junctions.

  16. Magnetic and Mossbauer study of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe[sub 86]Zr[sub 7]Cu[sub 1]B[sub 6] alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gorria, P.; Orue, I.; Plazaola, F.; Fernandez-Gubieda, M.L.; Barandiaran, J.M. . Dept. de Electricidad y Electronica)

    1993-11-01

    Amorphous alloys of composition Fe[sub 86]Zr[sub 7]Cu[sub 1]B[sub 6] have been prepared and annealed in the temperature range from 570 to 950 K, obtaining several degrees of nanocrystallization. Magnetic and Moessbauer measurements show the different phases that appear in the samples after the heating, and their percentage, depending on the annealing temperature. The Curie temperature of the amorphous phase is shown to remain almost unchanged during the crystallization. Moessbauer spectroscopy however, reveals subtle changes in the structure.

  17. AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy cluster growth and annealing on silicon: A classical molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lu; Brault, Pascal; Thomann, Anne-Lise; Bauchire, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for describing deposition and annealing processes of AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy (HEA) thin films. Deposition results in the growth of HEA clusters. Further annealing between 300 K and 1500 K leads to a coalescence phenomenon, as described by successive jump in the root mean square displacement of atoms. The simulated X-ray diffraction patterns during annealing reproduces the main feature of the experiments: a phase transition of the cluster structure from bcc to fcc.

  18. Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al-Si-Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John; Lee, Peter D.

    2010-03-01

    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions.

  19. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadef, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe-Al-X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe-Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems.

  20. Microstructural evolutions and hardness during heat treatment of Al64Cu20Fe12Si4 quasicrystal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaköse, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-07-01

    The microhardness and microstructural characteristics and subsequent heat treatment of conventionally solidified Al64Cu20Fe12Si4 quasicrystal were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Vickers microhardness tester. XRD analysis indicated that the conventionally solidified samples showed a quasicrystalline icosahedral phase (i-phase) together with cubic β-AlFe, tetragonal θ-Al2Cu, and monoclinic λ-A13Fe4 crystal phases. However, the i-phase together with cubic β-AlFe and monoclinic λ-A13Fe4 phases observed heat threaded samples. As-cast and subsequently heat-treated quasicrystal samples were measured using a microhardness test device. Vickers microindentation tests were carried out on the heat-treated quasicrystal samples with the load ranging from 1 to 500 mN at room temperature. The melting point of the i-phase was determined as 900°C by DTA examinations.

  1. Structure analyses of Cu nanoclusters in the soft magnetic Fe85.2Si1B9P4Cu0.8 alloy by XAFS and fcc cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Nishijima, M.; Konno, K.; Ofuchi, H.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Size of the clusters and structure details of fcc Cu clusters in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET) are investigated. A linear combination fitting of XAFS data indicates that about 30% of Cu atoms are partitioned in the fcc clusters and the rest in the amorphous matrix. EXAFS of the fcc Cu nanocluster embedded in amorphous matrix is calculated on the basis of a simple fcc structure model using FEFF9. Surface effect of the nanoclusters is considered by counting a fraction of the nearest neighbour atoms in amorphous matrix. Good agreement with the experimental result is obtained for the fcc nanocluster with 9 coordination shells which consists of total 177 atoms within 1.5 nm in a diameter.

  2. Sintered powder cores of high Bs and low coreloss Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 nano-crystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Sharma, Parmanand; Makino, Akihiro

    2013-06-01

    Nano-crystalline Fe-rich Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 alloy ribbon with saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) close to Si-steel exhibits much lower core loss (Wt) than Si-Steels. Low glass forming ability of this alloy limits fabrication of magnetic cores only to stack/wound types. Here, we report on fabrication, structural, thermal and magnetic properties of bulk Fe84.3Si4B8P3Cu0.7 cores. Partially crystallized ribbons (obtained after salt-bath annealing treatment) were crushed into powdered form (by ball milling), and were compacted to high-density (˜88%) bulk cores by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Nano-crystalline structure (consisting of α-Fe grain in remaining amorphous matrix) similar to wound ribbon cores is preserved in the compacted cores. At 50 Hz, cores sintered at Ts = 680 K show Wt < 10 W/kg (f = 50 Hz, Bm ˜1 T). Coating/mixing of powders with an insulating agent like SiO2 is shown to be effective in further reduction of Wt at f > 1 kHz. A trade-off between porosity and electrical resistivity is necessary to get low Wt at higher f. In the f range of ˜1 to 100 kHz, we have shown that the cores mixed with SiO2 exhibit much lower Wt than Fe-powder cores, non-oriented Si-steel sheets and commercially available sintered cores. We believe our core material is very promising to make power electronics/electrical devices much more energy-efficient.

  3. Separation in liquid and the formation of supersaturated solid solutions in Fe-Cu alloys upon rapid laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of compacted specimens produced using the rapid laser melting of ultradispersed Fe-50 wt % Cu powders has been studied. The original powder was produced via the mechanical milling of iron and copper powders in a planetary-type ball mill. It has been found that the structure of the compacted specimens produced using rapid laser melting exhibits signs of the initial stages of separation in supercooled liquid. It has been shown using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy that the final structure contains a supersaturated (Fe; Cu) solid solution formed from the high-speed movement of the solidification front and the nonequilibrium capture of copper by the moving front.

  4. Microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of ultrafine solute-atom particles formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy on isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Microstructural features strongly affect magnetism in nano-granular magnetic materials. In the present work we have investigated the relationship between the magnetic properties and the self-organized microstructure formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy comprising ferromagnetic elements and copper atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations showed that on isothermal annealing at 873 K, nano-scale solute (Fe,Ni)-rich clusters initially formed with a random distribution in the Cu-rich matrix. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed that these ultrafine solute clusters exhibited super-spinglass and superparamagnetic states. On further isothermal annealing the precipitates evolved to cubic or rectangular ferromagnetic particles and aligned along the <100> directions of the copper-rich matrix. Electron energy-band calculations based on the first-principle Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR) method were also implemented to investigate both the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy. Inputting compositions obtained experimentally by scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis, the KKR calculation confirmed that ferromagnetic precipitates (of moment 1.07μB per atom) formed after annealing for 2 × 104 min. Magneto-thermogravimetric (MTG) analysis determined with high sensitivity the Curie temperatures and magnetic susceptibility above room temperature of samples containing nano-scale ferromagnetic particles.

  5. Study of microscopic origin of segregation for Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x} and Cu{sub x}Co{sub 1−x} liquid binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Faruk, Mir Mehedi; Bhuiyan, G. M.; Biswas, Amitabh; Hossain, Md. Sazzad

    2014-04-07

    The segregating properties for Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x} and Cu{sub x}Co{sub 1−x} liquid-liquid binary alloys are investigated theoretically. Here, the free energy of mixing is calculated by using the electronic theory of metals within the framework of the perturbative approach. The calculated results such as the critical temperature and the critical concentration agree well with the available experimental data. Most importantly, the present work confirms our previous finding [M. Mehedi Faruk and G. M. Bhuiyan, Physica B 422, 56 (2013)] that the volume dependent part of the energy of mixing is mostly responsible for segregation of metallic alloys.

  6. Effect of Grain size on the Giant Intrinsic Coercivity of High-Energy Milled Sm(Co,Cu,Fe)5 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Dilara; Gabay, Alexandar; Hadjipanayis, George

    2008-03-01

    The giant intrinsic magnetic hardness of Sm(Co,Cu)5 alloys have been known for a long time [1]. Previous studies suggested that this behavior is due to the crystal site disorder [2]. Our previous work has explained that the room-temperature intrinsic coercivity of 37 kOe after low-temperature aging is rather due to the intrinsic change in the Co atomic site occupation [3]. In this study, we investigated the effect of grain refinement through the high energy milling on the intrinsic coercivity of the Sm(Co,Cu,Fe)5 alloys. We have found that grain refinement does not affect the high coercivity of homogenized alloys, but strongly influences the onset of the giant coercivity during low-temperature aging. The microstructures of the samples are examined with TEM. [1] E.A. Nesbitt, R.H. Willens, R.C. Sherwood, E. Buehler, J.H. Wernick 1968 Appl.. Phys. Lett. 12, 361. [2] H. Oesterrier , F.T. Parker, M. Misroach 1979 J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4273. [3] A.M. Gabay, P. Larson, I.I. Manzin, G.C. Hadjipanayis 2005, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 1.

  7. Formation of the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase in a rapidly solidified Al{sub 52}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5}Si{sub 1} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Zhang Zhonghua . E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn; Geng Haoran; Yang Zhongxi

    2006-04-15

    In the present work, the effect of wheel speed (quenching rate) on the formation of the quasicrystalline phase in a rapidly solidified Al{sub 52}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5}Si{sub 1} alloy has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that rapid solidification has no effect on the phase constitution of the Al{sub 52}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5}Si{sub 1} alloy. The addition of Si decreases the stability of the quasicrystalline phase in the conventionally cast Al{sub 52}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5}Si{sub 1} alloy. The thermal stability of the quasicrystalline phase in the melt-spun alloy depends upon the quenching rate. Moderate-rate rapid solidification can improve the thermal stability of the quasicrystalline phase in the melt-spun alloy. Higher quenching rate instigates the transformation of the quasicrystalline phase into the cubic approximant phase and decreases the stability of the quasicrystalline phase. Furthermore, the transformation temperature decreases with increasing Si addition into the Al{sub (62-x)}Cu{sub 25.5}Fe{sub 12.5}Si{sub x}.

  8. Dynamical freezing, magnetic ordering, and the magnetocaloric effect in nanostructured Fe/Cu thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, R. D.; Shueh, C.; Lin, K. -W.; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2016-04-25

    Dynamical freezing of Fe nanocrystallites in a Cu matrix with magnetic ordering of an FeCu interfacial phase provides a unique window into the magnetocaloric effect. The FeCu alloy altered the Fe nanocrystallite surface atoms, and with a magnetic ordering temperature comparable to the dynamical freezing temperature of the nanocrystallites enabled Fe surface atoms to contribute to the overall magnetization. Tuning the amount of interfacial alloy resulted in the control of the magnetic ordering temperature and the magnetocaloric properties.

  9. In situ mechanical characterization of CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy micro/nano-pillars for their size-dependent mechanical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongti; Wing Siu, Kai; Liao, Weibing; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yong; Lu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs), as a new kind of alloys with equi- or near equi-atomic alloy compositions, have recently received increased interest, but their mechanical properties at micro- and nanoscales are less studied, which could hinder their structural/functional applications in the small scales. In this work, the mechanical responses of single crystalline FCC-structured CoCrCuFeNi HEA micro- and nano-pillars were systematically investigated by an in situ SEM nanoindenter. The yield strengths of the HEA micro-/nano-pillars under uniaxial compression appear to be size-dependent (with the m value of ˜0.46 in the Hall-Petch law relationship), but less sensitive when compared to typical metal/alloy micro- and nano-structures (e.g. with the m values of 0.6-0.9 for FCC metals). We also observed and analyzed the slip systems of the plastically deformed micro-/nano-pillars, and discussed their deformation mechanisms together with the Young’s modulus by multiple loading/unloading compressions experiments. Our results could provide useful insights in the design and application of HEA for functional micro- and nano-devices.

  10. The study on surface chemical modification of Fe71.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9V2 amorphous alloy ribbons and its piezomagnetic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Zhu, Zhenghou

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a type of smooth even endogeny conversion coat composed of Cu0.86Fe2.14O4 and (Cu0.18Fe0.82)Cu0.82Fe1.18O4 phases was successfully obtained by a conversion reaction on the surfaces of Fe71.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9V2 amorphous alloy ribbons. In this way, its ribbon thickness was decreased about 6-8 μm equivalently. The phase composition and microstructure of the conversion coat were investigated by XRD and SEM. In addition, the adhesion test of epoxy resin and amorphous alloy ribbon was verified by dipping experiments. It is found that the interface bonding strength between the conversion coat and ribbons is strong comparatively. On one hand, the proper interface between conversion coat and epoxy resin make it easy for ribbons to be encapsulated; on the other hand, the ribbons perform better significant piezomagnetic effect than the untreated ones due to a thinner thickness. This work may be a good basic for the applications of Fe71.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9V2 amorphous alloy ribbons in piezomagnetic sensor and other devices based on the piezomagnetism effect.

  11. High-Temperature Deformation Processing Map Approach for Obtaining the Desired Microstructure in a Multi-component (Ni-Ti-Cu-Fe) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayan, Niraj; Singh, Gaurav; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M.

    2015-05-01

    An equiatomic NiTiCuFe multi-component alloy with simple body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic solid-solution phases in the microstructure was processed by vacuum induction melting furnace under dynamic Ar atmosphere. High-temperature uniaxial compression experiments were conducted on it in the temperature range of 1073 K to 1303 K (800 °C to 1030 °C) and strain rate range of 10-3 to 10-1 s-1. The data generated were analyzed with the aid of the dynamic materials model through which power dissipation efficiency and instability maps were generated so as to identify the governing deformation mechanisms that are operative in different temperature-strain rate regimes with the aid of complementary microstructural analysis of the deformed specimens. Results indicate that the stable domain for the high temperature deformation of the multi-component alloy occurs in the temperature range of 1173 K to 1303 K (900 °C to 1030 °C) and range of 10-3 to 10-1.2 s-1, and the deformation is unstable at T = 1073 K to 1153 K (800 °C to 880 °C) and = 10-3 to 10-1.4 s-1 as well as T = 1223 K to 1293 K (950 °C to 1020 °C) and = 10-1.4 to 10-1 s-1, with adiabatic shear banding, localized plastic flow, or cracking being the unstable mechanisms. A constitutive equation that describes the flow stress of NiTiCuFe multi-component alloy as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was also determined.

  12. Direct imaging of structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuhisa Takenaka, Kana; Makino, Akihiro; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-15

    A structural heterogeneity of the melt-spun Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} alloy has been studied by spherical aberration (C{sub s}) corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Hollow-cone illumination imaging revealed that the density of coherent scattering regions in the as-quenched Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} alloy is much higher than that in the Fe{sub 76}Si{sub 9}B{sub 10}P{sub 5} bulk metallic glass. According to the C{sub s}-corrected TEM, crystalline atomic clusters, typically of ∼1 nm in diameter, are densely distributed in an amorphous matrix of Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} alloy. Observation of four-fold and six-fold atomic arrangements of these clusters implies existence of Fe clusters with the body centered cubic structure. These Fe clusters must be responsible for the formation of ultrahigh-density α-Fe nanocrystals produced by post-annealing.

  13. Effect of minor Cu addition on phase evolution and magnetic properties of {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96Nb0.04}100-x Cux alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2009-01-01

    {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96Nb0.04}100-xCux (x = 0, 1, 1.5 and 2) alloys with different rapid solidification conditions were prepared by copper mold casting and melt spinning. The structures, the thermal and the magnetic properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. Minor Cu addition obviously depresses the glass-forming ability of the alloys (critical glassy diameter dc < 1 mm) compared with [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]96 Nb4 (dc = 3 mm). The effect of Cu addition on the evolution of crystalline phases corresponding to different rapid solidification conditions was evaluated. The existence of (Fe,Co), (Fe,Co)3B, (Fe,Co)2B and (Fe,Co)23B6 crystalline phases in {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96 Nb0.04}100-x Cux alloys influences the saturation magnetization compared with the corresponding glassy alloys.

  14. Effects of Temperature on Serrated Flows of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuying; Xie, Xie; Chen, Bilin; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Yang; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    Compression behavior of the Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) was studied at different temperatures from 673 K to 873 K at a low strain rate of 5 × 10-5/s to investigate the temperature effect on the mechanical properties and serration behavior. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure is confirmed at the lower temperature of 673 K and 773 K, and a structure of mixed fcc and body-centered cubic (bcc) is identified at a higher temperature of 873 K after compression tests using high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. By comparing the stress-strain curves at different temperatures, two opposite directions of serrations types were found, named upward serrations appearing at 673 K and 773 K and downward serrations at 873 K, which may be due to dynamic strain aging.

  15. In situ atomic force microscope study of high-temperature untwinning surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.; Zhang, J. H.; Jin, X.; Cai, M. M.

    2013-05-06

    The N-type untwinning surface relief associated with the fcc {r_reversible} fct martensitic transformation (MT) was observed in the Mn{sub 81.5}Fe{sub 14.0}Cu{sub 4.5} antiferromagnetic high-temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) by in situ atomic force microscopy. The measured untwinning relief angles ({theta}{sub {alpha}} Double-Vertical-Line {theta}{sub {beta}}) at the ridge and at the valley were different, and both angles were less than the conventional values. The surface relief exhibited good reversibility during heating and cooling because of the crystallographic reversibility of thermal-elastic SMAs. Untwinning shear was proposed as the main mechanism of the N-type surface relief. The order of the reverse MT was discussed based on the experimental measurements.

  16. Effects of temperature on serrated flows of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuying; Xie, Xie; Chen, Bilin; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Yang; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-14

    Compression behavior of the Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) was studied at different temperatures from 673K to 873K at a low strain rate of 5 x 10-5/s to investigate the temperature effect on the mechanical properties and serration behavior. The face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is confirmed at the lower temperature of 673 K and 773 K, and a structure of mixed FCC and body-centered cubic (BCC) is identified at a higher temperature of 873 K after compression tests using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As a result, by comparing the stress-strain curves at different temperatures, two opposite directions of serrations types were found, named upward serrations appearing at 673 K and 773 K and downward serrations at 873 K, which may be due to dynamic strain aging.

  17. Effects of temperature on serrated flows of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Shuying; Xie, Xie; Chen, Bilin; ...

    2015-08-14

    Compression behavior of the Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) was studied at different temperatures from 673K to 873K at a low strain rate of 5 x 10-5/s to investigate the temperature effect on the mechanical properties and serration behavior. The face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is confirmed at the lower temperature of 673 K and 773 K, and a structure of mixed FCC and body-centered cubic (BCC) is identified at a higher temperature of 873 K after compression tests using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As a result, by comparing the stress-strain curves at different temperatures, two opposite directions of serrations types weremore » found, named upward serrations appearing at 673 K and 773 K and downward serrations at 873 K, which may be due to dynamic strain aging.« less

  18. Influence of W, Mo and Ti trace elements on the phase separation in Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 based high entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Anna M; Daoud, Haneen M; Voelkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe; Wanderka, Nelia

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally complex alloys, also called high entropy alloys, have been investigated for over a decade in view of different applications, but so far only a small number of alloys can be considered as presenting good enough properties for industrial application. The most common family of elements is Al-Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni. The equiatomic alloy having 5 phases and being too brittle, the composition has been modified in order to improve the mechanical properties. Different compositions have been tested and as a first result ductile Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 has been chosen for deeper investigation. It shows a dendritic segregation into Co-Cr-Fe rich cores and Al-Cu-Ni rich interdendritic sites. The as-cast state is characterized mainly by two phases, namely Al-Cu-Ni rich precipitates of L12 structure inside a solid solution matrix. After homogenization both alloys consists of a single solid solution phase. Results are compared to calculations by ThermoCalc. In order to further improve the properties of the alloy the Cr content has been decreased and replaced by trace elements W, Mo and Ti, which, according to ThermoCalc, increase the melting point and the phase transition temperature which leads to the formation of the L12 phase. As-cast and heat treated samples of the base and the modified alloy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe. Results of the investigations will be discussed in terms of microstructure, hardness and coherence with Thermo Calc predictions.

  19. Spin glass freezing and superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(1-x)Fe(x))3O7 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirebeau, I.; Hennion, M.; Dianoux, J.; Caignaert, V.; Phillips, T. E.; Moorjani, K.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the iron spins in superconducting YBa2(Cu(0.94)Fe(0.06))3O7 by neutron time of flight measurements. Two samples were studied with slightly different characteristics, as shown by resistivity and neutron diffraction measurements. The same dynamical anomalies are observed by neutrons in both samples. Differences appear qualitative but not quantitative. In the whole temperature range, the q-dependence of the magnetic intensity mainly reflects the magnetic form factor of iron which shows that the iron spins are almost uncorrelated. The elastic and quasielastic intensities strongly vary with temperature. A spin glass like freezing is revealed at low temperature by a sharp decrease of the quasielastic intensity, an increase of the 'elastic' or resolution limited intensity and a minimum in the quasielastic width. The freezing temperature (T sub f - 18 K) corresponds to that already determined by a magnetic splitting in Mossbauer experiments. Above T sub f, the relaxation of the iron spins in the paramagnetic state is modified by the occurrence of superconductivity. An increase was observed of the quasielastic intensity and of the quasielastic width at the superconducting transition.

  20. X-Ray Diffraction in Situ Study of Phase Formation and Amorphous-To Transformation in FeCuNbSiB Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuong, Le Thi Cat; Phuc, Phan Vinh; Nghi, Nguyen Hoang

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents some reeenl results of a X-ray in situ study of phase formation process and amorphous-to-nanocrystalline transformation in FeCuNbSiB alloy. Measurements were carried out on the diffractometer Siemens-D5000 with high temperature attachment. Our experiments were performed in both isothermal and nonisothermal regimes in argon atmosphere with time periods from a minute to 3 hours and different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 900°C. The X-ray diffraction data were used to determine the amount of crystalline fraction rs temperature and vs time. Both the first amorphous halo and the (110) diffraction peak of the bcc Fe-based solid solution were fitted, after background substruction. by means of the pseudo-voigt function. The grain sizes for even annealing temperature were determined by the X-ray profile analysis and using Bruker Win-Crysize program package. The kinetics of the nanocrystallization process was investigated and the activation energy was estimated. All the obtained results were compared with those of conventional studies.

  1. Features of phase and structure formation in high-entropy alloys of the AlCrFeCoNiCu x system ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivka, N. A.; Firstov, S. A.; Karpets, M. V.; Myslivchenko, A. N.; Gorban', V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Alloys of the AlCrFeCoNiCu x system ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0) were smelted by argon-arc smelting in pure argon. The phase composition and structure of fabricated alloys are investigated and their mechanical properties are determined. The results showed that an increase in the amount of copper in alloys leads to a change in the phase composition from single phase (bcc) to three phase (bcc + fcc1 + fcc2), which is accompanied by the structural change from coarse-grain polygonal structure to complex dendritic structure (primary dendrites (DR) + secondary dendrites (SDR) + interdendrite phase (ID)). The region of electron concentrations of alloys, in which bcc and fcc phases are present simultaneously, is determined. The limiting electron concentration of stability of the bcc lattice is found experimentally. Microhardness is measured and Young moduli of alloys over the entire range of varying the copper concentration are determined.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy of Fe{sub 1−y}X{sub y}Pt-L1{sub 0} [X = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu] bulk alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cuadrado, R.; Chantrell, R. W.; Klemmer, Timothy J.

    2014-10-13

    We demonstrate by means of fully relativistic first principles calculations that, by substitution of Fe by Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, or Cu in FePt-L1{sub 0} bulk alloys, with fixed Pt content, it is possible to tune the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy by adjusting the content of the non-magnetic species in the material. The changes in the geometry due to the inclusion of each element induces different values of the tetragonality and hence changes in the magnetic anisotropy and in the net magnetic moment. The site resolved magnetic moments of Fe increase with the X content while those of Pt and X are simultaneously reduced. The calculations are in good quantitative agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that models with fixed band structure but varying numbers of electrons per unit cell are insufficient to describe the experimental data for doped FePt-L1{sub 0} alloys.

  3. Investigation of cascade-induced re-solution from nanometer sized coherent precipitates in dilute Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certain, A.; Lee Voigt, H.-J.; Allen, T. R.; Wirth, B. D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate the re-solution of copper atoms from coherent, nanometer-sized copper precipitates in a body-centered cubic iron matrix. The molecular dynamics simulations used Finnis-Sinclair type interatomic potentials to describe the Fe-Cu system. Precipitate diameters of 1, 3 and 5 nm were studied, with primary knock-on atom (PKA) from 1 to 100 keV, although the majority of the cascade simulations and analysis of solute re-solution were performed for cascades of 10 or 20 keV. The simulation results provide an assessment of the re-solution on a per-atom basis as a function of precipitate size, cascade location and energy. Smaller sized precipitates, with a larger surface to volume ratio, experienced larger re-solution on a per-atom basis than larger precipitates. Re-solution was observed to occur predominantly in the initial ballistic stages of the cascades when atomic collisions occur at high kinetic energy. A minimum PKA energy of around 1 keV was required to produce re-solution, and the amount of re-solution appears to saturate for PKA energies above approximately 10 keV, indicating that the MD results are representative of the energy range of interest. A model for prompt, cascade induced solute atom re-solution has been derived, following the approach used to describe fission gas bubble re-solution, and the parameters for describing copper atom re-solution are provided.

  4. Effects of coexisting spin disorder and antiferromagnetism on the magnetic behavior of nanostructured (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1−x}Cu{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizrahi, M. E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Cabrera, A. F. E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Desimoni, J.; Stewart, S. J.

    2014-06-07

    We report a magnetic study on nanostructured (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1−x}Cu{sub x} (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) alloys using static magnetic measurements. The alloys are mainly composed by an antiferromagnetic fcc phase and a disordered region that displays a spin-glass-like behavior. The interplay between the antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered phases establishes an exchange anisotropy that gives rise to a loop shift at temperatures below the freezing temperature of moments belonging to the disordered region. The loop shift is more noticeable as the Cu content increases, which also enhances the spin-glass-like features. Further, in the x = 0.30 alloy the alignment imposed by applied magnetic fields higher than 4 kOe prevail over the configuration determined by the frustration mechanism that characterizes the spin glass-like phase.

  5. Ferromagnetism of Fe86Mn14-yCuy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, F.; Paduani, C.; Krause, J. C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Yoshida, M. I.; Schaf, J.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of disordered Fe86Mn14-yCuy alloys were investigated with several experimental techniques. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that these alloys are single phase with the A2 (BCC) structure. These are ferromagnetic alloys at room temperature, and the Curie temperature decreases with the increase of the Cu content. An abrupt loss of magnetization was observed below TC at a temperature which increases with the reduction of the Mn content in the alloys. The addition of manganese enhances the solubility of copper in iron matrix and retains the BCC structure in iron-rich alloys. The behavior of the magnetization with temperature and its composition dependence indicate that an antiferromagnetic coupling is expected between the Fe and Mn atoms. The magnetic moments of both Fe and Mn atoms are expected to vary strongly with composition in these alloys.

  6. Nano-crystallization and magnetic mechanisms of Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} amorphous alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-07

    Iron-based amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys have attracted a growing interest due to their potential in the application of magnetic coil production. However, fundamental understanding of the nano-crystallization mechanisms and magnetic features in the amorphous structure are still lack of knowledge. In the present work, we performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to clarify the ionic and electronic structure in atomic scale, and to derive the origin of the good magnetic property of Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} amorphous alloy. The simulation gave a direct evidence of the Cu-P bonding preference in the amorphous alloy, which may promote nucleation in nano-crystallization process. On the other hand, the electron transfer and the band/orbital features in the amorphous alloy suggests that alloying elements with large electronegativity and the potential to expand Fe disordered matrix are preferred for enhancing the magnetization.

  7. Application of ultrasound irradiation on sol-gel technique for corrosion protection of Al65Cu20Fe15 alloy powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Baoyan; Wang, Guodong; Li, Di; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2013-11-01

    Al65Cu20Fe15 alloy powder was firstly encapsulated by the conventional sol-gel technique utilizing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the precursor in order to improve its corrosion resistance. The optimization was based on nine well-planned orthogonal experiments (L9 (34)). Four main factors in the encapsulation process (i.e. reaction temperature, ethylenediamine concentration, TEOS concentration and feeding method) were investigated. According to the visual analyses of the result, the optimum condition was obtained. Based on the optimal condition in the conventional sol-gel technique, the encapsulation process was then conducted under ultrasonic irradiation. The effects of ultrasound amplitude and irradiation time on the encapsulation process were also studied. FTIR, XRD, SEM, DLS and EDS were also used to characterize the resulting sample. Finally, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of encapsulated powder attained 99.3% in the acidic condition of pH 1, and the average grain size (d50) of the encapsulated powder was just 4.8% larger than that of the raw powder, implying that there was a thin silica film on the surface of powder.

  8. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of a Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cu-O alloy fabricated by α+β quenching processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Zhang, Lina; Chai, Linjiang; Yang, Wenlong; Wang, Liqiang; lu, Weijie

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the microstructure of a Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cu-O alloy fabricated by α+β quenching processing (ABQ sample) was investigated by the combined utilization of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the polygonal grains evenly distributed in ABQ sample and triangular grains distributed at triple junctions of polygonal grains with densely second phase particles (SPPs). The textures of <0002> directions tilted approximately 25° from normal direction and the rolling direction spreading along the < 11\\bar{2}0> {-}< 10\\bar{1}0> were found in the sample, which was also detected in the regularly cold rolled and annealed sample. The occurrence of corrosion kinetics transition of ABQ sample was sight earlier than that of RAX sample. Due to a higher solid solubility of β-Zr, SPPs re-dissolved into β-Zr during α+β annealing and precipitated out afterward in those areas. Finally, discrepant corrosion rate of metal matrix and SPPs led to the formation of protrusions of matrix, which could concentrate stress and generate cracks in the oxide.

  9. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Piamba, J. F.; Sánchez, H.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez

    2015-06-01

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al-0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  10. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  11. Phase transition from fcc to bcc structure of the Cu-clusters during nanocrystallization of Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 1}B{sub 9}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} soft magnetic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, Masahiko; Matsuura, Makoto; Takenaka, Kana; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro; Ofuchi, Hironori

    2014-05-15

    A role of Cu on the nanocrystallization of an Fe{sub 85.2}Si{sub 1}B{sub 9}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 0.8} alloy was investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Cu K-edge XAFS results show that local structure around Cu is disordered for the as-quenched sample whereas it changes to fcc-like structure at 613 K. The fcc Cu-clusters are, however, thermodynamically unstable and begin to transform into bcc structure at 638 K. An explicit bcc structure is observed for the sample annealed at 693 K for 600 s in which TEM observation shows that precipitated bcc-Fe crystallites with ∼12 nm are homogeneously distributed. The bcc structure of the Cu-clusters transforms into the fcc-type again at 973 K, which can be explained by the TEM observations; Cu segregates at grain boundaries between bcc-Fe crystallites and Fe{sub 3}(B,P) compounds. Combining the XAFS results with the TEM observations, the structure transition of the Cu-clusters from fcc to bcc is highly correlated with the preliminary precipitation of the bcc-Fe which takes place prior to the onset of the first crystallization temperature, T{sub x1} = 707 K. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that an interfacial energy density γ between an fcc-Cu cluster and bcc-Fe matrix dominates at a certain case over the structural energy between fcc and bcc Cu, ΔG{sub fcc} {sub −} {sub bcc}, which causes phase transition of the Cu clusters from fcc to bcc structure.

  12. Microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys observed by magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Z. Y.; Han, S. H.; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, W. H.; Han, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    The microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys have been achieved simultaneously by employing a magnetic force microscope directly on the as-cast cylinder rod surface for the first time. By varying the content of Fe, the microstructure of the Pr-based alloy changes progressively from a full glassy state to a composite state with nanocrystalline particles embedded in the glassy matrix, and finally into a nanostructured state. The accompanying magnetic property gradually changes from paramagnetic to hard. The experiment directly evidences the existence of exchange coupling between the crystallites and the variety of the grain-size-dependent magnetic properties can be well explained by Löffler et al.'s new random-anisotropy model (Löffler, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (9) (2000) 1990).

  13. In-situ study of surface relief due to cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation in Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Gen, Z.; Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Zhang, J. H.; Rong, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature-dependence surface relief during cubic↔tetragonal martensitic transformation (MT) in Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 antiferromegnetic shape memory alloy was studied by means of in-situ atomic force microscopy. The surface morphology memory effect was found and the crystallography reversibility of the transformation and its shearing characters were directly verified. Twin shearing is suggested as the main mechanism of formation of tent-type surface relief. The surface relief angle (θα|θβ)<0.5° was firstly measured and might be the smallest compared with that in other shape memory alloys. A Landau model was proposed to consider the shearing strain related with surface relief of MT varying with the coupling effect between second-order antiferromagnetic transition and first-order MT. According to this model, the Mn69.4Fe26.0Cu4.6 alloy belongs to the weak coupling system and this kind of weak coupling effect makes the main contribution to the small relief angle.

  14. Thermal stability of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy with induced magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, N. V.; Lukshina, V. A.; Filippov, B. N.; Potapov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of nanocrystallizing annealing in the presence of an ac magnetic field (magnetic heat treatment) and tensile stresses (thermomechanical treatment), as well as in the presence of both tensile stresses and an ac magnetic field (complex thermomechanical magnetic treatment) on the magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy and their thermal stability has been studied. It has been found that the nanocrystallization of the studied (Fe0.7Co0.3)88Hf4Mo2Zr1B4Cu1 alloy in the course of magnetic heat treatment, thermomechanical treatment, and thermomechanical magnetic treatment at low tensile stresses (6-30 MPa) leads to about a threefold decrease in the coercive force, but does not ensure the thermal stability of magnetic properties at high temperatures. In nanocrystallization, in the course of thermomechanical treatment at 620°C for 20 min under tensile stresses σ = 250 MPa has been found to be optimum for the high-temperature application (up to 550°C) of the studied alloy.

  15. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  16. The Effect of Temperature and Rotational Speed on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Cu Base Alloy (Cu-Al-Si-Fe) Welded by Semisolid Stir Joining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferasat, Keyvan; Aashuri, Hossein; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Shafizadeh, Mahdi; Nikzad, Siamak

    2015-12-01

    Semisolid stir joining has been under deliberation as a possible method for joining of copper alloys. In this study, the effect of temperature and rotational speed of stirrer on macrostructure evaluation and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for macro and microstructural analysis. A uniform micro-hardness profile was attained by semisolid stir joining method. The ultimate shear strength and bending strength of welded samples were improved in comparison with the cast sample. There is also lower area porosity in welded samples than the cast metal. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing temperature and rotational speed of the joining process.

  17. Effect of ion irradiation on the nanocrystallization and magnetic properties of soft magnetic Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Gushchina, N. V.; Stepanov, A. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Kataev, V. A.; Tsepelev, V. S.; Belozerov, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of accelerated Ar+ ions on the crystallization process and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy has been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, thermomagnetic analysis, and other magnetic methods. Irradiation by Ar+ ions with an energy of 30 keV and a fluence of 3.75 × 1015 cm-2 at short-term heating to a temperature of 620 K (which is 150 K below the thermal threshold of crystallization) leads to the complete crystallization of amorphous alloy, which is accompanied by the precipitation of the α-Fe(Si) solid solution crystals (close in composition to Fe80Si20), Fe3Si stable phase, and metastable hexagonal phases. The crystallization caused by irradiation leads to an increase in the grain size and changes the morphology of grain boundaries and volume fraction of crystalline phases, which is accompanied by changes in the magnetic properties.

  18. Preparation of SmNi5 and Sm(Ni,T)5 [T=Co,Fe] ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Yabuhara, Osamu; Nukaga, Yuri; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2010-05-01

    SmNi5 and Sm(Ni,T)5 [T =Co,Fe] epitaxial thin films with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface are successfully prepared on Cu underlayers heteroepitaxially grown on MgO(111) single-crystal substrates. The nucleation behavior of SmNi5 and Sm(Ni,T)5 crystals on Cu(111) underlayers were investigated. The SmNi5 and the Sm(Ni,Co)5 films consist of two types of domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 30° each other, whereas the Sm(Ni,Fe)5 film is a single crystal. The nucleation and the domain volume ratio seem to be controllable by adjusting the kind and the composition of transition metal elements.

  19. Characterization of Newly Developed Semisolid Stir Joining Method for Cast Cu Base Alloy (Cu-Al-Si-Fe) and Effect of Stirrer Type on Uniformity of Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferasat, Keyvan; Aashuri, Hossein; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Nikzad, Siamak; Shafizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-02-01

    In this research, the semisolid stir joining method was used to overcome the problem of hot cracking in welding aluminum and silicon bronzes. Moreover, the effects of grooved and cylindrical tools on the microstructure and mechanical properties of samples were examined. After welding specimens, mechanical tests were carried out to find differences between the cast and welded samples. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study microstructure. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate compounds formed during casting and welding. The solidus and liquidus temperatures of the alloy were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. In this study, the temperature of the work pieces was raised to 1203 K (930 °C) that is in the semisolid region, and the weld seams were stirred by two different types of tools at the speed of 1600 rpm. Macro and micro-structural analyses show uniformity in the phase distribution for specimens welded by cylindrical tool. Desirable and uniform mechanical properties obtained when the cylindrical tool was used.

  20. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  1. Spin wave stiffness constant on the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Kepa, H. |; Kim, W.T.; Zeiske, T.; Weiss, L.

    1995-11-01

    The authors report here on the effect of annealing temperatures on the spin wave excitations for the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys, observed from the low temperature magnetization curves and the spectroscopic splitting g factors. The temperature dependence of saturation magnetization was measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer and the SQUID magnetometer. Spectroscopic splitting g-values were estimated from ferromagnetic resonance experiments (FMR). The thermo-magnetization curve is found to obey Bloch`s law, M{sub s}(T) = M{sub s}(0)(1- BT{sup 3/2}-CT{sup 5/2}). The spin wave stiffness constants were also observed from the preliminary results of the neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The spin wave stiffness constants obtained from two different experimental methods on the Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys agree fairly well.

  2. Characterization of Cu buffer layers for growth of L10-FeNi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Sekiya, S.; Takanashi, K.

    2010-05-01

    A Cu(001) layer was fabricated on a Au(001) layer to investigate the use of Cu as a buffer layer for growing L10-FeNi thin films. The epitaxial growth of a Cu buffer layer was observed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The flatness of the layer improved drastically with an increase in the substrate temperature although the layer was an alloy (AuCu3). An FeNi thin film was epitaxially grown on the AuCu3 buffer layer by alternate monatomic layer deposition and the formation of an L10-FeNi ordered alloy was expected. The AuCu3 buffer layer is thus a promising candidate material for the growth of L10-FeNi thin films.

  3. Effect of annealing on Cu precipitates in H ion irradiated Fe-0.6%Cu studied by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Eryang; Wang, Baoyi; Yuan, Daqing; Wei, Long; Cao, Xingzhong

    2016-10-01

    Fe-0.6%Cu alloy was irradiated with H ions to 0.1 dpa, and then annealed for 30 min from 150 °C to 500 °C. We focused the evolution of Cu precipitates in irradiated Fe-0.6%Cu alloy after the isochronal annealing from the perspective of positron annihilation. The ΔW parameters after thermal annealing (400 °C and 500 °C) were much larger than that induced by 0.1 dpa H irradiation. Annealing could promote the aggregation of the Cu-vacancy complexes, and form the Cu cluster-vacancies complexes. When the vacancy-like defects recovered around 500 °C, it meant the formation and growing of the defect-free Cu precipitates.

  4. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  5. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  6. Positron annihilation study of Fe-ion irradiated reactor pressure vessel model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Li, Z. C.; Schut, H.; Sekimura, N.

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of reactor pressure vessel steels under irradiation, which results from the hardening and embrittlement caused by a high number density of nanometer scale damage, is of increasingly crucial concern for safe nuclear power plant operation and possible reactor lifetime prolongation. In this paper, the radiation damage in model alloys with increasing chemical complexity (Fe, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cu-Si, Fe-Cu-Ni and Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn) has been studied by Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening spectroscopy after 1.5 MeV Fe-ion implantation at room temperature or high temperature (290 oC). It is found that the room temperature irradiation generally leads to the formation of vacancy-type defects in the Fe matrix. The high temperature irradiation exhibits an additional annealing effect for the radiation damage. Besides the Cu-rich clusters observed by the positron probe, the results show formation of vacancy-Mn complexes for implantation at low temperatures.

  7. Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments.

  8. Magnetic behavior of as-deposited and annealed CoFe and CoFeCu nanowire arrays by ac-pulse electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, A.; Almasi-Kashi, M.; Golafshan, E.; Arefpour, M.

    2014-09-01

    CoFe and CoFeCu self-organized alloy nanowires were grown into anodic aluminum oxide template by potentiostatic mode of ac-pulse electrodeposition technique and subsequently annealed at 580 °C. The influence of bath composition, off-time between pulses and annealing treatment on the Cu content, microstructure and magnetic properties of CoFeCu nanowire arrays have been discussed. Increasing the off-time between pulses decreased the coercivity and saturation magnetization of the CoFeCu nanowires due to substitution of Co and Fe with Cu atoms which resulted in electroless process. Coercivity and squareness of the annealed samples increased due to improvement of samples crystallinity. Magnetic measurements showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the nanowires with easy axis parallel to nanowires axis. X-ray diffraction results indicated that annealed CoFeCu nanowires were polycrystalline with two distinct CoFe and Cu phases.

  9. Giant Magnetoresistance and Coercivity of electrodeposited multilayered FeCoNi/Cu and CrFeCoNi/Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, P.; Cox, B.; Davis, D.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of Cr addition on electrodeposited multilayered nanowires CrFeCoNi/Cu was investigated from a magnetic property perspective: current perpendicular to the plane-Giant Magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and Coercivity (BH loops). The magnetic behavior of multilayered nanowires of CrFeNiCo/Cu was also affected by the alloy deposition potential, alloy pulsing time (layer thickness) and number of bilayers. Furthermore, the addition of Cr influenced both the nanowires GMR and Coercivity. Cr addition to the ferromagnetic FeCoNi layer induced a reduction in the room temperature GMR from 10.64% to 5.62%; however, the magnetic saturation field decreased from 0.45 to 0.27 T. The increase in the number of bilayers, from 1000 to 2500, resulted in a higher GMR value, 14.56% with 0.35 T magnetic saturation field. Addition of Cr to the ferromagnetic layer decreased the coercivity from 0.015 to 0.0054 T. Low saturation field CPP-GMR nanowires showing low coercivity at room temperature opens a new door for magnetic sensing devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on electrodeposited CrFeCoNi/Cu multilayered nanowires.

  10. Cluster formula of Fe-containing Monel alloys with high corrosion-resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baozeng; Gu Junjie; Wang Qing; Ji Chunjun; Wang Yingmin; Qiang Jianbing; Dong Chuang

    2012-06-15

    The cluster-plus-glue-atom model is applied in the composition interpretation of Monel alloys. This model considers ideal atomic nearest neighbor configurations among the constituent elements and has been used in understanding compositions of complex alloys like quasicrystals, amorphous alloys, and cupronickels. According to this model, any structure can be expressed by cluster formula [cluster](glue atom){sub x}, x denoting the number of glue atoms matching one cluster. According to this model, two groups of experimental composition series [Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub x} and [Fe{sub y}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub 5} were designed which fell close to conventional Fe-containing Monel alloys. The designed alloys after solution treatment plus water quenching, are monolithic FCC Ni-based solid solutions. Among them, the [Fe{sub 1}Ni{sub 12}]Cu{sub 5} alloy has the highest corrosion resistance in simulated sea water, and its performance is superior to that of industrial Monel 400 alloy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable solid solution model is proposed using our 'cluster-plus-glue-atom model'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model is used to develop Monel corrosion resistant alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single FCC structure is easily retained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloys show good corrosion properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work contributes to the general understanding of engineering alloys.

  11. Tailoring the magnetic properties of CoFeNi alloys with variations in copper contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Oh; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Gyeung Ho; Jeung, Won Young

    2006-04-01

    CoFeNi alloys are some of the most studied soft magnetic materials because of their superior properties over FeNi alloys as write head core materials in hard disk drives. Pulsed electrodeposition was shown to be an interesting approach to vary the crystalline structure of the fcc-bcc mixed phase CoFeNi and CoFeNiCu films without changing the composition and the grain size by using a single bath. The permeability μ of CoFeNiCu films plated from bath composition exceeded 4.6×106. Coercivity Hc was 20-73 A/m. The high saturation magnetic flux Bs was 1.8 T. The soft magnetic CoFeNiCu film prepared satisfies all the requirements needed for the preparation of magnetic recording heads, as all magnetic properties were improved in this direction.

  12. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.%more » Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  13. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; Chookajorn, Tonghai; Boyce, Brad L.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2016-03-24

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Thermal Stability Comparison of Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Binary Alloy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. G.; Hattar, K.; Marshall, M. T.; Chookajorn, T.; Boyce, B. L.; Schuh, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest; yet, they have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dominated systems. Although traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloys can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdoch et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results show improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison with the Fe-Cu, and thermally-evolved microstructures that are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Fe-based nanocrystalline FeBCCu soft magnetic alloys with high magnetic flux density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingdu; Ma, Aibin; Men, He; Xie, Guoqiang; Shen, Baolong; Makino, Akihiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties and crystalline behavior of Fe84-xB10C6Cux (x = 0-1.3) alloys prepared by annealing the melt-spun ribbon have been investigated. A Cu element was added to this system with the aim of decreasing the coercivity because the addition of Cu clusters prior to the crystallization stimulates the nucleation of α-Fe primary crystals, which greatly influences the final microstructure. It is found that in the Fe84-xB10C6Cux alloy system, the coercivity decreases with increasing x and exhibits a minimum at around x = 1.0. When x = 1.0, the alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties after the appropriate heat treatment with a high Bs of 1.78 T, low Hc of 5.1 A/m, and low core loss less than 4.3 W/kg at 1.0 T and 400 Hz that is about 55% of that of oriented Si-steel. These results indicate that the application of this alloy to power transformers will produce very large energy savings.

  16. Recent progress in high Bs Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, M.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2011-02-01

    High saturation magnetic flux density (high-Bs) alloy has been developed in an Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy system. A nanocrystalline phase with an average grain size of about 20 nm is obtained by annealing Cu-substituted and/or Cu-and-Si-complex-substituted Fe-B amorphous alloys. The alloy exhibits low coercivity of less than 7 A m-1 and a high Bs of more than 1.8 T. The iron loss at 50 Hz and 1.6 T for a toroidal core made of Fe80.5Cu1.5Si4B14 nanocrystalline alloy is 0.46 W kg-1, which is about 2/3 of that of grain-oriented Si steel. Moreover, the iron loss at 10 kHz and 0.2 T for a wound core made of this alloy is 7.5 W kg-1, which is about 25% of that of non-grain-oriented Si steel and about 60% of that of an Fe-based amorphous alloy. In addition, the cut cores made of the alloy show good superimposed dc-current characteristics and appear promising in applications such as power choke coils (at the high-frequency region).

  17. Effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranathan, S.P.; Kashyap, K.T.; Kumar, S.R.; Ramachandra, C.; Chatterji, B.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties is characteristically found in Al-Mg-Si alloys. Delayed aging refers to the time elapsed between solutionizing and artificial aging. Delayed aging leads to inferior properties. This effect was investigated in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AU2GN) of nominal composition Al-2Cu-1.5Mg-1Fe-1Ni as a function of delay. This alloy also showed a drop in mechanical properties with delay. The results are explained on the basis of Pashley's kinetic model to qualitatively explain the evolution of a coarse precipitate structure with delay. It is found that all the results of delayed aging in the Al-Cu-Mg alloys are similar to those found in Al-Mg-Si alloys.

  18. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  19. Soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 alloy after rapid heating under tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Anton; Mika, Taras; Rudenko, Olexandr; Yarmoshchuk, Yevhenii; Nosenko, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 ribbon was crystallized rapidly by electric current heating under simultaneously applied tensile stress along the ribbon axis. As a result, strong transverse magnetic anisotropy was induced in the ribbon. Dynamic magnetic properties of the ribbons rapidly heated either under the tensile stress or without tensile stress were measured using toroidal cores. Optimal electric current heating regime that provides maximum improvement of the initial magnetic permeability and core loss was determined. Tensile stress increase from 0 to 180 MPa was shown to result in the decrease of the initial magnetic permeability down to 400 and core loss at frequencies from 0.4 to 200 kHz. Comparative analysis of magnetic properties of the cut core (with non-magnetic gap) and the cores heated under tensile stress was carried out. The magnetic properties of the latter cores are advantageous for manufacturing the reactors and linear chokes of switch-mode power supplies.

  20. Induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB

    SciTech Connect

    Emura, M.; Severino, A.M.; Santos, A.D.; Missell, F.P. . Instituto de Fisica)

    1994-11-01

    The kinetics of induced anisotropy K[sub ind] was studied in nanocrystalline Fe[sub 73.5]Cu[sub 1]Nb[sub 3]Si[sub 13.5]B[sub 9], as well as in the amorphous precursor and in amorphous Fe[sub 78]B[sub 13]Si[sub 9]. The nanocrystalline alloy was produced from the precursor by annealing at 813 K for 1 h and possessed an average FeSi grain size of 13 nm, as determined from x-ray diffraction. Annealing in a 0.2 T field at 723--773 K, above [Tc] of the amorphous phase, resulted in low values of K[sub ind]. The data were compared to the micromagnetic theory of Kronmueller to determine activation energy spectra. K[sub ind] for the nanocrystalline alloy is well described by this theory, however, with an activation energy spectrum that is much narrower than for the amorphous alloys. The limiting value of the anisotropy is K[sub [infinity

  1. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  2. Vacuum Brazing TC4 Titanium Alloy to 304 Stainless Steel with Cu-Ti-Ni-Zr-V Amorphous Alloy Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Honggang; Yang, Zhonglin; Wang, Zengrui; Deng, Dewei; Dong, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    Dissimilar metal vacuum brazing between TC4 titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel was conducted with newly designed Cu-Ti-Ni-Zr-V amorphous alloy foils as filler metals. Solid joints were obtained due to excellent compatibility between the filler metal and stainless steel substrate. Partial dissolution of stainless steel substrate occurred during brazing. The shear strength of the joint brazed with Cu43.75Ti37.5Ni6.25Zr6.25V6.25 foil was 105 MPa and that with Cu37.5Ti25Ni12.5Zr12.5V12.5 was 116 MPa. All the joints fractured through the gray layer in the brazed seam, revealing brittle fracture features. Cr4Ti, Cu0.8FeTi, Fe8TiZr3 and Al2NiTi3C compounds were found in the fractured joint brazed with Cu43.75Ti37.5Ni6.25Zr6.25V6.25 foil, and Fe2Ti, TiCu, Fe8TiZr3 and NiTi0.8Zr0.3 compounds were detected in the joint brazed with Cu37.5Ti25Ni12.5Zr12.5V12.5 foil. The existence of Cr-Ti, Fe-Ti, Cu-Fe-Ti, and Fe-Ti-V intermetallic compounds in the brazed seam caused fracture of the resultant joints.

  3. Characterization of Cu buffer layers for growth of L1{sub 0}-FeNi thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuguchi, M.; Sekiya, S.; Takanashi, K.

    2010-05-15

    A Cu(001) layer was fabricated on a Au(001) layer to investigate the use of Cu as a buffer layer for growing L1{sub 0}-FeNi thin films. The epitaxial growth of a Cu buffer layer was observed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The flatness of the layer improved drastically with an increase in the substrate temperature although the layer was an alloy (AuCu{sub 3}). An FeNi thin film was epitaxially grown on the AuCu{sub 3} buffer layer by alternate monatomic layer deposition and the formation of an L1{sub 0}-FeNi ordered alloy was expected. The AuCu{sub 3} buffer layer is thus a promising candidate material for the growth of L1{sub 0}-FeNi thin films.

  4. Preparation of Al-Cu-Fe-(Sn,Si) quasicrystalline bulks by laser multilayer cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li-ping; Fleury, Eric; Zhang, Guo-sheng

    2012-05-01

    (Al65Cu20Fe15)100- x Sn x ( x=0, 12, 20, 30) and Al57Si10Cu18Fe15 powders were cladded on a medium carbon steel (45# steel) substrate by laser multilayer cladding, respectively. The phases and properties of the produced quasicrystalline bulks were investigated. It was found that the main phases in the Al65Cu20Fe15 sample were crystalline λ-Al13Fe4 and icosahedral quasicrystal together with a small volume fraction of θ-Al2Cu phase. The volume fraction of icosahedral phase decreased as the Sn content in the (Al65Cu20Fe15)100- x Sn x samples increased owing to the formation of β-CuSn phase. The increase of Sn content improved the brittleness of the quasicrystal samples. The morphology of the solidification microstructure in the Al57Si10Cu18Fe15 sample changed from elongated shape to spherical shape due to the addition of Si. The nanohardness of the laser multilayer cladded quasicrystal samples was equal to that of the as-cast sample prepared by vacuum quenching. In terms of hardness, the laser cladded Al57Si10Cu18Fe15 quasicrystalline alloy has the highest value among all the investigated samples.

  5. Growth of Co and Fe on Cu(1 1 1): experiment and BFS based calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, D.; Niño, M. A.; de Miguel, J. J.; Miranda, R.; Morse, J.; Bozzolo, G.

    2003-10-01

    The structure and morphology of Co and Fe films grown on Cu(1 1 1) have been investigated by thermal energy atom scattering (TEAS) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). It has been found that the growth mode of Co and Fe can be greatly improved by using Pb as surfactant, although in the case of Fe this works only for the first bilayer. This shows that the two systems exhibit decisive differences already in the first stages of the growth process. In a second series of experiments, the effect of codepositing Co-Cu and Fe-Cu on the films quality was investigated. The results are very promising, and suggest that very flat, structurally ordered fcc Fe-Cu and Co-Cu films can be prepared by applying this technique together with the use of Pb as surfactant. These results were complemented by atomistic simulations based on the BFS method for alloys. Simulations performed in the low-coverage regime suggest that the early stages of growth are governed to a great extent by the affinity of Cu for Co and Fe. We have also performed temperature-dependent Monte Carlo simulations to determine the structure of superlattices formed by codeposition of Cu-Co and Cu-Fe.

  6. Composition dependence of the electronic properties of Al-Cu-Fe and Al-Cu-Ru-Si semimetallic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, F. S.; Bancel, P. A.; Biggs, B. D.; Guo, Q.; Poon, S. J.

    1993-03-01

    Electronic transport properties and specific heats of ordered icosahedral phase alloys in the Al-Cu-Ru-Si and Al-Cu-Fe systems are examined, and comparison with high-quality rhombohedral (3/2) approximant phase samples of Al-Cu-Fe is made. Strong temperature dependence and sensitivity to composition changes of these properties are observed. The similarity of transport properties between the icosahedral (i) and rhombohedral (r) phases of Al62.5Cu26.5Fe11 is noted. The results can be qualitatively interpreted in terms of band structure. There appears to be sufficient evidence for a rapidly varying conductivity spectrum σ(E) in the ordered i phases. However, important questions concerning the physics of these semimetallic quasicrystals remain to be answered.

  7. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F.; Goodman, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  8. Domain structure and magnetization process of a giant magnetoimpedance geometry FeNi/Cu/FeNi(Cu)FeNi/Cu/FeNi sensitive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Elbaile, L.; Alves, F.; Ahamada, B.; Barrué, R.; Svalov, A. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.

    2004-09-01

    The magnetization process and the magnetic domains of the FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (480 nm)/FeNi (100 nm)/Cu (2.5 nm)/FeNi (100 nm) structure were studied. This geometry consists of two FeNi/Cu/FeNi trilayers with a thick in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the sensitive element and narrow in the direction of the flowing current Cu electrode in the centre. Ferromagnet/conductor/ferromagnet is the typical geometry of magnetoimpedance thin-film-based sensitive elements used to detect small magnetic fields. Multilayered structures were prepared by rf-sputtering in a magnetic field of 100 Oe applied perpendicular to the Cu electrode in order to induce transverse magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic measurements and magnetic domain structure observations were made in magnetic fields applied one at a time parallel or perpendicular to the Cu electrode. Different magnetization processes with non-homogeneous rotations in the first case and dominant multiple nucleation and merging of domains in the second one were observed.

  9. Magnetostriction in a Co-30%Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.H.; Mavoori, H.; Klemmer, T.; Jin, S.

    1999-09-01

    The authors have studied the magnetostriction and magnetic properties of a deformed and annealed Co-30%Fe alloy. The cold-rolled and annealed (at 820 C for 40 min) sample exhibits a substantial magnetostriction of {approximately}110 x 10{sup {minus}6} at a practical, low field of {approximately}100 Oe, while only {approximately}10 x 10{sup {minus}6} for the same applied field is obtained for the as-cold-rolled sample. The saturation magnetostriction of the annealed Co-30%Fe alloy was {approximately}140 x 10{sup {minus}6}, which is significantly affected by the cold-rolling and annealing processes. This drastic dependence of the magnetostriction behavior on the alloy processing is believed to be a result of the microstructure and residual stress changes brought about by the heat treatment processing.

  10. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  11. Magnetic Properties, Nanostructure and Ordering Kinetics of FePtCu Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. J.; Shih, Y. H.; Jang, J. S. C.; Jian, S. R.; Chang, W. C.; Huang, J. C. A.

    In this study, the (FePt)100-xCux (x=0, 4.6, 6.7, 8.8, 10.9) (FePtCu) alloy films were prepared by co-sputtering. The effects of Cu addition content and heat treatment on the nanostructure and magnetic properties of the polycrystalline (FePt)100-xCux films are reported. The experimental results show that the ordering temperature of the (FePt)100-xCux (x=6.7) films reduced to 320°C, which is much lower than that of the FePt alloy. After heat treatment at 600°C for 1 hour, the (FePt)100-xCux (x=6.7) film shows a coercive force of 15 kOe and the magnetization of 576 emu/cc. The magnetic properties of the FePtCu films can be adjusted by varying the Cu content in the films. The enhancement of the magnetic properties of the FePtCu films mainly resulted from the formation of the order L10 phase. DSC traces of as-deposited disorder films at different heating rates, to evaluate the crystallization of the order phase, showed that the addition of Cu atoms reduced the activation energy of ordering from 217 kJ/mol to 87 kJ/mol for the (FePt)100-xCux films (x= 0 and 6.7, respectively). The reduction of the ordering temperature and corresponding activation energy might due to the solid solution of the Cu atoms in the FePt films.

  12. Joint properties of cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy laser welded to gold alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Nguyen, Khoi; Benson, P Andrew; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the joint properties of a cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy (Fe-36 at % Pt) laser welded to three gold alloys. The gold alloys used were ADA Type II and Type IV gold alloys, and an Ag-based (Ag-Au) gold alloy. Cast plates (0.5 x 3.0 x 10 mm) were prepared for each alloy. After the cast Fe-Pt plates were heat treated, they were butted against each of the three alloys and then laser welded with Nd:YAG laser at 200 V. Homogeneously welded specimens were also prepared for each alloy. Tensile testing was conducted at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure load (N) and elongation (%) were recorded. After tensile testing, the fractured surfaces were examined with the use of SEM. The failure-load values of the group of alloys welded homogeneously were ranked in the order of: Ag-Au alloy > Type IV alloy > Type II alloy > Fe-Pt alloy. The Type IV alloy welded to Fe-Pt alloy had the highest failure-load value among the three alloys tested. The elongation results tended to follow a similar pattern. The results of this study indicated that Type IV gold alloy is a suitable alloy for metal frameworks to which cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy is laser welded.

  13. Multisegmented FeCo/Cu nanowires: electrosynthesis, characterization, and magnetic control of biomolecule desorption.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Berna; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Hoop, Marcus; Gramm, Fabian; Chen, Xiangzhong; Martí, Xavi; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva; Pané, Salvador

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of FeCo/Cu multisegmented nanowires by means of pulse electrodeposition in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide arrays supported on silicon chips. By adjustment of the electrodeposition conditions, such as the pulse scheme and the electrolyte, alternating segments of Cu and ferromagnetic FeCo alloy can be fabricated. The segments can be built with a wide range of lengths (15-150 nm) and exhibit a close-to-pure composition (Cu or FeCo alloy) as suggested by energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results. The morphology and the crystallographic structure of different nanowire configurations have been assessed thoroughly, concluding that Fe, Co, and Cu form solid solution. Magnetic characterization using vibrating sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy reveals that by introduction of nonmagnetic Cu segments within the nanowire architecture, the magnetic easy axis can be modified and the reduced remanence can be tuned to the desired values. The experimental results are in agreement with the provided simulations. Furthermore, the influence of nanowire magnetic architecture on the magnetically triggered protein desorption is evaluated for three types of nanowires: Cu, FeCo, and multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm. The application of an external magnetic field can be used to enhance the release of proteins on demand. For fully magnetic FeCo nanowires the applied oscillating field increased protein release by 83%, whereas this was found to be 45% for multisegmented FeCo15nm/Cu15nm nanowires. Our work suggests that a combination of arrays of nanowires with different magnetic configurations could be used to generate complex substance concentration gradients or control delivery of multiple drugs and macromolecules.

  14. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350-360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α-Fe(Cr), α-Fe(Cu), α-Fe 2O3 and Fe 3O4 compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  15. Tetragonal magnetostriction and magnetoelastic coupling in Fe-Al, Fe-Ga, Fe-Ge, Fe-Si, Fe-Ga-Al, and Fe-Ga-Ge alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Hathaway, K. B.; Clark, A. E.; Lograsso, T. A.; Petculescu, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the tetragonal magnetostriction constant, λγ,2, [ = (3/2)λ100] and magnetoelastic coupling, b1, of binary Fe100-xZx (0 < x < 35, Z = Al, Ga, Ge, and Si) and ternary Fe-Ga-Al and Fe-Ga-Ge alloys. The quantities are corrected for magnetostrains due to sample geometry (the magnetostrictive form effect). Recently published elastic constant data along with magnetization measurements at both room temperature and 77 K make these corrections possible. The form effect correction lowers the magnetostriction by ˜10 ppm for high-modulus alloys and by as much as 30 ppm for low-modulus alloys. The elastic constants are also used to determine the values of the magnetoelastic coupling constant, b1. With the new magnetostriction data on the Fe-Al-Ga alloy, it is possible to show how the double peak magnetostriction feature of the binary Fe-Ga alloy flows into the single peak binary Fe-Al alloy. The corrected magnetostriction and magnetoelastic coupling data for the various alloys are also compared using the electron-per-atom ratio, e/a, as the common variable. The Hume-Rothery rules link the e/a ratio to the regions of phase stability, which appear to be intimately related to the magnetostriction versus the solute concentration curve in these alloys. Using e/a as the abscissa tends to align the peaks in the magnetostriction and magnetoelastic coupling for the Fe-Ga, Fe-Ge, Fe-Al, Fe-Ga-Al, and Fe-Ga-Ge alloys, but not for the Fe-Si alloys for which the larger atomic size difference may play a greater role in phase stabilization. Corrections for the form effect are also presented for the rhombohedral magnetostriction, λɛ,2, and the magnetoelastic coupling, b2, of Fe100-xGax (0 < x < 35) alloys.

  16. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  17. Ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn and Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Brian C.; Saparov, Bayrammurad; McGuire, Michael A.; Singh, David J.; Parker, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal Fe3Sn has many of the desirable properties for a new permanent magnet phase with a Curie temperature of 725 K, a saturation moment of 1.18 MA/m. and anisotropy energy, K1 of 1.8 MJ/m3. However, contrary to earlier experimental reports, we found both experimentally and theoretically that the easy magnetic axis lies in the hexagonal plane, which is undesirable for a permanent magnet material. One possibility for changing the easy axis direction is through alloying. We used first principles calculations to investigate the effect of elemental substitutions. The calculations showed that substitution on the Sn site has the potential to switch the easy axis direction. However, transition metal substitutions with Co or Mn do not have this effect. We attempted synthesis of a number of these alloys and found results in accord with the theoretical predictions for those that were formed. However, the alloys that could be readily made all showed an in-plane easy axis. The electronic structure of Fe3Sn is reported, as are some are magnetic and structural properties for the Fe3Sn2, and Fe5Sn3 compounds, which could be prepared as mm-sized single crystals. PMID:25387850

  18. Ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn and alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Sales, Brian C.; Saparov, Bayrammurad; McGuire, Michael A.; ...

    2014-11-12

    Hexagonal Fe3Sn has many of the desirable properties for a new permanent magnet phase with a Curie temperature of 725 K, a saturation moment of 1.18 MA/m. and anisotropy energy, K1 of 1.8 MJ/m3. However, contrary to earlier experimental reports, we found both experimentally and theoretically that the easy magnetic axis lies in the hexagonal plane, which is undesirable for a permanent magnet material. One possibility for changing the easy axis direction is through alloying. We used first principles calculations to investigate the effect of elemental substitutions. The calculations showed that substitution on the Sn site has the potential tomore » switch the easy axis direction. Transition metal substitutions with Co or Mn do not have this effect. We attempted synthesis of a number of these alloys and found results in accord with the theoretical predictions for those that were formed. However, the alloys that could be readily made all showed an in-plane easy axis. The electronic structure of Fe3Sn is reported, as are some are magnetic and structural properties for the Fe3Sn2, and Fe5Sn3 compounds, which could be prepared as mm-sized single crystals.« less

  19. Microstructure and properties of Cu-Ti-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Xian-hui; Guo, Ting-ting; Zou, Jun-tao; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Ni addition and aging treatments on the microstructure and properties of a Cu-3Ti alloy were investigated. The microstructure and precipitation phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the resulting alloys were also tested. The results show that Ni addition increases the electrical conductivity and elastic modulus, but decreases the hardness of the aged Cu-3Ti alloy. Within the range of the experimentally investigated parameters, the optimal two-stage aging treatment for the Cu-3Ti-1Ni and Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy was 300°C for 2 h and 450°C for 7 h. The hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-1Ni alloy were HV 205, 18.2% IACS, and 146 GPa, respectively, whereas the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy were HV 187, 31.32% IACS, and 147 GPa, respectively. Microstructural analyses revealed that β'-Ni3Ti and β'-Cu4Ti precipitate from the Cu matrix during aging of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy and that some residual NiTi phase remains. The increased electrical conductivity is ascribed to the formation of NiTi, β'-Ni3Ti, and β'-Cu4Ti phases.

  20. Magnetic properties of metastable Fe Pd alloys by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Hiromasa; O'Handley, Robert C.; Kuji, Toshiro

    2007-03-01

    Metastable Fe-Pd powder samples with various Pd content were synthesized by mechanical alloying. Their fundamental properties, i.e., structure, magnetization and coercive fore are discussed. The saturation magnetizations of the metastable Fe-Pd powders gradually decreases with increasing Pd content. The coercive forces observed in as-milled samples are all less than 40 Oe. However, some of the heat-treated samples, notably, Pd content around 55 at% with L1 0 structure, shows Hc up to 1589 Oe.

  1. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  2. A Study of the Magnetic and Metallurgical Properties of Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr) z Alloys with z = 8.5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-28

    of Gs is easily obtained S from the highest moment value measured, and pycnometric determination of the density, p, permits calculation of MS or B S... Pycnometric rather than x-ray densities must be used because the alloys and magnets typically contain several phases. (e) Magnetic Characterization

  3. Preparation of magnetic recoverable nanosize Cu-Fe2O3/Fe photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hsu-Ya; Wang, H Paul

    2013-07-02

    Iron based catalysts generally have the advantage of the easily operated magnetically recovery from application sites. In the present work, paramagnetic iron and copper core-shell nanoparticles having the iron fractions (X(Fe) = Fe/(Cu+Fe)) of 0.33-1.0 were prepared and characterized by in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering spectroscopy. During the temperature-programmed carbonization (TPC) of Cu(2+)- and Fe(3+)-β-cyclodextrin (CD) complexes, a rapid reduction of Cu(II) occurs at about 453 K together with a growth of the metallic copper (Cu). Iron proceeds in the distinct growth path. At 453-513 K, the Fe(III) → Fe(II) → Fe consecutive reduction is observed. The unreduced Fe(III) (7-13%) is coated on the surfaces of the Fe nanoparticles (as Fe2O3/Fe). Growth of the Fe nanoparticle is inhibited by the surface Fe2O3, while the steady growth in Cu is observed. The Cu has a size range of 14-18 nm in diameter, compared to the small Fe2O3/Fe ones (3-6 nm). Under the UV-visible light irradiation for four hours, methylene blue can be photocatalytically degraded (>90%) by the (Cu-Fe2O3/Fe)@C. The (Cu-Fe2O3/Fe)@C photocatalysts can effectively oxidize dye molecules, providing a promising alternative for dye degradation using solar energy. Recovery of the (Cu-Fe2O3/Fe)@C photocatalysts can be attained by applying external magnetic field to trap the ferromagnetic Cu-Fe2O3/Fe nanoparticles, which suggests an economically attractive process, especially applied in photocatalytic degradation of dye-contaminated wastewater.

  4. Controlled CVD growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-08-12

    Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires (NWs), Cu(2)Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) NWs in such a catalyst-free CVD process was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by CVD may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co.

  5. Controlled CVD growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-08-01

    Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu11Sb3 nanowires (NWs), Cu2Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu11Sb3 NWs in such a catalyst-free CVD process was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by CVD may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co.

  6. Displacement cascades in Fesbnd Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu alloys: RVP model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyev, D.; Zinovev, A.; Bonny, G.

    2016-07-01

    Primary damage due to displacement cascades (10-100 keV) has been assessed in Fesbnd 1%Mnsbnd 1%Ni-0.5%Cu and its binary alloys by molecular dynamics (MD), using a recent interatomic potential, specially developed to address features of the Fesbnd Mnsbnd Nisbnd Cu system in the dilute limit. The latter system represents the model matrix for reactor pressure vessel steels. The applied potential reproduces major interaction features of the solutes with point defects in the binary, ternary and quaternary dilute alloys. As compared to pure Fe, the addition of one type of a solute or all solutes together does not change the major characteristics of primary damage. However, the chemical structure of the self-interstitial defects is strongly sensitive to the presence and distribution of Mn and Cu in the matrix. 20 keV cascades were also studied in the Fesbnd Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu matrix containing <100> dislocation loops (with density of 1024 m-3 and size 2 nm). Two solute distributions were investigated, namely: a random one and one obtained by Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations from our previous work. The presence of the loops did not affect the defect production efficiency but slightly reduced the fraction of isolated self-interstitials and vacancies. The cascade event led to the transformation of the loops into ½<111> glissile configurations with a success rate of 10% in the matrix with random solute distribution, while all the pre-created loops remain stable if the alloy's distribution was applied using the Monte-Carlo method. This suggests that solute segregation to loops "stabilizes" the pre-existing loops against transformation or migration induced by collision cascades.

  7. Menopause effect on blood Fe and Cu isotope compositions.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Iron (δ(56) Fe) and copper (δ(65) Cu) stable isotope compositions in blood of adult human include a sex effect, which still awaits a biological explanation. Here, we investigate the effect of menopause by measuring blood δ(56) Fe and δ(65) Cu values of aging men and women. The results show that, while the Fe and Cu isotope compositions of blood of men are steady throughout their lifetime, postmenopausal women exhibit blood δ(65) Cu values similar to men, and δ(56) Fe values intermediate between men and premenopausal women. The residence time of Cu and Fe in the body likely explains why the blood δ(65) Cu values, but not the δ(56) Fe values, of postmenopausal women resemble that of men. We suggest that the Cu and Fe isotopic fractionation between blood and liver resides in the redox reaction occurring during hepatic solicitation of Fe stores. This reaction affects the Cu speciation, which explains why blood Cu isotope composition is impacted by the cessation of menstruations. Considering that Fe and Cu sex differences are recorded in bones, we believe this work has important implications for their use as a proxy of sex or age at menopause in past populations.

  8. Activities of oxygen in liquid Cu-Sb and Cu-Ge alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Shinya; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kozuka, Zensaku

    1982-03-01

    In order to determine the activity coefficients of oxygen, γΩ in liquid Cu-Sb and Cu-Ge alloys at 1373 K as a function of alloy composition, the modified coulometric titrations, described previously, have been performed by using the galvanic cell: O in liquid Cu-Sb or Cu-Ge alloys/ZrO2 (+CaO)/Air, Pt. A pronounced point of inflection in the In γΩ vs alloy composition curve has been observed both for Cu-Sb and Cu-Ge alloys, as predicted by Jacob and Alcock’s quasichemical equation. The measured data itself, however, are significantly different from those predicted by their equation. The validity of Wagner’s solution model with one or two energy parameters has been also tested.

  9. Magnetism and site exchange in CuFeAs and CuFeSb: A microscopic and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamusella, Sirko; Klauss, Hans-Henning; Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, Laxmi C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Kraft, Inga; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Rosner, Helge; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Zhao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the magnetic ground state of CuFeAs and CuFeSb by means of 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation/relaxation (μ SR ), neutron diffraction, and electronic structure calculations. Both materials share the 111-LiFeAs crystal structure and are closely related to the class of iron-based superconductors. In both materials there is a considerable occupancy of the Cu site by Fe, which leads to ferromagnetic moments, which are magnetically strongly coupled to the regular Fe site magnetism. Our study shows that CuFeAs is close to an antiferromagnetic instability, whereas a ferromagnetic ground state is observed in CuFeSb, supporting theoretical models of anion height driven magnetism.

  10. Microstructural characterization of irradiated Fe-Cu-Ni-P model steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Hoelzer, D.T.; Ebrahimi, F.; Hawthorne, J.R.; Burke, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The microstructure of Fe-Cu-Ni-P model pressure vessel steels after neutron irradiation and thermal aging has been characterized by atom probe field-ion microscopy and augmented by transmission electron microscopy. High densities of small, roughly spherical or disc shaped copper clusters/precipitates were observed in the neutron irradiated alloys that contained copper. Small spherical phosphorus clusters were observed in the irradiated copper-free alloys, and copper phosphides were observed in a high phosphorus Fe-Cu-Ni-P alloy. None of these clusters/precipitates were observed in the thermally aged materials. The increases in the tensile and yield strengths that were observed after neutron irradiation resulted from these clusters and other lattice defects. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  12. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  13. Phase stability of ternary fcc and bcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Jan S.; Nguyen-Manh, Duc; Lavrentiev, Mikhail Yu.; Muzyk, Marek; Dudarev, Sergei L.

    2015-01-01

    The phase stability of fcc and bcc magnetic binary Fe-Cr, Fe-Ni, and Cr-Ni alloys, and ternary Fe-Cr-Ni alloys is investigated using a combination of density functional theory (DFT), cluster expansion (CE), and magnetic cluster expansion (MCE) approaches. Energies, magnetic moments, and volumes of more than 500 alloy structures have been evaluated using DFT, and the predicted most stable configurations are compared with experimental observations. Deviations from the Vegard law in fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, resulting from the nonlinear variation of atomic magnetic moments as functions of alloy composition, are observed. The accuracy of the CE model is assessed against the DFT data, where for ternary Fe-Cr-Ni alloys the cross-validation error is found to be less than 12 meV/atom. A set of cluster interaction parameters is defined for each alloy, where it is used for predicting new ordered alloy structures. The fcc Fe2CrNi phase with Cu2NiZn -like crystal structure is predicted to be the global ground state of ternary Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, with the lowest chemical ordering temperature of 650 K. DFT-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are applied to the investigation of order-disorder transitions in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The enthalpies of formation of ternary alloys predicted by MC simulations at 1600 K, combined with magnetic correction derived from MCE, are in excellent agreement with experimental values measured at 1565 K. The relative stability of fcc and bcc phases is assessed by comparing the free energies of alloy formation. The evaluation of the free energies involved the application of a dedicated algorithm for computing the configurational entropies of the alloys. Chemical order is analyzed, as a function of temperature and composition, in terms of the Warren-Cowley short-range order (SRO) parameters and effective chemical pairwise interactions. In addition to compositions close to binary intermetallic phases CrNi2, FeNi, FeNi3, and FeNi8, pronounced chemical order is found

  14. Observations of a Cast Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that Cu-Cr-Nb alloys have considerable advantages over the copper alloys currently used in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. Observations indicated that Zr and Nb have similar chemical properties and form very similar compounds. Glazov and Zakharov et al. reported the presence of Cr2Zr in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys with up to 3.5 wt% Cr and Zr though Zeng et al. calculated that Cr2Zr could not exist in a ternary Cu-Cr-Zr alloy. A cast Cu-6.15 wt% Cr-5.25 wt% Zr alloy was examined to determine if the microstructure developed would be similar to GRCop-84 (Cu-6.65 wt% Cr-5.85 wt% Nb). It was observed that the Cu-Cr-Zr system did not form any Cr2Zr even after a thermal exposure at 875 C for 176.5 h. Instead the alloy consisted of three phases: Cu, Cu5Zr, and Cr.

  15. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    effect from alloying additions of Nb, Mo, V, Cr and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the...that transition metal Nb achieves the best strengthening effect in Fe-Ga alloys. The solid solution strengthening follows a trend from larger to

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe and Fe-B magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Majid; Ghasemi, Ali; Tavoosi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis and magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Fe and Fe-B magnetic alloys was the goal of this study. In this regard, different Fe2O3-B2O3 powder mixtures with sufficient amount of CaH2 were milled in a planetary ball mill in order to produce nanocrystalline Fe, Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys. The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that, nanocrystalline Fe, Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys can be successfully synthesized by the reduction reaction of Fe2O3 and B2O3 with CaH2 during mechanical alloying. The structure of produced Fe95B5 and Fe85B15 alloys was a combination of Fe and Fe2B phases with average crystallite sizes of about 15 and 10 nm, respectively. The produced nanocrystalline alloys exhibited soft magnetic properties with the coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 170-240 Oe and 9-28 emu/g, respectively. Increasing the boron content has a destructive effect on soft magnetic properties of Fe-B alloys.

  17. Fabric cutting application of FeAl-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A.; Sklad, S.P.; Deevi, S.C.; Shih, H.R.

    1998-11-01

    Four intermetallic-based alloys were evaluated for cutting blade applications. These alloys included Fe{sub 3}Al-based (FAS-II and FA-129), FeAl-based (PM-60), and Ni{sub 3}Al-based (IC-50). These alloys were of interest because of their much higher work-hardening rates than the conventionally used carbon and stainless steels. The FeAl-based PM-60 alloy was of further interest because of its hardening possibility through retention of vacancies. The vacancy retention treatment is much simpler than the heat treatments used for hardening of steel blades. Blades of four intermetallic alloys and commercially used M2 tool steel blades were evaluated under identical conditions to cut two-ply heavy paper. Comparative results under identical conditions revealed that the FeAl-based alloy PM-60 outperformed the other intermetallic alloys and was equal to or somewhat better than the commercially used M2 tool steel.

  18. Checkerboard pattern of the interlayer coupling between two Co films across Fe/Cu and Cu/Co/Cu spacer layers grown on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. Z.; Won, C. Y.; Rotenberg, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Smith, N. V.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2004-06-01

    Quantum well (QW) states and oscillatory interlayer coupling in Co/Cu/Fe/Co/Cu ( 001 ) are investigated by angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism. We find that the QW states in Cu/Fe/Co/Cu ( 001 ) depend very little on the magnetic state of the fcc Fe films. The interlayer coupling between the Co films across the Cu/Fe spacer layer displays a checkerboard pattern in Fe-Cu thickness plane. The presence of the fcc Fe ferromagnetic live layer at the Cu/Fe interface is shown to be responsible for the checkerboard pattern, which was confirmed by experiments on Co/Cu/Co/Cu/Co/Cu ( 100 ) system.

  19. Influence of boron on the magnetic and transport properties of FeZr amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barandiaran, J.M.; Gorria, P. . Dept. de Electricidad y Electronica); Sal, J.C.G.; Brquin, L.F. ); Kaul, S.N. . School of Physics)

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic properties and electrical resistivity of amorphous and nanocrystalline FeZr and FeZrB(Cu) alloys are compared in a wide range of temperatures (4 to 1,000 K). The addition of boron increases the Curie temperature of the alloys and induces a broad minimum in the resistivity vs temperatures. A first step of crystallization occurs around 700 K in all the alloys, giving rise to [alpha]-Fe crystallites of very small size. Small amounts of boron greatly influence the exchange interactions, enhancing the ferromagnetic character of these compounds.

  20. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  1. Nanostructurization of Fe-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilhenko, Vitaliy E.

    2017-03-01

    Data about an effect of cyclic γ-α-γ martensitic transformations on the structure state of reverted austenite Fe-31.7 wt.% Ni-0.06 wt.% C alloy are presented. The effect of multiple direct γ-α and reverse α-γ martensitic transformations on fragmentation of austenitic grains has been investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. An ultrafine structure has been formed by nanofragmentation inside the initial austenite grains due to the successive misorientation of their crystal lattice. Austenite was nanofragmented as a result of multiple γ-α-γ martensitic transformations. Slow heating of the nanofragmented alloy at a rate below 2 °C/s results in nanograin refinement of the structure by multiplication of the reverted γ-phase orientations. The conditions of structure refinement up to ultrafine and nanocrystalline levels as a result of both shear and diffusion mechanisms of reverse α-γ transformation are determined.

  2. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Cu-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerone, A.; Muolo, M. L.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.

    2009-09-01

    The study of the thermodynamic and the surface properties of liquid Cu-B alloys can help better understanding of a complex interfacial chemistry related to liquid Cu-brazes in contact with boride substrates. Despite a simplicity of the Cu-B phase diagram, only a few thermodynamic data are available in the literature, while in the case of the surface properties a complete lack of data is evident. The quasi-chemical approximation (QCA) for the regular solution has been applied to describe the mixing behaviour of liquid Cu-B alloys in terms of their thermodynamic and surface properties as well as the microscopic functions. In view of joining processes related to liquid Cu-brazes/solid boride systems a particular attention is paid to the surface properties of the Cu-rich part of the system and the calculated values are substantiated by the new surface tension experimental data of liquid Cu and Cu-10 at.% B alloy. The tests have been performed by the sessile-drop method under the same experimental conditions. Considering the experimental uncertainties, the effect of oxygen on the surface tension of liquid Cu and Cu-10 at.% B alloy has been analysed by simple model that combines the physical property data included in Butler's equation with the oxygen solubility data and it gives the same results as Belton's adsorption equation.

  3. Giant magnetoresistance of Co-Ni-Cu alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Z. D.; Xiao, Q. F.; Geng, D. Y.; Zhao, X. G.; Zhang, W. S.; You, C. Y.

    2003-05-01

    The structure, magnetic properties and magnetoresistance (MR) effect of Co20NixCu80-x alloys produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing have been investigated. After milling for 5 h, a supersaturated solid solution forms for all the alloys. Co20NixCu80-x alloys annealed at 973 K for 30 min segregated into two-phases of fcc-Co and fcc-Cu. The maximum value for MR ratio, at room temperature is 4.7% at a field of 1.2 T, and at 5 K is 15% at a field of 2 T for Co20Cu80 annealed at 718 K for 30 min. The MR ratio of Co-Ni-Cu alloys decreases monotonically with increasing Ni content. The MR and its dependence on particle size are discussed.

  4. Consolidation processing parameters and alternative processing methods for powder metallurgy Al-Cu-Mg-X-X alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of varying the vacuum degassing parameters on the microstructure and properties of Al-4Cu-1Mg-X-X (X-X = 1.5Li-0.2Zr or 1.5Fe-0.75Ce) alloys processed from either prealloyed (PA) or mechanically alloyed (M) powder, and consolidated by either using sealed aluminum containers or containerless vacuum hot pressing were studied. The consolidated billets were hot extruded to evaluate microstructure and properties. The MA Li-containing alloy did not include Zr, and the MA Fe- and Ce-containing alloy was made from both elemental and partially prealloyed powder. The alloys were vacuum degassed both above and below the solution heat treatment temperature. While vacuum degassing lowered the hydrogen content of these alloys, the range over which the vacuum degassing parameters were varied was not large enough to cause significant changes in degassing efficiency, and the observed variations in the mechanical properties of the heat treated alloys were attributed to varying contributions to strengthening by the sub-structure and the dispersoids. Mechanical alloying increased the strength over that of alloys of similar composition made from PA powder. The inferior properties in the transverse orientation, especially in the Li-containing alloys, suggested deficiencies in degassing. Among all of the alloys processed for this study, the Fe- and Ce-containing alloys made from MA powder possessed better combinations of strength and toughness.

  5. Weathering of PGE sulfides and Pt-Fe alloys in the Freetown Layered Complex, Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, John F. W.; Suárez, Saioa; Prichard, Hazel M.; Fisher, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh and weathered rocks and saprolite from Horizon B of the Freetown Layered Complex contain platinum-group minerals (PGM). The PGM in the fresh rocks are 1-7 μm across, including cooperite (PtS), isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe), minor tetraferroplatinum (PtFe), tulameenite (Pt2FeCu), Os-bearing laurite (RuS2), and other base metal-sulfide (BMS)-bearing PGM. The weathered rocks contain fewer of those PGM but a high proportion of disordered Cu-(±Pd)-bearing Pt-Fe alloys. The saprolite hosts scarce, smaller (1-3 μm) ordered PtFe and disordered PtFe3. The Pt-Fe alloys became increasingly Fe rich as weathering proceeded. Pt-Fe oxides appeared during weathering. Copper sulfides associated with the primary PGM and cooperite (with <3% Pd) were destroyed to provide the minor Cu and Pd found in some of the disordered Pt-Fe alloys. Platinum- and Pd-bearing saprolites have retained the original rock fabric and, to a depth of about 2 m, surround residual rocks that show progressive weathering (corestones). Ground water passing through the saprolite has transported Pt and Pd (and probably Au) in solution down slope into saprolite over unmineralized rocks. Transport is marked by changes in the Pt/Pd ratio indicating that the metals have moved independently. Palladium is present in marginally higher concentrations in the deeper saprolite than in the corestones suggesting some retention of Pd in the deeper saprolite. Platinum and Pd are less concentrated in the upper saprolite than the deeper saprolite indicating surface leaching. Alteration occurred over a long period in an organic and microbial rich environment that may have contributed to the leaching and transport of PGE.

  6. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Zheng, Lanlan; Liu, Jie; Bai, Bing; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti-Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti-Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti-Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti-2Cu and Ti-5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti-Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti-Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti-Cu samples and among the Ti-Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti-Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti-Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation.

  7. NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr spin valves studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Pogorelov, Y. G.; Bunyaev, S. A.; Teixeira, J. M.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ion-beam deposited (Glass/Ta/NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr/Ta) spin valves (SVs) with a Cu-spacer thickness (tCu) varying from 14 to 28 Å have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. With respect to the interlayer coupling strength between the free and fixed ferromagnetic layers, the samples have been divided in those with a weak coupling (for tCu > 16 Å) and a strong coupling regimes (for tCu ≤ 16 Å). The FMR behavior in these two regimes is quite different. For the weakly coupled series, there are two well-defined FMR peaks stemming from the free and fixed layers. Their in-plane angular dependences exhibit 180° and 360° symmetries, respectively. For the strongly coupled SVs, the resonance modes are hybridized and possess features of both layers simultaneously. The main coupling mechanism between the two layers, as concluded from the FMR and MR measurements, is the Néel "orange-peel" magnetostatic interaction, accompanied by a direct exchange due to pinholes in the Cu spacer for tCu < 17 Å.

  8. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn2FeAs alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-01

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn2FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg2CuTi-type Mn2FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn2FeAs applying in the future spintronics field.

  9. Research on pulse electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yongsen; Zhu, Zengwei Ren, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangbo; Han, Taojie

    2014-03-15

    Fe-Ni alloys were fabricated on steel substrates by means of pulse electrodeposition in sulfate solutions. The layers were electrodeposited using different peak current densities, duty cycles and frequencies. Fe contents, microhardnesses and crystalline phases were examined systematically. The Fe content in the deposit decreased and the microhardness increased with increasing duty cycle and peak current density. The pulse frequency had little effect on Fe content but led to a slight decrease in microhardness. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the crystalline phases vary with changes in peak current density and duty cycle but are barely influenced by frequency. When the peak current density or duty cycle is relatively low, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Fe phases coexist; the pure Fe phases disappear as the peak current density or duty cycle increases. At still larger peak current densities or duty cycles, crystalline Fe-Ni alloy and pure Ni phases coexist.

  10. EFFECT OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON THE STRUCTURE AND AC MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF Fe73Cu1Nb3.5-xVxSi13.5B9 (x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) NANOCRYSTALLINE SOFT MAGNETIC ALLOYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Huang, Ping; Wang, Yuxin; Yan, Biao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, Nb element was partially replaced by V element in Finemet-type Fe73Cu1Nb3.5-xVxSi13.5B9 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) alloys and the effect of annealing temperatures on the microstructure and AC magnetic properties of the samples are studied. The annealing temperatures affect the grain sizes of the bcc α-Fe phase greatly. When the annealing temperature is between 540-560°C, the samples have better AC magnetic properties than the samples annealed at other temperatures. The optimized annealing temperature of the studied samples is around 560°C. The coercivity and iron loss of the V2 sample is a little bit higher than that of V1 and V1.5 alloys while the amplitude permeability of V2 alloy is larger than that of V1 and V1.5, which indicate that the content of V element has strong influence on the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys.

  11. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  12. Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Hypoeutectic Fe-B Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Licai; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Lingping; Liu, Weimin

    The wear behavior of nanostructured hypoeutectic Fe94.3B5.7 alloy was investigated in comparison with coarse grained counterpart. The friction coefficient of the Fe94.3B5.7 alloy changed slightly with grain size. While the wear rate decreased as the grain size decreased to nano scale. Both Fe2O3 and Fe2SiO4 oxides were found on the worn surfaces in the nanostructured Fe94.3B5.7 alloy, but only a few oxide films were observed for the coarse grained counterpart. These results suggested that the nanostructured eutectic was conducive to forming oxide films on the worn surface of the Fe94.3B5.7 alloy, and improved the wear resistance.

  13. Magnetic properties of Co-Cu metastable solid solution alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Huang, Xinsheng; Kagayama, Tomoko; Chiba, Akira; Koyama, Keiichi; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

    2004-03-01

    Metastable solid solution alloy powders and bulk alloys in the cobalt(Co)-copper(Cu) (10 90 mol % Co) system, which is an almost immiscible system at the ambient state, were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and shock compression. All MA-treated powders showed the x-ray diffraction patterns of a single phase of fcc structure. The lattice parameter increases with Cu concentration and is fundamentally on the line with Vegard’s law. The magnetization curves of CoxCu100-x (x=20 80) metastable bulk alloys at room temperature showed ferromagnetism, while the one of Co10Cu90 system showed paramagnetism. The saturation magnetic moment (Ms) curve versus electron numbers per atom at 0 K was found to be similar to the Slater-Pauling curves of other transition-metal binary systems and decreased with increasing Cu concentration and approached zero at about 28.8 electrons per atom. The magnetoresistance ratio at room temperature increased with Cu content in the ferromagnetic region, while the one of the paramagnetic Co10Cu90 alloy was negligibly small.

  14. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  15. X-Ray Investigations on Molten Cu-Sb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halm, Th.; Neumann, H.; Hoyer, W.

    1994-05-01

    Using X-ray diffraction, structure factors and pair correlation functions of several molten Cu-Sb alloys and pure antimony were determined and compared with published structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties. The eutectic concentration Cu37Sb63 was investigated in dependence on temperature, and a model structure factor was calculated applying a segregation model.

  16. Superconducting spin-valve effect and triplet superconductivity in Co Ox/Fe1/Cu /Fe2/Cu /Pb multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Hess, C.; Kataev, V.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    We report magnetic and superconducting properties of the modified spin-valve system CoOx/Fe1/Cu /Fe2/Cu /Pb . Introduction of a Cu interlayer between Fe2 and Pb layers prevents material interdiffusion process, increases the Fe2/Pb interface transparency, stabilizes and enhances properties of the system. This allowed us to perform a comprehensive study of such heterostructures and to present theoretical description of the superconducting spin-valve effect and of the manifestation of the long-range triplet component of the superconducting condensate.

  17. Strengthening in rapidly solidified age hardened Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, J.B.; Davies, H.A.; Sellars, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy powders were produced by water atomization and consolidated by warm extrusion. Coherent Cr precipitation is associated with the peak hardness condition in these alloys. The mechanical properties obtained after aging treatments, namely the peak hardness, and the corresponding proof stress are related to the concentration of the alloying element initially in solid solution in the powders. The strengthening observed is interpreted in terms of theories of precipitation and dispersion strengthening and compared with similar analyses reported previously in the literature for these alloy systems.

  18. Preferential Cu precipitation at extended defects in bcc Fe: An atomistic study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Millett, Paul C.; Tonks, Michael R.; Bai, Xian-Ming; Biner, S. Bulent

    2015-04-01

    As a starting point to understand Cu precipitation in RPV alloys, molecular dynamics and Metropolis Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to study the effect of lattice defects on Cu precipitation by taking Fe-Cu system as a model alloy. Molecular dynamics simulations show that owing to the high heat of mixing and positive size mismatch, Cu is attracted by vacancy type defects such as vacancies and voids, and tensile stress fields. In accordance, preferential precipitation of Cu is observed in Metropolis Monte-Carlo simulations at dislocations, prismatic loops and voids. The interaction of Cu with a stress field, e.g., that associated with a dislocation or a prismatic loop, is dominated by elastic effect and can be well described by the linear-elasticity theory. For prismatic loops, the attraction to Cu is found to be size-dependent with opposite trends displayed by vacancy and interstitial loops. The size-dependences can be explained by considering the stress fields produced by these loops. The current results will be useful for understanding the effect of neutron irradiation on Cu precipitation in reactor-pressure-vessel steels.

  19. Supercoducting property of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.

    The superconducting property of Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX alloys prepared by arc melting and liquid quenching methods was investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystalline alloys with X = 0∼25 at.% prepared by arc melting method exhibited superconductivity with maximum Tc,on of 10.1 K. The alloys (X = 10∼23 at.%) with crystalline particles embedded in an amorphous structure, which were fabricated by melt spinning method, showed superconductivity with Tc,on of less than 4.0 K. The superconducting property of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys was attributed to superconducting phases of Zr2Cu, Zr2Ni, Zr65Al10Nb25 and Zr-Nb contained in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys. The melt-spun Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX (X = 10∼20 at.%) alloys exhibited glass transition at 718∼743 K and were found to be superconducting metallic glasses.

  20. Microstructure and Interfacial Reactions During Vacuum Brazing of Stainless Steel to Titanium Using Ag-28 pct Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laik, A.; Shirzadi, A. A.; Sharma, G.; Tewari, R.; Jayakumar, T.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and interfacial reactions during vacuum brazing of grade-2 Ti and 304L-type stainless steel (SS) using eutectic alloy Ag-28 wt pct Cu were investigated. A thin Ni-depleted zone of -Fe(Cr, Ni) solid solution formed on the SS-side of the braze zone (BZ). Cu from the braze alloy, in combination with the dissolved Fe and Ti from the base materials, formed a layer of ternary compound , adjacent to Ti in the BZ. In addition, four binary intermetallic compounds, CuTi, CuTi, CuTi and CuTi formed as parallel contiguous layers in the BZ. The unreacted Ag solidified as islands within the layers of CuTi and CuTi. Formation of an amorphous phase at certain locations in the BZ could be revealed. The -Ti(Cu) layer, formed due to diffusion of Cu into Ti-based material, transformed to an -Ti + CuTi eutectoid with lamellar morphology. Tensile test showed that the brazed joints had strength of 112 MPa and failed at the BZ. The possible sequence of events that led to the final microstructure and the mode of failure of these joints were delineated.

  1. Droplet Growth in Undercooled Cu-Co Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael B.; Li, Delin; Rathz, Thomas J.; Williams, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    High undercooling usually leads to the refinement of microstructures, while an opposite tendency occurs in liquid immiscible alloys. In the Cu-Co system, there is a metastable liquid miscibility gap which may allow the study of droplet nucleation and growth by undercooling experiments. In the present work, two alloys of Cu50Co50 and Cu68Co32 (atomic) were undercooled using a melt fluxing technique in which the liquid separation temperature could be directly measured. It was observed that after separation the resultant melts were further undercooled by 315 K prior to solidification. The relationship between the largest droplet radius and undercooling was found to exhibit three regimes: a power law growth, linear growth, and saturation stage. In addition to dendrites and droplet-like morphology reported previously, an interconnected structure was formed for the Cu50Co50 alloy at intermediate undercooling. It played a crucial role in droplet coarsening at high undercooling.

  2. Thermal expansion measurements in Fe-base invar alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Kittaka, T.; Maeta, H.

    1983-04-01

    By using the X-ray Bond method, measurements of thermal expansion curves have been made in Fe-Ni and Fe-Pd Invar alloys in the temperature range between 4.2 K and room temperatures. A minimum in the thermal expansion curve was observed for each alloy. This anomaly could be explained by considering the magnetovolume coupling term caused by the longitudinal spin fluctuation and the contribution due to the anharmonic terms in the normal lattice vibration energy. In 34.2 at% Pd-Fe alloy an abnormal increase of the linewidth of the (400) X-ray peak was observed with decreasing temperature from room temperature down to 4.2 K, while in Fe-Ni and Fe-Pt Invar alloys no such increase in linewidth was observed.

  3. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  4. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective.

  5. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective. PMID:27118459

  6. Microwave absorption of electroplated NiFeCu/Cu multilayers deposited directly on Si (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, B. G.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Filho, J. Gomes; Sommer, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    We study the magnetic properties and broadband microwave absorption of electroplated NiFeCu/Cu multilayered thin films deposited directly on Si (100) substrates. We produced samples with 20 nm thick NiFeCu layers and Cu layer thickness tCu in the range 0-2.8 nm. Structural properties were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), while the composition and morphological aspects were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). GIXRD confirmed the cubic face centered FCC phase of NiFeCu with all diffraction peaks drifting toward lower angles with tCu. SEM images show the appearance of Cu islands instead of continuous Cu layers. A minimum coercive field of 1.4 Oe is obtained for tCu = 1.0 nm, while the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth exhibited 200 Oe constant values for tCu between 0.7 and 2.1 nm. The effective magnetization increases with tCu, possibly associated to the increase on Fe content as observed by EDX. The effective dynamic anisotropy behavior with tCu seems to be associated to the island structure observed in the films.

  7. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A process for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere.

  8. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Sadoway, D.R.

    1997-05-27

    A process is described for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere. 2 figs.

  9. Dissolution of Cu/Mg Bearing Intermetallics in Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of the Cu/Mg bearing intermetallics were thoroughly investigated in four Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing various Cu (1 and 1.6 wt pct) and Mg (0.4 and 0.8 wt pct) contents. The area fractions of Cu/Mg bearing phases before and after solution heat treatment (SHT) were quantified to evaluate the solubility/stability of the phases. Two Mg-bearing intermetallics (Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, π-Al8FeMg3Si6) which appear as gray color under optical microscope were discriminated by the developed etchant. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements (Cu, Mg, and Si) in α-Al were analyzed. The results illustrated that in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg, Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was dissolved after 6 hours of SHT at 778 K (505 °C); but containing in the alloys ~0.8 pct Mg, it was insoluble/ partially soluble. Furthermore, after SHT at 778 K (505 °C), Mg2Si was partially substituted by Q-phase. Applying a two-step SHT [6 hours@778 K (505 °C) + 8 hours@798 K (525 °C)] in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg helped to further dissolve the remaining Mg bearing intermetallics and further modified the microstructure, but in the alloys containing ~0.8 pct Mg, it caused partial melting of Q-phase. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium conditions. There was an excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted results.

  10. The Effects of Joining Methods on the Resistivity of W-Cu Alloy and Cu Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunhuan; Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhenbo

    In this paper, three joining methods are employed to join W-Cu alloy and Cu to investigate the effect of joining methods on the resistivity of the joint. The results show that W-Cu alloy is well bonding to the Cu substrate when joining by diffusion vacuum bonding and brazing in vacuum methods. Welding defects is apt to occur when joining by brazing in air. The lowest resistivity of the joint welded is obtained by vacuum diffusion bonding, which approximates to the W-Cu alloy while that for the joint brazed in air is the highest. Vacuum diffusion bonding method is the best choice when the demand of conductivity is vital while the mechanical reliability is not critical. Otherwise, brazing in vacuum is the prior option.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy of FeGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Sadia; Cullen, James R.; Wuttig, Manfred; Cui, Jun

    2004-06-01

    Cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants, K1 and K2, for Fe1-xGax alloys were measured using magnetization curves with x=0.05, 0.125, 0.14, 0.18, and 0.20. Thin circular (110) disks all with <100>, <110>, and <111> in the plane of the disk were used to measure K1 and K2. K1 was also measured with (100) circular disks. K1 for 5 at. % Ga content was found to be larger than that of pure Fe. (All compositions mentioned hereafter are atomic percents.) K1 and K2 both drop gradually up to 18 at. % Ga substitution. Then there is a sharp drop in the magnitude of both constants. K2 was found to be equal to -9K1/4 and the <110> and <111> directions were equally hard magnetically for all compositions considered in this study. Calculation of the anisotropy energy density verifies this result. K1 measured from both (110) and (100) disks was reasonably consistent.

  12. Microstructure Evaluation of Fe-BASED Amorphous Alloys Investigated by Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Huang, Ping; Wang, Yuxin; Yan, Biao

    2013-07-01

    Microstructure of Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and Doppler broadening positron annihilation technique (PAT). Doppler broadening measurement reveals that amorphous alloys (Finemet, Type I) which can form a nanocrystalline phase have more defects (free volume) than alloys (Metglas, Type II) which cannot form this microstructure. XRD and TEM characterization indicates that the nanocrystallization of amorphous Finemet alloy occurs at 460°C, where nanocrystallites of α-Fe with an average grain size of a few nanometers are formed in an amorphous matrix. With increasing annealing temperature up to 500°C, the average grain size increases up to around 12 nm. During the annealing of Finemet alloy, it has been demonstrated that positron annihilates in quenched-in defect, crystalline nanophase and amorphous-nanocrystalline interfaces. The change of line shape parameter S with annealing temperature in Finemet alloy is mainly due to the structural relaxation, the pre-nucleation of Cu nucleus and the nanocrystallization of α-Fe(Si) phase during annealing. This study throws new insights into positron behavior in the nanocrystallization of metallic glasses, especially in the presence of single or multiple nanophases embedded in the amorphous matrix.

  13. Development of ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Tortorelli, P.F.; McKamey, C.G.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this program is to develop an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) version of Fe{sub 3}Al that has sufficient creep strength and resistance to oxidation at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1200 C to be suitable for application as heat exchanger tubing in advanced power generation cycles. The main areas being addressed are: (a) alloy processing to achieve the desired alloy grain size and shape, and (b) optimization of the oxidation behavior to provide increased service life compared to semi-commercial ODS-FeCrAl alloys intended for the same applications. The recent studies have focused on mechanically-alloyed powder from a commercial alloy vendor. These starting alloy powders were very clean in terms of oxygen content compared to ORNL-produced powders, but contained similar levels of carbon picked up during the milling process. The specific environment used in milling the powder appears to exert a considerable influence on the post-consolidation recrystallization behavior of the alloy. A milling environment which produced powder particles having a high surface carbon content resulted in a consolidated alloy which readily recrystallized, whereas powder with a low surface carbon level after milling resulted in no recrystallization even at 1380 C. A feature of these alloys was the appearance of voids or porosity after the recrystallization anneal, as had been found with ORNL-produced alloys. Adjustment of the recrystallization parameters did not reveal any range of conditions where recrystallization could be accomplished without the formation of voids. Initial creep tests of specimens of the recrystallized alloys indicated a significant increase in creep strength compared to cast or wrought Fe{sub 3}Al, but the specimens failed prematurely by a mechanism that involved brittle fracture of one of the two grains in the test cross section, followed by ductile fracture of the remaining grain. The reasons for this behavior are not yet understood. The

  14. Kondo screening of the spin and orbital magnetic moments of Fe impurities in Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, L.; Kappler, J.-P.; Ohresser, P.; Sainctavit, Ph.; Henry, Y.; Gautier, F.; Schmerber, G.; Kim, D. J.; Goyhenex, C.; Bulou, H.; Bengone, O.; Kavich, J.; Gambardella, P.; Scheurer, F.

    2017-01-01

    We use x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to evidence the effect of correlations on the local impurity magnetic moment in an archetypal Kondo system, namely, a dilute Cu:Fe alloy. Applying the sum rules on the Fe L2 ,3 absorption edges, the evolution of the spin and orbital moments across the Kondo temperature are determined separately. The spin moment presents a crossover from a nearly temperature-independent regime below the Kondo temperature to a paramagneticlike regime above. Conversely, the weak orbital moment shows a temperature-independent behavior in the whole temperature range, suggesting different Kondo screening temperature scales for the spin and orbital moments.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed FeSiBAlNi (Nb) high entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhou; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of milling duration and composition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of equi-atomic FeSiBAlNi and FeSiBAlNiNb high entropy alloys during mechanical alloying have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and alternating gradient magnetometry. The amorphous high entropy alloys have been successfully fabricated using the mechanical alloying method. The results show that the Nb addition prolongs the milling time for the formation of the fully FeSiBAlNi amorphous phase and decreases the glass forming ability. However, FeSiBAlNiNb amorphous high entropy alloy has the higher thermal stability and heat resisting properties. Moreover, the as-milled FeSiBAlNi(Nb) powders are soft-magnetic materials indicated by their low coercivity. The saturation magnetization of the as-milled FeSiBAlNi(Nb) powders decreases with prolonging of the milling time and shows the lowest value when the amorphous high entropy alloys are formed. It suggests that the as-milled products with solid solution phases show the better soft-magnetic properties than those with fully amorphous phases. The Nb addition does not improve the soft-magnetic properties of the FeSiBAlNi high entropy alloys. Rather, both amorphous high entropy alloys have similar soft-magnetic properties after a long milling time.

  16. On the evolution of Cu-Ni-rich bridges of Alnico alloys with tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, Y.; Jha, Rajesh; Dulikravich, George S.; Schwartz, J.; Koch, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    Tempering is a critical step in Alnico alloy processing, yet the effects of tempering on microstructure have not been well studied. Here we report these effects, and in particular the effects on the Cu-Ni bridges. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) maps and line scans show that tempering changes the elemental distribution in the Cu-Ni bridges, but not the morphology and distribution of Cu-bridges. The Cu concentration in the Cu-Ni bridges increases after tempering while other element concentrations decrease, especially Ni and Al. Furthermore, tempering sharpens the Cu bridge boundaries. These effects are primarily related to the large 2C44/(C11-C12) ratio for Cu, largest of all elements in Alnico. In addition, the Ni-Cu loops around the α1 phases become inconspicuous with tempering. The diffusion of Fe and Co to the α1 phase during tempering, which increases the difference of saturation magnetization between the α1 and α2 phases, is observed by EDS. In summary, α1, α2 and Cu-bridges are concentrated with their major elements during tempering which improves the magnetic properties. The formation of these features formed through elemental diffusion is discussed via energy theories.

  17. Insulating 'nanocables': Invar Fe Ni alloy nanorods inside BN nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bando, Y.; Ogawa, K.; Golberg, D.

    2001-10-01

    Here we present the results on synthesis, structural and chemical analysis of insulating boron nitride (BN) nanotubes (NTs) which have been filled with conducting Invar Fe-Ni alloy (˜60 at.% Fe; ˜40 at.% Ni) nanorods. The result was accomplished by a two-step process: (i) carbon (C) NTs containing Invar alloy nanoparticles placed at the tube tips were synthesized by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an Invar Fe-Ni alloy substrate; and (ii) the material was heated to the melting point of the alloy (1723 K) in a flow of B 2O 3 and N 2 gases and held for 30 min. During this second stage, simultaneous filling of NTs with the Fe-Ni melt through capillarity and chemical modification of C tubular shells to form BN tubules occurred.

  18. Template-free electrodeposition of AlFe alloy nanowires from a room-temperature ionic liquid as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Yuqi; Guo, Qingjun; Wang, Heng; Li, Bing

    2016-08-15

    AlFe alloy nanowires were directly electrodeposited on copper substrates from trimethylamine hydrochloride (TMHC)-AlCl3 ionic liquids with small amounts of FeCl3 at room temperature without templates. Coin cells composed of AlFe alloy nanowire electrodes and lithium foils were assembled to characterize the alloy electrochemical properties by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Effects of FeCl3 concentration, potential and temperature on the alloy morphology, composition and cyclic performance were examined. Addition of Fe into the alloy changed the nanowires from a 'hill-like' bulk morphology to a free-standing morphology, and increased the coverage area of the alloy on Cu substrates. As an inactive element, Fe could also buffer the alloys' large volume changes during Li intercalation and deintercalation. AlFe alloy nanowires composed of a small amount of Fe with an average diameter of 140 nm exhibited an outstanding cyclic performance and delivered a specific capacity of about 570 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. This advanced template-free method for the direct preparation of high performance nanostructure AlFe alloy anode materials is quite simple and inexpensive, which presents a promising prospect for practical application in Li-ion batteries.

  19. Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avanish; Pradhan, Sunil Kumar; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Debata, Mayadhar; Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Mandal, Animesh

    2017-02-01

    Cu-Cr-Mo alloy could be a suitable candidate material for collector electrodes in high-power microwave tube devices. An attempt has been made to synthesize ternary Cu-Cr-Mo alloys by mechanical alloying of elemental Cu, Cr, and Mo powders, to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, using a commercial planetary ball mill. For the first ternary alloy, a mixture of 80 wt.% Cu, 10 wt.% Cr, and 10 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h. For the second ternary alloy, a mixture of 50 wt.% Cr and 50 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h to obtain nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) alloy, which was later added to Cu powder and milled for 40 h to obtain Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy. Both nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo ternary alloys exhibited crystallite size below 20 nm. It was concluded that, with addition of nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) to Cu, it was possible to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, which otherwise was not possible by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The resulting microstructure of the Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy comprised a homogeneous distribution of fine and hard (Cr, Mo) particles in a copper matrix. Furthermore, Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy showed better densification compared with Cu-10 wt.%Cr-10 wt.%Mo alloy.

  20. Low-cost Fe--Ni--Cr alloys for high temperature valve applications

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2017-03-28

    An Fe--Ni--Cr alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 1 to 3.5 Al, up to 2 Co, 15 to 19.5 Cr, up to 2 Cu, 23 to 40 Fe, up to 0.3 Hf, up to 4 Mn, 0.15 to 2 Mo, up to 0.15 Si, up to 1.05 Ta, 2.8 to 4.3 Ti, up to 0.5 W, up to 0.06 Zr, 0.02 to 0.15 C, 0.0001 to 0.007 N, balance Ni, wherein, in terms of atomic percent: 6.5.ltoreq.Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta.ltoreq.10, 0.33.ltoreq.Al/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.0.065, 4.ltoreq.(Fe+Cr)/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.10, the alloy being essentially free of Nb and V.

  1. On the cytocompatibility of biodegradable Fe-based alloys.

    PubMed

    Schinhammer, Michael; Gerber, Isabel; Hänzi, Anja C; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    Biodegradable iron-based alloys are potential candidates for application as temporary implant material. This study summarizes the design strategy applied in the development of biodegradable Fe-Mn-C-Pd alloys and describes the key factors which make them suitable for medical applications. The study's in vitro cytotoxicity tests using human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed acceptable cytocompatibility based on the alloys' eluates. An analysis of the eluates revealed that Fe is predominantly bound in insoluble degradation products, whereas a considerable amount of Mn is in solution. The investigation's results are discussed using dose-response curves for the main alloying elements Fe and Mn. They show that it is mainly Mn which limits the cytocompatibility of the alloys. The study also supplies a summary of the alloying elements' influence on metabolic processes. The results and discussion presented are considered important and instructive for future alloy development. The Fe-based alloys developed show an advantageous combination of microstructural, mechanical and biological properties, which makes them interesting as degradable implant material.

  2. Large magnetostriction in directionally solidified FeGa and FeGaAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisukhumbowornchai, N.; Guruswamy, S.

    2001-12-01

    The magnetostriction of Fe-x at. % Ga (x=15, 20, and 27.5) was measured, for alloys processed under different directional solidification conditions, and the effect of partial substitution of Ga with Al on the magnetostriction of the alloys was examined. Magnetostriction measurements were carried out at different prestress levels varying from 0 to 55 MPa. Ga additions in the range of 15-27.5 at. % Ga in Fe were found to improve the magnetostriction of the disordered bcc phase of Fe by as much as 1 order of magnitude. The applied fields for saturation magnetostriction and the hysteresis observed were small. Magnetostriction values as high as 271×10-6 were obtained in polycrystalline Fe-27.5 at. % Ga rods prepared using a directional growth (DG) process at a growth rate of 22.5 mm/h. This process, which is essentially a seedless vertical Bridgman technique, resulted in near [001] textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloys. The preferred [001] crystallographic orientation of the DG alloys was approximately 14° away from the rod direction. For Ga contents between 15 and 27.5 at. % in Fe, the Ga atoms increase the Fe-Fe spacing in the disordered bcc (A2) phase and reduce the magnetic moment of Fe. Substitution of Ga with Al has a significant effect on the magnetostriction of the Fe-Ga alloys. Small substitution of 5 at. % Al for Ga in the Fe-20 at. % Ga alloy increases the magnetostriction in Fe, and the value is slightly larger than that of the Fe-20 at. % Ga alloy. A higher substitution amount of Al tends to decrease the magnetostriction.

  3. High temperature grain growth and oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar (tm)) alloy leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. J.; Greulich, F. A.; Beavis, L. C.

    One important application for the Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar(trademark)) alloy in wire form is in brazed feed through assemblies which are integral parts of vacuum electronic devices. Since Cu metal brazes are performed at process temperatures of about 1100 C, there is opportunity for significant grain growth to occur during the brazing operation. Additional high temperature exposure includes decarburization of the Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in wet hydrogen for 30 min. at 1000 C prior to the Cu brazing operation. Two approaches were used to characterize grain growth in two lots of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy: (1) a once-through processing study to study the effect of one-time-only device thermal processing on the resulting grain size, and (2) an isothermal grain growth study involving various times at 800-1100 C. The results of the once-through processing study indicate that acceptable grain sizes are obtained from both cold worked and mill-annealed wire lots following Cu brazing. The isothermal grain growth study indicates that the linear intercept distance for Fe-29Ni-17Co can be described with a power law function of time, and that thermal exposure must be controlled at temperatures in excess of 900 C in order to avoid excessive grain growth. A second study characterized the oxidation kinetics of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in air at temperatures ranging from 550-700 C. This study indicates the parabolic growth law applies for this material, and between 550 and 700 C, oxidation in this alloy occurs at an activation energy of 27.9 kcal/mole. Other oxidation studies at higher temperatures (greater than 750 C) indicate an activation energy of 52.2 kcal/mole for oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy at temperatures greater than 790 C. Quantitative point analyses of the oxide scale formed at 600 C suggest that a significant fraction of the scale is close to the stoichiometry of the Fe2O3-type oxide.

  4. Alloy development and processing of FeAl: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Viswanathan, S.

    1997-03-01

    In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in developing B2-phase FeAl alloys with improved weldability, room-temperature ductility, and high-temperature strength. Controlling the processing-induced microstructure is also important, particularly for minimizing trade-offs in various properties. FeAl alloys have outstanding resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in various kinds of molten salts due to formation of protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales. Recent work shows that FeAl alloys are carburization-resistant as well. Alloys with 36 to 40 at. % Al have the best combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Minor alloying additions of Mo, Zr, and C, together with microalloying additions of B, produce the best combination of weldability and mechanical behavior. Cast FeAl alloys, with 200 to 400 {mu}m grain size and finely dispersed ZrC, have 2 to 5% tensile ductility in air at room-temperature, and a yield strength > 400 MPa up to about 700 to 750{degrees}C. Extruded ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) materials with refined grain sizes ranging from 2 to 50 {mu}m, can have 10 to 15% ductility in air and be much stronger, and can even be quite tough, with Charpy impact energies ranging from 25 to 105 J at room-temperature. This paper highlights progress made in refining the alloy composition and exploring processing effects on FeAl for monolithic applications. It also includes recent progress on developing FeAl weld-overlay technology, and new results on welding of FeAl alloys. It summarizes some of the current industrial testing and interest for applications.

  5. Spin Reorientation Transition in Magnetically Coupled Fe/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. J.; Ling, W. L.; Wolfe, J. H.; Toyama, F.; Paik, S.; Bovensiepen, U.; Qiu, Z. Q.; Scholl, A.; Nolting, F.; Anders, S.

    2001-03-01

    We investigated Spin Reorientation Transition (SRT) of Fe film in Fe/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) where the Fe layer is magnetically coupled to the perpendicular magnetization of Ni with the interlayer coupling strength being controlled by the Cu thickness. With in situ surface magneto-optic Kerr effect measurement, we show that the Fe-Ni interlayer coupling results in an alternating alignment of the Fe magnetization with Cu thickness for Fe film thinner than the SRT thickness dR, but has no effect for Fe film thicker than dR. The SRT thickness dR, defined as the onset of in-plane magnetization, was found to be independent of the Fe-Ni interlayer coupling. Within the SRT pseudo-gap region, however, the magnetic remanence exhibits oscillatory behavior with Cu thickness with a periodicity exactly half of that in the oscillatory interlayer coupling. This result shows that the strip domains are severely modified by the strength of the Fe-Ni interlayer coupling. To provide more detailed information, element specific domain imaging was taken in this system using photoemission electron microscope at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Itinerant magnetism in metallic CuFe2Ge2.

    PubMed

    Shanavas, K V; Singh, David J

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are performed to understand the electronic structure and magnetic properties of CuFe2Ge2. The band structure reveals large electron density N(EF) at the Fermi level suggesting a strong itinerant character of magnetism. The Fermi surface is dominated by two dimensional sheet like structures, with potentially strong nesting between them. The magnetic ground state appears to be ferromagnetic along a and antiferromagnetic in other directions. These results show that CuFe2Ge2 is an antiferromagnetic metal, with similarities to the Fe-based superconductors; such as magnetism with substantial itinerant character and coupling between magnetic order and electrons at the Fermi energy.

  7. Itinerant magnetism in metallic CuFe2Ge2

    DOE PAGES

    Shanavas, K. V.; Singh, David J.; He, Ruihua

    2015-03-25

    Theoretical calculations are performed to understand the electronic structure and magnetic properties of CuFe2Ge2. The band structure reveals large electron density N(EF) at the Fermi level suggesting a strong itinerant character of magnetism. The Fermi surface is dominated by two dimensional sheet like structures, with potentially strong nesting between them. The magnetic ground state appears to be ferromagnetic along a and antiferromagnetic in other directions. The results show that CuFe2Ge2 is an antiferromagnetic metal, with similarities to the Fe-based superconductors; such as magnetism with substantial itinerant character and coupling between magnetic order and electrons at the Fermi energy.

  8. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. Themore » most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.« less

  9. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; Massey, Caleb P.

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. The most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.

  10. Tough cryogenic alloys from the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanfein, M. J.; Zackay, V. F.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    By adjusting composition, metastable gamma (austenite) and epsilon (hexagonal) martensite may be retained in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr alloys and used to impact toughness through the TRIP mechanism. The resulting alloys have excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The best alloys obtained to date are: Fe-20Mn, with sigma (sub y) = 79ksi and K sub IC = 275ksi square root of (in) at 77 K, and Fc-16Mn-8Cr, with sigma sub y = 85ksi and K sub IC = 72ksi square root of (in) at 77 K.

  11. Mold filling and microhardness of 1% Fe titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideki; Komatsu, Masashi; Miller, Barbara; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Okabe, Toru

    2004-06-01

    We examined the mold filling capacity and microhardness of two industrial 1% Fe titanium alloys: Super-TIX800 (Nippon Steel Corp.) (Fe: 0.910%, O: 0.370%, N: 0.005%) and Super-TIX800N (Nippon Steel Corp.) (Fe: 0.960%, O: 0.300%, N: 0.041%). Two wedge-shaped acrylic patterns (with 30 degrees or 15 degrees angles) were prepared. Each alloy was cast in a centrifugal casting machine. Mold filling was evaluated as the missing length between the tip of the casting and the theoretical tip. Vickers hardness of the edge of the castings was also determined. For both angles tested, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in mold filling among these alloys and the control (CP Ti). The results of testing the microhardness near the cast surfaces indicated that the hardened reaction layers on these alloys were thinner at the edge compared to CP Ti.

  12. Photoelectron diffraction of magnetic ultrathin films: Fe/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G. ); Wagner, M.K. . Dept. of Chemistry); Guo, X.Q.; Tong, S.Y. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-03

    The preliminary results of an ongoing investigation of Fe/Cu(001) are presented here. Energy dependent photoelectron diffraction, including the spin-dependent variant using the multiplet split Fe3s state, is being used to investigate the nanoscale structures formed by near-monolayer deposits of Fe onto Cu(001). Core-level photoemission from the Fe3p and Fe3s states has been generated using synchrotron radiation as the tunable excitation source. Tentatively, a comparison of the experimental Fe3p cross section measurements with multiple scattering calculations indicates that the Fe is in a fourfold hollow site with a spacing of 3.6{Angstrom} between it and the atom directly beneath it, in the third layer. This is consistent with an FCC structure. The possibility of utilizing spin-dependent photoelectron diffraction to investigate magnetic ultrathin films will be demonstrated, using our preliminary spectra of the multiplet-split Fe3s os near-monolayer Fe/Cu(001). 18 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Ferromagnetism in CuFeSb: Evidence of competing magnetic interactions in Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Qian, Bin; Lee, J.; Wang, Gaochao; Kumar, P.; Fang, Minghu; Liu, Tijiang; Fobes, David; Pham, H.; Spinu, L.; Wu, Xiaoshan; Green, M.; Lee, S. H.; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    In this talk, we will report a new layered iron-pnictide compound CuFeSb. This material shares similar layered tetragonal structure with iron-based superconductors, with Fe square planar sheets forming from the edge-sharing iron antimony tetrahedral network. CuFeSb differs remarkably from Fe-based superconductors in the height of anion Zanion from the Fe plane; ZSb for CuFeSb is ~1.84 Å, much larger than ZAs (1.31-1.51 Å) in FeAs compounds and ZTe (~1.77 Å) in Fe1+yTe. In contrast with the metallic antiferromagneticor superconducting state of iron pnictides and chalcogenides under current studies, CuFeSb exhibits a metallic, ferromagnetic state with Tc = 375 K. This finding provide strong experimental evidence for the competition between antiferromagnetic and ferromagneticcorrelations in layered Fe-based superconductors, and that the nature of magnetic coupling within the Fe plane is indeed dependent on the height of anion as predicted in theories.

  14. Overview of the development of FeAl intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Liu, C.T.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-09-01

    B2-phase FeAl ordered intermetallic alloys based on an Fe-36 at.% Al composition are being developed to optimize a combination of properties that includes high-temperature strength, room-temperature ductility, and weldability. Microalloying with boron and proper processing are very important for FeAl properties optimization. These alloys also have the good to outstanding resistance to oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in molten salts or chlorides at elevated temperatures, characteristic of FeAl with 30--40 at.% Al. Ingot- and powder-metallurgy (IM and PM, respectively) processing both produce good properties, including strength above 400 MPa up to about 750 C. Technology development to produce FeAl components for industry testing is in progress. In parallel, weld-overlay cladding and powder coating technologies are also being developed to take immediate advantage of the high-temperature corrosion/oxidation and erosion/wear resistance of FeAl.

  15. Ductile Fe83C17 Alloys of Ultrafine Networklike Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. M.; Leung, C. C.; Yip, Y. L.; Mok, S. W.; Kui, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fe83C17 alloy melt can be cast readily into white cast iron. It is brittle, with a compressive strength of ~1300 MPa. By a fluxing technique, a Fe83C17 melt can be quenched into a crystalline solid of ultrafine networklike microstructure, with a hardness value of ~536 HV, a yield strength of ~2000 MPa, and a strain to failure of about 18 pct. In particular, a cube made of Fe83C17 network alloy can be compressed to a disk.

  16. Computer-Aided Design of Manufacturing Chain Based on Closed Die Forging for Hardly Deformable Cu-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kuziak, Roman; Pidvysots'kyy, Valeriy; Nowak, Jarosław; Węglarczyk, Stanisław; Drozdowski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Two copper-based alloys were considered, Cu-1 pct Cr and Cu-0.7 pct Cr-1 pct Si-2 pct Ni. The thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are given in the paper and compared to pure copper and steel. The role of aging and precipitation kinetics in hardening of the alloys is discussed based upon the developed model. Results of plastometric tests performed at various temperatures and various strain rates are presented. The effect of the initial microstructure on the flow stress was investigated. Rheologic models for the alloys were developed. A finite element (FE) model based on the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic flow rule was applied to the simulation of forging of the alloys. Analysis of the die wear for various processes of hot and cold forging is presented as well. A microstructure evolution model was implemented into the FE code, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of final products were predicted. Various variants of the manufacturing cycles were considered. These include different preheating schedules, hot forging, cold forging, and aging. All variants were simulated using the FE method and loads, die filling, tool wear, and mechanical properties of products were predicted. Three variants giving the best combination of forging parameters were selected and industrial trials were performed. The best manufacturing technology for the copper-based alloys is proposed.

  17. Corrosion performance of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe aluminide alloys in complex gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Johnson, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    Alumina-forming structural alloys can offer superior resistance to corrosion in the presence of sulfur-containing environments, which are prevalent in coal-fired fossil energy systems. Further, Fe aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in these systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. In addition, surface coatings of Fe aluminide are being developed to impart corrosion resistance to structural alloys. This paper describes results from an ongoing program that is evaluating the corrosion performance of alumina-forming structural alloys, Fe-Al and Fe aluminide bulk alloys, and Fe aluminide coatings in environments typical of coal-gasification and combustion atmospheres. Experiments were conducted at 650-1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HCl-containing gases. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales and to determine the modes of corrosion degradation that occur in the materials when they are exposed to S/Cl-containing gaseous environments.

  18. -Interface effects on the magnetic moment of Co and Cu in CoCu granular alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Prieto, A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M.L.; Chaboy, J.; Laguna-Marco, M.A.; Muro, T.; Nakamura, T.

    2005-12-01

    We report on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments performed on Co{sub 5}Cu{sub 95} annealed granular alloys with giant magnetoresistance. Results on the Co-L{sub 2,3} edge evidence a direct correlation between the Co orbital and spin magnetic moment and the Co clusters interfacial roughness. On the other hand, we have found dichroism on the Cu-L{sub 2,3} edge, revealing an induced magnetic polarization of the Cu interfacial atoms. The magnetic moment of the Cu atoms is mainly of spin character and is ferromagnetically coupled with the Co magnetic moment.

  19. Half-metallic properties of the new Ti2YPb(Y = Co, Fe) Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Moaid K.; Gao, G. Y.; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2015-09-01

    The half-metallic properties of Ti2YPb(Y = Co, Fe) Heusler alloys with a CuHg2Ti-type structure were examined within the frame of the density functional theory and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerh of generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Analysis of the electronic band structures and density of states for Ti2YPb(Y = Co, Fe) revealed that the spin-up bands are metallic, whereas the spin-down bands exhibit gaps of 0.73 and 0.70 eV, respectively. The magnetic moments calculated for the Ti2YPb(Y = Co, Fe) alloys were found to be equal to 3 μB/f.u. and 2 μB/f.u., values which both follows the Slater-Pauling rule of Mt = Zt - 18. The compounds’ negative enthalpy values should encourage their experimental realization in the future. The bandgap was elucidated to be mainly determined by the bonding and antibonding states created from the hybridizations of the d states between the Ti(1)-Ti(2) coupling and the Y = Co, Fe atom. The half-metallic properties of the Ti2YPb(Y = Co, Fe) compounds were found to be insensitive to lattice distortion, with full spin polarization achievable within a large range of lattice parameter values, making the alloys suitable for use in practical applications.

  20. Evaluation of hardening behaviors in ion-irradiated Fe-9Cr and Fe-20Cr alloys by nanoindentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilei; Wang, Yanli; Dai, Xianyuan; Liu, Fang; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Xitao

    2016-09-01

    The ion irradiation hardening behaviors of Fe-9 wt% Cr and Fe-20 wt% Cr model alloys were investigated by nanoindentation technique. The specimens were irradiated with 3 MeV Fe11+ ions at room temperature up to 1 and 5 dpa for Fe-9Cr alloy and 1 and 2.5 for Fe-20Cr alloy. The ratio of average hardness in the same depth of irradiated and unirradiated (Hirr. av/Hunirr. av) was used to determine the critical indentation depth hcrit to eliminate the softer substrate effect. The Nix-Gao model was used to explain the indentation size effect. Irradiation hardening is clearly observed in both Fe-9Cr alloy and Fe-20Cr alloy after ion irradiation. The differences of ISE and irradiation hardening behaviors between Fe-9Cr and Fe-20Cr alloys are considered to be due to their different microstructures and microstructural evolution under ion irradiation.

  1. Progress in ODS Alloys: A Synopsis of a 2010 Workshop on Fe- Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, Bimal; Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Jones, Andy R.; Vito, Cedro III; Tatlock, Gordon J; Pint, Bruce A; Tortorelli, Peter F; Rawls, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    In Fall 2010, a workshop on the role and future of Fe-based Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys gathered together ODS alloy suppliers, potential industrial end-users, and technical experts in relevant areas. Presentations and discussions focused on the current state of development of these alloys, their availability from commercial suppliers, past major evaluations of ODS alloy components in fossil and nuclear energy applications, and the technical and economic issues attendant to commercial use of ODS alloys. Significant progress has been achieved in joining ODS alloys, with creep resistant joints successfully made by inertia welding, friction stir welding and plasma-assisted pulse diffusion bonding, and in improving models for the prediction of lifetime components. New powder and alloy fabrication methods to lower cost or improve endproduct properties were also described. The final open discussion centered on challenges and pathways for further development and large-scale use of ODS alloys.

  2. CuO role in γ-Fe2O3-supported Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by radiation-induced reduction as catalysts for preferential CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Toshiharu; Kugai, Junichiro; Seino, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Yuji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Nitani, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-02-01

    Modification of supported Pt catalyst by transition metal is effective for improving catalytic performance in fuel processing and electrochemical processes. In order to identify the role of CuO in Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst in CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich gas, three γ-Fe2O3-supported Pt-Cu catalyst samples consisting of Pt-Cu alloy with different CuO content were synthesized by a radiolytic process. By managing the concentrations of the copper source and oxygen dissolved in the precursor solution, the CuO content was successfully varied by an order of magnitude without changing the structure and composition of the Pt-Cu alloy. In the catalytic tests, CuO-promoted CO oxidation significantly at around 100 °C. The catalyst with the highest CuO content showed the highest CO and O2 conversions. It was considered that the CuO phase promotes oxygen supply to CO chemisorbed on the Pt-Cu alloy surface. The alloy-CuO contact was suggested to be critical for the promoting effect.

  3. Structural evolution in mechanically alloyed Al-Fe powders

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Suryanarayana, C.; Froes, F.H.

    1995-08-01

    The structural evolution in mechanically alloyed binary aluminum-iron powder mixtures containing 1, 4, 7.3, 10.7, and 25 at pct Fe was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopic techniques. The constitution (number and identity of phases present), microstructure (crystal size, particle size), and transformation behavior of the powders on annealing were studied. The solid solubility of Fe in Al has been extended up to at least 4.5 at. pct, which is close to that observed using rapid solidification (RS) (4.4 at. pct), compared with the equilibrium value of 0.025 at. pct Fe at room temperature. Nanometer-sized grains were observed in as-milled crystalline powders in all compositions. Increasing the ball-to-powder weight ratio (BPR) resulted in a faster rate of decrease of crystal size. A fully amorphous phase was obtained in the Al-25 at. pct Fe composition, and a mixed amorphous phase plus solid solution of Fe in Al was developed in the Al-10.7 at. pct Fe alloy, agreeing well with the predictions made using the semiempirical Miedema model. Heat treatment of the mechanically alloyed powders containing the supersaturated solid solution or the amorphous phase resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 3}Fe intermetallic in all but the Al-25 at. pct Fe powders. In the Al-25 at. pct Fe powder, formation of nanocrystalline Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2} was observed directly by milling. Electron microscope studies of the shock-consolidated mechanically alloyed Al-10.7 and 25 at. pct Fe powders indicated that nanometer-sized grains were retained after compaction.

  4. Effect of P addition on glass forming ability and soft magnetic properties of melt-spun FeSiBCuC alloy ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Yang, Y. Z.; Li, W.; Chen, X. C.; Xie, Z. W.

    2016-11-01

    The dependency of phosphorous content on the glass forming ability, thermal stability and soft magnetic properties of Fe83.4Si2B14-xPxCu0.5C0.1 (x=0,1,2,3,4) alloys was investigated. The experimental results showed that the substitution of B by P increased the glass forming ability in this alloy system. The Fe83.4Si2B10P4Cu0.5C0.1 alloy shows a fully amorphous character. Thermal stability of melt-spun ribbons increases and temperature interval between the first and second crystallization peaks enlarges with the increase of P content. And the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) shows a slight increase with the increase of P content. The Fe83.4Si2B11P3Cu0.5C0.1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibits a high Bs about 200.6 emu/g. The Bs of fully amorphous alloy Fe83.4Si2B10P4Cu0.5C0.1 drops dramatically to 172.1 emu/g, which is lower than that of other nanocrystallines. Low material cost and excellent soft magnetic properties make the FeSiBPCuC alloys promise soft magnetic materials for industrial applications.

  5. Advances of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-04-01

    Silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles have shown great potential in variety applications due to their excellent electrical and thermal properties resulting high demand in the market. Decreasing in size to nanometer scale has shown distinct improvement in these inherent properties due to larger surface-to-volume ratio. Ag and Cu nanoparticles are also shown higher surface reactivity, and therefore being used to improve interfacial and catalytic process. Their melting points have also dramatically decreased compared with bulk and thus can be processed at relatively low temperature. Besides, regularly alloying Ag into Cu to create Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles could be used to improve fast oxidizing property of Cu nanoparticles. There are varieties methods have been reported on the synthesis of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles. This review aims to cover chemical reduction means for synthesis of those nanoparticles. Advances of this technique utilizing different reagents namely metal salt precursors, reducing agents, and stabilizers, as well as their effects on respective nanoparticles have been systematically reviewed. Other parameters such as pH and temperature that have been considered as an important factor influencing the quality of those nanoparticles have also been reviewed thoroughly.

  6. Study on effects of powder and flake chemistry and morphology on the properties of Al-Cu-Mg-X-X-X powder metallurgy advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, P. J.; Lederich, R. J.; Oneal, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted: (1) to develop rapid solidification processed (RSP) dispersoid-containing Al-3Cu-2Li-1Mg-0.2Zr alloys as substitutes for titanium alloys and commercial 2XXX aluminum alloys for service to at least 150 C; and (2) to develop RSP Al-4Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys as substitutes for high-strength commercial 7XXX alloys in ambient-temperature applications. RSP Al-3Cu-2Li-1Mg-0.2Zr alloys have density-normalized yield stresses at 150 C up to 52% larger than that of 2124-T851 and up to 30% larger than that of Ti-6Al-4V. Strength at 150 C in these alloys is provided by thermally stable delta' (Al3Li), T1 (Al2LiCu), and S' (Al2CuMg) precipitates. Density-normalized yield stresses of RSP Al-3Cu-2Li-1Mg-0.2Zr alloys are up to 100% larger than that of 2124-T851 and equivalent to that of Al-8Fe-4Ce at 260 C. Strength in the RSP alloys at 260 C is provided by incoherent dispersoids and subboundary constituent particles such as T1 and S. The RSP alloys are attractive substitutes in less than or = 100-h exposures for 2xxx and Al-4Fe-Ce alloys up to 260 C and for titanium alloys up to 150 C. RSP Al-4Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys have ambient-temperature yield and ultimate tensile stresses similar to that of 7050-T7651, and are 14% less dense. RSP Al-4Li-0.5Cu-1.5Mg-0.2Zr has a 20% higher specific yield stress, 40% higher specific elastic modulus, and superior corrosion resistance compared to the properties of 7050-T7651. Strength in the Al-4Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy class is primarily provided by the substructure and delta' precipitates and is independent of Cu:Mg ratio. Improvements in fracture toughness and transverse-orientation properties in both alloy classes depend on improved melt practices to eliminate oxide inclusions which are incorporated into the consolidated forms.

  7. An electrochemical and multispectroscopic study of corrosion of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Niemi, L; Minni, E; Ivaska, A

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion of a multi-phase Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-based commercial dental casting alloy and a Cu-Pd-rich and Ag-rich single-phase alloy was studied by open-circuit potential measurements, atomic absorption spectrometry, and electron spectroscopy. The alloys were immersed in an artificial saliva solution for 24 hr while the open-circuit potentials of the alloys were measured. The potentials were found to stabilize at certain levels after a steep rise during the first hours of the experiment. Cu was found to dissolve considerably from the Cu-Pd-rich alloy, with simultaneous enrichment of Pd in the surface layer of the alloy. Ag dissolved slightly from the Ag-rich alloy, but both Cu and Ag were found to dissolve from the multi-phase alloy. Neither Pd nor Au dissolved from any of the alloys studied.

  8. Inhibited Aluminization of an ODS FeCr Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Put Ep Rouaix, Aurelie; Pint, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Aluminide coatings are of interest for fusion energy applications both for compatibility with liquid Pb-Li and to form an alumina layer that acts as a tritium permeation barrier. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are a structural material candidate for commercial reactor concepts expected to operate above 600 C. Aluminizing was conducted in a laboratory scale chemical vapor deposition reactor using accepted conditions for coating Fe- and Ni-base alloys. However, the measured mass gains on the current batch of ODS Fe-14Cr were extremely low compared to other conventional and ODS alloys. After aluminizing at two different Al activities at 900 C and at 1100 C, characterization showed that the ODS Fe-14Cr specimens formed a dense, primarily AlN layer that prevented Al uptake. This alloy batch contained a higher (> 5000 ppma) N content than the other alloys coated and this is the most likely reason for the inhibited aluminization. Other factors such as the high O content, small ({approx} 140 nm) grain size and Y-Ti oxide nano-clusters in ODS Fe-14Cr also could have contributed to the observed behavior. Examples of typical aluminide coatings formed on conventional and ODS Fe- and Ni-base alloys are shown for comparison.

  9. Processing and Properties of Mechanical Alloyed Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Nanomaterials, Aluminum Alloys ABSTRACT Nanostructured A193Fe3Ti2Cr2 alloys were prepared via mechanical alloying (MA) starting from elemental powders...2Cr2 . The aluminum powder had a purity of 99.5 wt% with a mean particle size of 70 ^rn, while the corresponding values for iron, chromium and...increases. 2) All aluminum reflections exhibit broadening even after only 2-hours of milling, indicating the grain size reduction and possibly the

  10. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, E.; Rontó, V.; Sólyom, J.; Roósz, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu49Hf42Al9, Cu46Hf45Al9, Cu50Hf42.5Al7.5 and Cu50Hf45Al5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  11. Compression of Fe-Si-H alloys to core pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Shoh; Ohta, Kenji; Hirose, Kei; Kato, Chie; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-04-01

    We examined the compression behavior of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) (Fe0.88Si0.12)1H0.61 and (Fe0.88Si0.12)1H0.79 (in atomic ratio) alloys up to 138 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). While contradicting experimental results were previously reported on the compression curve of double-hcp (dhcp) FeHx (x ≈ 1), our data show that the compressibility of hcp Fe0.88Si0.12Hx alloys is very similar to those of hcp Fe and Fe0.88Si0.12, indicating that the incorporation of hydrogen into iron does not change its compression behavior remarkably. The present experiments suggest that the inner core may contain up to 0.47 wt % hydrogen (FeH0.26) if temperature is 5000 K. The calculated density profile of Fe0.88Si0.12H0.17 alloy containing 0.32 wt % hydrogen in addition to geochemically required 6.5 wt % silicon matches the seismological observations of the outer core, supporting that hydrogen is an important core light element.

  12. Magnetism, elasticity, and magnetostriction of FeCoGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liyang; Cullen, James; Wuttig, Manfred; Lograsso, T.; Quandt, Eckhard

    2003-05-01

    It is known that the substitution of Co for Fe gives rise to increases in magnetization and Curie temperature, not only in the bcc metals, but also in intermetallic compounds and alloys as well. With the expectation that this is the case in Co-substituted FeGa, we measured magnetization, Curie temperature, magnetostriction and elastic constants of a series of polycrystalline FeCoGa ternary alloys with up to 17% Ga and up to 10% Co. The magnetostriction at saturation for Fe0.93-xCo.07Gax increases to 90 ppm for x=0.17. For larger percentages of Co, the rise in magnetostriction is not as sharp as it is in the 7% case. The shear elastic modulus decreases with Ga, again in keeping with the results for FeGa. The magnetostriction and the elastic constants are sensitive to sample preparation for the high-Ga material. We conclude that the substitution of small (<0.10) percentages of Co for Fe in bcc FeCoGa alloys enhances the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of the parent FeGa material.

  13. Enhanced reactivity of microscale Fe/Cu bimetallic particles (mFe/Cu) with persulfate (PS) for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Xiong, Zhaokun; Lai, Bo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, batch experiments were conducted to examine the enhanced reactivity of microscale Fe/Cu bimetallic particles (mFe/Cu) with persulfate (PS) for p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal in aqueous solution. The key operating parameters (i.e., theoretical Cu mass loadings (TMLCu), mFe/Cu dosage, PS dose, initial pH and temperature) were optimized by the batch experiments, respectively. The experimental data were followed well the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Result reveals that refractory PNP (500 mg L(-1)) was effectively degraded by mFe/Cu-PS system with removal of 98.4% and kobs of 1.91 min(-1) after only 3 min treatment under the optimal operating conditions. Moreover, compared with control experiments (i.e., mFe/Cu, microscale Fe(0) with PS (mFe(0)-PS), and PS alone), mFe/Cu-PS system exerted better performance for PNP removal due to the strong synergistic effect between PS and mFe/Cu. According to the analysis results of degradation kinetics of PNP, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, UV-vis absorption spectra and the intermediates formed, the results reveal that the PNP removal by mFe/Cu-PS system was mainly attributed to reduction accompanied slight oxidation. And based on the analysis of surface characteristics of mFe/Cu particles, it is further demonstrated that PS could enhance the reactivity of mFe/Cu through rapid corrosion of iron surface and decrease of surface passivation of mFe/Cu surface when the low molar ratio of PS to mFe/Cu (i.e., 1:43) was used in this study. These results also illustrates mFe/Cu-PS can be as a high efficient pretreatment technology for the removal of toxic refractory PNP from wastewater.

  14. Infrared Brazing of Ti50Ni50 Shape Memory Alloy and Inconel 600 Alloy with Two Ag-Cu-Ti Active Braze Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Kae; Wu, Shyi-Kaan; Yang, Sheng-Hao

    2017-02-01

    Infrared brazing of Ti50Ni50 SMA and Inconel 600 alloy using Cusil-ABA and Ticusil filler metals has been investigated. The joints were dominated by Ag-Cu eutectic with proeutectic Cu in the Cusil-ABA brazed joint and with proeutectic Ag in the Ticusil one. A continuous curved belt composed of a Ni3Ti layer and a (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti layer formed in the brazed Ti50Ni50/Ticusil/Inconel 600 joint. On the Ti50Ni50 SMA side, an intermetallic layer of (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti formed in all joints, with x values around 0.81 and 0.47. Layers of (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti, Ni3Ti, and mixed Ni3Ti and Ni2Cr intermetallics were observed next to the Inconel 600 substrate in the brazed Ti50Ni50/Cusil-ABA/Inconel 600 joint. The maximum shear strengths of the joints using the Cusil-ABA filler metal and the Ticusil filler metal were 324 and 300 MPa, respectively. In the Cusil-ABA brazed joint, cracks with cleavage-dominated fracture propagated along the (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti interfacial layer next to the Ti50Ni50 SMA substrate. In the Ticusil brazed joint, ductile dimple fracture occurred in the Ag-rich matrix near the Inconel 600 alloy substrate. The absence of a detrimental Ti-Fe-(Cu) layer on the Inconel 600 substrate side can effectively improve the shear strength of the joint.

  15. Th7 Fe3 -Type Related Structures in Pd(Pt)-Cu-B Systems: Pd6 CuB3 -A New Structure Type for Borides.

    PubMed

    Salamakha, Leonid P; Sologub, Oksana; Stöger, Berthold; Rogl, Peter F; Waas, Monika; Michor, Herwig; Bauer, Ernst

    2017-02-09

    A new member of the series of Th7 Fe3 -type derivative structures, h-(Pd0.86 Cu0.14 )7 B3 (≡Pd6.02 Cu0.98 B3 , unique structure type Pd6 CuB3 , space group P63 cm, a=12.9426(9) Å, c=4.8697(4) Å, single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) data) was obtained from as cast alloys and alloys annealed at 600-650 °C. Further substitution of Cu by Pd led to formation of a Mn7 C3 -type structure, o-(Pd0.93 Cu0.07 )7 B3 (≡Pd6.51 Cu0.49 B3 , space group Pnma, a=4.8971(2) Å, b=7.5353(3) Å, c=12.9743(6) Å, single-crystal XRD). Isotypic LT h-(Pt0.70 Cu0.30 )7 B3 (≡Pt4.90 Cu2.10 B3 ) was observed in the Pt-Cu-B system as a low-temperature (LT) phase (T≤600 °C) (powder XRD), whereas the Th7 Fe3 -type (high-temperature (HT) h-(Pt0.73 Cu0.27 )7 B3 ≡Pt5.11 Cu1.89 B3 , space group P63 mc, a=7.4671(1) Å, c=4.9039(1) Å, powder XRD) proved to be stable at high temperature. The three structures are built of columns of face connected metal octahedra and columns of metal tetrahedra alternatingly fused by common faces and vertices. Boron atoms are found in trigonal prisms formed by metal atoms. The volumes of the three new Th7 Fe3 -type derivative borides relate as 1:2:3. Superconductivity was discovered for Pt4.9 Cu2.1 B3 (Pd6 CuB3 -type) and Pt5.1 Cu1.9 B3 (Th7 Fe3 -type) below 0.67 and 0.66 K, respectively. Despite the close value of the transition temperature the values of the upper critical field at 0 K differ as 0.37 T and 0.27 T for the two compounds.

  16. Elastic moduli of nanocrystalline binary Al alloys with Fe, Co, Ti, Mg and Pb alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babicheva, Rita I.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhang, Ying; Kok, Shaw Wei; Bai, Lichun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the elastic moduli of nanocrystalline (NC) Al and NC binary Al-X alloys (X is Fe, Co, Ti, Mg or Pb) by using molecular dynamics simulations. X atoms in the alloys are either segregated to grain boundaries (GBs) or distributed randomly as in disordered solid solution. At 0 K, the rigidity of the alloys increases with decrease in atomic radii of the alloying elements. An addition of Fe, Co or Ti to the NC Al leads to increase in the Young's E and shear μ moduli, while an alloying with Pb decreases them. The elastic moduli of the alloys depend on a distribution of the alloying elements. The alloys with the random distribution of Fe or Ti demonstrate larger E and μ than those for the corresponding alloys with GB segregations, while the rigidity of the Al-Co alloy is higher for the case of the GB segregations. The moduli E and μ for polycrystalline aggregates of Al and Al-X alloys with randomly distributed X atoms are estimated based on the elastic constants of corresponding single-crystals according to the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, which neglects the contribution of GBs to the rigidity. The results show that GBs in NC materials noticeably reduce their rigidity. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of μ for the NC Al-X alloys is analyzed. Only the Al-Co alloy with GB segregations shows the decrease in μ to the lowest extent in the temperature range of 0-600 K in comparison with the NC pure Al.

  17. Short range ordering and magnetostriction in Fe-Ga and other Fe alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruswamy, Sivaraman; Jayaraman, Tanjore V.; Corson, Robert P.; Garside, Gavin; Thuanboon, Swieng

    2008-12-01

    The magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Ga, Fe-Mo, Fe-W, and other Fe alloys have been observed to be sensitive to their thermal history. In this work, the changes in the structure with thermal history and how they correlate with the observed magnetostriction values in Fe-Ga, Fe-W, and Fe-Mo single crystals are examined. Single crystals were grown using the vertical Bridgman crystal growth technique. The magnetostriction constant (3/2)λ100 measured in (i) as-grown and air-cooled (DG) and (ii) annealed and water quenched single crystal samples of Fe-Ga and Fe-W alloys clearly indicate that annealing in the α-phase region followed by rapid quenching improves the magnetostriction values. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on [100]-oriented Fe-Ga as well as other Fe alloy single crystals show (i) a diffuse scattering peak indicative of short range ordering, the extent of which depends on composition and thermal history, and (ii) (200) peak splitting and broadening indicative of the presence of long range ordered coherent second phases and associated coherency strains. A detailed examination of the XRD patterns suggests that the changes in magnetostriction with composition and thermal history are related to the local strain modulations associated with the solutes, short range order, long range ordered coherent second phases, incoherent precipitates, and other structural defects.

  18. Comparative study of the alloying effect on the initial oxidation of Cu-Au(100) and Cu-Pt(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Langli; Zhou, Guangwen; Kang, Yihong; Yang, Judith C.; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.

    2014-03-24

    Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that the oxidation of the Cu-Au(100) results in the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that deeply embed into the Cu-Au substrate while the oxidation of the Cu-Pt(100) leads to the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that highly protrude above the Cu-Pt substrate. Their difference is attributed to the different mobilities of Pt and Au in the Cu base alloys for which the sluggish mobility of Pt in Cu results in trapped Pt atoms at the oxide/alloy interface while the faster mobility of Au in Cu leads to enhanced rehomogenization of the alloy composition.

  19. Elastic anharmonicity of bcc Fe and Fe-based random alloys from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Zhao, Jijun; Vitos, Levente; Johansson, Börje

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate elastic anharmonic behavior in ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe and Fe1 -xMx (M =Al , V, Cr, Co, or Ni) random alloys by means of density-functional simulations. To benchmark computational accuracy, three ab initio codes are used to obtain the complete set of second- and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) for bcc Fe. The TOECs of Fe1 -xMx alloys are studied employing the first-principles alloy theory formulated within the exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation. It is found that the alloying effects on C111,C112 , and C123, which are governed by normal strains only, are more pronounced than those on C144,C166 , and C456, which involve shear strains. Remarkably, the magnitudes of all TOECs but C123 decrease upon alloying with Al, V, Cr, Co, or Ni. Using the computed TOECs, we study compositional effects on the pressure derivatives of the effective elastic constants (d Bi j/d P ), bulk (d K /d P ), and shear moduli (d G /d P ) and derive longitudinal acoustic nonlinearity parameters (β ). Our predictions show that the pressure derivatives of K and G decrease with x for all solute elements and reveal a strong correlation between the compositional trends on d K /d P and d G /d P arising from the fact that alloying predominantly alters d B11/d P . The sensitivity of d B11/d P to composition is attributed to intrinsic alloying effects as opposed to lattice parameter changes accompanying solute addition. For Fe and the considered Fe-based alloys, β along high-symmetry directions orders as β [111 ]>β [100 ]>β [110 ] , and alloying increases the directional anisotropy of β but reduces its magnitude.

  20. Theoretical elastic moduli of ferromagnetic bcc Fe alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualei; Punkkinen, Marko P J; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2010-07-14

    The polycrystalline elastic parameters of ferromagnetic Fe(1-x)M(x) (M = Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Rh; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) random alloys in the body centered cubic (bcc) crystallographic phase have been calculated using first-principles alloy theory in combination with statistical averaging methods. With a few exceptions, the agreement between the calculated and the available experimental data for the polycrystalline aggregates is satisfactory. All additions considered here decrease the bulk modulus (B) and Poisson's ratio (ν) of bcc Fe. The complex composition dependence of the C(44) single-crystal elastic constant is reflected in the polycrystalline shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), and Debye temperature (Θ). The polycrystalline anisotropy of bcc Fe is increased by all additions, and Al, Si, Ni, and Rh yield the largest alloying effects.

  1. First principle-based AKMC modelling of the formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters in a neutron irradiated complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2013-09-01

    The formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters under neutron irradiation have been modelled in a complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of RPV steels, by means of first principle-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained reproduce most features observed in available experimental studies, highlighting the very good agreement between both series. According to simulation, solute-rich clusters form and develop via an induced segregation mechanism on either the vacancy or interstitial clusters, and these point defect clusters are efficiently generated only in cascade debris and not Frenkel pair flux. The results have revealed the existence of two distinct populations of clusters with different characteristic features. Solute-rich clusters in the first group are bound essentially to interstitial clusters and they are enriched in Mn mostly, but also Ni to a lesser extent. Over the low dose regime, their density increases in the alloy as a result of the accumulation of highly stable interstitial clusters. In the second group, the solute-rich clusters are merged with vacancy clusters, and they contain mostly Cu and Si, but also substantial amount of Mn and Ni. The formation of a sub-population of pure solute clusters has been observed, which results from annihilation of the low stable vacancy clusters on sinks. The results indicate finally that the Mn content in clusters is up to 50%, Cu, Si, and Ni sharing the other half in more or less equivalent amounts. This composition has not demonstrated any noticeable modification with increasing dose over irradiation.

  2. Growth of thin Fe/Fe2O3 films on the Cu(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflitsch, Christian; David, Rudolf; Verheij, Laurens K.; Franchy, René

    2001-08-01

    The growth of Fe/Fe-oxide double-layers on Cu(110) was studied with thermal energy atom scattering (TEAS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). An iron film with a thickness of about 0.6 nm was evaporated at low temperature (130 K) on a smooth, well-ordered thin film of Fe2O3 prepared on Cu(110). This Fe film is disordered. Ordering of the film was observed at temperatures between 400 and 600 K. At 530 K, a structure corresponding to that of a well-ordered α-Fe(001) surface was observed with TEAS and LEED. Clear evidence was found for a mixing of the Fe and Fe2O3 layers at the interface, already beginning at the deposition temperature of 130 K. With increasing temperature, the mixing of the Fe and Fe2O3 layers became gradually more effective until, at around 600 K, it was essentially completed. Upon annealing the sample to 1000 K the structure of the film changes and a very thin (less than 2 ML) FeO film on top of the Cu(110) surface is obtained.

  3. Precipitation phase transformation in nanocrystalline Fe-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Bansal, Chandrahaas

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation phase transformation was studied in nanocrystalline Fe-rich Fe-Mo alloys with the use of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Alloys up to 5 at% Mo in Fe were synthesized by mechanical alloying and formed in alpha phase bcc solid solutions with average grain sizes in the range of 10-13 nm. The precipitation transformation (alpha-->alpha + lambda) was found to proceed via a Mo clustering that was correlated with the size of the nanograins. This was understood in terms of the Gibbs Thomson effect with a concept of negative surface energy contribution to the Gibbs free energy of mixing in a nanocrystalline alloy with positive internal energy of mixing. This contribution increased the stability of the solid solution for nanosized grains, and the Mo precipitation started once the grains grew beyond a critical size. We argue that the Mo precipitation takes place in the grain boundary regions, and the Mo-rich lambda phase also precipitates directly in the grain boundary regions, in contrast to the microcrystalline alloys, where the Mo clusters formed within the grains and were first dissolved in the Fe matrix before the lambda phase was formed.

  4. The Bain path of paramagnetic Fe-Cr based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, N.; Johansson, B.; Nilson, G.; Vitos, L.

    2011-07-01

    Employing the first-principles exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculated the total energy and local magnetic moments of paramagnetic Fe-Cr-M (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) alloys along the tetragonal distortion (Bain) path connecting the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) structures. The paramagnetic phase is modeled by the disordered local magnetic moment scheme. For all alloys, the local magnetic moments on Fe atoms decrease from the maximum value corresponding to the bcc phase toward the minimum value realized for the fcc phase. Cobalt atoms have non-vanishing local magnetic moments only for tetragonal lattices with c/a < 1.30, whereas the local magnetic moments of Mn show weak crystal structure dependence. We find that Cr stabilizes the bcc lattice and increases the energy barrier as going from the bcc toward the fcc phase. Both Co and Ni favor the fcc lattice and decrease the energy barrier relative to the bcc phase. On the other hand, the tetragonal distortion around the fcc phase is facilitated by Cr and to a somewhat lesser extent also by Ni, but strongly impeded by Co. Manganese has negligible effect on the structural energy difference as well as on the energy barrier along the Bain path. Our findings on the alloying induced softening or hardening of Fe-Cr based alloys against tetragonal distortions are important for understanding the interstitial driven martensitic transformations in alloy steels.

  5. Origin of large magnetostriction in FeGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruqian

    2002-05-01

    Using the highly precise full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, the phase stability, magnetism, and magnetostriction of Fe3Ga alloys were investigated. The magnetostrictive coefficients strongly depend on the atomic arrangement. The B2-like structure, although it is unstable in the small unit cell chosen here, appears to play a crucial rule for the large positive magnetostriction in the FeGa alloys as observed recently. Electronic origin of enhancement in magnetostriction is discussed in terms of density of states and band structures.

  6. Nano-sized Superlattice Clusters Created by Oxygen Ordering in Mechanically Alloyed Fe Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong-Jie; Li, Jing; Darling, Kristopher A.; Wang, William Y.; VanLeeuwen, Brian K.; Liu, Xuan L.; Kecskes, Laszlo J.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining precipitates coherent with the host matrix, under service conditions is one of the most effective approaches for successful development of alloys for high temperature applications; prominent examples include Ni- and Co-based superalloys and Al alloys. While ferritic alloys are among the most important structural engineering alloys in our society, no reliable coherent precipitates stable at high temperatures have been found for these alloys. Here we report discovery of a new, nano-sized superlattice (NSS) phase in ball-milled Fe alloys, which maintains coherency with the BCC matrix up to at least 913 °C. Different from other precipitates in ferritic alloys, this NSS phase is created by oxygen-ordering in the BCC Fe matrix. It is proposed that this phase has a chemistry of Fe3O and a D03 crystal structure and becomes more stable with the addition of Zr. These nano-sized coherent precipitates effectively double the strength of the BCC matrix above that provided by grain size reduction alone. This discovery provides a new opportunity for developing high-strength ferritic alloys for high temperature applications. PMID:26134420

  7. Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, Ken; Baxter, David J.

    1984-01-01

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

  8. Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

    1983-07-26

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

  9. Physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepeshev, A. A.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline coatings based on the Al65Cu23Fe12 alloy prepared by plasma spraying have been investigated. The specific features of the phase formation due to the competitive interactions of the icosahedral ψ and cubic β phases have been elucidated. A correlation between the microhardness and the content of the icosahedral phase in the coating has been determined. The decisive role of the quasicrystalline phase in the formation of high tribological characteristics of the coatings has been revealed and tested.

  10. Pressure induced phase transition in FeGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devreugd, Christopher; Ahart, Muhtar; Gehring, Peter; Viehland, Dwight; Hemley, Russell

    2011-03-01

    Giant magnetostriction in Fe-- x Ga alloys (15 -- x - 27) offers potential for future generations of sensors and actuators. A maximum in the magnetostrictive strain is found at Ga content of about 19 percent, which is ten times higher than that of pure alpha-Fe. To investigate the behavior of FeGa alloys under pressure, we chose a slow cooled alloy of FeGa-19 as our sample and performed x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell up to 45 GPa. Diffraction pattern shows powder rings associated with (110), (200), and (211) Bragg reflections from expected bcc structure of iron below 24 GPa. We also observed the intensity increases along the powder rings associated with the crystal structure of Galfenol. Considering the (110) Bragg peak splits into three peaks above 24 GPa, our results indicate that FeGa alloy undergoes a bcc cubic to a hexagonal transition around 24 GPa. When the pressure is decreased, the hcp phase transforms back to the bcc phase. The transition mechanism can be understood by using the analogy to the bcc-hcp phase transition in pure iron under pressure. The transition in iron is a martensitic or displacive one. The hcp structure can be derived from the bcc structure through a relatively minor distortion of the bcc structure.

  11. Cu-Au Alloys Using Monte Carlo Simulations and the BFS Method for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Good, Brian; Ferrante, John

    1996-01-01

    Semi empirical methods have shown considerable promise in aiding in the calculation of many properties of materials. Materials used in engineering applications have defects that occur for various reasons including processing. In this work we present the first application of the BFS method for alloys to describe some aspects of microstructure due to processing for the Cu-Au system (Cu-Au, CuAu3, and Cu3Au). We use finite temperature Monte Carlo calculations, in order to show the influence of 'heat treatment' in the low-temperature phase of the alloy. Although relatively simple, it has enough features that could be used as a first test of the reliability of the technique. The main questions to be answered in this work relate to the existence of low temperature ordered structures for specific concentrations, for example, the ability to distinguish between rather similar phases for equiatomic alloys (CuAu I and CuAu II, the latter characterized by an antiphase boundary separating two identical phases).

  12. Formability Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Bulging Using FE Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, B. J.; Hunt, D.; Yoshihara, S.; Manabe, K.

    2007-05-17

    There is currently much focus on the application of magnesium alloys to automotive structural components. This has arisen due to the positive environmental aspects associated with use of magnesium alloys such as weight reduction and recycling potential. In recent years many researchers have focused on the application of various forming processes to magnesium alloys. Magnesium alloys would seem highly suitable for sheet forming due to high N and r values, however, in application their formability has been inferior to, for example, aluminium alloys. It has thus been concluded that, when dealing with magnesium alloys, it is difficult to predict formability based on material properties. In order to improve formability and forming accuracy when using Mg alloys it is necessary to build a database and inference system which could decide the optimal forming parameters for complex automotive components. Currently not enough data is available to build such a database due to the limited number of studies available in literature. In this study an experimental analysis of hemispherical bulge forming at elevated temperature was undertaken in order to evaluate formability and hence build a database for forming process design. A finite element model based on the experiment has been built and validated against the experimental results. A ductile failure criterion has been integrated with the FE model and is used to predict the onset of failure. This paper discusses the development and validation of the finite element model with the ductile failure criterion and presents results from the experimental tests and FE simulations.

  13. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dental cast Ti-6Nb-4Cu, Ti-18Nb-2Cu, and Ti-24Nb-1Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties -tensile strength, yield strength, elongation after fracture, and Vickers hardness- and alloy phases of the dental cast alloys Ti-6%Nb-4%Cu, Ti-18%Nb-2%Cu, and Ti-24%Nb-1%Cu were investigated. Ti-6%Nb-4%Cu consisted of a single α-phase, while Ti-18%Nb-2%Cu and Ti-24%Nb-1%Cu consisted of α- and β-phases. The tensile strengths, yield strengths, and hardnesses of these alloys were higher than those of Ti-5%Cu and Ti-30%Nb; however, their breaking elongations were smaller. These differences in the mechanical properties are attributable to solid-solution strengthening or to precipitation strengthening by the dual-phase (α+β) structure. Thus, Ti-Nb-Cu alloys are suitable for use in high-strength dental prostheses, such as implantretained superstructures and narrow-diameter implants.

  14. Corrosion behavior of Au and Ag modified Cu-Ni-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Wright, S R; Cocks, F H; Gettleman, L

    1980-04-01

    The linear electrochemical polarization method was used to provide quantitative in vitro measurements of corrosion rates as a function of exposure time for Cu-Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn-Au, Cu-Ni-Mn-Ag, and Cu-Ni-Mn-Au-Ag alloys in artificial saliva. Both Au and Ag additives to dental-cast Cu-Ni-Mn alloys lowered the corrosion rate significantly.

  15. Surface alloying of Pb on Cu(111): a TEAS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beauvais, Ch.; Girard, Y.; Pérard, C.; Croset, B.; Mutaftschiev, B.

    1996-11-01

    Thermal energy atom scattering on vacuum deposited Pb submonolayers on Cu(111) in close to equilibrium conditions, at substrate temperatures between 303 K and 413 K, gives evidence for: (a) decoration by Pb atoms of monatomic steps on the Cu surface at degree of coverage 0 < θ < 0.004; (b) formation of disordered surface alloy in the first lattice plane of the copper substrate in the coverage range 0.004 < θ < 0.21; (c) formation of non-alloyed Pb layer with a p(4 × 4) structure above this coverage, up to the monolayer ( θ ≈ 0.56). The latter transition is shown to be of first order. The role of the deposition kinetics in far from equilibrium conditions is pointed out.

  16. Facile synthesis of complex shaped Pt-Cu alloy architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Farhat; Ni, Bing; Xu, Xiaobin; Yang, Haozhou; Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Xun

    2016-07-01

    Several intricate Pt-Cu alloy architectures have been synthesized including hexapod backbones with stretchers and caved octahedron like hexapods, as well as some other intermediates with complex structures. The mechanistic study indicates that the shape is realized via a competitive effect between etching and growth induced by different chemicals.Several intricate Pt-Cu alloy architectures have been synthesized including hexapod backbones with stretchers and caved octahedron like hexapods, as well as some other intermediates with complex structures. The mechanistic study indicates that the shape is realized via a competitive effect between etching and growth induced by different chemicals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03511f

  17. Solidification behavior and structure of Al-Cu alloy welds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.A.; Li, M.; Yang, N.C.Y.

    1997-09-01

    The microsegregation behavior of electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds of Al-Cu alloys covering a range from 0.19 to 7.74 wt% Cu were characterized for dendrite core concentrations and fraction eutectic solidification. Although a single weld speed of 12.7 mm/sec was used, some differences were observed in the segregation behavior of the two weld types. The microsegregation behavior was also modeled using a finite differences technique considering dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling and solid state diffusion. Fairly good agreement was observed between measured and calculated segregation behavior although differences between the two weld types could not be completely accounted for. The concept of dendrite tip undercooling was used to explain the formation of a single through thickness centerline grain in the higher alloy content GTA welds.

  18. Microadditions to alloys of the system Cu-Sn-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Kizikov, E.D.; Kebko, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors assess the microstructure and some mechanical properties of a Cu-20% Sn-10% Ti alloy, used extensively as binders for diamond drill bits, under the influence of a series of dopants including lanthanum, yttrium, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, boron, lanthanum hexaboride, silicon nitride, titanium nitride, and titanium carbide. Doping procedures are outlined. Microadditions of all dopants were found to promote ductility, yield strength, and structural transformations.

  19. Reduction of nitrobenzene by the catalyzed Fe/Cu process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenying; Li, Ping; Fan, Jinhong

    2008-01-01

    The polarization behavior of the couple Fe/Cu in 100 mg/L nitrobenzene aqueous solution was studied using Evans coupling diagrams. The results indicated that the iron corrosion was limited by both anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions under the neutral conditions, and cathodically controlled under the alkaline conditions. Batch experiments were performed to study the effect of solution pH, reaction duration, concentration, type of electrolyte, and dissolved oxygen (DO) on the reduction of nitrobenzene by the catalyzed Fe/Cu process. This process proved effective in the pH range of 3 to 11. The conversion efficiency of nitrobenzene at pH around 10.1 was almost the same as that under highly acid conditions (pH around 3). The degradation of nitrobenzene fell into two phases: adsorption and surface reduction, and the influence of adsorption and mass transfer became more extensive with solution concentration. The reduction rate decreased in the presence of DO in the solution, indicating that a need for aeration was eliminated in the catalyzed Fe/Cu process. Accordingly, spending on energy consumption would be reduced. Economic analysis indicated that merely 0.05 kg was required for the treatment of a ton of nitrobenzene-containing water with pH from 3 to 11. The catalyzed Fe/Cu process is cost-effective and of practical value.

  20. Structural aspects of the fivefold quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe surface from STM and dynamical LEED Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, T.; Shi, F.; Shen, Z.; Gierer, M.; Goldman, A.I.; Kramer, M.J.; Jenks, C.J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Delaney, D.W.; Thiel, P.A.; Van, M.A.

    2001-04-15

    We investigate the atomic structure of the fivefold surface of an icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe alloy, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging and a special dynamical low energy-electron diffraction (LEED) method. STM indicates that the step heights adopt (primarily) two values in the ratio of tau, but the spatial distribution of these two values does not follow a Fibonacci sequence, thus breaking the ideal bulk-like quasicrystalline layer stacking order perpendicular to the surface. The appearance of screw dislocations in the STM images is another indication of imperfect quasicrystallinity. On the other hand, the LEED analysis, which was successfully applied to Al-Pd-Mn in a previous study, is equally successful for Al-Cu-Fe. Similar structural features are found for both materials, in particular for interlayer relaxations and surface terminations. Although there is no structural periodicity, there are clear atomic planes in the bulk of the quasicrystal, some of which can be grouped in recurring patterns. The surface tends to form between these grouped layers in both alloys. For Al-Cu-Fe, the step heights measured by STM are consistent with the thicknesses of the grouped layers favored in LEED. These results suggest that the fivefold Al-Cu-Fe surface exhibits a quasicrystalline layering structure, but with stacking defects.

  1. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Spitzig, William A.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  2. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  3. Silicon purification using a Cu-Si alloy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. C.; Tejedor, P.; Olson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Production of 99.9999% pure silicon from 98% pure metallurgical grade (MG) silicon by a vapor transport filtration process (VTP) is described. The VTF process is a cold wall version of an HCl chemical vapor transport technique using a Si:Cu3Si alloy as the silicon source. The concentration, origin, and behavior of the various impurities involved in the process were determined by chemically analyzing alloys of different purity, the slag formed during the alloying process, and the purified silicon. Atomic absorption, emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, spark source mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used for these analyses. The influence of the Cl/H ratio and the deposition temperature on the transport rate was also investigated.

  4. Morphology and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Cu/Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to study the microstructures of nanocrystalline (nc) Cu/Ag alloys with various Ag concentrations. When the Ag concentration is below 50 Ag atoms/nm!, an increase in Ag concentration leads to a gradual growth of monolayer grain boundary (GB) complexions into nanolayer complexions. Above the concentration of 50 Ag atoms/nm!, wetting layers with a bulk crystalline phase are observed. The effects of Ag on mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of nc Cu/Ag alloys are investigated in MD simulations of uniaxial tension. GB sliding resistance is found to first increase and then decrease with an increase in Ag concentration. Surprisingly, we also find that the dislocation density decreases monotonically with an increase in Ag concentration, which suggests that the grain interiors are softened by the introduction of Ag dopants at GBs. In addition, there is a critical Ag concentration that maximizes flow stress of nc Cu/Ag alloys. The flow stress, GB sliding resistance, and the intragranular dislocation densities become less sensitive to Ag dopants when the grain diameter increases from 5nm to 40nm.

  5. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  6. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Wilkening, D.; Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B.

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  7. Fabrication of nanoporous silver by de-alloying Cu-Zr-Ag amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xiao, Shang-gang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous silver (NPS) with a ligament size ranging from 15 to 40 nm was fabricated by de-alloying (Cu50Zr50)100- x Ag x ( x = 10at%, 20at%, 30at%, and 40at%) amorphous ribbons in a mixed aqueous solution of hydrofluoric (HF) acid and nitric acid under free corrosion conditions. Nanoporous silver ligaments and pore sizes were able to be fine-tuned through tailoring the chemical composition, corrosion conditions, and de-alloying time. The ligament size increases with an increase in Ag content and de-alloying time, but decreases with an increase in HF concentration. This phenomenon may be attributed to the dissolution of Zr/Cu and the diffusion, aggregation, nucleation, and recrystallization of Ag, leading to an oriented attachment of adjacent nanocrystals as revealed by TEM analysis.

  8. Effect of the current annealing (without and with tensile stress) on the soft magnetic behaviour of Fe73.5-x(Co0.5Ni0.5)xSi13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy ribbons (x = 2.5, 5 and 10).

    PubMed

    Iturriza, N; Nazmunnahar, M; Dominguez, L; González, J; del Val, J J

    2012-06-01

    Experimental data on microstructural (crystalline volume fraction, grain size) and magnetic (coercive field) properties in amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe73.5-x(Co0.5Ni0.5)xSi13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy ribbons (x = 2.5, 5 and 10) are presented. Nanocrystalline structure was developed by annealing the precursor amorphous ribbons by current annealing (CA) and stress-current-annealing (SA). Microstructural analysis of the treated ribbons using X-ray Diffraction showed a high content of amorphous phase in the bulk. In addition, substantial changes in the crystalline state such as grain size of the samples annealed at different conditions were observed. The alloy composition also affects greatly the grain size,: increasing the (Co,Ni) content leads to higher values of the average grain size. The evolutions of the coercive field with the two kinds of thermal treatment were analysed, allowing us to conclude that the addition of (Co,Ni) tends to reduce the magnetic softness character of the original material, while the treated SA samples show higher coercivities higher than those treated without by CA.

  9. Nanophase stability in a granular FeRh-Cu system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Radhika; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Shield, J. E.; Heiman, D.; Lewis, L. H.

    2013-05-01

    A granular system of FeRh-based nanoprecipitates (˜10-15 nm diameter) embedded in a rapidly solidified copper ribbon matrix was found to transit from a metastable tetragonal L10 (AuCu-1-type) structure to a stable B2 (CsCl-type) structure upon annealing-induced coarsening to ˜94 nm. The hysteretic magnetic transition observed at ˜100 K develops a gradual broadening that accompanies the L10 → B2 crystal structure transition. It is proposed that the Cu matrix influences the structural and magnetic properties of the FeRh-based nanoparticles through interfacial strain and chemical effects. These results emphasize the sensitivity of the magnetostructural response of FeRh to changes in the nanostructural scale, and provide pathways for tailoring the transition.

  10. Structure and nanomechanical characteristics of Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy with partly liquated grain boundaries upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikova, O. A.; Reznik, P. L.; Ovsyannikov, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical characteristics of the structural constituents of an Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy in which the liquation of grain boundaries occurred during heat treatment have been studied. Bands of the (Al + Al15(Fe, Mn)3Si2) eutectics have been observed at the grain boundaries. An algorithm for calculating the additional pressure, which results from mechanical impact on the metal containing these bands has been described.

  11. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-08-04

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys.

  12. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-08-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys.

  13. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys. PMID:27488621

  14. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Two Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys and NARloy-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1996-01-01

    A series of creep tests were conducted on Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb (Cu-4 at.% Cr-2 at% Nb), and NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) samples to determine their creep properties. In addition, a limited number of low cycle fatigue and thermal conductivity tests were conducted. The Cu-Cr-Nb alloys showed a clear advantage in creep life and sustainable load over the currently used NARloy-Z. Increases in life at a given stress were between 100% and 250% greater for the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys depending on the stress and temperature. For a given life, the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys could support a stress between 60% and 160% greater than NARloy-Z. Low cycle fatigue lives of the Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy were equivalent to NARloy-Z at room temperature. At elevated temperatures (538 C and 650 C), the fatigue lives were 50% to 200% longer than NARloy-Z samples tested at 538 C. The thermal conductivities of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys remained high, but were lower than NARloy-Z and pure Cu. The Cu-Cr-Nb thermal conductivities were between 72% and 96% that of pure Cu with the Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy having a significant advantage in thermal conductivity over Cu-8 Cr4 Nb. In comparison, stainless steels with equivalent strengths would have thermal conductivities less than 25% the thermal conductivity of pure Cu. The combined results indicate that the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys offer an attractive alternative to current high temperature Cu-based alloys such as NARloy-Z.

  15. Effect of Co addition on the magnetic properties and microstructure of FeNbBCu nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lin; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Haishun; Men, He; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Shen, Baolong

    2016-12-01

    Through gradient substitution of Co for Fe, the magnetic properties and microstructures of (Fe1-xCox)83Nb2B14Cu1 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) nanocrystalline alloys were investigated. Because of the strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Co and Fe, substantial improvement in saturation magnetization was achieved with proper levels of Co addition. Meanwhile, the Curie temperature increased noticeably with increasing Co addition. After heat treatment, the (Fe0.9Co0.1)83Nb2B14Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy showed a refined microstructure with an average grain size of 10-20 nm, exhibiting a comparatively high saturation magnetization of 1.82 T and a lower coercivity of 12 A/m compared to other Hitperm-type alloys with higher Co contents. Additionally, the Curie temperature reached 1150 K upon introduction of Co. As the soft magnetic properties are strengthened by adding a small amount of Co, the combination of fine, soft magnetic properties and low cost make this nanocrystalline alloy a potential magnetic material.

  16. Magnetism and structure of Fe Cu binary solid solutions obtained by high-energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorria, P.; Martínez-Blanco, D.; Blanco, J. A.; Pérez, M. J.; González, M. A.; Campo, J.

    2006-10-01

    Martensitic phase transformation is found in various metals, alloys, ceramics and even biological systems. This paper reports on the Fe segregated anomalous α- γ martensitic transformation observed in Fe xCu 100-x binary solid solutions ( x=25 and 50) after subsequent heating-cooling processes. A characteristic observable feature of a martensitic transformation is the microstructure it produces, thermal hysteresis, evolution and metastability. We have analysed the microstructure using neutron thermo-diffraction experiments up to 1100 K. The structural changes of the Fe segregated phase, from bcc to fcc crystal structures, have been followed in detail. The most relevant feature is that the onset of martensite transformation is observed, on heating, more than 100 K below the expected temperature for pure bcc-Fe (1183 K), while the reverse transformation occurs below 900 K on cooling. This anomalous behaviour for the α- γ transformation depends on sample composition, being more important for low Fe contents. Besides that, magnetisation vs. temperature measurements show a clear correlation with structure changes, thus exhibiting thermal hysteresis on heating-cooling cycles. Moreover, a magnetisation enhancement above 550 K is observed on heating, this fact can be attributed to thermal-induced ferromagnetism on isolated γ-Fe precipitates via strong magneto-volume coupling.

  17. Phase relations of Fe-Si alloy in Earth's core

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J -F; Scott, H P; Fischer, R A; Chang, Y -Y; Kantor, I; Prakapenka, V B

    2009-04-01

    Phase relations of an Fe0.85Si0.15 alloy were investigated up to 240 GPa and 3000 K using in situ X-ray diffraction in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. An alloy of this composition as starting material is found to result in a stabilized mixture of Si-rich bcc and Si-poor hcp Fe-Si phases up to at least 150 GPa and 3000 K, whereas only hcp-Fe0.85Si0.15 is found to be stable between approximately 170 GPa and 240 GPa at high temperatures. Our extended results indicate that Fe0.85Si0.15 alloy is likely to have the hcp structure in the inner core, instead of the previously proposed mixture of hcp and bcc phases. Due to the volumetric dominance of the hcp phase in the hcp + bcc coexistence region close to the outer-core conditions, the dense closest-packed Fe-Si liquid is more relevant to understanding the properties of the outer core.

  18. Secondary particles precipitates in Be-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Martynenko, S. S.; Salomasov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer spectra of monocrystalline Be-Fe alloy (0.85 % Fe) were obtained with the use of resonant detector after isothermal annealing at 600 °C for total duration of 2659 hours, and Mössbauer spectra of coarse-grained Be-Fe alloys (0,09-0,80 % Fe) samples were obtained after annealing at 500-600 °C for different durations. The alloys were prepared from the beryllium of different purity. Spectra of phases were fitted by a convolution equation of the three Lorentz lines. The coherent analysis of the solid solution decomposition process by means of the kinetic law classification and the secondary particles precipitate growth processes based on the diffusion models has been implemented. Nucleation on the numerous dislocation clusters and diffusion growth of the FeBe 11 nano-particles are the dominant processes in the analyzed materials. The phase distribution, the incubation period and the diffusion path were obtained. The dependence between the impurity concentration and Mössbauer parameters of the phases is discussed.

  19. Magnetic Domains in Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Q. Xing; T.A. Lograsso

    2008-11-03

    Lorentz microscopy was applied to the observation of magnetic domains in iron-gallium (Fe-Ga) alloys. Results did not show any link between the magnetic domains and the magnetostriction enhancement by Ga addition, but did reveal that the drastic decrease in magnetostriction for Fe-31.2 at. % Ga was due to the presence of large scale precipitates. Magnetic domain features did not change in the alloys of A2, D0{sub 3}, A2+D0{sub 3}, A2+B2+D0{sub 3}, and A2+fine scale precipitates. Large scale precipitates within the slow-cooled Fe-31.2 at. % Ga affected both the distribution and wall motion of magnetic domains.

  20. Microstructural refinement and strengthening of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy by mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.R.; Groza, J.R.; Ulmer, D.G.

    1997-07-15

    Lately, a variety of dispersion strengthened (DS) copper alloys that provide a good combination of thermal/electrical conductivity and mechanical strength have been developed. Strengthening is usually achieved by the introduction of a ceramic, refractory metal or intermetallic secondary phase. Cu-Cr-Nb is one such DS alloy in which strengthening is provided by Cr{sub 2}Nb intermetallic particles. Mechanical milling of as-atomized Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy powders substantially increases the mechanical strength (hardness) of the starting material. This is achieved through a drastic grain size, as well as large precipitate size refinement. A more uniform precipitate distribution is also attained. Whether milling is performed with steel or WC vial and balls the hardness saturates at approximately 100 HRB after about 4 hr milling. However, this benefit of MM was offset by an equally severe decrease in electrical conductivity. This decrease is attributed to impurities/contamination from the milling media introduced into the milled powder, primarily, Fe and C, or, WC and Co.

  1. Ti-based glassy alloys in Ti-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZengRui; Dong, DanDan; Qiang, JianBing; Wang, Qing; Wang, YingMin; Dong, Chuang

    2013-07-01

    Bulk amorphous formation in Ti-Cu-based multicomponent alloys, free of Ni, Pd and Be elements, were studied using the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The basic cluster formula was revealed as [Ti9Cu6]Cu3 to explain the best binary glass forming composition Ti50Cu50=Ti9Cu9, where the CN14 rhombi-dodecahedron Ti9Cu6 was the principal cluster in the devitrification phase CuTi. This basic cluster formula was further alloyed with Zr and Sn and a critical glass forming ability was reached at (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.72Sn0.28) and (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.45Sn0.55) up to 5 mm in diameter by suction casting, which was the largest in Ti-Cu-based and Ni-, Pd- and Be-free alloys.

  2. Effect of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr Micro-additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Uniaxial static and cyclic tests were used to assess the role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr additions on properties of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. The microstructure of the as-cast alloy consisted of α-Al, eutectic Si, and Cu-, Mg-, and Fe-rich phases Al2.1Cu, Al8.5Si2.4Cu, Al5.2CuMg4Si5.1, and Al14Si7.1FeMg3.3. In addition, the micro-sized Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich phases Al10.7SiTi3.6, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al21.4Si3.4Ti4.7VZr1.8, Al18.5Si7.3Cr2.6V, Al7.9Si8.5Cr6.8V4.1Ti, Al6.3Si23.2FeCr9.2V1.6Ti1.3, Al92.2Si16.7Fe7.6Cr8.3V1.8, and Al8.2Si30.1Fe1.6Cr18.8V3.3Ti2.9Zr were present. During solution treatment, Cu-rich phases were completely dissolved, while the eutectic silicon, Fe-, and Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich intermetallics experienced only partial dissolution. Micro-additions of Cr, Zr, Ti, and V positively affected the alloy strength. The modified alloy in the T6 temper during uniaxial tensile tests exhibited yield strength of 289 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 342 MPa, being significantly higher than that for the Al-Si-Cu-Mg base. Besides, the cyclic yield stress of the modified alloy in the T6 state increased by 23 pct over that of the base alloy. The fatigue life of the modified alloy was substantially longer than that of the base alloy tested using the same parameters. The role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr containing phases in controlling the alloy fracture during static and cyclic loading is discussed.

  3. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  4. Structural and thermal properties of Cu-Hf-Ti bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontó, V.; Nagy, E.; Svéda, M.; Roósz, A.; Tranta, F.

    2009-01-01

    Cu-Hf-Ti amorphous alloys are high strength and wear resistant materials. Master alloys of Cu57.5Hf27.5Ti15 and Cu57.5Hf25Ti17.5 ternary alloys have been prepared by arc melting, and wedge and rod shaped samples have been cast by centrifugal casting. Liquidus and solidus temperatures of the alloys were determined by DTA. The fully amorphous size was determined by X-ray diffraction. Thermodynamic properties of the amorphous alloys were studied by DSC measurements and Kissinger analyses were performed.

  5. Enhanced electrocatalytic performance of Pt monolayer on nanoporous PdCu alloy for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Linxi; Qiu, Huajun

    2012-10-01

    By selectively dealloying Al from PdxCu20-xAl80 ternary alloys in 1.0 M NaOH solution, nanoporous PdCu (np-PdCu) alloys with different Pd:Cu ratios are obtained. By a mild electrochemical dealloying treatment, the np-PdCu alloys are facilely converted into np-PdCu near-surface alloys with a nearly pure-Pd surface and PdCu alloy core. The np-PdCu near-surface alloys are then used as substrates to fabricate core-shell catalysts with a Pt monolayer as shell and np-PdCu as core by a Cu-underpotential deposition-Pt displacement strategy. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Pt monolayer on np-Pd1Cu1 (Pt/np-Pd1Cu1) exhibits the highest Pt surface-specific activity towards oxygen reduction, which is ˜5.8-fold that of state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. The Pt/np-Pd1Cu1 also shows much enhanced stability with ˜78% active surface retained after 10,000 cycles (0.6-1.2 V vs. RHE). Under the same condition, the active surface of Pt/C drops to ˜28%.

  6. Reduction of nitrate by NaY zeolite supported Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yubin; Walker, Harold; Zhu, Qingzhi

    2017-02-15

    Nano particles Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe supported on NaY zeolite (F@Y, CF@Y, and MF@Y) were prepared by two-step processes consisting of ion exchange and liquid-phase reduction. The characterization by XRD, SEM-EDX and BET-N2 adsorption demonstrated that Fe, Cu/Fe and Mn/Fe nano particles were successfully loaded onto NaY zeolite and exhibited larger BET surface area compared to nano-Fe(0) (nZVI). Laboratory experiments showed that nitrate removal by metals@Y in unbuffered conditions reached nearly 100% at a dosage of 4g/L after 6h of reaction. Moreover, the nitrate removal was not sensitive to the initial solution pH. Even at a high pH of 9.0, metals@Y exhibited nitrate reduction above 94%. CF@Y demonstrated high N2 selectivity, due to the high content of Cu (20wt%) and Fe (41wt%) in CF@Y and the highly active metallic sites on its surface with positive charge. Kinetic data showed a good fit to a first-order kinetic model during early reaction times. A close fit to both a second-order and an nth-order kinetic model was shown for the whole of the reaction period. The data suggest that both liquid phase mass transfer and the intrinsic reaction rate control the process of nitrate reduction by metals@Y.

  7. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-01-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections. PMID:27897182

  8. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Qiu, K J; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-11-29

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  9. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-11-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  10. Electrodeposition of PdCu alloy and its application in methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Wei; Whang, Thou-Jen

    2013-04-01

    This study demonstrates a simple electrodeposition method to fabricate the palladium-copper alloy on an ITO coated glass (PdCu/ITO) and its application in methanol electro-oxidation. Our approaches involve the co-reduction of Pd and Cu using triethanolamine (TEA) as a complexing agent in the electroplating bath and a Pd redox replacement of Cu on the surface of the as-prepared PdCu alloy. The phase structures, alloy compositions and morphologies of catalysts are determined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the particle size of PdCu deposits shrink when the alloy is deposited in a TEA-contained solution. The electrocatalytic properties of PdCu alloys and Pd redox replacement modified PdCu alloys for methanol oxidation have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The PdCu alloy with atomic ratio of 20.5% Cu exhibits higher catalytic activity toward methanol oxidation compared with a pure Pd catalyst. PdCu alloys with smaller particle sizes associated with TEA agent and the surface confined Pd replacement are found to have enhanced catalytic performance in the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  11. Effects of Iron-Rich Intermetallics and Grain Structure on Semisolid Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys near Solidus Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolouri, Amir; Liu, Kun; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-12-01

    The effects of iron-rich intermetallics and grain size on the semisolid tensile properties of Al-Cu 206 cast alloys near the solidus were evaluated in relation to the mush microstructure. Analyses of the stress-displacement curves showed that the damage expanded faster in the mush structure dominated by plate-like β-Fe compared to the mush structure dominated by Chinese script-like α-Fe. While there was no evidence of void formation on the β-Fe intermetallics, they blocked the interdendritic liquid channels and thus hindered liquid flow and feeding during semisolid deformation. In contrast, the interdendritic liquid flows more freely within the mush structure containing α-Fe. The tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe are generally higher than those containing β-Fe over the crucial liquid fraction range of 0.6 to 2.8 pct, indicating that the latter alloy may be more susceptible to stress-related casting defects such as hot tearing. A comparison of the semisolid tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe with different grain sizes showed that the maximum stress and elongation of the alloy with finer grains were moderately higher for the liquid fractions of 2.2 to 3.6 pct. The application of semisolid tensile properties for the evaluation of the hot tearing susceptibility of experimental alloys is discussed.

  12. Enriched alloy layer on an Al-Cu alloy studied by cyclic voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Vergara, S. J.; Blanco Pinzon, C. E.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The behaviour of enriched Al-0.7at.%Cu alloy is investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Enriched alloy layers at the interface between the alloy/oxide film were developed by alkaline etching at 5mAcm-2 in 0.1M sodium hydroxide solution at 298K, with the time of etching determining the extent of enrichment. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded at a scan rate of 10mV s-1 in naturally aerated 0.1M ammonium pentaborate solution at 298K. The current overshoot of the enriched alloys was different from that for non-enriched alloy. The latter material revealed the usual single peaks, which are very similar. In contrast, the overshoot comprised two or more components for the enriched alloys. The behaviour is suggested to be associated with the atomic bonding of aluminium in copper-rich and aluminium-rich regions of the enriched alloy layer, with influence on the activation potentials for oxidation of aluminium.

  13. Effects of surface crystallization and oxidation in nanocrystalline FeNbCuSiB(P) ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butvinová, B.; Butvin, P.; Brzózka, K.; Kuzminski, M.; Maťko, I.; Švec, P., Sr.; Chromčíková, M.

    2017-02-01

    Si-poor Fe74Nb3Cu1Si8B14-xPx, (x=0, 3) nanocrystalline ribbon-form alloys often form surfaces, which exert in-plane force on underlying ribbon interior when nanocrystallized in even modest presence of oxygen. Mostly unwanted hard-ribbon-axis magnetic anisotropy is standard result. Essential sources of the surface-caused stress have been sought and influence of P instead of B substitution on this effect was studied too. Preferred surface crystallization (PSC) was found to be the major reason. However P substitution suppresses PSC and promotes Fe-oxide formation, which eases the stress, softens the surfaces and provides different annealing evolution of surface properties.

  14. Exponentially decaying magnetic coupling in sputtered thin film FeNi/Cu/FeCo trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yajun; Akansel, Serkan; Thersleff, Thomas; Harward, Ian; Brucas, Rimantas; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Jana, Somnath; Lansaker, Pia; Pogoryelov, Yevgen; Dumas, Randy K.; Leifer, Klaus; Karis, Olof; Åkerman, Johan; Celinski, Zbigniew; Svedlindh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic coupling in trilayer films of FeNi/Cu/FeCo deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates have been studied. While the thicknesses of the FeNi and FeCo layers were kept constant at 100 Å, the thickness of the Cu spacer was varied from 5 to 50 Å. Both hysteresis loop and ferromagnetic resonance results indicate that all films are ferromagnetically coupled. Micromagnetic simulations well reproduce the ferromagnetic resonance mode positions measured by experiments, enabling the extraction of the coupling constants. Films with a thin Cu spacer are found to be strongly coupled, with an effective coupling constant of 3 erg/cm2 for the sample with a 5 Å Cu spacer. The strong coupling strength is qualitatively understood within the framework of a combined effect of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and pinhole coupling, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetic coupling constant surprisingly decreases exponentially with increasing Cu spacer thickness, without showing an oscillatory thickness dependence. This is partially connected to the substantial interfacial roughness that washes away the oscillation. The results have implications on the design of multilayers for spintronic applications.

  15. Exponentially decaying magnetic coupling in sputtered thin film FeNi/Cu/FeCo trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yajun Akansel, Serkan; Thersleff, Thomas; Brucas, Rimantas; Lansaker, Pia; Leifer, Klaus; Svedlindh, Peter; Harward, Ian; Celinski, Zbigniew; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Dumas, Randy K.; Jana, Somnath; Pogoryelov, Yevgen; Karis, Olof; Åkerman, Johan

    2015-01-26

    Magnetic coupling in trilayer films of FeNi/Cu/FeCo deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates have been studied. While the thicknesses of the FeNi and FeCo layers were kept constant at 100 Å, the thickness of the Cu spacer was varied from 5 to 50 Å. Both hysteresis loop and ferromagnetic resonance results indicate that all films are ferromagnetically coupled. Micromagnetic simulations well reproduce the ferromagnetic resonance mode positions measured by experiments, enabling the extraction of the coupling constants. Films with a thin Cu spacer are found to be strongly coupled, with an effective coupling constant of 3 erg/cm{sup 2} for the sample with a 5 Å Cu spacer. The strong coupling strength is qualitatively understood within the framework of a combined effect of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and pinhole coupling, which is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetic coupling constant surprisingly decreases exponentially with increasing Cu spacer thickness, without showing an oscillatory thickness dependence. This is partially connected to the substantial interfacial roughness that washes away the oscillation. The results have implications on the design of multilayers for spintronic applications.

  16. Moessbauer Analysis of Fe94-xNb6Bx (x = 9, 14, 20) Alloys Developed by Mechanical Alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Bruna, P.

    2005-04-26

    The alloys were prepared by milling elemental powders in a planetary ball mill. XRD analysis of the powders indicate that a nanocrystalline heterogeneous bcc alloy was obtained. DSC study of the thermal stability of the powders obtained indicate that some grain growth and reordering of the structure was obtained at temperatures as low as 350 deg. C up to 600 deg. C. Room temperature Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy from the as milled alloys as well as from the annealed alloys was performed to determine the structure, homogeneity and how the structure changed after annealing at 600 deg. C. The results indicate that the as milled alloys are mainly a crystalline bcc alloy containing most of the Fe, Nb and B. A small amount of a disordered/amorphous phase is also formed for the three alloys. Annealing of the to B richer alloys results in the diffusion of most of the B outside the alloy structure and the crystallization of Fe2B and {alpha}-Fe. Annealing the heterogeneous as-milled powders enhances the separation of Fe rich ({alpha}-Fe ), B rich (Fe2B) and Nb rich regions in the two richer in B alloys studied. On the contrary, the alloy x=9 does not change significantly during annealing.

  17. Films of Soft-Magnetic Fe-Based Nanocrystalline Alloys for High-Density Magnetic Storage Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefteľ, E. N.; Bannykh, O. A.

    This paper presents a review of works related to the problem of development of soft-magnetic film Fe-based alloys exhibiting the combination of properties, such as the high saturation inductance, high level of soft-magnetic parameters over a wide range of MHz-frequencies, high wear-resistance and thermal stability, and an ability to be prepared by thin-film technologies. Magnetic cores of high-density recording heads are the principal application of these materials. Physical fundamentals of explanation of ferromagnetic behavior of a material with nano-sized structure, which have been developed for FINEMETs (Fe-Nb-Cu-Si-B) with the mixed amorphous + nanocrystalline structure, are considered. A new class of alloys Fe-Me-X (Me=Metal of III-V groups of the Periodic Table and X=C, N, O, and B) whose properties are higher that those of FINEMETs are discussed. The structure of these alloys consists of two nanocrystalline phases, such as the ferromagnetic α-Fe-based and nonmagnetic MeX phases. This structure provides the dispersion strengthening of the alloys. Metal science approaches to the selection of both chemical compositions and conditions of structure formation for these film alloys have been developed by authors and are discussed in this article.

  18. Mössbauer study of Fe-Re alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konieczny, R.; Idczak, R.

    2016-12-01

    The room temperature Mössbauer spectra of 57Fe were measured for nanocrystalline iron-based solid solutions Fe 1- x Re x , prepared by mechanical alloying with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.04. The obtained data were analysed in terms of the binding energy E b between two rhenium atoms in the Fe-Re system. The extrapolated value of E b for x = 0 was used for computation of enthalpy of solution of rhenium in iron. The result was compared with that resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema as well as with value, derived from proper data for Fe-Re solid solutions obtained by melting in an arc furnace. From the comparison it follows that our findings are in agreement with the Miedema's model predictions and previous Mössbauer studies.

  19. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO/sub 2/ along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar/sup +/ ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000/sup 0/C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450/sup 0/C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150/sup 0/C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures.

  20. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe81Ga19, (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5, and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D03 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe2B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe81Ga19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h.

  1. Indentation creep of nanocrystalline Cu-TiC alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.L.; Itoi, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Ogino, Y.

    2000-04-01

    In recent years, nanocrystalline materials have attracted much attention in materials research because they behave differently from conventional materials. For example, the nanocrystalline materials exhibit enhanced mechanical properties, such as high strength and hardness. The present study was performed to investigate the indentation creep mechanism of nanocrystalline Cu-TiC alloys which were prepared by HIP (Hot Isostatic Press) processing of MA (Mechanical Alloying) powders and hot rolling afterwards. As these materials have high densities and high structural stability, the authors could investigate creep behavior at wide temperature ranges below 0.5Tm (Tm is the melting temperature of copper).

  2. Grindability of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okabe, Toru; Okuno, Osamu

    2003-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were cast into magnesia molds using a dental casting machine, and their grindability was investigated. At the lowest grinding speed (500 m min(-1)), there were no statistical differences among the grindability values of the titanium and titanium alloys. The grindability of the alloys increased as the grinding speed increased. At the highest grinding speed (1500 m x min(-1)), the grindability of the 20% Ag, 5% Cu, and 10% Cu alloys was significantly higher than that of titanium. It was found that alloying with silver or copper improved the grindability of titanium, particularly at a high speed. It appeared that the decrease in elongation caused by the precipitation of small amounts of intermetallic compounds primarily contributed to the favorable grindability of the experimental alloys.

  3. Optimization of conductivity and strength in Cu-Ni-Si alloys by suppressing discontinuous precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Sung Hwan; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-11-01

    Cu-Ni-Si alloys with and without Ti were solution treated at 980 °C for 1 h and cooled by air cooling and water quenching, after which the specimens were aged at 500 °C. The two alloys showed different aging characteristics with different cooling rates during the aging process. The conductivity of all alloys increased during aging; for alloys that were water quenched, hardness increased at the early stage of aging and then drastically decreased. The air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si alloy without Ti also experienced an increase in hardness, which then decreased during aging, but the air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si alloy with Ti did not show a drastic decrease in hardness during prolonged aging. A combination of yield strength and conductivity of 820 MPa and 42% IACS, respectively, was achieved in the air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si-Ti alloy after solution treatment.

  4. Investigation on compressive behavior of Cu-35Ni-15Al alloy at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Chen, Jian; Li, Wei; Hu, Yongle; Ren, Yanjie; Qiu, Wei; He, Jianjun; Chen, Jianlin

    2014-09-01

    Microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu-35Ni-15Al alloy in cast and porous states were studied by scanning electron microscopy and compression tests. The influence of porosity, deformation temperature and loading rate on mechanical properties of the two kinds of alloys was investigated. The results show that the as cast alloy and porous alloys have almost the same phase constitution: Cu rich phase, Ni rich phase and K intermetallics. The yield strength of porous alloys increases continuously with decreasing porosity, the relationship between porosity and yield stress follows Gibson-Ashby equation. With decreasing deformation temperature, the yield strength of as cast alloy and porous alloy increase. With the increase of loading rate, the yield strength of these alloys shows an increasing trend. After compression, the microstructure of as cast alloy is more uniform, and porous alloys are more prone to have localized deformations.

  5. X-ray Diffraction Study of Order-Disorder Phase Transition in CuMPt6 (M=3d Elements) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Takahashi, Miwako; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ordering behavior of ternary CuMPt6 alloys with M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni by high-temperature polycrystalline X-ray diffraction. The alloys undergo a phase transition from the fcc disordered state to the Cu3Au-type ordered state, except for the alloy with M=Ni, in which only short-range order forms. The transition temperature Tc is highest (1593 K) for M=Ti and decreases almost monotonically with increasing atomic number to 1153 K for M=Co. The observed dependence of ordering tendency on the atomic number of M is discussed in the light of the theory of ordering in transition-metal alloys and its significance for the study of ordering in ternary alloys.

  6. Effect of Co content on structure and magnetic behaviors of high induction Fe-based amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rajat K.; Panda, Ashis K.; Mitra, Amitava

    2016-11-01

    The replacement of Fe with Co is investigated in the (Fe1-xCox)79Si8.5B8.5Nb3Cu1 (x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5) amorphous alloys. The alloys are synthesized in the forms of ribbons by single roller melt spinning technique, and the structural and magnetic properties of annealed ribbons are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), B-H curve tracer, respectively. All as-cast alloys are structurally amorphous, however, their magnetic properties are varying with Co addition. The Co addition within 5-20 at% results in moderate thermal stability, saturation induction, Curie temperature and lowest coercivity, while 35 at% Co causes highest saturation induction, coercivity, Curie temperature and lowest thermal stability. On devitrification, the magnetic properties change with the generation of α-FeCo nanocrystallites and (FeCo)23B6, Fe2B phases during primary and secondary crystallization stages, respectively. A small amount Co is advantageous for maintaining finer nanocrystallites in amorphous matrix even after annealing at 600 °C, leading to high saturation magnetization (>1.5 T) and low coercivity (~35 A/m). The improved magnetic properties at elevated temperatures indicate these alloys have a potential for high frequency transformer core applications.

  7. Alloying effects in near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys for improved microstructural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. E.; Foley, J. C.; Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J.; Terpstra, R. L.; Unal, O.

    2001-09-01

    This study included a comparison of the baseline Sn-3.5Ag eutectic to one near-eutectic ternary alloy, Sn-3.6 Ag-1.0Cu and two quaternary alloys, Sn-3.6Ag-1.0Cu-0.15Co and Sn-3.6Ag-1.0 Cu-0.45 Co, to increase understanding of the beneficial effects of Co on Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints cooled at 1 3 C/sec, typical of reflow practice. The results indicated that joint microstructure refinement is due to Co-enhanced nucleation of the Cu6Sn5 phase in the solder matrix, as suggested by Auger elemental mapping and calorimetric measurements. The Co also reduced intermetallic interface faceting and improved the ability of the solder joint samples to maintain their shear strength after aging for 72 hr at 150 C. The baseline Sn-3.5Ag joints exhibited significantly reduced strength and coarser microstructures.

  8. CORROSION OF AMORPHOUS AND NANOCRYSTALLINE Fe-BASED ALLOYS IN NaCl AND H2SO4 SOLUTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Yan, Biao; Pan, Deng

    2013-07-01

    Corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy was investigated and compared to its amorphous counterpart. Low-temperature crystallization occurred during the annealing of amorphous tapes was used to obtain a nanocrystalline structure. The influence of annealing condition on the structure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in NaCl and H2SO4 solutions was investigated. Based on the testing results, it was found that nanocrystalline tapes have higher corrosion resistance than amorphous counterpart and H2SO4 can promote the occurrence of corrosion compared with NaCl.

  9. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Peker, Atakan; Johnson, William L.

    1997-01-01

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

  10. Role of lead in electrochemical reaction of alloy 600, alloy 690, Ni, Cr, and Fe in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Ju Yup

    2003-08-01

    It has been reported that lead causes stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the secondary side of steam generators (SG) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The materials of SG tubings are alloy 600, alloy 690, or alloy 800, among which the main alloying elements are Ni, Cr, and Fe. The effect of lead on the electrochemical behaviors of alloy 600 and alloy 690 using an anodic polarization technique was evaluated. We also obtained polarization curves of pure Ni, Cr, and Fe in water containing lead. As the amount of lead in the solution increased, critical current densities and passive current densities of alloy 600 and alloy 690 increased, while the breakdown potential of the alloys decreased. Lead increased critical current density and the passive current of Cr in pH 4 and pH 10. The instability of passive film of steam generator tubings in water containing lead might arise from the instability of Cr passivity.

  11. Corrosion aspects of Ni-Cr-Fe based and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R. S.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews corrosion related issues of Ni-Cr-Fe based (in a general sense) and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials for nuclear power plants those have been dealt with for last more than four decades along with some updated information on corrosion research. The materials include austenitic stainless steels (SSs), Alloy 600, Monel 400, Alloy 800 and Alloy 690. Compatibility related issues of these alloys are briefly discussed along with the alloy chemistry and microstructure. For austenitic SSs, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in high temperature aqueous environments is discussed. For Alloy 600, intergranular cracking in high temperature water including hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking is highlighted along with the interactions of material in various environments. In case of Monel 400, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion at ambient temperature and SCC behaviour at elevated temperature are briefly described. For Alloy 800, the discussion covers SCC behaviour, surface characterization and microstructural aspects of pitting, whereas hydrogen-related issues are also highlighted for Alloy 690.

  12. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-10-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys AuxCu1-x and Au0.5Ag0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au0.5Ag0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in AuxCu1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in AuxCu1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for AuxCu1-x clusters of 105 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data.

  13. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  14. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  15. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  16. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  17. Structures and energies of Cu clusters on Fe and Fe3C surfaces from density functional theory computation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinxin; Wang, Tao; Yang, Yong; Li, Yong-Wang; Wang, Jianguo; Jiao, Haijun

    2014-12-28

    Spin-polarized density functional theory computations have been carried out to study the stable adsorption configurations of Cun (n = 1-7, 13) on Fe and Fe3C surfaces for understanding the initial stages of copper promotion in catalysis. At low coverage, two-dimensional aggregation is more preferred over dispersion and three-dimensional aggregation on the Fe(110) and Fe(100) surfaces as well as the metallic Fe3C(010) surfaces, while dispersion is more favorable over aggregation on the Fe(111) surface. On the Fe3C(001) and Fe3C(100) surfaces with exposed iron and carbon atoms, the adsorbed Cu atoms prefer dispersion at low coverage, while aggregation along the iron regions at high coverage. On the iron surfaces, the adsorption energies of Cun (n = 2-7) are highest on Fe(111), medium on Fe(100) and lowest on Fe(110). On the Fe3C surfaces, the adsorption energies of Cun (n = 1-3) are highest on Fe3C(100), medium on Fe3C(010) and lowest on Fe3C(001), while, for n = 4-7 and 13, Fe3C(010) has stronger adsorption than Fe3C(100). On the basis of their differences in electronegativity, the adsorbed Cu atoms can oxidize the metallic Fe(110), Fe(100) and Fe3C(010) surfaces and become negatively charged. On the Fe3C(001) and Fe3C(100) surfaces with exposed iron and carbon atoms, the adsorbed Cu atoms interacting with surface carbon atoms are oxidized and positively charged. Unlike the most stable Fe(110) and Fe3C(001) surfaces, where the Fe(110) surface has stronger Cu affinity than the Fe3C(001) surface, which is in agreement with the experimental finding, the less and least stable Fe3C(010) and Fe3C(100) surfaces have stronger Cu affinities than the Fe(110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Since less stable facets are not preferably formed thermodynamically, it is crucial to prepare such surfaces to explore Cu adsorption and promotion, and this provides challenges to surface sciences.

  18. Nanostructured Fe-Cr Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2016-04-26

    We have completed research on the grain-size stabilization of model nanostructured Fe14Cr base alloys at high temperatures by the addition of non-equilibrium solutes. Fe14Cr base alloys are representative for nuclear reactor applications. The neutron flux in a nuclear reactor will generate He atoms that coalesce to form He bubbles. These can lead to premature failure of the reactor components, limiting their lifetime and increasing the cost and capacity for power generation. In order to mitigate such failures, Fe14Cr base alloys have been processed to contain very small nano-size oxide particles (less than 10 nm in size) that trap He atoms and reduce bubble formation. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the grain boundaries can also be very effective traps for He atoms and bubble formation. An optimum grain size will be less than 100 nm, ie., nanocrystalline alloys must be used. Powder metallurgy methods based on high-energy ball milling can produce Fe-Cr base nanocrystalline alloys that are suitable for nuclear energy applications. The problem with nanocrystalline alloys is that excess grain-boundary energy will cause grains to grow at higher temperatures and their propensity for He trapping will be lost. The nano-size oxide particles in current generation nuclear alloys provide some grain size stabilization by reducing grain-boundary mobility (Zener pinning – a kinetic effect). However the current mitigation strategy minimizing bubble formation is based primarily on He trapping by nano-size oxide particles. An alternate approach to nanoscale grain size stabilization has been proposed. This is based on the addition of small amounts of atoms that are large compared to the base alloy. At higher temperatures these will diffuse to the grain boundaries and will produce an equilibrium state for the grain size at higher temperatures (thermodynamic stabilization – an equilibrium effect). This would be preferred compared to a kinetic effect, which is not

  19. Ab initio calculations of elastic properties of bcc Fe-Mg and Fe-Cr random alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hualei; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2009-06-01

    Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent-potential approximation, we have calculated the elastic parameters of ferromagnetic Fe1-mMgm (0≤m≤0.1) and Fe1-cCrc (0≤c≤0.2) random alloys in the body-centered cubic (bcc) crystallographic phase. Results obtained for Fe1-cCrc demonstrate that the employed theoretical approach accurately describes the experimentally observed composition dependence of the polycrystalline elastic moduli of Fe-rich alloys encompassing maximum ˜10% Cr. The elastic parameters of Fe-Cr alloys are found to exhibit anomalous composition dependence around 5% Cr. The immiscibility between Fe and Mg at ambient conditions is well reproduced by the present theory. The calculated lattice parameter for the Fe-Mg regular solid solution increases by ˜1.95% when 10% Mg is introduced in Fe, which corresponds approximately to 11% decrease in the average alloy density, in perfect agreement with the experimental finding. At the same time, we find that all of the elastic parameters of bcc Fe-Mg alloys decrease almost linearly with increasing Mg content. The present results show a much stronger alloying effect for Mg on the elastic properties of α-Fe than that for Cr. Our results call for further experimental studies on the mechanical properties of the Fe-Mg system.

  20. Comparative study using MS and XRD of Fe80Al20 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadef, F.; Otmani, A.; Grenèche, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    An X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer effect study of mechanically alloyed Fe80Al20 is presented. X-ray measurements indicate that the disordered bcc α-Fe(Al) solid solution was formed after 2 h of milling, while the analysis of Mössbauer spectra suggested that total dissolution of aluminium is achieved after 10 h of milling. These differences can be attributed to: (i) rapid nanocrystallization of aluminium and/or (ii) small particles with small amounts of aluminium cannot be detected by the X-ray diffraction technique.

  1. Saturation and forced volume magnetostrictions of Fe-rich FeZr and FeNiZr amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tange, H.; Kamimori, T.; Goto, M.; Fukamichi, K.

    1990-12-01

    The saturation and forced volume magnetostrictions, ac susceptibility have been investigated for Fe 90Zr 10 and Fe 90-xNi xZr 10 amorphous alloys. The linear magnetostriction in the re-entrant spin glass state exhibits a hysteresis due to a remarkable magnetic after effect. The temperature dependence of the forced volume magnetostriction shows a peak at the spin freezing temperature.

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Co-Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Eskandari, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron-cobalt-nickel alloy with Fe50Co30Ni20 composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe3O4 crystalline phase.

  3. First-principles study on the ferrimagnetic half-metallic Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang; Chen, Nanxian

    2015-05-15

    Mn-based full-Heusler alloys are kinds of promising candidates for new half-metallic materials. Basing on first principles, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy have been investigated in detail. The Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}FeAs compound obeys the Slater-Pauling rule, while the anti-parallel alignment atomic magnetic moments of Mn locating at different sites indicate it a ferrimagnetic alloy. The calculated spin-down bands behave half-metallic character, exhibiting a direct gap of 0.46 eV with a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. More studies show the compound would maintain half-metallic nature in a large range of variational lattice constants. We expect that our calculated results may trigger Mn{sub 2}FeAs applying in the future spintronics field. - Graphical abstract: The d orbitals of Mn and Fe atoms split into multi-degenerated levels which create new bonding and nonbonding states. These exchange splitting shift the Fermi level to origin band gap.▪ - Highlights: • The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}FeAs full-Heusler alloy were studied. • A total magnetic moment of 3μ{sub B} was obtained for Mn{sub 2}FeAs alloy, following the SP rule M{sub t}=Z{sub t}−24. • The origin of ferrimagnetism and half-metallic character in Mn{sub 2}FeAs were discussed.

  4. Point Defect Concentrations in Metastable Fe-C Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Foerst, Clemens J.; Yip, Sidney; Slycke, Jan; Vliet, Krystyn J. van

    2006-05-05

    Point defect species and concentrations in metastable Fe-C alloys are determined using density functional theory and a constrained free-energy functional. Carbon interstitials dominate unless iron vacancies are in significant excess, whereas excess carbon causes greatly enhanced vacancy concentration. Our predictions are amenable to experimental verification; they provide a baseline for rationalizing complex microstructures known in hardened and tempered steels, and by extension other technological materials created by or subjected to extreme environments.

  5. High temperature grain growth and oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy leads

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.; Greulich, F.A.; Beavis, L.C.

    1993-12-31

    One important application for the Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy in wire form is in brazed feed through assemblies which are integral parts of vacuum electronic devices. Since Cu metal brazes are performed at process temperatures of about 1100{degrees}C, there is opportunity for significant grain growth to occur during the brazing operation. Additional high temperature exposure includes decarburization of the Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in wet hydrogen for 30 min. at 1000{degrees}C prior to the Cu brazing operation. Two approaches have been used to characterize grain growth in two lots of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy: (1) a once-through processing study to study the effect of one-time-only device thermal processing on the resulting grain size, and (2) an isothermal grain growth study involving various times at 800--1100{degrees}C. The results of the once-through processing study indicate that acceptable grain sizes are obtained from both cold worked and mill-annealed wire lots following Cu brazing. The isothermal grain growth study indicates that the linear intercept distance for Fe-29Ni-17Co can be described with a power law function of time, and that thermal exposure must be controlled at temperatures in excess of 900{degrees}C in order to avoid excessive grain growth. A second study has characterized the oxidation kinetics of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in air at temperatures ranging from 550--700{degrees}C. This study indicates the parabolic growth law applies for this material, and between 550 and 700{degrees}C, oxidation in this alloy occurs at an activation energy of 27.9 kcal/mole. Other oxidation studies at higher temperatures ({ge}750{degrees}C) indicate an activation energy of 52.2 kcal/mole for oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy at temperatures greater than 790{degrees}C. Quantitative point analyses of the oxide scale formed at 600{degrees}C suggest that a significant fraction of the scale is close to the stoichiometry of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-type oxide.

  6. Hot workability of R-Fe-B alloys and their magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, K.; Kobayashi, O.; Yamagami, T.; Arai, A.; Shimoda, T.

    1991-04-01

    The hot workability of R-Fe-B alloys and their magnetic properties were extensively investigated. Modified hot pressing employing a ring which constrains an alloy ingot enabled hot working without cracking at high strain rates up to ɛ˙ = 1 × 10-1/s. Excessive discharging of the liquid R-rich phase was controlled and the refinement of crystal grains occurred at high strain rate hot pressing. Through these effects the maximum Hci reached 18 kOe, and a (BH)max of 33.3 MGOe with a moderate Hci of 15 kOe was obtained in a composition of the Pr-Fe-B-Cu system. Post-heat treatment at 475-525 °C was effective for enhancing Hci. It was found that even in Nd-based alloys, a (BH)max of more than 30 MGOe was achieved by hot pressing at a high strain rate, because the change in composition during pressing is minimized.

  7. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high;more » for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  8. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.

  9. Joint properties of cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy laser-welded to Co-Cr alloy.

    PubMed

    Baba, Naoki; Watanabe, Ikuya; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the joint properties of Fe-Pt alloy laser-welded to Co-Cr alloy. Cast plates (0.5 x 3.0 x 10 mm) were prepared with Fe-Pt and Co-Cr alloys. Fe-Pt plates were butted against Co-Cr plates and laser-welded using Nd:YAG laser. Control and homogeneously welded specimens were also prepared. Laser welding was performed with and without argon shielding. Tensile testing was conducted, and both fracture force (Ff: N) and elongation (El: %) were recorded. There were no differences in the Ff value between the specimens with and without argon shielding for the welded Fe-Pt/Co-Cr. Lower Ff value of the welded specimen was obtained in the order of Fe-Pt alloy < Fe-Pt/Co-Cr < Co-Cr alloy. The results indicated that Fe-Pt welded to Co-Cr had Ff values between the values of homogeneously welded Fe-Pt and Co-Cr alloys. Argon shielding, on the other hand, had no effect on the weld strength between Fe-Pt and Co-Cr alloys.

  10. Towards a Superplastic Forming of Fe-Mn-Al Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guanabara, Paulo Jr.; Bueno, Levi de O.; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-17

    The aim is to study the characteristics of superplasticity, mostly on non qualified materials, such as austenitic steel of the Fe-Mn-Al alloy, which has some of the specific material parameters closely related to microstructural mechanisms. These parameters are used as indicators of material superplastic potentiality. The material was submitted to hot tensile testing, within a temperature range from 600 deg. C to 1000 deg. C and strain-rates varying from 10{sup -6} to 1 s{sup -1}. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) and observed maximum elongation until rupture ({epsilon}{sub r}) could be determined and also obtained from the hot tensile test. The experiments stated a possibility of superplastic behaviour in a Fe-Mn-Al alloy within a temperature range from 700 deg. C to 900 deg. C with grain size around 3 {mu}m (ASTM grain size 12) and average strain rate sensitivity of m {approx} 0.54, as well as a maximum elongation at rupture around 600%. The results are based on a more enhanced research from the authors; however, this paper has focused just on the hot tensile test, as further creep tests results are not available herein. There are rare examples of superplasticity study of an austenitic steel Fe-Mn-Al alloy, thus this work showed some possibility of exploring the potential use of such materials in this regime at temperatures {>=}700 deg. C.

  11. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, D.; Ishida, M.; Uchida, K.; Qiu, Z.; Murakami, T.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-02-01

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiY2Fe5O12 (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe70Cu30 thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe70Cu30 interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe70Cu30 devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces.

  12. Magnetic properties and magnetostriction of PrxNd1-xFe1.9 (0 <= x <= 1.0) alloys at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Shao-Long; Li, Yu-Long; Xie, Ren; Du, You-Wei

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of high-pressure synthesized PrxNd1-xFe1.9 (0 <= x <= 1.0) alloys were studied. The alloys exhibit single cubic Laves phase with MgCu2-type structure. The initial magnetization curve reveals that Pr0.2Nd0.8Fe1.9 has a minimum magnetocrystalline anisotropy at 5 K. The magnetostriction curve at 5 K shows that Pr0.2Nd0.8Fe1.9 has a very good low-field magnetostrictive property, and the magnetostriction of the PrxNd1-xFe1.9 alloy in high magnetic field is attributable mainly to Pr. The temperature dependence of the magnetostriction (λ‖) at the field of 5 kOe shows that the substitution of Nd reduces the K1 remarkably, and the values of λ‖ of Pr0.2Nd0.8Fe1.9 and Pr0.8Nd0.2Fe1.9 alloys are nearly five times larger than that of the PrFe1.9 alloy below 50 K; the λ‖ of Pr0.8Nd0.2Fe1.9 reaches up to 1082 ppm at 100 K, which makes it a potential candidate for application in this temperature range.

  13. The shape memory capability and life of Cu-Al-Be-X alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Y.Y.; Dar, K.Z. ); Wang, T.M. ); Zin, S.J. )

    1994-09-01

    The shape memory capacity and the shape memory life of three alloys of the Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-X type have been investigated using the strain angle restoration method and compared with the alloy Cu-25Zn-4Al. The alloys were subjected to various normalizing and normalizing plus aging treatments, and all were found to possess excellent shape memory properties. The alloy Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-0.2Cr demonstrated the best shape memory capacity and life.

  14. Field dependence of the interfacial Cu in Cu-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desautels, R. D.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Ouyang, H.; Lo, S.-C.; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of elemental copper magnetism in Cu-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was revealed by element specific x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). An interfacial layer of magnetic CuO was discovered that interacted with the Fe3+ surface magnetic moments. This unexpected exchange interaction canted the moments of the CuO, so that a non-zero net magnetic moment was measured. XMCD measurements as a function of field on the copper coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles indicated that the CuO magnetic moment was aligned with the octahedral Fe3+ and its magnetization was modified by the changing applied field. With increasing copper thickness, a stronger field dependence of the Fe3+ and Cu2+ magnetization was observed.

  15. Thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of ternary Co-Cu-Si alloys with equiatomic Co/Cu ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Kai; Wei, Bingbo

    2016-04-01

    Different amounts of Si element were introduced into binary Co50Cu50 alloy to investigate the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of ternary Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x (x  =  10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 at%) alloys. Their liquidus and solidus temperatures versus Si content were determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It was found that the addition of Si element depressed both the liquidus and solidus temperatures as compared with binary Co50Cu50 alloy. In particular, the additions of 10 and 20 at% Si remarkably reduced the critical undercooling for liquid demixing to only 3 and 1 K, whereas no liquid phase separation took place in other Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloys. The relationship between the enthalpy of fusion and alloy composition was also established by a polynomial function on the basis of the measured data. The solidification microstructures of the DSC samples were investigated corresponding to the calorimetric signals, based on which the solidification pathway for each Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloy was elucidated. The Si element displays stronger affinity with the Co element than the Cu element. As Si content rises, the pseudobinary eutectic (Co  +  Co2Si), (Co2Si  +  CoSi), (CoSi  +  CoSi2) and (Cu3Si  +  Si) structures were successively formed, and there were no ternary intermetallic compounds in these alloys. The thermal diffusivity of solid ternary Co50-x/2Cu50-x/2Si x alloys was determined by a laser flash method in a wide temperature range from 300 to 1180 K, which showed a decreasing tendency with the increase of Si content.

  16. Effect of Cu Addition to Zn-12Al Alloy on Thermal Properties and Wettability on Cu and Al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Mosińska, Sylwia; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    The thermal properties, electrical resistivity, thermal linear expansion and tensile strength of a new high-temperature lead-free solder based on a eutectic Zn-Al alloy with 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 at. pct Cu added were studied. Wettability studies on Cu substrate were performed with flux at 773 K (500 °C) for 60, 180, 240, 900, 1800, and 3600 seconds, and for 480 seconds at 733 K, 753 K, 773 K, 793 K, and 823 K (460 °C, 480 °C, 500 °C, 520 °C, and 550 °C, respectively). The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of the addition of Cu on the kinetics of the formation and growth of the CuZn, Cu5Zn8, CuZn4, and Al4Cu9 phases, which were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Wetting tests were also performed on the Al substrate, for 15 and 30 seconds at 773 K and 793 K (500 °C and 520 °C, respectively). Very low contact angles on Al pads were obtained. The electrical resistivity of Zn-Al-Cu alloys was slightly higher than that of the ZnAl eutectic alloy. The present results are discussed with respect to the available literature on Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Cu alloys.

  17. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  18. The coupled effect of grain size and solute on work hardening of Cu-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadkam, A.; Sinclair, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    A modified grain size-dependent model developed to capture the combined effects of solute and grain size on the work hardening behaviour of fine-grained Cu-Ni alloys is provided. This work builds on a recent model that attributes the grain size-dependent work hardening of fine-grained Cu to backstresses. In the case of Cu-Ni alloys, unlike commercially pure Cu, a grain size-dependent separation between the Kocks-Mecking curves develops, this being explained here based on an extra contribution from geometrically necessary dislocations in the solid solution alloy. This is corroborated by strain-rate sensitivity experiments.

  19. A new hard magnetic phase in binary Nd-Fe and Pr-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Tsoukatos, A.; Strzeszewski, J.; Long, Gary J.; Pringle, O. A.

    1989-01-01

    A new magnetic phase has been observed in as-cast and melt-spun Nd-Fe and Pr-Fe alloys with a Curie temperature around 265°C. SEM studies show the presence of this phase in the form of spherical and elongated particles 5 μ m in size with a composition having a ratio of Fe/Nd=4:1. This phase is believed to be a ternary Nd-Fe-O phase stabilized with oxygen. The phase appears to have a high anisotropy leading to coercivities of about 6 kOe in as-cast samples at room temperature. The Mössbauer spectra of this phase can be fitted to four Fe sites with magnetic moments ranging from 1.7 to 2.54μ B.

  20. Crystallization kinetics of Fe based amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.

    2015-02-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC) experimental data under non-isothermal conditions for Fe based Metglas 2605SA1 (wt% Fe=85-95, Si=5-10, B=1-5) metallic glass ribbons are reported and discussed. The DSC Scans performed at different heating rates showed two step crystallization processes and are interpreted in terms of different models like Kissinger, Ozawa, Boswell, Augis & Bennett and Gao & Wang. From the heating rate dependence of the onset temperature (To) and the crystallization peak temperature (Tp), the kinetic triplet, activation energy of crystallization (E), Avrami exponent (n) and the frequency factor (A) are determined. The determined E for peak I is 354.5 ± 2.5 kJ/mol and for the peak II is 348.2 ± 2.2 kJ/mol, respectively. The frequency factor for peak I is 1.1 × 1023sec-1 and for peak II is 6.1 × 1020sec-1.

  1. CuFe2 O4 -CuO Nanocomposites as Promising Materials for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Amrollahi, Pouya; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-03-01

    Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by waterelectrolysis. This method can take advantage of economies of scale and most established techniques of producing hydrogen. We developed a nanocomposite material system composed of CuFe2O4 and CuO semiconductor particles to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. The nanocomposite powder was prepared using the sol-gel method. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV diffuse reflectance analysis were employed to characterize the synthesized products.The results confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4-CuO nanocomposite powder. The hydrogen evolution was successfully observed over the new hetero-system of CuFe2O4-CuO. The electrolysis activity depended on the concentration of CuO in the system. In order to enhance the hydrogen production, we further optimized the composite material versus the concentration of the compounds.

  2. Ultrafast demagnetization, spin-dependent Seebeck effect, and thermal spin transfer torque in Pt/TbFe/Cu and Pt/TbFe/Cu/Fe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimling, Johannes; Hebler, Birgit; Kimling, Judith; Albrecht, Manfred; Cahill, David G.

    We investigate diffusive spin currents in Pt(20nm)/TbFe(10nm)/Cu(100nm) and Pt(20 nm)/TbFe(10nm)/ Cu(100nm)/Fe(3nm) stacks using time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect (TRMOKE) and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements. Our experiments are based on two hypothesis: (1) fast changes of magnetization due to laser excitation are transferred into spin accumulation, e.g., via electron-magnon scattering; the generated spin accumulation drives a diffusive spin current into adjacent normal metal layers; (2) electronic thermal transport through the ferromagnetic layer injects a spin current into adjacent normal metal layers, based on the spin-dependent Seebeck effect. We excite the Pt layer with ps-laser pulses. Resulting diffusive spin currents generate nonequilibrium magnetization in the Cu layer (sample I) and induce a precession of the magnetization of the Fe layer via spin transfer torque (sample II). Both responses are probed using TRMOKE. Prior experiments used [Co(0.2nm)/Pt(0.4nm)]x5/Co(0.2nm) instead of TbFe. The ferrimagnetic TbFe layer with introduces two major modifications: (1) slow demagnetization behavior, and (2) large thermal resistance. Hence, thermal spin transfer torques can be observed on significantly longer time scales. Financial support by the German Research Foundation under DFG-Grant No. KI 1893/1-1 and DFG-Grant No. AL 618/21-1 are kindly acknowledged.

  3. Resistance to Fracture, Fatigue and Stress-Corrosion of Al-Cu-Li-Zr Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Zr alloyý, 4 Heat treatment and hot rolling schedules fur 66 the Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys 5 Laue transmission analysis of Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys 67 6 X-ray...ratio, there appears to be an increase in amount of matrix 6 ’ as well as grain boundary precipitates ( 6 , T-phase) (? 4 ). As a result, there is a...containing 6 ’ precipitates that enhance slip planarity and certain titanium alloys (e.g. alloys with acicular astructure), will be expected to have a

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nonmagnetic Fe-25Mn-xCu-C steels by super solidus liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shanquan; Xiao, Zhiyu; Wang, Jun; Yang, Shuo; Guan, Hangjian; Zhu, Quanli

    2016-11-01

    In this work, nonmagnetic steels Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were prepared by high manganese pre-alloyed steel powders through powder metallurgy (PM) technique. Four types of steels specimen were created to investigate the microstructure evolving with sintering process, mechanical properties and magnetic properties. The microstructures, fracture surfaces, phase constitutions and mechanical properties of Fe-25Mn-xCu-C were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile strength test. The results showed that super solidus liquid-phase sintering (SLPS) phenomenon was conclusively verified, for the first time, in the Fe-Mn pre-alloyed powders: Liquids generated by SLPS process from pre-alloyed powders could improve the binding condition between the particles and enhance the densification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment and physical property measurement system (PPMS) measurement verified the nonmagnetic properties of steels with single austenite phase. It is confirmed that mechanical properties are intensively influenced by the characteristic and quantity of liquids between the matrix particles. The fracture mechanism of the steel is dominated by intergranular decohesion mode. The preliminary study found this kind of new non-magnetic steel exhibits relatively high density. With the efficiency in fabricating and the non-magnetic property, this work foresees good prospects for application in the steel components manufacturing industry.

  5. Microstructure development in Al-Cu-Ag-Mg quaternary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Froyen, L.

    2012-01-01

    The solidification behaviour of multi-component and multi-phase systems has been largely investigated in binary and ternary alloys. In the present study, a quaternary model system is proposed based on the well known Al-Cu-Ag and Al-Cu-Mg ternary eutectic alloys. The quaternary eutectic composition and temperature were determined by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analysis, respectively. The microstructure was then characterised by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In the DSC experiments, two types of quaternary eutectics were determined according to their phase composition. For each type of eutectic, various microstructures were observed, which result in different eutectic compositions. Only one of the determined eutectic compositions was further studied by the controlled growth technique in a vertical Bridgeman type furnace. In the initial part of the directionally solidified sample, competing growth between two-phase dendrites and three-phase eutectics was obtained, which was later transformed to competing growth between three-phase and four-phase eutectics. Moreover, silver enrichment was measured at the solidification front, which is possibly caused by Ag sedimentation due to gravity and Ag rejection from dendritic and three-phase eutectic growth, and its accumulation at the solidification front.

  6. Annealing behavior of Cu and dilute Cu-alloy films: Precipitation, grain growth, and resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmak, K.; Gungor, A.; Cabral, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2003-08-01

    The impact of 11 alloying elements, namely, Mg, Ti, In, Sn, Al, Ag, Co, Nb, and B, at two nominal concentrations of 1 and 3 at. %, and Ir and W, at only a nominal concentration of 3 at. %, on the resistivity and grain structure of copper was investigated. The films were electron beam evaporated onto thermally oxidized Si wafers and had thicknesses in the range of 420-560 nm. Pure evaporated Cu films were used as controls. Isothermal anneals were carried out at 400 °C for 5 h; constant-heating rate treatments, with no hold at the temperature, were done at 3 °C to 650 and 950 °C. In all cases, annealing resulted in the lowering of resistivity compared with the as-deposited state. Furthermore, annealing to a higher temperature resulted in lower, postannealing, room-temperature resistivity, unless the film agglomerated or showed evidence of solute redissolution. Annealing also resulted in significant growth of grains, except for the Nb- and W-containing films. In addition, the grain sizes for the nominally 3 at. %, 400 °C-annealed films were smaller than those for the nominally 1.0 at. % films. The interesting exceptions in this case were the Co-containing films, which had a larger grain size than the pure Cu film, and which, in addition, exhibited a larger grain size for the film with the higher concentration of Co. After the 400 °C anneal, Cu(0.4B) and Cu(1.0Ag) had the lowest resistivities at 2.0 and 2.1 μΩ cm, respectively, and Cu(2.8Co) showed the largest average grain size at 1080 nm. The resistivity and grain size for the pure Cu film after the same anneal were 2.0 μΩ cm and 790 nm, respectively. Precipitation of a second phase was observed in 8 of 20 alloy films annealed at 400 °C. No alloy film simultaneously showed the combination of a low resistivity and a larger grain size than pure Cu.

  7. Physical properties of the superconducting spin-valve Fe/Cu/Fe/In heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Garifullin, I. A.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.

    2012-01-01

    We report on structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of the spin-valve multilayer system CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/In. For most of the thicknesses of the second iron layer dFe2 up to 2 nm, we have observed a full spin-valve effect for the superconducting current, i.e., a complete transition from the normal to the superconducting state by changing the mutual orientation of the magnetizations of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers. For dFe2<1 nm, the superconducting transition temperature TcP for the parallel orientation of magnetizations of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers is smaller than that for the antiparallel orientation TcAP, which corresponds to the direct spin-valve effect. For dFe2⩾1 nm, we have found the inverse spin-valve effect with ΔTc=TcAP-TcP<0. Further, in samples with a fixed thickness of the In layer, we have observed an oscillating dependence of its superconducting transition temperature Tc on dFe2. The analysis of the Tc(dFe2) dependence using the theory of the superconducting-ferromagnetic proximity effect has enabled determination of all microscopic parameters of the studied system. With these parameters, a satisfactory description of the sign-changing oscillating behavior of the spin-valve effect ΔTc(dFe2) has been obtained using a recent theory by Fominov [Ya. V. Fominov , Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 329 (2010) [JETP Lett.JTPLA20021-364010.1134/S002136401006010X 91, 308 (2010)

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Co21Cr22Cu22Fe21Ni14 Processed by High Pressure Torsion and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nokeun; Li, Xiang; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The strengthening mechanisms of Co21Cr22Cu22Fe21Ni14 multiple-principal element alloy processed by high pressure torsion (HPT) and annealing were examined. Two face-centered cubic (FCC) phases were observed in the as-cast alloy; one was a Cu-rich phase and the other was a Cu-lean one. In the HPT process, the microhardness increased from 190 HV to 470 HV at a strain of 157 due to strain hardening and grain refinement hardening. X-ray diffraction showed that the lattice parameters of the two FCC phases became closer to each other at higher HPT strain, indicating the alloying of Cu into the Cu-lean matrix. The HPT processed specimens were annealed at 500°C, 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C. The microhardness increased to 540 HV after annealing at temperatures lower than 650°C, whereas it decreased when the specimen was annealed at 650°C. The mean grain size of the specimens annealed at temperatures lower than 650°C was much smaller than 100 nm, and Cu-rich clusters with sizes ranging from 2 nm to 32 nm were distributed homogeneously. The reasons for the formation of the Cu-rich nano-clusters were discussed from a perspective of the positive mixing enthalpy of Cu in the alloy and thermalenergy for Cu diffusion at a given temperature. The dissolution and partitioning of two FCC phases played a key role in strengthening the Co21Cr22Cu22Fe21Ni14 system.

  9. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy to optimize resistance to intergrannular stress corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Bibb, Albert E.

    1984-01-01

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprising heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cool the alloy body, and heat the cooled body to a temperature between 1100.degree. to 1500.degree. F. for about 1 to 30 hours.

  10. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy 600 to optimize resistance to intergranular stress corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprises heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cooling the alloy body, and heating the cooled body to a temperature between 1100 to 1500/sup 0/F for about 1 to 30 hours.

  11. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  12. Investigating Magnetic and Structural Changes of Thin FeNi Alloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstrasser, M.; Tobin, J. G.; Morton, S. A.; Wadill, G. D.; Gilman, N. A. R.; Willis, R. F.

    2002-03-01

    Bulk FeNi alloys exhibit the "Invar effect", a sudden arresting of the Wigner-Seitz cell volume and a zero expansion coefficient. Simultaneously, the crystal structure changes from fcc to bcc while Curie temperature goes to zero. This structural transformation can be arrested in films grown on a Cu(001) substrate. Theoretical work predicts that the fcc phase can exist in two possible states: a ferromagnetic high volume state or a antiferromagnetic low volume state showing a 1% volume change between a non-collinear equilibrium state and the high spin state. We measured elemental magnetic properties with x-ray circular and linear dichroism on FeNi films grown on Cu(100). Our measurements show a change in the local magnetic moments of Fe as well as Ni, which corresponds very well with the Slater-Pauling curve. We also observe the collapse of the magnetic moments, as previously reported in bulk materials, in these thin films. Exchange splitting measured with angular and spin-resolved measurements confirm the magnetic measurements done with dichroism.

  13. Oxidation resistance of aluminum-coated Fe-20Cr alloys containing rare earths or yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, D.R. )

    1993-10-01

    Aluminum-coated Fe-20Cr (rare earth or yttrium) alloy foils were developed with oxidation resistance equivalent or superior to Fe-20Cr-5Al (rare earth or yttrium) alloy foils. The coated foils were made by dipping Fe-20Cr sheet into a salt-covered aluminum bath and then rolling the sheet to foil. Oxidation resistance of the coated foil was enhanced by adding rare earths or yttrium to the Fe-20Cr substrate alloys to insure oxide adherence. Test results indicate that only sufficient addition to tie up sulfur as a stable sulfide is needed in the Fe-20Cr alloy. Aluminum-coated foils show lower oxide growth rates than similar Fe-Cr-Al alloys, most likely the result of fewer impurities (particularly Fe) is the coated foils' growing oxide scale. 31 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A model of the interfacial processes inhibiting the environmental degradation of Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, Jeffery Robert

    A better understanding of the composition and structure of chemically treated Al alloy surfaces is necessary to devise new, more environmentally benign, coating systems for aircraft. In this work, the surface of AA2024-T3, as well as analogs for constituent intermetallic compounds (IMC), were examined at various stages of the Al alloy pretreatment and chromate conversion coating (CCC) process. A complement of techniques were used: imaging and dyanmic Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Variable-Angle X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (VA/XPS), Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy (SIRS), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The water and hydrocarbons in commercial CCC destabilized Cr(VI) during exposure to soft x-rays. However, it was possible to prevent photochemical reduction with the ultra-clean vacuum pumping practice recently developed at Stony Brook. The type of pretreatment used prior to chromate conversion coating influenced the extent of IMC removal, Cu (re)distribution, and surface activity. Cu(I) was observed on all the chemically treated surfaces. Samples pretreated in Sanchem 1000 while galvanically coupled to a Pt mesh had a more desirable distribution of Cu for subsequent processing. Chromate reduction was not a significant factor in CCC aging over a 24-hr period, but surface dehydration and structural change were correlated and causative. Imaging SIMS revealed heterogeneities in the CCC that varied laterally with IMC in the alloy substrate. These regions were depleted in compounds containing Cr, F, and CN. Cu was found at localized sites in the CCC contact surface. Cyano groups were bound as Cr(IlI)-CNFe(H). The chromate available for CCC repair was located on matrix regions through the entire bulk of the CCC. The presence of residual contaminants (e.g. cleaning agents, metal working fluid, ink) affected the distribution of activator compounds (e.g. ferricyanide) in a CCC. The cyanide complex

  15. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed into the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.

  16. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed intomore » the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  17. Non-equilibrium phase map, optical and electrical properties of Cu-Zn-O alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniyan, Archana; Perkins, John; O'Hayre, Ryan; Ginley, David; Lany, Stephan; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2014-03-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a candidate p-type solar cell absorber material that has been spotlighted recently due to its low cost, earth abundant and non-toxic nature. The maximum reported efficiency of Cu2O based solar cells is rather low (5. 38%) and it can in part be attributed its forbidden direct band gap (2.1 eV) and higher absorption threshold (2.6 eV). Here, we alloy Cu2O with ZnO via combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering as a function of temperature (T) and composition at fixed 20 mTorr Ar pressure to modify the electronic band structure and reduce its absorption threshold, which can potentially enhance the solar cell performance. A non-equilibrium Cu-Zn-O phase map was generated in the T range 100 - 400 °C and Zn composition 0 - 37 at%. Highly crystalline Cu2O structured Cu-Zn-O alloys with Zn content of 0 to 17 at% were synthesized in the T range 200 - 270 °C. With increasing Zn at%, the preferential orientation in Cu-Zn-O alloy changes from (200) to (111) direction. At lower T (<200 °C), either amorphous or poor crystalline Cu2O structured alloys were observed, whereas at higher T (>270 ° C) and higher Zn composition (>25 at%), CuO or ZnO second phases were observed. The absorption coefficient of all Cu-Zn-O alloys was higher than that of phase pure Cu2O. The absorption threshold () was also reduced significantly, for example, at = 2*104 cm-1 the absorption threshold of Cu-Zn-O alloy with 10 at% Zn reduced from 2.4 eV to 2.1 eV. The electrical conductivity of all Cu-Zn-O alloys was measured to be within 2 - 5 mS/cm.

  18. Intrinsic electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties of single-crystalline Al64Cu23Fe13 icosahedral quasicrystal: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinšek, J.; Vrtnik, S.; Klanjšek, M.; Jagličić, Z.; Smontara, A.; Smiljanić, I.; Bilušić, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Inoue, A.; Landauro, C. V.

    2007-08-01

    In order to test for the true intrinsic properties of icosahedral i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals, we performed investigations of magnetism, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, and thermal conductivity on a single-crystalline Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal grown by the Czochralski technique. This sample shows superior quasicrystallinity, an almost phason-free structure, and excellent thermal stability. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample is best classified as a weak paramagnet. Electrical resistivity exhibits a negative temperature coefficient with ρ4K=3950μΩcm and R=ρ4K/ρ300K=1.8 , whereas the thermopower exhibits a sign reversal at T=278K . Simultaneous analysis of the resistivity and thermopower using spectral-conductivity model showed that the Fermi energy is located at the minimum of the pseudogap in the spectral conductivity σ(ɛ) . Thermal conductivity is anomalously low for an alloy of metallic elements. Comparing the physical properties of the investigated single-crystalline Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal to literature reports on polycrystalline i-Al-Cu-Fe material, we conclude that there are no systematic differences between the high-quality single-crystalline and polycrystalline i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals, except for the hindering of long-range transport by grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material. The so far reported physical properties of i-Al-Cu-Fe appear to be intrinsic to this family of icosahedral quasicrystals, regardless of the form of the material.

  19. Amorphous phase formation in Fe-6.0wt%Si alloy by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, A.F.; Bolfarini, C.; Xu, Y.; Kiminami, C.S.

    1999-12-31

    Mechanical alloying, MA, is a high-energy ball milling technique, in which elemental blends are milled to achieve alloying at atomic level. This communication describes the results of an investigation on the phase transformation of a mixture of Fe and Si powders with 6wt%Si during MA processing. Besides the verification of the effect of milling time on the structure and on the compositional homogeneity, this study was undertaken in order to confirm, by using TEM technique, the possibility of amorphous phase formation for Si content lower than 17.7wt%.

  20. Growth of Pt/Cu(100): An Atomistic Modeling Comparison with the Pd/Cu(100) Surface Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarco, Gustavo; Garces, Jorge E.; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    The Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith (BFS) method for alloys is applied to the study of Pt deposition on Cu(100). The formation of a Cu-Pt surface alloy is discussed within the framework of previous results for Pd/Cu(100). In spite of the fact that both Pd and Pt share the same basic behavior when deposited on Cu, it is seen that subtle differences become responsible for the differences in growth observed at higher cover-ages. In agreement with experiment, all the main features of Pt/Cu(100) and Pd/Cu(100) are obtained by means of a simple modeling scheme, and explained in terms of a few basic ingredients that emerge from the BFS analysis.

  1. Role of Fe and sign reversal of the Hall coefficient in quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, P.; Berger, C.; Klein, T.; Lanco, P.; Cyrot-Lackmann, F.; Calvayrac, Y.

    1993-07-01

    Electronic transport properties were measured for the stable icosahedral phase of Al-Cu-Fe for a large number of high-structural-quality samples of different compositions. At low temperature, the Hall coefficient RH and the conductivity σ are found to best correlate with the Fe content rather than with the electron per atom parameter which is usually used; RH changes sign at a concentration of 12.5 at. % Fe, where σ is at minimum. RH has a strong temperature dependence and can change sign with temperature. These features put the focus on the Fe d states and can be interpreted by a Hume-Rothery type of behavior including the sp-d hybridization effects.

  2. [Mechanical properties of wiredrawn Ag-Pd-Cu alloys].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Miyagawa, Y; Nakamura, K

    1989-01-01

    Nine experimental Ag-Pd-Cu ternary alloys, containing 20-30 wt% Pd and 10-20 wt% Cu, were cast into rods 4.5 mm in diameter using an original vacuum/argon-pressure oxide-free casting technique. Test samples 2.0 mm in diameter were made from the rods by wire-drawing. After softening and hardening heat treatments, mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, proof stress, tensile strength, elongation, and Vickers hardness) of the samples were measured to analyze the effects of composition and fifteen sets of correlations between the mechanical properties on the condition that few internal casting defects existed. After softening heat treatment, values of hardness and strength increased with increasing Cu and Pd contents, while they increased approximately with increasing Pd content after hardening heat treatment. After softening and hardening heat treatments, tensile strength ranged from 44.4 to 60.7 and from 68.1 to 89.1 kgf/mm2, respectively. Values of elongation were more than 10% even after hardening heat treatment. Fourteen out of fifteen correlation coefficients (r) were statistically significant (p less than 0.01). One of the regression lines derived was as follows. Tensile strength (kgf/mm2) = 9.1 +/- 0.305 Hv (r = 0.990) Moreover, the mechanical properties observed in this investigation were compared with those of ordinarily cast samples with the same compositions.

  3. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Peker, A.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-04-08

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3} K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}){sub a} Cu{sub b} (Ni{sub 1{minus}y}Co{sub y}){sub c} wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y{center_dot}c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b. 2 figs.

  4. Compression behavior of Fe-Si-H alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, S.; Ohta, K.; Hirose, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Although the light elements in the Earth's core are still enigmatic, hydrogen has recently been receiving much attention. Planetary formation theory suggested that a large amount of water, much more than is in the oceans, could have been brought to the Earth during its accretion. Hydrogen is a strong siderophile element and could be incorporated into the core as a consequence of a reaction between water and molten iron in a magma ocean [Okuchi, 1997 Science]. Nevertheless, the effect of hydrogen on the property of iron is not well known so far. Here, we have experimentally examined the compression behavior of hcp Fe0.88Si0.12Hx (6.5 wt.% Si) at two different hydrogen concentrations (x = 0.7 and 0.9). Fe0.88Si0.12 foil was loaded into a diamond-anvil cell, and then liquid hydrogen was introduced to a sample chamber below 20 K. Hydrogenation occurred upon thermal annealing below 1500 K at 25-62 GPa, and hcp Fe0.88Si0.12Hx was obtained as a single phase. Unlike the Fe-H alloy, hydrogen did not fully occupy the octahedral sites even under hydrogen-saturated conditions. Two compression curves, one from 25 to 136 GPa, and the other from 62 to 128 GPa, were obtained at room temperature. While the effect of hydrogen on the compressibility of iron has been controversial in earlier experimental studies [Hirao et al., 2004 GRL; Pépin et al., 2014 PRL], our data indicate that the compressibility of Fe0.88Si0.12Hx alloy does not change with changing hydrogen content from x = 0 to 0.9. Such compression behavior observed is consistent with the recent ab initio calculations for hcp Fe-H alloys by Caracas[2015 GRL]. The extrapolation of present data to the outer core pressure and temperature range, assuming thermal expansivity is the same as that for iron and there is no density difference between solid and liquid, shows that the density of Fe0.88Si0.12H0.3 matches the PREM in the whole outer core within 1%.

  5. Oxidation of Fe-W Alloy Electrodeposits for Application to Anodes as Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Changwei; Ye, Mengchao; Zhon, Linxing; Hou, Jianping; Li, Junmin; Guo, Junming

    2016-12-01

    A citrate-ammonia bath was selected to electrodeposit Fe-W alloys, which exhibit a crystalline structure even if the content of W in the Fe-W alloy is up to 37.8wt%. Those alloys could be oxidized partly at 700∘C. Resultant oxides were composed of Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and amorphous products. The composite oxides presented better electrochemical properties than those of the Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 composite formed by oxidation of Fe deposits. For instance, such an electrode demonstrates the reversible capacity of up to 2438.3mAhg-1 (in terms of incremental oxygen) after 100 charge-discharge cycles, while the electrodes of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 composites formed by oxidation of Fe deposits were of only 667.5mAhg-1.

  6. Low-Temperature Studies of CuFe2S3 and CuFeS2 by ^{63,65}Cu NMR in the Internal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr Iliich; Matukhin, Vadim Leonidovich; Korzun, Barys Vasilyevich; Schmidt, Ekaterina Vadimovna; Sevastianov, Iliya Germanovich

    2016-12-01

    The resonance ^{63,65}Cu NMR spectra in the internal magnetic field in cubanite CuFe2S3 and chalcopyrite CuFeS2 were studied experimentally at 77 K. Using a cluster approach, ab initio evaluation of the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nuclei of copper in both compounds was performed. The calculations were carried out by the self-consistent restricted method of Hartree-Fock with open shells (SCF-LCAO-ROHF). The largest clusters for which calculations were made had a formula of Cu7Fe_{14}S_{29}^n for cubanite and Cu9Fe_{10}S_{28}^n for chalcopyrite, where n is the cluster charge. The best-fit values of the quadrupole parameters (quadrupole frequency ν _Q and the asymmetry parameter of the EFG tensor η )—determined experimentally (ν _Q ≈ 7.30 MHz and η ≈ 0.82) and by calculation (ν _Q ≈ 7.38 MHz and η ≈ 0.87)—were obtained for a cluster Cu7Fe_{14}S_{29}^{10} for cubanite. Similarly, the best-fit values of the quadrupole parameters—determined experimentally (ν _Q ≈ 1.29 MHz and η ≈ 0.34) and by calculation (ν _Q ≈ 1.40 MHz and η ≈ 0.50)—were obtained for a cluster Cu9Fe_{10}S_{28}^{-4} for chalcopyrite. For these clusters, maps of the electron density distribution in the neighborhood of quadrupole nucleus of copper were built. Based on the analysis of the resulting electron density distribution, it is supposed that the bond in these compounds is not quite covalent. Evaluations of the hyperfine interaction constants were made and maps of the spin density distribution in the neighborhood of quadrupole nucleus of copper were built. The energy level diagram calculated in the high-spin ROHF approximation defined chalcopyrite as a compound with a very narrow LUMO-HOMO gap rather well and is consistent with the notion of this compound as a semiconductor.

  7. Reversibility and coercivity of Fe-alloy/Fe:SiO2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Skomski, Ralph; Yin, Xiaolu; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2010-05-01

    Soft bilayer alloys were produced by depositing granular Fe:SiO2 onto transition-metal thin films. We have prepared series of samples using different soft-magnetic materials including permalloy (Ni80Fe20), hcp Co90Fe10, and amorphous Co60Fe20B20, all covered by a layer of superparamagnetic Fe particles in a silicon-oxide matrix. The thickness of transition-metal layer was fixed and the magnetic properties of the bilayer system were studied by varying the Fe:SiO2 layers thicknesses from 0 to 70 nm. The bilayer yields a moderate improvement of the soft-magnetic performance. The hysteresis loops show a pronounced twofold anisotropy in the film plane for permalloy and amorphous CoFeB, which is consistent with the presence of external magnetic field during processing. This indicates that the coercivity is controlled by the pinning of 180° domain walls and that the effect of the Fe particles on the hysteresis is mediated by the interaction with the domain-wall stray fields.

  8. Electron back scattered diffraction characterization of Sm(CoFeCuZr)z magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, T.; Fukuhara, M.; Archanjo, B. S.; Missell, F. P.

    2011-04-01

    In permanent magnets based on the Sm2Co17 phase, the high coercivity depends on the presence of a complex microstructure, consisting of a Sm2(Co,Fe)17 cell phase, a cell boundary phase Sm(Co,Cu)5, and a Zr-rich platelet or lamellae phase. The aim of this work is to use electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to identify the different phases present in the isotropic magnets produced from cast alloys with the composition of Sm(CobalFe0.2Cu0.1Zrx)8, where x = 0, 0.02, or 0.06, and correlate them with the different phases observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Due to the combination of careful surface preparation and high resolution microscopy, it was possible to observe the cellular structure characteristic of the 2:17 magnets in the SEM images. Until now, only transmission electron microscopy (TEM) had been used. Composition maps, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and EBSD measurements were used for doing the phase identification.

  9. Electron back scattered diffraction characterization of Sm(CoFeCuZr){sub z} magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yonamine, T.; Fukuhara, M.; Archanjo, B. S.; Missell, F. P.

    2011-04-01

    In permanent magnets based on the Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} phase, the high coercivity depends on the presence of a complex microstructure, consisting of a Sm{sub 2}(Co,Fe){sub 17} cell phase, a cell boundary phase Sm(Co,Cu){sub 5}, and a Zr-rich platelet or lamellae phase. The aim of this work is to use electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to identify the different phases present in the isotropic magnets produced from cast alloys with the composition of Sm(Co{sub bal}Fe{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.1}Zr{sub x}){sub 8}, where x = 0, 0.02, or 0.06, and correlate them with the different phases observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Due to the combination of careful surface preparation and high resolution microscopy, it was possible to observe the cellular structure characteristic of the 2:17 magnets in the SEM images. Until now, only transmission electron microscopy (TEM) had been used. Composition maps, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and EBSD measurements were used for doing the phase identification.

  10. Effect of soil parameters on the kinetics of the displacement of Fe from FeEDDHA chelates by Cu.

    PubMed

    Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Reichwein, Arjen M; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2012-06-28

    In soil application, o,o-FeEDDHA (iron (3+) ethylene diamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy phenyl acetic acid) complex) is the active ingredient of FeEDDHA chelate-based Fe fertilizers. The effectiveness of o,o-FeEDDHA is potentially compromised by the displacement of Fe from FeEDDHA by Cu. The actual impact of Cu competition is codetermined by the kinetics of the displacement reaction. In this study, the influence of soil parameters on the displacement kinetics has been examined in goethite suspensions. The displacement reaction predominantly takes place on the reactive surface rather than in solution. The rate at which the o,o-FeEDDHA concentration declined depended on the available reactive surface area, the Cu loading, and the FeEDDHA loading. Soil factors reducing FeEDDHA adsorption (high ionic strength, humic acid adsorption onto the goethite surface, and monovalent instead of divalent cations in the electrolyte) decreased the displacement rate. For meso o,o-FeEDDHA, the displacement rate equation was derived, which is first order in FeEDDHA loading and half order in Cu loading. For soil conditions, the equation can be simplified to an exponential decay function in meso o,o-FeEDDHA solution concentration.

  11. Fine structure of Fe-Co-Ga and Fe-Cr-Ga alloys with low Ga content

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, Nadezhda M. Serikov, Vadim V. Vershinin, Aleksandr V. Mushnikov, Nikolai V. Stashkova, Liudmila A.

    2014-10-27

    Investigation of Ga influence on the structure of Fe-Cr and Fe-Co alloys was performed with the use of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. In the alloys of the Fe-Cr system, doping with Ga handicaps the decomposition of solid solutions, observed in the binary alloys, and increases its stability. In the alloys with Co, Ga also favors the uniformity of solid solutions. The analysis of Mössbauer experiments gives some grounds to conclude that if, owing to liquation, clusterization, or initial stages of phase separation, there exist regions enriched in iron, some amount of Ga atoms prefer to enter the nearest surroundings of iron atoms, thus forming binary Fe-Ga regions (or phases)

  12. Mechanism and Kinetics of Mechanical Alloying in an Immiscible Fe-Mg System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelsukov, E. P.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Ulyanov, A. L.

    2005-07-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Auger spectroscopy, secondary ion mass-spectrometry and chemical analysis were used to study mechanical alloying of Fe and Mg powder mixture with the atomic ratio of 93:7. It has been shown that the process of mechanical alloying involves the formation of nanostructure in α-Fe particles, penetration and segregation of Mg atoms along the α-Fe grain boundaries, formation of the α-Fe(Mg) supersaturated solid solution.

  13. Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Brown, Lola; Levendorf, Mark; Cai, Weiwei; Ju, Sang-Yong; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Li, Xuesong; Magnuson, Carl W; Velamakanni, Aruna; Piner, Richard D; Kang, Junyong; Park, Jiwoong; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2011-02-22

    The ability to protect refined metals from reactive environments is vital to many industrial and academic applications. Current solutions, however, typically introduce several negative effects, including increased thickness and changes in the metal physical properties. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the ability of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to protect the surface of the metallic growth substrates of Cu and Cu/Ni alloy from air oxidation. In particular, graphene prevents the formation of any oxide on the protected metal surfaces, thus allowing pure metal surfaces only one atom away from reactive environments. SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS studies show that the metal surface is well protected from oxidation even after heating at 200 °C in air for up to 4 h. Our work further shows that graphene provides effective resistance against hydrogen peroxide. This protection method offers significant advantages and can be used on any metal that catalyzes graphene growth.

  14. Precipitation Hardening and Statistical Modeling of the Aging Parameters and Alloy Compositions in Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Obaisi, A. M.; El-Danaf, E. A.; Ragab, A. E.; Soliman, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The addition of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg systems has been proposed to replace the existing high-strength 2xxx and 7xxx Al alloys. The aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys exhibited promising properties, due to special type of precipitates named Ω, which cooperate with other precipitates to enhance the mechanical properties significantly. In the present investigation, the effect of changing percentages of alloying elements, aging time, and aging temperature on the hardness values was studied based on a factorial design. According to this design of experiments (DOE)—23 factorial design, eight alloys were cast and hot rolled, where (Cu, Mg, and Ag) were added to aluminum with two different levels for each alloying element. These alloys were aged at different temperatures (160, 190, and 220 °C) over a wide range of time intervals from 10 min. to 64 h. The resulting hardness data were used as an input for Minitab software to model and relate the process variables with hardness through a regression analysis. Modifying the alloying elements' weight percentages to the high level enhanced the hardness of the alloy with about 40% as compared to the alloy containing the low level of all alloying elements. Through analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was figured out that altering the fraction of Cu had the greatest effect on the hardness values with a contribution of about 49%. Also, second-level interaction terms had about 21% of impact on the hardness values. Aging time, quadratic terms, and third-level interaction terms had almost the same level of influence on hardness values (about 10% contribution). Furthermore, the results have shown that small addition of Mg and Ag was enough to improve the mechanical properties of the alloy significantly. The statistical model formulated interpreted about 80% of the variation in hardness values.

  15. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  16. A new Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, D.L.; Michal, G.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Various applications exist where a high conductivity alloy with good strength and creep resistance are required. NASA LeRC has developed a Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy for these applications. The alloy is designed for use up to 700 C and shows exceptional strength, low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and creep resistance. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb also has a thermal conductivity of at least 72 percent that of pure Cu. Furthermore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy are very stable. In addition to the original application in combustion chambers, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb shows promise for welding electrodes, brazing fixtures, and other applications requiring high conductivity and strength at elevated temperatures.

  17. A new Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. L.; Michal, G. M.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Various applications exist where a high conductivity alloy with good strength and creep resistance are required. NASA LeRC has developed a Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy for these applications. The alloy is designed for use up to 700 C and shows exceptional strength, low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and creep resistance. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb also has a thermal conductivity of at least 72 percent that of pure Cu. Furthermore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy are very stable. In addition to the original application in combustion chambers, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb shows promise for welding electrodes, brazing fixtures, and other applications requiring high conductivity and strength at elevated temperatures.

  18. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anggara, B. S.; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2014-09-25

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  19. Formation and Stability of Equiatomic and Nonequiatomic Nanocrystalline CuNiCoZnAlTi High-Entropy Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, S.; Kamaraj, M.; Murty, B. S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanocrystalline equiatomic high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been synthesized by mechanical alloying in the Cu-Ni-Co-Zn-Al-Ti system from the binary CuNi alloy to the hexanary CuNiCoZnAlTi alloy. An attempt also has been made to find the influence of nonequiatomic compositions on the HEA formation by varying the Cu content up to 50 at. pct (Cu x NiCoZnAlTi; x = 0, 8.33, 33.33, 49.98 at. pct). The phase formation and stability of mechanically alloyed powder at an elevated temperature (1073 K [800 °C] for 1 hour) were studied. The nanocrystalline equiatomic Cu-Ni-Co-Zn-Al-Ti alloys have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure up to quinary compositions and have a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure in a hexanary alloy. In nonequiatomic alloys, bcc is the dominating phase in the alloys containing 0 and 8.33 at. pct of Cu, and the fcc phase was observed in alloys with 33.33 and 49.98 at. pct of Cu. The Vicker’s bulk hardness and compressive strength of the equiatomic nanocrystalline hexanary CuNiCoZnAlTi HEA after hot isostatic pressing is 8.79 GPa, and the compressive strength is 2.76 GPa. The hardness of these HEAs is higher than most commercial hard facing alloys ( e.g., Stellite, which is 4.94 GPa).

  20. Determination of the deformation mechanism of Fe-Mn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Minho; Koo, Yang Mo; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2015-03-01

    The energy parameters of planar defects are decisive for understanding the deformation mechanisms of metals. The stacking fault energy has been regarded as a key parameter to determine the activation of the deformation mechanisms of the face-centered cubic metals and alloys. However, it is still under a long debate why the stacking fault energy can be treated to be such an exclusive parameter among the general planar fault energies. We have employed molecular dynamics method to examine the effects of Mn alloying on the deformation behavior of austenitic Fe-Mn systems. The energies of stable and unstable states are calculated by sliding the (111) plane and are analyzed in two different schemes, stacking fault energy and energy barriers, which leads to a contradiction between them. We show that a linear relationship can be identified among the energy barriers. This finding is used to identify the activated deformation mechanism. A new parameter is also suggested to characterize the material deformation.

  1. Oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr steels alloyed with titanium at 1073 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Asep Ridwan; Artono, Tri Juni

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the oxidation behavior of Fe-20 wt%Cr steels alloyed with different titanium contents: 0, 0.5, and 1 wt% are studied as a function of time in air atmosphere. The samples were isothermally oxidized at 1073 K for 86.4, 172.8, and 345.6 ks in a muffle furnace. The mass of specimen were recorded before and after oxidation. After the oxidation, phases in the oxide were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical microscopy observation on the chromium base alloys show that the microstructure consist only ferritic phases. The addition of titanium in the Fe-20Cr alloys does not alter the microstructure significantly. The oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr, Fe-20Cr-0.5Ti and Fe-20Cr-1Ti were followed the classical parabolic relationship with time. XRD analysis indicated that the oxide scales developed on the Fe-20Cr alloys surface during oxidation tests consisted mainly of Cr2O3. On the other hand, the oxide scales developed on the surface of Fe-20Cr-0.5Ti and Fe-20Cr-1Ti alloys comprised of Cr2O3 and TiO2 oxide. The formation of TiO2 oxide in the Ti-containing alloys consequently increases the mass gain of the alloys during oxidation compared to that of Fe-20Cr alloys.

  2. First-principles study of phase equilibria in Cu-Pt-Rh disordered alloys.

    PubMed

    Yuge, Koretaka

    2009-10-14

    Phase stability of Cu-Pt-Rh ternary disordered alloys is examined by a combination of cluster expansion techniques and Monte Carlo statistical simulation based on first-principles calculation. The sign of pseudo-binary ECIs indicates that neighboring Cu and Pt strongly prefer unlike-atom pairs, Pt and Rh weakly prefer unlike-atom pairs, and Cu and Rh atoms prefer like-atom pairs, indicating that the ternary alloy retains the ordering tendency of the constituent binary alloys. The formation energy of a random alloy at T = 1200 K exhibits a negative sign for a wide range of Pt-rich compositions, while at Pt-poor compositions of x≤0.25, the formation energy has a positive value. Calculated affinities for the random alloy show the variety of energetically favored bonds for the alloy: Cu-Pt bonds in both first-and second-nearest neighbor (1-NN and 2-NN) are energetically preferred for all the composition range, the Pt-Rh bond in 1-NN is preferred at Pt-rich compositions, the Pt-Rh in 2-NN and Rh-Cu in 1-NN bonds are unfavored for all compositions, and the Rh-Cu bond in 2-NN is unfavored for Pt-poor compositions. We elucidate that the ordering tendency of 1-NN and 2-NN Cu-Pt, 2-NN Pt-Rh and 1-NN Cu-Rh atoms in constituent binary alloys is retained for the whole composition range of Cu-Pt-Rh ternary alloys, while that of 1-NN Pt-Rh and 2-NN Cu-Rh atoms significantly depends on composition.

  3. Porosity formation in AI-9 Wt Pct Si-3 Wt Pct Cu alloy systems: Metallographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, N.; Samuel, A. M.; Samuel, F. H.

    1996-02-01

    The formation of porosity in Al-9 wt Pct Si-3 wt Pct Cu-X alloys was studied as a function of (1) the hydrogen content of the melt; (2) the melt treatment additives, namely, modifier (Sr), grain refiner (TiB2), and primary silicon refiner (P); (3) alloying elements for precipitation hardening such as Mg and Zn; (4) intermetallics (α-iron, β-iron, sludge, and Al2Cu); and (5) solidification conditions (so-lidification time and solidus velocity). The results were statistically analyzed, based on the quanti-tative image analysis data of the porosity observed in samples obtained from a set of 72 solidification experiments. Metallographic aspects of pore size and pore morphology related to the preceding parameters and the possible mechanisms of porosity formation are highlighted in this article. The results show that a melt hydrogen content of 0.1 mL/100 g Al has the same effect on percentage porosity as that obtained with an addition of 185 ppm strontium to the melt. Grain refiner particles, phosphorus, and magnesium reduce percentage porosity, although in different magnitudes. A Mg-Sr or Mg-GR combination further reduces the percentage porosity observed in the casting. The β needles of the Al5FeSi intermetallic phase are very active as pore nucleation sites. All intermetallics, viz. β needles, α-Chinese script phase, Al2Cu phase, and sludge restrict pore growth and expansion. In-creasing the local solidification time or the solidus velocity increases the pore parameters. Pore growth in the two cases is attributed, respectively, to a diffusion-controlled growth process and to the formation of hot spots.

  4. Fracture toughness of an Al-Li-Cu-In alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The crack initiation and growth fracture toughness of select AL-Li-Cu alloy variants are characterized and elucidated. Conventionally processed plates form large DC cast ingots are investigated to eliminate the variation in microstructure associated with laboratory scale and SPF-processed material. Fracture resistance is characterized using the J-integral method to establish crack initiation and growth behavior at 25 and -185 C. It is shown that state-of-the-art 2090-T81 has superior toughness compared to 2090 + In-T6 at both test temperatures, with the low toughness of 2090 + In-T6 associated with intersubgranular fracture attributed to a high density of subboundary precipitates.

  5. The Influence of Composition on the Clustering and Precipitation Behavior of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihong; Ding, Lipeng; Cao, Lingfei; Sanders, Robert; Li, Shichen; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The natural aging (NA) and artificial aging (AA) behavior of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Mg/Si ratios and Cu additions were systematically investigated by means of hardness test, atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and Monte Carlo simulation. The Si-rich low-Cu alloys displayed higher hardness compared to the Mg-rich equivalents because Si atoms play a dominant role in clustering of solute atoms during both natural and artificial aging. In the high-Cu alloys, Cu did not obviously change the cluster distribution during NA, but significantly refines the clusters and precipitates due to the strong interaction of Cu atoms with Mg atoms during AA. In contrast to the low-Cu alloys, the Mg-rich high-Cu alloys exhibit higher hardness in the early and over-aged stages of artificial aging, with similar or slightly higher hardness in the peak aging condition compared to their Si-rich counterparts. Three types of precipitates ( β″, Q', and L) are favored in the high-Cu alloys. The Mg-rich high-Cu alloy has more L phase, while the Si-rich variant is abundant in Q' phase. The negative effect of NA on subsequent AA behavior is less dependent on Mg/Si ratio in the high-Cu alloys due to a synergistic action of the residual Si and Cu atoms, but is closely related to Mg/Si ratio in low-Cu alloys.

  6. Alloy Catalyst in a Reactive Environment: The Example of Ag-Cu Particles for Ethylene Epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinin, Simone; Zafeiratos, Spiros; Stampfl, Catherine; Hansen, Thomas W.; Haevecker, Michael; Teschner, Detre; Girgsdies, Frank; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schloegl, Robert; Scheffler, Matthias; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2010-01-22

    Combining first-principles calculations and in situ photoelectron spectroscopy, we show how the composition and structure of the surface of an alloy catalyst is affected by the temperature and pressure of the reagents. The Ag-Cu alloy, recently proposed as an improved catalyst for ethylene epoxidation, forms a thin Cu-O surface oxide, while a Ag-Cu surface alloy is found not to be stable. Several possible surface structures are identified, among which the catalyst surface is likely to dynamically evolve under reaction conditions.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of Fe53Ni47 and Fe53Ni47/Cu granular composite materials in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massango, Herieta; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetic proprieties of Fe53Ni47 granular composite materials and Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid granular composites have been studied by measuring the relative complex permeability and permittivity spectra as well as the ac electrical conductivity. In the Fe53Ni47 composite, the variation of the ac conductivity at 1 kHz with the particle volume content shows an insulator-metal transition at the percolation threshold at 61 vol% particle content. A negative permeability spectrum due to the magnetic resonance in Fe53Ni47 particles was observed in the 85 vol% composite. Meanwhile, the negative permittivity spectrum caused by the plasmoinc state of the percolated Fe53Ni47 particle clusters appears at 90 vol%. The Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid composite containing 85 vol% of Fe53Ni47/Cu hybrid particle as filers shows the percolative metallic properties; the ac conductivity increases with increasing the Cu particle volume fraction in the Fe53Ni47/Cu particle system. The negative permittivity spectrum appears above the Cu particle volume fraction of 0.16; the double negative characteristic was observed at that of 0.20 and 0.24 hybrid composites in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 1.8 GHz in the absence of the external magnetic field.

  8. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Fu, Xuekun; Pan, Haobo; Wan, Peng; Wang, Lei; Tan, Lili; Wang, Kehong; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications. PMID:27271057

  9. [Degradation of phenol with a Fe/cu-catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton process].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yang, Dao-Wu; Duan, Feng; Cao, Hong-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The catalysts of Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC with active carbon as support were prepared by a wet impregnation method, and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements; the catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton processes of phenol degradation with these catalysts were also investigated, and the degradation mechanism was discussed with analysis of intermediate products and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The results showed that the active component states varied in different catalysts; CuO was the main state of Cu in Cu/AC and Fe exhibited various valence states in Fe/AC. The degradation rate of phenol with Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC as catalyst in the initial 60 min reached 96.7%, 77.5% and 99%, respectively; the dissolution of a little active-component metal was found in Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC, but little Fe in Fe/AC was dissolved; the degradation of phenol was performed by heterogeneous Fe/AC instead of dissolved Fe, and the degradation rate was above 93% after Fe/AC was used for three cycle runs, showing a stable catalytic activity. Under the optimum conditions of pH = 3, T = 303 K, and 4.38 mmol x L(-1) H2O2, the removal of phenol and TOC in the Fe/AC-catalytic Fenton process could reach 97% and 53%, respectively, while little phenol was degraded without catalyst. The ESR results indicated that hydroxyl radical was produced in the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 with Fe/AC as catalyst, demonstrating that the degradation of phenol mainly followed an oxidation pathway of hydroxyl radical; intermediates such as hydroquinone, p-benzenequinone and catechol were obtained, and the results showed thatortho- and para-substitution reaction by hydroxyl might be the main mechanism of phenol oxidation.

  10. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Cu-Co-Si ternary alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabri, Sumit; Bera, S.; Mondal, B. N.; Basumallick, A.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2017-03-01

    Microstructure and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline 50Cu-40Co-10Si (at%) alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent isothermal annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C have been studied. Phase evolution during mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic measurement. Addition of Si has been found to facilitate the metastable alloying of Co in Cu resulting into the formation of single phase solid solution having average grain size of 9 nm after ball milling for 50 h duration. Annealing of the ball milled alloy improves the magnetic properties significantly and best combination of magnetic properties has been obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h duration.

  11. Magnetic properties of ball milled Fe-40Al at.% alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Amils, X.; Nogues, J.; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D.; Munoz, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    A direct correlation between the lattice parameter and the saturation magnetization, during the disordering (ball milling) and posterior reordering (annealing) processes, has been found in Fe-40Al At.% compounds. These results indicate that the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transitions induced by ball milling and subsequent annealing could be related to the changes in volume, and not only to nearest neighbors effects as is commonly assumed. Moreover, these alloys have been found to become spin glass at low temperatures, independently of their structural state (ordered or disordered).

  12. Concentration dependent structural parameters of liquid Al-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalnuntluanga, C.; Mishra, Raj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Square well potential is perturbed over Lebowtiz solution of hard sphere mixtures to determine direct correlation function,C(0) ij(r) in repulsive and attractive regions under Mean Spherical Model Approximation [1]. Obtained direct correlation functions were employed to derive partial structure factors and then total structure factor, S(k) in liquid Al-Fe alloy at different atomic percent of Al. Fourier transform of partial and total structure factors gives partial and total radial distribution functions, g(r) from which partial and total coordination numbers and the partial nearest-neighbor distances were computed.

  13. Electronic structure of disordered α-FeMn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduani, C.; da Silva, E. G.

    1996-08-01

    Cluster calculations were performed with the first-principles discrete variational method, in the LSD approximation and spin-polarized case, to investigate the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic disordered α-FeMn alloys. We investigated the effect on the local magnetic properties at iron sites of the introduction of Mn atoms in their first and second neighborhoods. The calculated magnetic moment and hyperfine magnetic field ( Hc) for an isolated Mn atom in a bcc iron host were obtained as -3.15 μB and -230 kG, respectively, in good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Magnetic behaviour of multisegmented FeCoCu/Cu electrodeposited nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, A.; Pérez, L.; Abuín, M.; Araujo, J. P.; Proenca, M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the magnetic behaviour of multisegmented nanowires (NWs) is a major key for the application of such structures in future devices. In this work, magnetic/non-magnetic arrays of FeCoCu/Cu multilayered NWs electrodeposited in nanoporous alumina templates are studied. Contrarily to most reports on multilayered NWs, the magnetic layer thickness was kept constant (30 nm) and only the non-magnetic layer thickness was changed (0 to 80 nm). This allowed us to tune the interwire and intrawire interactions between the magnetic layers in the NW array creating a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic system without the need to change the template characteristics. Magnetic hysteresis loops, measured with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the NWs’ long axis, showed the effect of the non-magnetic Cu layer on the overall magnetic properties of the NW arrays. In particular, introducing Cu layers along the magnetic NW axis creates domain wall nucleation sites that facilitate the magnetization reversal of the wires, as seen by the decrease in the parallel coercivity and the reduction of the perpendicular saturation field. By further increasing the Cu layer thickness, the interactions between the magnetic segments, both along the NW axis and of neighbouring NWs, decrease, thus rising again the parallel coercivity and the perpendicular saturation field. This work shows how one can easily tune the parallel and perpendicular magnetic properties of a 3D magnetic layer system by adjusting the non-magnetic layer thickness.

  15. Fe(3+)-Doped TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays on Ti-Fe Alloys for Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiangdong; Wu, Zhi; Gong, Cheng; Xiao, Wang; Sun, Lan; Lin, Changjian

    2016-06-06

    Highly ordered, vertically oriented Fe(3+)-doped TiO₂ nanotube arrays (Fe-TNTs) were prepared on Ti-Fe alloy substrates with different Fe contents by the electrochemical anodization method. The as-prepared Fe-TNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and related electrochemical techniques. XPS results demonstrated that Fe(3+) ions were successfully doped into TiO₂ nanotubes. The photoelectrochemical activity of Fe-TNTs was compared with that of pure TiO₂ nanotube arrays (TNTs). The results showed that Fe-TNTs grown on low concentration (0.5 wt %-1 wt % Fe) Ti-Fe alloys possessed higher photocurrent density than TNTs. The Fe-TNTs grown on Ti-Fe alloy containing 0.8 wt % Fe exhibited the highest photoelectrochemical activity and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution was significantly higher than that of TNTs.

  16. Fe3+-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Ti-Fe Alloys for Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiangdong; Wu, Zhi; Gong, Cheng; Xiao, Wang; Sun, Lan; Lin, Changjian

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered, vertically oriented Fe3+-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (Fe-TNTs) were prepared on Ti-Fe alloy substrates with different Fe contents by the electrochemical anodization method. The as-prepared Fe-TNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and related electrochemical techniques. XPS results demonstrated that Fe3+ ions were successfully doped into TiO2 nanotubes. The photoelectrochemical activity of Fe-TNTs was compared with that of pure TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs). The results showed that Fe-TNTs grown on low concentration (0.5 wt %–1 wt % Fe) Ti-Fe alloys possessed higher photocurrent density than TNTs. The Fe-TNTs grown on Ti-Fe alloy containing 0.8 wt % Fe exhibited the highest photoelectrochemical activity and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution was significantly higher than that of TNTs. PMID:28335234

  17. Gamma-resonance study of nanopowders with different dispersion and quasicrystalline phases in the Al-Cu-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, K. V. Mikheeva, M. N.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Nikonov, A. A.; Teplov, A. A.; Shaitura, D. S.; Abuzin, Yu. A.

    2007-11-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to monitor synthesis of quasicrystals in the Al-Cu-Fe system and study the influence of the size of quasicrystalline particles in powder samples of the Al{sub 63.1}Cu{sub 25.6}Fe{sub 11.3} alloy on the properties of synthesized materials. Quasicrystalline samples of different dispersion with particle sizes from 0.3 to 15 {mu}m have been studied in the temperature range 80-295 K. It is established that iron atoms in an Al{sub 63.1}Cu{sub 25.6}Fe{sub 11.3} quasicrystals occupy four types of structural positions, which differ in the atomic composition of the nearest environment. The results of the analysis suggest the dependence of the hyperfine-interaction parameters on the degree of sample dispersion. The components corresponding to iron atoms in both the surface layer and bulk of microparticles are isolated in the Moessbauer spectra. No magnetic hyperfine splitting has been found in the Moessbauer spectra in the entire temperature range. This fact suggests that a localized magnetic moment is absent in iron atoms.

  18. X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study for Fe60Ni40 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong-Seok; Oh, Kyuseung; Na, Wonkyung; Kim, Nayoung; Yoo, Yong-Goo; Min, Seung-Gi; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2007-02-02

    Fe60Ni40 alloys were fabricated by the mechanical alloying process with process periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The formation of alloy and the structural evolution of the alloy were examined by X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure methods. With increase of alloying time the BCC phase of iron was changed significantly during the mechanical alloying process. The alloying was activated in about 6 hours and completed in about 24 hours.

  19. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu

    2002-09-01

    In this study, experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. The alloys were cast into magnesia molds using an argon gas-pressure dental casting machine, and the mechanical properties and microstructures of the castings were investigated. As the concentration of silver or copper in the alloys increased, the tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness of the alloys became higher than those of CP Ti, and the elongation of the alloys became lower than that of CP Ti. Changes in the mechanical properties by alloying were considered to be caused by solid-solution strengthening of the a-phases and by precipitation of intermetallic compounds.

  20. Thermal Stability of Intermetallic Phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to alloy design and application of Mo-containing austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, the thermal stability of intermetallic Chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys was investigated at 1273 K, 1123 K, and 973 K (1000 °C, 850 °C, and 700 °C) for different annealing times. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal structures of the precipitates of the intermetallic phases were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this study. First, the Chi phase is stable at high temperature, and with the decreasing temperature it transforms into the Laves phase that is stable at low temperature. Secondly, Cr, Mo, and Ni are soluble in both the Chi and Laves phases, with the solubility of Mo playing a major role in the relative stability of the intermetallic phases. The thermodynamic models that were developed were then applied to evaluating the effect of Mo on the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in type 316 and NF709 stainless steels.

  1. Controlling Bulk Cu6Sn5 Nucleation in Sn0.7Cu/Cu Joints with Al Micro-alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, J. W.; Belyakov, S. A.; Gourlay, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We show that dilute Al additions can control the size of primary Cu6Sn5 rods in Sn-0.7Cu/Cu ball grid array joints. In Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Al/Cu joints, the number of primary Cu6Sn5 per mm2 is ˜7 times higher and the mean three-dimensional length of rods is ˜4 times smaller than in Al-free Sn-0.7Cu/Cu joints, while the area fraction of primary Cu6Sn5 is similar. It is shown that epitaxial nucleation of primary Cu6Sn5 occurs on δ-Cu33Al17 or γ 1-Cu9Al4 particles, which are stable in the Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Al melt during holding at 250°C. The observed facet relationships agree well with previously determined orientation relationships between δ-Cu33Al17 and Cu6Sn5 in hypereutectic Sn-Cu-Al alloys and result in a good lattice match with <˜2.5% lattice mismatch on two different interfacial planes.

  2. Local magnetic effects of interface alloying in Fe/Co superlattices.

    PubMed

    Kamali-M, S; Bergman, A; Andersson, G; Stanciu, V; Häggström, L

    2006-07-05

    Effects of interface alloying and the thickness dependence of magnetic properties of Fe/Co(001) multilayers have been investigated. The thicknesses of the Fe layers have been varied between two and 14 monolayers while the Co layers have been held constant at 7 ML. From conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) measurements and electronic structure calculations it is found that the magnitude of the Fe magnetic hyperfine field is larger close to the interface and smaller in the middle of thick (≥9 ML) Fe layers. For a thinner Fe layer (≤5 ML) the largest field is found in the centre of the Fe layer. By modelling the effects of interface alloying from earlier data for bulk Fe-Co alloys, and comparing with the experimental results, the degree of interface alloying is estimated to be 2-3 ML at each interface.

  3. Elevated Temperature Creep Properties of Conventional 50Au-50Cu and 47Au 50Cu-3Ni Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS JR.,JOHN J.; SCHMALE,DAVID T.

    2000-12-18

    The elevated temperature creep properties of the 50Au-50Cu wt% and 47Au-50Cu-3Ni braze alloys have been evaluated over the temperature range 250-850 C. At elevated temperatures, i.e., 450-850 C, both alloys were tested in the annealed condition (2 hrs. 750 C/water quenched). The minimum strain rate properties over this temperature range are well fit by the Garofalo sinh equation. At lower temperatures (250 and 350 C), power law equations were found to characterize the data for both alloys. For samples held long periods of time at 375 C (96 hrs.) and slowly cooled to room temperature, an ordering reaction was observed. For the case of the 50Au-50Cu braze alloy, the stress necessary to reach the same, strain rate increased by about 15% above the baseline data. The limited data for ordered 47Au-50Cu-3Ni alloy reflected a,smaller strength increase. However, the sluggishness of this ordering reaction in both alloys does not appear to pose a problem for braze joints cooled at reasonable rates following brazing.

  4. Effects of Be and Fe content on plane strain fracture toughness in A357 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.H.; Lee, S.L.; Lin, Y.L.

    1995-11-01

    The effect of Be and Fe content on the plane strain fracture toughness K{sub IC} of aluminum-based A357 alloys is investigated. The fracture behavior of A357 alloys has been evaluated as a function of both the magnitude and morphology of iron-bearing compounds and silicon particles. Addition of Be is beneficial for tensile properties and fracture toughness in the case of alloys containing intermediate (0.07 pct) and higher (0.15 pct) Fe levels. On the other hand, Be added to alloys containing the lower Fe (0.01 pct) level appears detrimental to tensile strength, but the quality index, notch-yield ratio (NYR), and plane strain fracture toughness were improved. Fractographic analysis reveals that crack extension of A357 alloys occurs mainly in an intergranular fracture mode. The fracture processes are initiated by void nucleation at iron-bearing compounds or irregularly shaped eutectic silicon particles as a result of their cracking and decohesion from the matrix. Then, void growth and coalescence result in growth of the main crack by shear-linkage-induced breakdown of submicron-strengthening particles. The effect of Be on increasing K{sub IC} is more apparent in the higher Fe alloys than in the lower Fe alloys. Superior toughness obtained by microstructural control has also been achieved in the intermediate and higher Fe levels of Be-containing alloys, with values equal to those obtained in alloys of lower Fe content.

  5. Effects of be and fe content on plane strain fracture toughness in A357 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yen-Hung; Lee, Sheng-Long; Lin, Yu-Lom

    1995-11-01

    The effect of Be and Fe content on the plane strain fracture toughness K IC of aluminum-based A357 alloys is investigated. The fracture behavior of A357 alloys has been evaluated as a function of both the magnitude and morphology of iron-bearing compounds and silicon particles. Addition of Be is beneficial for tensile properties and fracture toughness in the case of alloys containing intermediate (0.07 pct) and higher (0.15 pct) Fe levels. On the other hand, Be added to alloys containing the lower Fe (0.01 pct) level appears detrimental to tensile strength, but the quality index, notch-yield ratio (NYR), and plane strain fracture toughness were improved. Fractographic analysis reveals that crack extension of A357 alloys occurs mainly in an intergranular fracture mode. The fracture processes are initiated by void nucleation at iron-bearing compounds or irregularly shaped eutectic silicon particles as a result of their cracking and decohesion from the matrix. Then, void growth and coalescence result in growth of the main crack by shear-linkage-induced breakdown of submicronstrengthening particles. The effect of Be on increasing K IC is more apparent in the higher Fe alloys than in the lower Fe alloys. Superior toughness obtained by microstructural control has also been achieved in the intermediate and higher Fe levels of Be-containing alloys, with values equal to those obtained in alloys of lower Fe content.

  6. New Fe-Ni based metal-metalloid glassy alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Sunol, J.J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M.T.; Clavaguera, N.; Pradell, T.

    1997-12-31

    Mechanical alloying and rapid solidification are two important routes to obtain glassy alloys. New Fe-Ni based metal-metalloid (P-Si) alloys prepared by these two different processing routes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy. Mechanical alloyed samples were prepared with elemental precursors, and different nominal compositions. Rapidly solidified alloys were obtained by melt-spinning. The structural analyses show that, independent of the composition, the materials obtained by mechanical alloying are not completely disordered whereas fully amorphous alloys were obtained by rapid solidification. Consequently, the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed samples is lower than that of the analogous material prepared by rapid solidification. The P/Si ratio controls the magnetic interaction of the glassy ribbons obtained by rapid solidification. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the degree of amorphization and crystallization versus processing route and P/Si ratio content.

  7. Estimation of thermodynamic properties of Cu-La binary alloy with modified Miedema's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-hong; Zhang, Shi-hong; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ming; Song, Hong-wu; Liu, Jin-song

    2016-01-01

    According to modified Miedema's theory, mixing enthalpies (Δ H), excess entropies ( S E), excess Gibbs free energy ( G E), and component activities ( a) of Cu-La binary alloy were estimated using the basic thermodynamic principles and some simple physical parameters of Cu and La, such as electronegativity, atomic volume and electron density. Based on the Cu-La binary alloy phase diagram, the Gibbs free energy of the phase precipitation reactions of Cu6La and Cu5La was deduced. The results showed that the values of Δ H, S E, and G E of Cu-La binary alloy were all negative. Compared to the ideal solution, the activities of the components presented a large negative deviation from Raoult's law, which indicated that there was a strong interaction between Cu and La. The calculated data are well consistent with the experimental data. The Gibbs free energies of the phase precipitation reactions of Cu6La are lower than those for Cu5La, which means that Cu6La is thermodynamically more stable than Cu5La. Furthermore, the experimental results show that rareearth rich Cu6La phase particles in copper matrix are formed after La microalloying.

  8. The effect of zinc additions on the environmental stability of Alloy 8090 (Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, Raymond J.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) remains a problem in both Al-Li and conventional Al heat treatable alloys. It has recently been found that relatively small additions (less than or approximately 1 wt-percent) of Zn can dramatically improve the SCC performance of alloy 8090 (Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr). Constant load time to failure experiments using cylindrical tensile samples loaded between 30 and 85 percent of TYS indicate improvements of orders of magnitude over the baseline 8090 for the Zn-containing alloys under certain aging conditions. However, the toughnesses of the alloys were noticeably degraded due to the formation of second phase particles which primarily reside on grain and subgrain boundaries. EDS revealed that these intermetallic particles were Cu and Zn rich. The particles were present in the T3 condition and were not found to be the result of quench rate, though their size and distribution were. At 5 hours at 160 C, the alloys displayed the greatest susceptibility to SCC but by 20 hours at 160 C the alloys demonstrated markedly improved TTF lifetimes. Aging past this time did not provide separable TTF results, however, the alloy toughnesses continued to worsen. Initial examination of the alloys microstructures at 5 and 20 hours indicated some changes most notably the S' and delta' distributions. A possible model by which this may occur will be explored. Polarization experiments indicated a change in the trend of E(sub BR) and passive current density at peak aging as compared to the baseline 8090. Initial pitting experiments indicated that the primary pitting mechanism in chloride environments is one occurring at constituent (Al-Fe-Cu) particles and that the Cu and Zn rich boundary precipitates posses a breakaway potential similar to that of the matrix acting neither anodic or cathodic in the first set of aerated 3.5 w/o NaCl experiments. Future work will focus on the identification of the second phase particles, evaluation of K(sub 1SCC) and plateau da/dt via

  9. Biskyrmion bubble lattice in Fe/Gd alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, James; Shi, Xiaowen; Chess, Jordan; Montoya, Sergio; Mishra, Shrawan; Sakharov, Lev; Parks, Daniel; McMorran, Ben; Kevan, Steven; Fullerton, Eric; Roy, Sujoy

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic bubbles with topologically non-trivial twists, called ``skyrmion bubbles,'' exhibit particle-like properties and novel magnetic interactions with each other. They are seen in non-centrosymmetric crystals, such as MnSi, and monolayers of Fe on Ir(111) substrates. Our study considers whether skyrmion bubbles can also form in soft ferrimagnetic alloys with perpendicular anisotropy. Using resonant x-ray scattering at the Fe L3 and Gd M5 transition edges, we show that triangular lattices of skyrmion bubbles form in Fe/Gd thin films in a limited temperature and magnetic field range. Uniaxial anisotropy in the resonant scattering pattern indicates the lattice unit cell contains two skyrmions. Lorentz TEM images reveal that the repeating unit is a bound pair of bubbles called biskyrmions. Adjusting the composition of the films can shift the temperature range of the biskyrmion lattice by 100 K, allowing the lattice to form at room temperature. Fe/Gd thin films may prove a promising material for spintronics.

  10. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Cu-Pd-X Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Separation Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Dogan; M.C. Gao; B.H. Howard

    2012-02-26

    CuPd alloys are among the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen separation membranes and membrane reactor applications due to their high hydrogen permeability and better sulfur resistance. In order to reduce the Pd content and, therefore, the cost of the membrane materials, efforts have been initiated to develop CuPdM ternary alloys having a bcc structure. The advantages of having Pd as a hydrogen separation membrane are: (1) high hydrogen selectivity; and (2) high hydrogen permeability. The disadvantages are: (1) high cost; (2) hydrogen embrittlement ({alpha} {yields} {beta} Pd hydride); and (3) sulfur poisoning. Experiments (XRD, SEM/EDS) verified that Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti are promising alloying elements to expand the B2 phase region in Cu-Pd binary system. HT-XRD showed that the B2 to FCC transition temperatures for Cu-Pd-X (X = Mg, Al, La, Y and Ti) are higher than that of Cu-Pd binary alloys. While the Cu-50Pd alloy had the highest corrosion resistance to the H2S containing syngas, the Cu-Pd-Mg alloy had a comparable resistance.

  11. A systematic ALCHEMI study of Fe-doped NiAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.; Duncan, A.J.

    1995-06-01

    ALCHEMI site-occupation studies of alloying additions to ordered aluminide intermetallic alloys have been performed with varying degrees of success, depending on the ionization delocalization correction. This study examines the variation in the site-occupancy of Fe in B2-ordered NiAl vs solute concentration and alloy stoichiometry. The fraction of Fe on the `Ni` site is plotted vs Fe concentration. The good separation among the data from alloys of the three stoichiometries shows that the site occupancy of iron depends on the relative concentrations of the Ni and Al host elements; however a preference for the `Ni` site is clearly indicated.

  12. A comparative study of short range order in Fe-Cr and Fe-V alloys around equiatomic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M. ); Stocks, G.M. )

    1990-12-04

    Configurational energies have been calculated for equiatomic Fe-Cr and Fe-V alloys possessing the high temperature bcc crystalline structure, within a first principles electronic band structure approach. In agreement with experimental facts, a tendency towards order, with a B2 ordered structure of CsCl type, is found for FeV whereas phase separation characterized FeCr. These results suggest that the nature of short range order in the high temperature bcc solid solution is not the primary driving force for describing the structural transformation from bcc to sigma which takes place in both alloys upon decreasing temperature. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Pd-Cu-M (M = Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb, and Ni) Alloys for the Hydrogen Separation Membrane.

    PubMed

    Nayebossadri, Shahrouz; Speight, John D; Book, David

    2017-01-25

    Self-supported fcc Pd-Cu-M (M = Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb, and Ni) alloys were studied as potential hydrogen purification membranes. The effects of small additions (1-2.6 at. %) of these elements on the structure, hydrogen solubility, diffusivity, and permeability were examined. Structural analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the fcc phase for all alloys with induced textures from cold rolling. Heat treatment at 650 °C for 96 h led to the reorientation in all alloys except the Pd-Cu-Zr alloy, exhibiting the possibility to enhance the structural stability by Zr addition. Hydrogen solubility was almost doubled in the ternary alloys containing Y and Zr compared to Pd65.1Cu34.9 alloy at 300 °C. It was noted that hydrogen diffusivity is decreased upon additions of these elements compared to the Pd65.1Cu34.9 alloy, with the Pd-Cu-Zr alloy showing the lowest hydrogen diffusivity. However, the comparable hydrogen permeability of the Pd-Cu-Zr alloy with the corresponding binary alloy, as well as its highest hydrogen permeability among the studied ternary alloys at temperatures higher than 300 °C, suggested that hydrogen permeation of these alloys within the fcc phase is mainly dominated by hydrogen solubility. Hydrogen flux variations of all ternary alloys were studied and compared with the Pd65.1Cu34.9 alloy under 1000 ppm of H2S + H2 feed gas. Pd-Cu-Zr alloy showed superior resistance to the sulfur poisoning probably due to the less favorable H2S-surface interaction and more importantly slower rate of bulk sulfidation as a result of improved structural stability upon Zr addition. Therefore, Pd-Cu-Zr alloys may offer new potential hydrogen purification membranes with improved chemical stability and hydrogen permeation compared to the binary fcc Pd-Cu alloys.

  14. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  15. Investigation of (Fe,Co)NbB-Based Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys by Lorentz Microscopy and Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Changlin; Kirmse, Holm; Long, Jianguo; Laughlin, David E; McHenry, Michael E; Neumann, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties of a (Fe,Co)NbB-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy was investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructures of (Fe0.5Co0.5)80Nb4B13Ge2Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys annealed at different temperatures were characterized by TEM and electron diffraction. The magnetic structures were analyzed by Lorentz microscopy and off-axis electron holography, including quantitative measurement of domain wall width, induction, and in situ magnetic domain imaging. The results indicate that the magnetic domain structure and particularly the dynamical magnetization behavior of the alloys strongly depend on the microstructure of the nanocrystalline alloys. Smaller grain size and random orientation of the fine particles decrease the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and suggests better soft magnetic properties which may be explained by the anisotropy model of Herzer.

  16. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Zachary T.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  17. Understanding strong magnetostriction in Fe100−xGax alloys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Y. N.; Wu, R. Q.; Sun, L. Z.; Xu, D. S.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetostriction of ferromagnetic materials describes the change of their shape or dimension in response to the reorientation of magnetization under the influence of external magnetic field. Fe100−xGax binary alloys (Galfenol) have large magnetostriction and excellent ductility; and they are very promising rare-earth free materials for applications in sensors, actuators, energy-harvesters and spintronic devices. Here we report results of large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations for Galfenol, especially regarding the mechanism that leads to the sudden drop of tetragonal magnetostriction at x ~ 19, a long-standing puzzle for the community. Based on rigid band analysis, we propose possible ways to further optimize the performance of Galfenol for device applications. For example, we found that the substitution of a small amount of Cu for Ga (1.6%) in certain configuration may double the magnetostriction of Galfenol. PMID:24343479

  18. Understanding strong magnetostriction in Fe(100-x)Ga(x) alloys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Y N; Wu, R Q; Sun, L Z; Xu, D S; Zhang, Z D

    2013-12-17

    Magnetostriction of ferromagnetic materials describes the change of their shape or dimension in response to the reorientation of magnetization under the influence of external magnetic field. Fe(100-x)Ga(x) binary alloys (Galfenol) have large magnetostriction and excellent ductility; and they are very promising rare-earth free materials for applications in sensors, actuators, energy-harvesters and spintronic devices. Here we report results of large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations for Galfenol, especially regarding the mechanism that leads to the sudden drop of tetragonal magnetostriction at x ~ 19, a long-standing puzzle for the community. Based on rigid band analysis, we propose possible ways to further optimize the performance of Galfenol for device applications. For example, we found that the substitution of a small amount of Cu for Ga (1.6%) in certain configuration may double the magnetostriction of Galfenol.

  19. Application of damping mechanism model and stacking fault probability in Fe-Mn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Wen, Y.H.; Li, N. Teng, J.; Ding, S.; Xu, Y.G.

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the damping mechanism model of Fe-Mn alloy was analyzed using dislocation theory. Moreover, as an important parameter in Fe-Mn based alloy, the effect of stacking fault probability on the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy after deep-cooling or tensile deformation was also studied. The damping capacity was measured using reversal torsion pendulum. The stacking fault probability of {gamma}-austenite and {epsilon}-martensite was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis. The microstructure was observed using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results indicated that with the strain amplitude increasing above a critical value, the damping capacity of Fe-19.35Mn alloy increased rapidly which could be explained using the breakaway model of Shockley partial dislocations. Deep-cooling and suitable tensile deformation could improve the damping capacity owning to the increasing of stacking fault probability of Fe-19.35Mn alloy.

  20. Chemically synthesized magnetic Co-Fe-Ga alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takatomo; Shima, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Co2Fe x Ga y alloy nanoparticles in the L21 ordered phase produced by chemical synthesis and post annealing have been investigated. Structural analyses of the Co2Fe x Ga y samples by X-ray diffraction show that both ordered B2 and L21 phases are formed when Ga composition is in the range 0.66 ≤ y ≤ 1.42. With increasing y from 0.58 to 1.4 at x = 1.0, the coercivity increases from 7.1 to 23 mT, while the saturation magnetization decreases from 970 to 410 kA/m. Microstructural analyses using TEM reveal that the alloy particles annealed at 973 K are agglomerated by sintering. When Al(NO3)3 was added during the synthesis, the average particle size significantly decreases from 84 to 12 nm, presumably due to the formation of aluminum oxides, resulting in the decrease in coercivity from 29 to 5.1 mT.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and microwave absorption properties of Fe-40 wt%Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Feng, Yongbao; Qiu, Tai

    2011-12-01

    Fe-40 wt%Ni alloys with granular shape and flake shape were prepared by a mechanical alloying (MA) and annealing method. The phase composition and morphology of the FeNi alloys, electromagnetic parameters, and microwave absorbing properties of the silicone rubber composite absorbers filled with the as-prepared FeNi alloy particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vector network analyzer. The XRD results indicate that the crystalline structures of the Fe-40 wt%Ni alloys prepared by both one-step and two-step MA processes are face-centered cubic (fcc) Ni (Fe) solid solutions, and the structures can be retained after annealing at 600 °C for 2 h. SEM images show that the FeNi alloy powders for one-step process have a granular shape; however the particles turned into flake form when they were sequentially milled with absolute ethyl alcohol. With the increase in thickness of composite absorber, the reflection loss (RL) decreases, and the peak for minimum reflection loss shifts towards the lower frequency range. Compared to the absorbers filled with the granular FeNi alloy, the absorbers filled with flaky FeNi alloys possess higher complex permittivities and permeabilities and have a lower RL and peak frequency under the same thickness. Microwave absorbing materials with a low reflection loss peak in the range of 1-4 GHz are obtained, and their microwave absorbing properties can be adjustable by changing their thicknesses.

  2. Magnetization reversal of a Nd-Cu-infiltrated Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet observed with small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kotaro Ono, Kanta; Ueno, Tetsuro; Yano, Masao; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Manabe, Akira; Kato, Akira; Harada, Masashi; Keiderling, Uwe

    2015-05-07

    The magnetization reversal process of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets infiltrated with Nd-Cu alloy was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The magnetic-field dependence of SANS intensity revealed a qualitative difference between Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples and as-deformed samples. Insufficient magnetic isolation along the direction perpendicular to the nominal c-axis is expected from comparable SANS intensities for different ranges of q values along this direction. For small q values near the coercivity field, Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples show a noticeable reduction in SANS intensity along the nominal c-axis, which is parallel to the external magnetic field. This indicates less spatial fluctuation of magnetic moments in Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples, owing to magnetically isolated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains.

  3. Cu-induced localization in the Fe-based superconductor FeTe0.5Se0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Cheng; Matsuda, Masa; Sobolev, Oleg; Park, Jitae; Bourret, Edith; Lee, Dunghai; Li, Qiang; Gu, Genda; Xu, Guangyong; Tranquada, John; Birgeneau, Robert

    2013-03-01

    We report neutron scattering and resistivity results on the Cu-substitution effects in FeTe0.5Se0.5 with a Tc of ~15 K. With a 2 % Cu substitution, the Tc is reduced to 8 K, and for Fe0.9Cu0.1Te0.5Se0.5, it is not superconducting. In Fe0.9Cu0.1Te0.5Se0.5, the low-energy magnetic excitations around the in-plane wave vector (0.5, 0.5) is greatly enhanced. Upon heating, the magnetic scattering is weakened, which is different from the temperature dependences of the Cu-free and 2 % Cu-doped sample. The spectral weight reduction upon warming decreases with increasing energy in the 10 % Cu-doped sample. We take these as evidences that Cu drives the system towards localization, which is confirmed by our resistivity data. These observations probably explain why superconductivity is absent in the Cu-doped BaFe2As2 system and demonstrate the inadequacy of the rigid-band shift model on the substitution effects of the 3 d transition metals. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. The magnetic properties of in-situ formed Cu-20 vol % Fe multifilamentary composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shey, D.F.

    1990-02-01

    Useful permanent magnet (PM) properties are produced in Cu--20 vol % Fe alloys by casting in a water-cooled mold, heat treating at high temperatures followed by slow furnace cooling to room temperature and swaging and drawing to high deformations. These useful properties are produced by the bcc Fe filaments encased in the Cu matrix. Wires which had undergone deformations, {eta}, equal to 9.14, 10.18, 11.23, 12.17 and 13.38 were tested. The PM properties of interest in this investigation are the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, the remanence ratio, M{sub r}/M{sub s}, and the intrinsic coercivity, H{sub ci}. All calculations and comparable literature show the Fe filaments in all wire sizes to be single domain. Their extremely high axial ratios produce the observed H{sub ci}, due to shape anisotropy. The H{sub ci} of as-drawn wire is relatively low compared with other single domain particle magnets; however, a low temperature anneal produces anomalous increases in the H{sub ci}. In wires which had undergone deformations, {eta} = 13.38, and were optimally annealed, a H{sub ci} of 945 Oersteds was observed. Highly elongated filaments with a high surface to volume ratio, seem to produce the highest intrinsic coercivities. The best explanation for this anomalous increase is the relief of residual stress. The M{sub s} values observed are fairly well understood; however, suggestions can only be used to explain the observed M{sub r}/M{sub s} values. 62 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Corrosion resistance evaluation of Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of nine experimental Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys in a 0.9% NaCl solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CV measurements revealed that the breakdown potential (E(bd)) and zero current potential (E(zc)) increased with increasing Au/(Au+Ag) atomic ratio. Thus, the Au/(Au+Ag) atomic ratio, but not the Cu content, influenced the corrosion resistance of Ag-Au-Pt-Cu alloys. After the forward scan of CV, both optical and scanning electron microscope images showed that in all the experimental alloys, the matrix phase was corroded but not the second phase. From corrosion resistance viewpoint, the Ag-Au-Pt-Cu alloys seemed to be suitable for clinical application.

  6. A new Cu(GeNx) alloy film for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a copper alloy [Cu(GeNx)] film is developed for industrial applications by cosputtering Cu and Ge targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the alloy film shows good thermal stability and adhesion to the substrate with no noticeable interactions between the film and the substrate after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h. The new Cu(GeNx) alloy film also renders adequate wetting for solders, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than pure Cu by at least one order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to Ni. The alloy film seems suitable for industrial applications in, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture and, the replacement of the wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy.

  7. Evaluation of the microstructure of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Joseph R.; Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy designed to have ultrahigh strength and to serve in aerospace applications. The alloy displays significantly higher strength than competitive alloys in both naturally aged and artificially aged tempers. The strengthening phases in such tempers have been identified to, in part, explain the mechanical properties attained. In general, the alloy is strengthened by delta prime Al3Li and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in the naturally aged tempers. In artificially aged tempers in slightly underaged conditions, strengthening is provided by several phases including GP zones, theta prime Al2Cu, S prime Al2CuMg, T(sub 1) Al2CuLi, and possibly a new phase. In the peak strength artificially aged tempers, T(sub 1) is the predominant strengthening phase.

  8. Effects of a micro pattern on Cu alloy electrodeposition and its application as an oil detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Min; Ko, Jong Soo

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of open area ratio (OAR) variations by micro-patterns on Cu alloy electrodeposition were analyzed experimentally. To change the OAR of the samples, a strip-type micro-pattern was formed on a substrate through a photolithography process. Moreover, the OAR was controlled by adjusting the distance of the stripe pattern to a width of 20 μm. When electrodeposition was applied on a non-patterned substrate with an OAR of 100%, a pillar-type Cu alloy structure was produced. In addition, when the OAR was decreased to 40%, the height of the Cu alloy structures was increased. However, when the OAR was decreased to 20%, no electrodeposited structures were formed. To confirm the industrial effectiveness of the electrodeposited structures on a micro-pattern, the Cu alloy electrodeposited structures were applied to the formation of an oil detector.

  9. Synthesis of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals through sequential reduction induced by gradual increase of the reaction temperature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sanghun; Shin, Dong-Hun; Yin, Zhenxing; Lee, Chaedong; Park, Si Yun; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Piao, Yuanzhe; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-04-27

    Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals are synthesized by sequential reduction of Cu and Sn precursors through a gradual increase of the reaction temperature. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV/Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the alloy formation mechanism of Cu3Sn nanocrystals has been studied. The incremental increase of the reaction temperature sequentially induces the reduction of Sn, the diffusion of Sn into the preformed Cu nanocrystals, resulting in the intermediate phase of Cu-Sn alloy nanocrystals, and then the formation of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals. We anticipate that the synthesis of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals encourages studies toward the synthesis of various alloy nanomaterials.

  10. Effect of alloying on the photoluminescence of the CuInS2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a novel route to highly luminescent Cd-free core-shell nanocrystals. By simply refluxing assynthesized CuInS2 nanocrystals with zinc acetate and palmitic acid, highly luminescent CuInS2/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized. We modified the photoluminescence of the grown nanocrystal by alloying foreign atoms. Nanocrystals with alloyed cores were synthesized by adding selenium and nanocrystals with alloyed shell layers were synthesized by refluxing the as-synthesized CuInS2 nanocrystals with mixture of cadmium acetate, zinc acetate and palmitic acid. It was found that the emission wavelength of the nanocrystals was shifted to longer wavelength side by alloying. The photoluminescence spectra showed clear red-shift without significant minimization of emission intensity. A Detailed study on the emission process of nanocrystals implies that the formation of shell layers with small lattice mismatch minimized mismatch strain generated from the shell layers in contrast to core alloyed nanocrystals.

  11. Phase separation in equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, A; Daoud, H; Völkl, R; Glatzel, U; Wanderka, N

    2013-09-01

    The microstructure of the as-cast AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The alloy shows a very pronounced microstructure with clearly distinguishable dendrites and interdendrites. In both regions a separation into an Al-Ni rich matrix and Cr-Fe-rich precipitates can be observed. Moreover, fluctuations of single elements within the Cr-Fe rich phase have been singled out by three dimensional atom probe measurements. The results of investigations are discussed in terms of spinodal decomposition of the alloying elements inside the Cr-Fe-rich precipitates.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bangyi; Liang, Chenghao; Fu, Daojun; Ren, Deming

    2005-09-01

    Chemical immersion tests, electrochemical methods and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) in simulated uterine fluid. The effect of pH on corrosion rate and corrosion potential was also investigated. The results indicated that in the static state in simulated uterine fluid, dealuminumification of the Cu-Zn-Al alloy occurred with Cl- combining with aluminum ions to form hydroxyl aluminum chloride. The hydroxyl aluminum chloride hydrolyzed readily and facilitated further dealuminumification corrosion. The corrosion process of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid was controlled by cathodic reduction of oxygen. Because the tendency for surface ionization is greater for aluminum than for zinc, a compact protective aluminum layer was formed, which inhibited the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Hence, the corrosion rate of Cu-Zn-Al SMA was smaller than that of Cu in simulated uterine fluid. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid decreased and the open-circuit potential moved in a positive direction.

  13. Ordering, magnetostriction, and elastic properties in Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloy single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaraman, Tanjore V.; Corson, Robert P.; Guruswamy, Sivaraman

    2007-09-01

    Fe-Ga alloys, with composition around 27.5 at. % Ga, can be heat treated to obtain {alpha} (A2, bcc), {alpha}{sup ''} (D0{sub 3}-like, ordered bcc), {beta}-Fe{sub 3}Ga (D0{sub 19}, ordered hexagonal), and {alpha}-Fe{sub 3}Ga (L1{sub 2} ordered fcc) phases. In this work, the influence of {alpha}{sup ''} ordering on the magnetostriction coefficient (3/2) {lambda}{sub 100}, elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44}), and the magnetomechanical coefficients (B{sub 1}) of the single crystals of {alpha}-Fe-27.5 at.% Ga and {alpha}{sup ''}-Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloy is examined. Single crystals of Fe-27.5 at. % Ga were grown using the vertical Bridgman technique. Magnetostriction measurements were performed using [100]-oriented single crystals. Elastic constants were estimated using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and analysis technique. It is shown that the {alpha}{sup ''} ordering in Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloy decreases the (3/2) {lambda}{sub 100} value from that of {alpha} phase. This is consistent with our previous work on polycrystalline Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloys. The {alpha}-Fe-27.5 at.% Ga alloy single crystal was found to have a higher magnetoelastic coupling constant than the {alpha}{sup ''}-Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloy single crystal.

  14. Ordering, magnetostriction, and elastic properties in Fe-27.5 at. % Ga alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Tanjore V.; Corson, Robert P.; Guruswamy, Sivaraman

    2007-09-01

    Fe-Ga alloys, with composition around 27.5at.% Ga, can be heat treated to obtain α (A2, bcc), α″ (D03-like, ordered bcc), β-Fe3Ga (D019, ordered hexagonal), and α-Fe3Ga (L12 ordered fcc) phases. In this work, the influence of α″ ordering on the magnetostriction coefficient (3/2) λ100, elastic constants (C11, C12, and C44), and the magnetomechanical coefficients (B1) of the single crystals of α-Fe-27.5at. % Ga and α″-Fe-27.5at.% Ga alloy is examined. Single crystals of Fe-27.5at.% Ga were grown using the vertical Bridgman technique. Magnetostriction measurements were performed using [100]-oriented single crystals. Elastic constants were estimated using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and analysis technique. It is shown that the α″ ordering in Fe-27.5at.% Ga alloy decreases the (3/2) λ100 value from that of α phase. This is consistent with our previous work on polycrystalline Fe-27.5at.% Ga alloys. The α-Fe-27.5at. % Ga alloy single crystal was found to have a higher magnetoelastic coupling constant than the α″-Fe-27.5at.% Ga alloy single crystal.

  15. Seismic parameters of hcp-Fe alloyed with Ni and Si in the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Alatas, Ahmet; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-02-01

    Iron alloyed with Ni and Si has been suggested to be a major component of the Earth's inner core. High-pressure results on the combined alloying effects of Ni and Si on seismic parameters of iron are thus essential for establishing satisfactory geophysical and geochemical models of the region. Here we have investigated the compressional (VP) and shear (Vs) wave velocity-density (ρ) relations, Poisson's ratio (ν), and seismic heterogeneity ratios (dlnρ/dlnVP, dlnρ/dlnVS, and dlnVP/dlnVS) of hcp-Fe and hcp-Fe86.8Ni8.6Si4.6 alloy up to 206 GPa and 136 GPa, respectively, using multiple complementary techniques. Compared with the literature velocity values for hcp-Fe and Fe-Ni-Si alloys, our results show that the combined addition of 9.0 wt % Ni and 2.3 wt % Si slightly increases the VP but significantly decreases the VS of hcp-Fe at a given density relevant to the inner core. Such distinct alloying effects on velocities of hcp-Fe produce a high ν of about 0.40 for the alloy at inner core densities, which is approximately 20% higher than that for hcp-Fe. Analysis of the literature high P-T results on VP and VS of Fe alloyed with light elements shows that high temperature can further enhance the ν of hcp-Fe alloyed with Ni and Si. Most significantly, the derived seismic heterogeneity ratios of this hcp alloy present a better match with global seismic observations. Our results provide a multifactored geophysical constraint on the compositional model of the inner core which is consistent with silicon being a major light element alloyed with Fe and 5 wt % Ni.

  16. A 3D porous Ni-Cu alloy film for high-performance hydrazine electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Lu, Zhiyi; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small volume. It is believed that the Ni-Cu alloy film electrode has potential application in direct hydrazine fuel cells as well as other catalytic fields.Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small

  17. Crystallization Kinetics and Phase Transformation Mechanisms in Cu56Zr44 Glassy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ilkay; Kramer, Matthew J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetics and phase selection mechanisms involved in the crystallization of an amorphous Cu-Zr alloy of eutectic composition (Cu56Zr44) were investigated using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under isothermal and constant heating rate conditions. In situ HEXRD results for 10 K/min (10 °C/min) heating indicate that the amorphous alloy devitrifies into CuZr2 and mainly Cu10Zr7 at the crystallization temperature of 725 K (452 °C). The sequence continues with the precipitation of CuZr (B2) at 1004 K (731 °C), where these three phases coexist until the decomposition of CuZr2 is observed at 1030 K (757 °C). The two equilibrium phases Cu10Zr7 and CuZr (B2) remain present on further heating until melting at the eutectic temperature for the Cu56Zr44 alloy. TEM investigation of the isothermal [705 K (432 °C)] crystallization sequence reveals primary nucleation and growth of the Cu10Zr7 phase, where growth of the Cu10Zr7 crystals is initially planar with a transition to a cellular morphology, associated with partitioning of Zr at the growth front. Related cellular structures and composition profiles are quantified.

  18. Ultra-soft magnetic properties and correlated phase analysis by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of Fe{sub 74}Cu{sub 0.8}Nb{sub 2.7}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Liba, S. I.; Akhter, Shireen; Anirban, A.; Choudhury, Shamima

    2016-02-15

    A detailed study of magnetic softness has been performed on FINEMENT type of ribbons by investigating the BH loop with maximum applied field of 960 A/m. The ribbon with the composition of Fe{sub 74}Cu{sub 0.8}Nb{sub 2.7}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} was synthesized by rapid solidification technique and the compositions volume fraction was controlled by changing the annealing condition. Detail phase analysis was performed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to correlate the ultrasoft magnetic properties with the volume fraction of amorphous and α-Fe(Si) soft nano composites. Bright (BF) and dark field (DF) image with selective area diffraction (SAD) patterns by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the sample annealed for the optimized annealed condition at 853 K for 3 min reveals nanocrystals with an average size between 10-15 nm possessing the bcc structure which matches with the grain size revealed by the X-ray diffraction. Kinetics of crystallization of α-Fe(Si) phases has been determined by DSC curves. Extremely small coercivity of 30.9 A/m and core loss of 2.5 W/Kg for the sample annealed at 853 K for 3 min was found. Similar values for other crystalline conditions were determined by using BH loop tracer with a maximum applied field of around 960 A/m. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine chemical shift, hyperfine field distribution (HFD), and peak width of different phases. The volume fractions of the relative amount of amorphous and crystalline phases are also determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. High saturation magnetization along with ultrasoft magnetic properties exhibits very high potentials technological applications.

  19. Saturation magnetization in supersaturated solid solution of Co-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Kajikawa, Kota; Hakamada, Masataka; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2009-10-01

    The magnetovolume effect has been investigated using a supersaturated solid solution of a Co-19 at. %Cu alloy processed by electrodeposition. The enhanced saturation magnetization of the Co-Cu alloy was attributed to both metastable fcc Co and lattice expansion. The density functional theory using the CASTEP code revealed that an enhanced magnetic moment due to the magnetovolume effect is obtained in fcc Co, but not in hcp Co.

  20. CuCrZr alloy microstructure and mechanical properties after hot isostatic pressing bonding cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayssines, P.-E.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Guilloud, A.; Bucci, P.; Soreau, T.; Francois, N.; Primaux, F.; Heikkinen, S.; Zacchia, F.; Eaton, R.; Barabash, V.; Mitteau, R.

    2014-04-01

    ITER first wall (FW) panels are a layered structure made of the three following materials: 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel, CuCrZr alloy and beryllium. Two hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycles are included in the reference fabrication route to bond these materials together for the normal heat flux design supplied by the European Union (EU). This reference fabrication route ensures sufficiently good mechanical properties for the materials and joints, which fulfil the ITER mechanical specifications, but often results in a coarse grain size for the CuCrZr alloy, which is not favourable, especially, for the thermal creep properties of the FW panels. To limit the abnormal grain growth of CuCrZr and make the ITER FW fabrication route more reliable, a study began in 2010 in the EU in the frame of an ITER task agreement. Two material fabrication approaches have been investigated. The first one was dedicated to the fabrication of solid CuCrZr alloy in close collaboration with an industrial copper alloys manufacturer. The second approach investigated was the manufacturing of CuCrZr alloy using the powder metallurgy (PM) route and HIP consolidation. This paper presents the main mechanical and microstructural results associated with the two CuCrZr approaches mentioned above. The mechanical properties of solid CuCrZr, PM CuCrZr and joints (solid CuCrZr/solid CuCrZr and solid CuCrZr/316L(N) and PM CuCrZr/316L(N)) are also presented.