Science.gov

Sample records for cuban waters 1997-2005

  1. Quality of Water in Selected Wells, Harrison County, Mississippi, 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burt, David E.; Welch, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects, on a systematic basis, data needed to determine and evaluate the ground-water resources of Harrison County, Mississippi. Water samples were collected from 1997 to 2005 at selected wells screened in the Citronelle, Graham Ferry, Pascagoula, Hattiesburg, and Catahoula Sandstone aquifers and were analyzed for field properties (temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and color), total dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Regulation (SDWR) of 500 milligrams per liter for total dissolved solids was exceeded in water from three wells in the Hattiesburg aquifer and 12 wells in the Pascagoula aquifer. Chloride concentrations did not exceed the SDWR in any of the aquifers sampled, except for the Pascagoula aquifer where water in 10 wells had concentrations that exceeded the SDWR of 250 milligrams per liter. Iron concentrations in water from nine wells completed in the Graham Ferry and four wells completed in the Pascagoula aquifers exceeded the SDWR of 300 micrograms per liter. Thirty water samples collected from the Graham Ferry and 12 from the Pascagoula aquifer exceeded the SDWR of 50 micrograms per liter for manganese.

  2. Development of bioinspired Mn4O4-cubane water oxidation catalysts: lessons from photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, G Charles; Brimblecombe, Robin; Felton, Greg A N; Pryadun, Ruslan S; Sheats, John E; Spiccia, Leone; Swiegers, Gerhard F

    2009-12-21

    Hydrogen is the most promising fuel of the future owing to its carbon-free, high-energy content and potential to be efficiently converted into either electrical or thermal energy. The greatest technical barrier to accessing this renewable resource remains the inability to create inexpensive catalysts for the solar-driven oxidation of water. To date, the most efficient system that uses solar energy to oxidize water is the photosystem II water-oxidizing complex (PSII-WOC), which is found within naturally occurring photosynthetic organisms. The catalytic core of this enzyme is a CaMn(4)O(x) cluster, which is present in all known species of oxygenic phototrophs and has been conserved since the emergence of this type of photosynthesis about 2.5 billion years ago. The key features that facilitate the catalytic success of the PSII-WOC offer important lessons for the design of abiological water oxidation catalysts. In this Account, we examine the chemical principles that may govern the PSII-WOC by comparing the water oxidation capabilities of structurally related synthetic manganese-oxo complexes, particularly those with a cubical Mn(4)O(4) core ("cubanes"). We summarize this research, from the self-assembly of the first such clusters, through the elucidation of their mechanism of photoinduced rearrangement to release O(2), to recent advances highlighting their capability to catalyze sustained light-activated electrolysis of water. The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) cubane core assembles spontaneously in solution from monomeric precursors or from [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core complexes in the presence of metrically appropriate bidentate chelates, for example, diarylphosphinates (ligands of Ph(2)PO(2)(-) and 4-phenyl-substituted derivatives), which bridge pairs of Mn atoms on each cube face (Mn(4)O(4)L(6)). The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) core is enlarged relative to the [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core, resulting in considerably weaker Mn-O bonds. Cubanes are ferocious oxidizing agents, stronger than analogous complexes

  3. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae) in Cuban waters.

    PubMed

    de León, Maria Estela; Martínez, Juana López; Cota, Daniel Lluch; Vázquez, Sergio Hernández; Rafael, Puga

    2005-01-01

    Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years) by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm) were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery), through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (Linfinity) of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year(-1) and values of Linfinity between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for Linfinity. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and Linfinity respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28. 1 degrees C and the largest Linfinity is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23,000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. PMID:17354457

  4. Cuban Roosters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The rooster is an important symbol in Cuban culture. It represents strength and power. It is considered a compliment for a male to be called a rooster. Jesus Rivera, a folk artist, who is best known for using Cuban symbolism in his ceramics and illustrations, visited the class described in this article. Senor Rivera described the culture of Cuba…

  5. The effect of water hyacinths for wastewater treatment under Cuban climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Jenssen, P D

    2005-01-01

    The purification capacity of systems using floating aquatic plants depend on the climatic conditions under which they are used. This study from Cuban conditions evaluate the effects of the organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate and water depth on the purification capacity of water hyacinths, as well as the effect of some climatic variables on the kinetics of the treatment processes. The experimental system consisted of two consecutive tanks simulating a system of ponds in series. The water depths used were 0.5 m and 1.12 m. In the shallower system with shorter retention times and greater superficial organic loading higher removal efficiencies are obtained. With the data obtained, empirical relations were sought. From these correlations it is possible to determine the values for some parameters used in the design of aquatic treatment systems with water hyacinths. The results revealed a relationship between the purification capacity of the water hyacinth and its velocity of growth. The specific velocity of growth varied with the months of the year and was associated with the temperature and the solar radiation. A multiple correlation equation describing these relations was obtained. PMID:16114695

  6. Tracking the Development of China's Top Universities Using Scientometric Indicators, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Niancai

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the developments of 9 Chinese top universities supported by "985 Project" during 1997-2005 based on the analysis of a series of scientometric indicators, including the total number of publications indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, the cumulated impact factor of publications, the…

  7. Cuban Studies Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Center for International Studies.

    This is the first issue of the Cuban Studies Newsletter, a biannual publication designed to provide comprehensive and timely communication among those interested in Cuban Studies. The purpose of the newsletter stated in a recommendation by the International Conference on Cuban Bibliography and Acquisitions, April, 1970, is to promote the scholarly…

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised. PMID:27498968

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-08-08

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised.

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Jun J.; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M.; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L.; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised. PMID:27498968

  11. Birth weight and health and developmental outcomes in US children, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Schieve, Laura A; Boyle, Coleen A

    2011-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the association between the full birth weight distribution and prevalence of specific developmental disabilities and related measures of health and special education services utilization in US children. Using data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Sample Child Core, we identified 87,578 children 3-17 years of age with parent-reported information on birth weight. We estimated the prevalences of DDs (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism, cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, learning disability without mental retardation, mental retardation, seizures, stuttering/stammering, and other developmental delay) and several indicators of health services utilization within a range of birth weight categories. We calculated odds ratios adjusted for demographic factors (AOR). We observed trends of decreasing disability/indicator prevalence with increasing birth weight up to a plateau. Although associations were strongest for very low birth weight, children with "normal" birth weights of 2,500-2,999 g were more likely than those with birth weights of 3,500-3,999 g to have mental retardation (AOR 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4-2.6]), cerebral palsy (AOR 2.4 [95% CI: 1.5-3.8]), learning disability without mental retardation (AOR 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.4]), ADHD (AOR 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.3]), and other developmental delay (AOR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]) and to receive special education services (AOR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.2-1.5]). While much research has focused on the health and developmental outcomes of low and very low birth weight children, these findings suggest that additional study of a continuous range of birth weights may be warranted.

  12. Cuban tektite revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C.

    1988-06-01

    Major-element and trace-element analyses were performed on the Cuban tectite, found about 20 years ago at Columbia University and classified by Garlick et al. (1971) as belonging to the North American tectite strewn field. The results indicate that the Cuban tektite is a North American tektite, but different from both bediasites and Georgia tektites, although with some similarities to bediasites. This tektite also has some similarities to the Barbados tektites, and, thus, may comprise its own distinct subgroup, probably related to the Barbados occurrence and belonging to a Caribbean substrewn field. It is concluded that the Cuban tektite really originated from Cuba. 32 references.

  13. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  14. A Cuban tektite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, G.D.; Naeser, C.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1971-01-01

    A large tektite from Cuba is classified with other North American tektites on the basis of its age. The major-element chemistry, oxygen isotopic composition, refractive index and density of the Cuban tektite are within the ranges exhibited by bediasites. ?? 1971.

  15. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Steece, Aaron; Lemann, Zachary K.; Lazare, Remy; Beck, James W.

    2016-01-01

    USA: LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: on private property on Allen Road in Slidell (ca. 30.262°N, 89.741°W; WGS 84). 2 April 2013. Aaron Steece. Verified by Hardin Waddle. Florida Museum of Natural History (UF 177727, photo voucher). New parish record. This adult was found ca. 2 m high on a branch at the edge of a wooded area behind a house. It was photographed and released, as the species identity and significance was unknown. The origin of this individual is unknown. The homeowner stated that he bought nursery plants often, but checked them thoroughly as he put them indoors. Since this initial finding, the homeowner learned more about Cuban Treefrogs and searched for them on many occasions at this location for two years, but detected no additional Cuban Treefrogs.

  16. Distribution and abundance of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Lake Erie, 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krieger, K.A.; Bur, M.T.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Barton, D.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia limbata and H. rigida) recolonized sediments of the western basin of Lake Erie in the 1990s following decades of pollution abatement. We predicted that Hexageniawould also disperse eastward or expand from existing localized populations and colonize large regions of the other basins. We sampled zoobenthos in parts of the western and central basins yearly from 1997–2005, along the north shore of the eastern basin in 2001–2002, and throughout the lake in 2004. In the island area of the western basin, Hexagenia was present at densities ≤1,278 nymphs/m2and exhibited higher densities in odd years than even years. By contrast, Hexagenia became more widespread in the central basin from 1997–2000 at densities ≤48 nymphs/m2 but was mostly absent from 2001–2005. Nymphs were found along an eastern basin transect at densities ≤382/m2 in 2001 and 2002. During the 2004 lake-wide survey, Hexagenia was found at 63 of 89 stations situated throughout the western basin (≤1,636 nymphs/m2, mean = 195 nymphs/m2, SE = 32, N = 89) but at only 7 of 112 central basin stations, all near the western edge of the basin (≤708 nymphs/m2), and was not found in the eastern basin. Hexagenia was found at 2 of 62 stations (≤91 nymphs/m2) in harbors, marinas, and tributaries along the south shore of the central basin in 2005. Oxygen depletion at the sediment-water interface and cool temperatures in the hypolimnion are probably the primary factors preventing successful establishment throughout much of the central basin. Hexagenia can be a useful indicator of lake quality where its distribution and abundance are limited by anthropogenic causes.

  17. My Collaboration with Cuban Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leccabue, Fabrizio

    My first meeting with the scientific Cuban community was in 1969 when the first of four young Cuban physicists, Joaquín Torres Orosco†, came to the Physics Department of Parma University through the `Andrea Levialdi Fellowship,' an Italian bursary promoted by Roberto Fieschi using a fund, subscribed to voluntarily by the Italian physics community.

  18. Water Splitting Processes on Mn4O4 and CaMn3O4 Model Cubane Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongkeun; Aikens, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy has been frequently investigated to develop clean energy sources in the last few decades. Metal oxide complexes show high potential for the catalytic conversion process, but the biochemical process in green plants has better efficiency than artificial photocatalysts consisting of metal oxides. In this work, the water splitting process is theoretically investigated using two synthetic model complexes whose structures are similar to the manganese-based oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. Model A consists of four Mn atoms, and model B consists of three Mn atoms and a Ca atom in the core. Model A shows a better ability for water splitting than model B when comparing the highest reaction energy. The highest reaction energies are 2.56 and 2.99 eV for models A and B, respectively. In model B, the first oxidation in the water splitting process is exothermic, which is different from model A. In both models, the molecular oxygen generation step is endothermic by about 1.0-2.5 eV.

  19. Water Splitting Processes on Mn4O4 and CaMn3O4 Model Cubane Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongkeun; Aikens, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy has been frequently investigated to develop clean energy sources in the last few decades. Metal oxide complexes show high potential for the catalytic conversion process, but the biochemical process in green plants has better efficiency than artificial photocatalysts consisting of metal oxides. In this work, the water splitting process is theoretically investigated using two synthetic model complexes whose structures are similar to the manganese-based oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. Model A consists of four Mn atoms, and model B consists of three Mn atoms and a Ca atom in the core. Model A shows a better ability for water splitting than model B when comparing the highest reaction energy. The highest reaction energies are 2.56 and 2.99 eV for models A and B, respectively. In model B, the first oxidation in the water splitting process is exothermic, which is different from model A. In both models, the molecular oxygen generation step is endothermic by about 1.0-2.5 eV. PMID:26258478

  20. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  1. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.

  2. A Demographic Profile of Cuban Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.

    This study offers a demographic profile of the U.S. Cuban population, using data from the decennial census and current population surveys. Part one estimates the number of Cuban Americans and describes their geographic distribution nationwide. Part two compares the socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, educational attainment, income,…

  3. Synthesis of cubane based energetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.

    1993-02-01

    The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, in the course of our studies here and in a parallel ONR sponsored program, we discovered and developed an alternative oxidizer to cubyl based systems, the dinitramide salts. We will report on our developments in the synthesis of new oxidizers based on cubane and dinitramide. In this research, we developed new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and synthesized new energetic cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group. Our work on the preparation of the dinitramide group led to the synthesis of the dinitramide ion, and as a consequence ammonium dinitramide. We have in turn used this synthesis to prepare cubane ammonium dinitramide salts. We synthesized cubane-1,4bis-(ammonium dinitramide) and cubane1,2,4,7-tetrakis(ammonium dinitramide) as well as several other dinitramide salts.

  4. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa S.; Patel, Dhaval; Rodríguez Leyva, Delfin; Khan, Bobby V.; Sperling, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba. PMID:22203917

  5. The 1980 Cuban Crisis: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Ronald

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the 1980 Cuban migration to the United States. Examines policy questions concerning unexpected mass migrations and the way the U.S. government responds. The Haitian immigration is discussed similarly. (Author/APM)

  6. Cuban Libraries: 30 Years after the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Cuban library system includes comments from interviews with leading librarians in that country. Effects of the Castro regime and the U.S. embargo on Cuba and its libraries are considered. (MES)

  7. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  8. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  9. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  10. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  11. Cuban History and Culture, Social Studies: 6478.19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alchin, Don D.

    In this elective quinmester course clustering around behavioral studies, Junior high students study Cuban heritage; Cuban events leading up to the migration to the U.S.; and Cuban-American population as it now exists in the U.S., including refugee problems, contributions, and the future. The focus is upon helping teachers and students understand…

  12. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gifts of Cuban origin goods. 515.544..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.544 Gifts of Cuban origin goods. (a) Except as stated in paragraph (b) of this section, specific licenses are not issued for the importation of Cuban-origin...

  13. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gifts of Cuban origin goods. 515.544..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.544 Gifts of Cuban origin goods. (a) Except as stated in paragraph (b) of this section, specific licenses are not issued for the importation of Cuban-origin...

  14. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gifts of Cuban origin goods. 515.544..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.544 Gifts of Cuban origin goods. (a) Except as stated in paragraph (b) of this section, specific licenses are not issued for the importation of Cuban-origin...

  15. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gifts of Cuban origin goods. 515.544..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.544 Gifts of Cuban origin goods. (a) Except as stated in paragraph (b) of this section, specific licenses are not issued for the importation of Cuban-origin...

  16. Evaluation and Identification of Policy Issues in the Cuban Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Guarione M., Ed.

    The research described in this report identifies the major health, education, and welfare-related needs of Cuban Americans as defined by directors of Cuban community service organizations and Cuban beneficiary populations in the selected urban areas of Miami/Dade County, Union City/West New York, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Data from…

  17. Much Ado about Something: Cuban Biotech.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cuban advances in biotech have made headlines, particularly since the US-Cuba rapprochement and signing of the historic memorandum of understanding between the US Department of Health and Human Services and Cuba's Ministry of Public Health in June. Some 34 Cuban institutions with 22,000 employees are the backbone of a biotech industry that dates to the early 1980s, obtaining novel products that have sparked interest among potential global partners. While a number of these Cuban products are registered in various countries, their testing in the USA remains ensnared in the red tape of embargo laws that tend to make investors skittish and thus delay, if not curtail, joint research and clinical trial applications to the FDA.

  18. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  19. Understanding Cuban Immigrants: A Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queralt, Magaly

    1984-01-01

    Describes Cuban culture and psychosocial characteristics to promote better communication and provide social workers with a better understanding of treatment approaches that are culturally sensitive. Discusses values, family relationships, sex roles, interpersonal relations, locus of control, time orientation, activity orientation, language, and…

  20. Cuban/US Research Interactions Since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamargo, Maria C.

    Interactions between Cuban physicists and researchers in the United States are difficult, to say the least. The complexities associated with communication and travel between Cuba and the US greatly hamper these efforts. Nevertheless, scientific interactions are permitted within the limits of the US embargo, and travel to Cuba to attend international scientific conferences or for well-documented research and educational purposes is allowed.

  1. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  2. The Cuban-American Experience. Culture, Images and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Curtis, James R.

    This book is a discussion of the major social, economic, political, and geographical topics relating to Cuban settlement and culture in the United States. First, the book examines Cubans as an ethnic minority, as well as some of the events and people that have helped shape the popular images that Americans may have of this group. The focus then…

  3. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  4. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  5. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  6. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  7. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574 Section 515.574 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  8. Cubans abroad: a gendered case study on international migrations.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sarmiento, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cubans who have migrated since the 1990s after living for two decades or more in their country of origin left with an embedded gender ideology that they acquired in a society where gender relations were undergoing radical transformations. As a result, Cuban feminization of migrations has its peculiarities. In this context, there are three issues to consider: explaining how gender relations attained in Cuba, as part of the overall attitudes gained since childhood, influenced Cuban migrants who have left the island permanently since 1990, introduced uniqueness in their migration processes, and made up a different feminization of migration; identifying the features of Cuban social structure that shaped the gender ideology of Cuban migrants; and producing new knowledge about Cuban international migration processes by using a gender perspective and by analyzing the gender relations prevailing in the years before the crisis of the 1990s, as well as since the beginning of the twenty-first century. The first part of this article focuses on gender distinctiveness of recent Cuban migrants, and the second summarizes some traits of the Cuban social structure—mainly referred to female employment—that could explain the gender training of the migrants.

  9. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Final /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of syllable- and word-final /s/ among two generations of Cubans in Miami, Florida (USA): older, early exile immigrants who arrived in Miami as adults in the 1960s and 1970s, and young Miami-born Cubans whose maternal and paternal grandparents immigrated to Miami from Cuba prior to 1980. Since sibilant weakening is…

  10. Accomplishments in Cuban Physics (up to 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.; Trallero-Giner, Carlos

    In late October 1995, one of the authors (CRH) paid a personal visit to Cuba. While there, he took advantage of a longstanding invitation to present a research seminar to the Cuban Physics Society. With respect to the development of physics in Cuba, curiosity led to subsequent visits to various centers including the University of Havana (UH), the Pedagogical Institute, the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), the Institute for Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics (ICIMAF), the Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE), the Neuroscience Center, and the National Center for Scientific Research (CNIC).

  11. Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

  12. Validating Eaton's Hypothesis: Cubane as a Benzene Bioisostere.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Benjamin A; Xing, Hui; Houston, Sevan; Clark, Charlotte; Ghassabian, Sussan; Kuo, Andy; Cao, Benjamin; Reitsma, Andrea; Murray, Cody-Ellen P; Stok, Jeanette E; Boyle, Glen M; Pierce, Carly J; Littler, Stuart W; Winkler, David A; Bernhardt, Paul V; Pasay, Cielo; De Voss, James J; McCarthy, James; Parsons, Peter G; Walter, Gimme H; Smith, Maree T; Cooper, Helen M; Nilsson, Susan K; Tsanaktsidis, John; Savage, G Paul; Williams, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Pharmaceutical and agrochemical discovery programs are under considerable pressure to meet increasing global demand and thus require constant innovation. Classical hydrocarbon scaffolds have long assisted in bringing new molecules to the market place, but an obvious omission is that of the Platonic solid cubane. Eaton, however, suggested that this molecule has the potential to act as a benzene bioisostere. Herein, we report the validation of Eaton's hypothesis with cubane derivatives of five molecules that are used clinically or as agrochemicals. Two cubane analogues showed increased bioactivity compared to their benzene counterparts whereas two further analogues displayed equal bioactivity, and the fifth one demonstrated only partial efficacy. Ramifications from this study are best realized by reflecting on the number of bioactive molecules that contain a benzene ring. Substitution with the cubane scaffold where possible could revitalize these systems, and thus expedite much needed lead candidate identification.

  13. Antioxidant characterization of native monofloral Cuban honeys.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; González-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Battino, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Five typical Cuban monofloral honeys were analyzed for their in vitro total antioxidant capacity (TAC), phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid content. Identification and quantification of phenolics were carried out by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Fourteen phenolic compounds could be identified (eight phenolic acids and six flavonoids), including three glycosylated derivatives. Similar contents of total phenolics were found in the different honeys, although they differed in their qualitative profiles. A significant (positive) correlation was found between the results of TAC obtained by parallel FIA-ABTS system and ORAC assay (r=0.9565, p<0.001). Similar correlations were also established between total phenolics and TAC, determined by either the ORAC (r=0.9633; p

  14. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    PubMed

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them. PMID:22073440

  15. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    PubMed

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.

  16. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  17. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  18. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  19. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  20. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  1. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  2. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  3. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  4. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  5. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  6. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  7. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    PubMed

    Abreu-Pérez, Mercedes; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana; the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 75 species have been identified from Cuban waters: Asteroidea (20 species) and Ophiuroidea (55 species).

  8. Speaking from experience: today's Cuban women and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Over 2200 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in Cuba, and a decade ago I became one of them. Late in 2000, I underwent breast cancer surgery at the National Oncology and Radiology Institute in the Cuban capital. My experience-both with the disease and as a sociologist at the University of Havana studying gender relations-serves as the basis for the following essay. The article characterizes today's Cuban women, particularly those of us with or at risk of breast cancer, and describes my own and others' responses to our disease. My aim is to provide insights useful to the physicians, nurses, engineers, physicists, technicians, and service and administrative workers in Cuba's health services who interact with us, whose increased awareness will make us feel more deeply understood and respected. In this context, I also reflect on the Cuban media's portrayal of cancer, with recommendations for dismantling the biases of fatalism and even pity often conveyed.

  9. Rule on Mariel Cuban Parole Determination, 21 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Rule establishes a separate immigration parole review process for certain detained, excludable nationals of Cuba who came to the US during the 1980 Mariel Cuban boatlift. The effect of the Rule is to institute several levels of review to determine whether the Mariel Cubans should be paroled and to set forth procedures governing such parole decisions. It establishes a new Departmental Release Review Program under the general supervision of the Associate Attorney General which will provide eligible aliens, otherwise denied parole, with an additional review.

  10. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a public health problem related to the Cuban Democracy Act of the United States.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the USA embargo on Cuba was tightened through the passage of the Cuban Democracy Act (CDA) that explicitly restricts food and medical supplies. The embargo has contributed to cause a number of public health problems in Cuba including: (1) an epidemic of more than 50,000 cases of optic and peripheral neuropathies in 1992-1993, resulting from dietary deficiency; (2) an epidemic of esophageal stenoses in toddlers who inadvertently drank liquid lye as a result of a soap shortage for which liquid lye was substituted; (3) an outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Havana, in June and July 1994, resulting from water contamination due to lack of chemicals for water treatment to eliminate Campylobacter sp.; (4) outbreaks of self-inflicted disease and injuries caused by rioting among Cubans detained at the US Naval base at Guantánamo Bay, and (5) a decline in medical practice standards and public health indicators in Cuba resulting from the enactment of the CDA, documented by the American Public Health Association in 1993 and confirmed in March 1997 by the American Association for World Health. Despite this evidence, the Cuban embargo remains a politically sensitive subject in the USA, resistant to public health concerns, as evidenced by the recent passage of the Helms-Burton Act. The public health effects of the CDA need to be reviewed with possible revocation or at least modification.

  11. A Study of Factors Affecting Cuban Parent-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogges, Ralph; Hogges, Lilia

    This paper investigates the value system of Cuban students living in the United States, how those systems interface with the school and the home, and how they influence their personalities, behaviors, and family relationships. Eighth-grade students attending a predominantly Spanish private bilingual school were administered a questionnaire, and…

  12. A Look at Cuban Schools: What Is Cuba Doing Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    A retired elementary school principal, who first visited Cuba as an exchange student, returns 46 years later as an international consultant and finds that the Cubans have made health care and education the top priorities of their society with strong principals and a solid system of supervision and evaluation. (Author/MLF)

  13. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  14. South-South Collaboration: Cuban Teachers in Jamaica and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Cuba has concentrated more than most developing countries on building a sound educational system, and as a result, it has been able to collaborate with other countries in their efforts to improve educational planning and practice. Based on recent research in the field, this paper examines the work of Cuban teachers in schools and sports programmes…

  15. When Fear Ruled: Rethinking the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an insightful look at the administrative and negotiative processes that accompanied the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Although John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev both worked to avoid nuclear war, the stress and exhaustion of the negotiating process created serious blunders. Eventually both sides backed away from nuclear annihilation. (MJP)

  16. The Influence of the Revolution on Cuban Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Octavio

    The social, economic, political and cultural changes brought about by the Cuban Revolution have elicited linguistic changes. Although the Revolution is only fifteen years old, these changes have reached the morphological and semantic components of the language. This paper explains the Russian influence and discusses and classifies "rusonol"…

  17. The Cuban Twin Registry: initial findings and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Cobas-Ruiz, Marcia; Cabrera-Cruz, Niviola; Lantigua-Cruz, Araceli; García-Castillo, Elsa; Lardoeyt-Ferrer, Roberto; Robaina-Jiménez, Zoe; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Morales-Calatayud, Francisco; Lemus-Valdés, María Teresa; Portuondo-Sao, Miriam; Comas-Pérez, Lenier; Pérez-Crispí, Juan M; Díaz-De Villal Villa, Thais; Icart-Perera, Emelia; Jordán-Hernández, Aida; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Rabell-Piera, Sergio; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan de Jesús; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-02-01

    The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004-2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work. PMID:23228217

  18. Recovery of native treefrogs after removal of nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.G.; Waddle, J.H.; Miller, M.W.; Crockett, M.E.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Florida is home to several introduced animal species, especially in the southern portion of the state. Most introduced species are restricted to the urban and suburban areas along the coasts, but some species, like the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis), are locally abundant in natural protected areas. Although Cuban Treefrogs are known predators of native treefrog species as both adults and larvae, no study has demonstrated a negative effect of Cuban Treefrogs on native treefrog survival, abundance, or occupancy rate. We monitored survival, capture probability, abundance, and proportion of sites occupied by Cuban Treefrogs and two native species, Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella), at four sites in Everglades National Park in southern Florida with the use of capture–mark–recapture techniques. After at least 5 mo of monitoring all species at each site we began removing every Cuban Treefrog captured. We continued to estimate survival, abundance, and occupancy rates of native treefrogs for 1 yr after the commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal. Mark–recapture models that included the effect of Cuban Treefrog removal on native treefrog survival did not have considerable Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) weight, although capture rates of native species were generally very low prior to Cuban Treefrog removal. Estimated abundance of native treefrogs did increase after commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal, but also varied with the season of the year. The best models of native treefrog occupancy included a Cuban Treefrog removal effect at sites with high initial densities of Cuban Treefrogs. This study demonstrates that an introduced predator can have population-level effects on similar native species.

  19. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    PubMed

    del Valle García, Rosa; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Abreu Pérez, Mercedes; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana, and the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 53 species were recorded (eight Crinoids, 22 Echinoids and 23 Holothuroids), in 37 genera, 19 families and 12 orders. Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874) and Phyllophorus (Urodemella) occidentalis (Ludwig, 1885) are new records for Cuban waters. PMID:17469245

  20. SEISMIC STRUCTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY OF NORTHERN EDGE OF BAHAMAN-CUBAN COLLISION ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.

    1985-01-01

    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  1. Shapers of Their Destiny: A History of the Education of Cuban Children in the United States since 1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant presence of Cuban children in the U.S. public schools since the late 1950s, no historical interpretation of their educational experiences exists. This essay is the first to develop such an interpretation. It sketches, in broad strokes, the role that Cuban exiles and Cuban Americans played in shaping their children's…

  2. Operation Pedro Pan: The Flight to Neverland for More than 14,000 Cuban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of the 22-month program involving the political exodus of thousands of Cuban children to the United States in the early 1960s. Fearing communist indoctrination and the rumor of patria potestad--the government assuming legal guardianship of their children--Cuban parents sent their unaccompanied children…

  3. The Three Roots of Cuban Heritage. (Los Tres Raices de la Herencia Cubana.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzaga, Florinda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legacies of traits left by Cuba's three ethnic streams--the Spanish, Black, and Taino--that together explain Cuban personality and way of life. Asserts that by understanding what each group has contributed, Cubans can better know themselves and better project for their future, both individually and collectively. (DS)

  4. Field-Independence: A Function of Sex and Socialization in Cuban and American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britain, Susan D.; Abad, Marcy

    The relationship between field-dependence and cultural biases towards control and discipline practices was explored. It was hypothesized that the strict control practices described for the Cuban culture would foster greater field-dependence in their adolescents than would the practice of a U. S. born group. Seventy-two Cuban and U. S. born…

  5. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  6. 8 CFR 212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 212.12 Section 212.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.12 Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. (a) Scope....

  7. 8 CFR 212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 212.12 Section 212.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.12 Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. (a) Scope....

  8. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees... secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants. The State and local resettlement agencies must establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  9. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  10. Entropy and enthalpy contributions to the kinetics of proton coupled electron transfer to the Mn4O4(O2PPh2)6 cubane.

    PubMed

    Carrell, Thomas G; Smith, Paul F; Dennes, Joseph; Dismukes, G Charles

    2014-06-28

    The dependence of rate, entropy of activation, and ((1)H/(2)H) kinetic isotope effect for H-atom transfer from a series of p-substituted phenols to cubane Mn4O4L6 (L = O2PPh2) (1) reveals the activation energy to form the transition state is proportional to the phenolic O-H bond dissociation energy. New implications for water oxidation and charge recombination in photosystem II are described.

  11. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  12. [Lethal effect of Cuban Myrtaceae on Aedes aegypti (Diptera Cuilicidae)].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Lucita; Navarro, Agustín; Tacoronte, Juan E; Leyva, Maureen; Marquetti, María C

    2003-01-01

    The biological activity of the essential foliar oils from 2 Cuban endemic Myrtaceae: Eugenia melanadenia and Psidium rotundatum on A. aegypti larvae was evaluated for the first time at the laboratory level. The probit-log analysis of the results showed the larvicidal effect of both oils with values of CL50 = 0.0085% and CL95 = 0.0104% for E. melanadenia and CL50 = 0.0063% and CL95 = 0.0071% for O. rotundatum. Besides, the diagnostic concentration for both essential oils are given and the possible implications of these findings on field populations of A. aegypti are suggessted. PMID:15849965

  13. Synthesis and reactivities of cubane-type sulfido clusters containing noble metals.

    PubMed

    Hidai, M; Kuwata, S; Mizobe, Y

    2000-01-01

    Cubane-type sulfido clusters containing noble metals are newcomers compared with the corresponding clusters of the first transition series metals and molybdenum, which have been extensively studied in relation to metalloenzymes and industrial hydrodesulfurization catalysts. This Account reviews the recent progress in studies on the synthesis and reactivities of these noble metal cubane-type clusters. One of the goals in this new area lies in development of the unique catalysis of the noble metals embedded in the robust and redox-active cubane-type cores. Rational synthetic approaches indispensable to the preparation of such effective cluster catalysts are discussed to a significant extent.

  14. 31 CFR 515.522 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... deceased, e.g., birth or marriage certificates; (4) A description of the assets involved,...

  15. 31 CFR 515.522 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... deceased, e.g., birth or marriage certificates; (4) A description of the assets involved,...

  16. Eating Behaviors in Cuban Adults: Results from an Exploratory Transcultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Innamorati, Marco; Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Harnic, Désirée; Janiri, Luigi; Rivas-Suárez, Saira R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158) and Italy (n = 125). Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history. PMID:27725806

  17. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    PubMed

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations. PMID:12294979

  18. A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

    PubMed Central

    González, R; Ballester, J M; Estrada, M; Lima, F; Martínez, G; Wade, M; Colombo, B; Vento, R

    1976-01-01

    Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. PMID:1008061

  19. Contemporary Cuban Physics Through Scientific Publications: An Insider’s View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    In a previous paper, the author reached some conclusions on the tendencies of the publications by Cuban physicists in international journals (Altshuler, Rev Cub Fís 22(2):173-182, 2005) and called for a systematic bibliometric study of the subject. Such a study has now been undertaken (a contribution to this volume entitled "Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics" by Werner Marx and Manuel Cardona, referred to in this paper as Marx and Cardona) and supports the main conclusions of the former work. The scenario of Cuban physics since 1995 has been conditioned by two main facts interacting in a nontrivial way: the serious material shortages affecting local physics laboratories and bibliographic resources, and an increase in the country's international collaboration. As a positive result, the total volume of Cuban publications in international physics journals has increased since 1995, perhaps reaching a peak around the year 2000, while the number of citations of Cuban papers and the impact of the journals in which they were published have continued to increase since the mid-1990s. Theoretical work produced by physicists from a number of Cuban institutions in international collaborations strongly contribute to those numbers. In the last years, international publications suggest a `self-organized' opening of Cuban physics towards interdisciplinary subjects, which is increasing the `bibliometric visibility' of autochthonous experimental work.

  20. Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene Geological Evolution of the Northwestern Caribbean - Constraints from Cuban Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobiella, J.; Hueneke, H.; Meschede, M.; Sommer, M.

    2006-05-01

    Cuba: Ophiolites: 1- The age of the rocks of the northern ophiolite belt is Upper Jurassic-Albian. Oceanic lithosphere formation, at least in the "Cuban" Proto-Caribbean, ended in the Albian. Cretaceous volcanic arcs: 2- At least two volcanic arc Cretaceous sections are present in Cuba, separated in several regions by a mainly sedimentary Albian-Cenomanian section. The lower arc is probably of Aptian-Albian age. The Cenomanian (or Turonian?) -Campanian upper arc is calcalkalic and contains abundant sedimentary marine interbeds. 3- Some thin tuff beds are present in the southernmost deep water deposits of the North American palaeomargin in western and central Cuba in the Aptian-Cenomanian. This fact could be explained by a volcanic arc located several hundred km to the south of the NA palaeomargin. 4- Cretaceous volcanism ended during the early Campanian all along Cuba. Sedimentary upper Campanian and Maastrichtian sections rest on top of the older Cretaceous sections. Volcanism is only reassumed in SE Cuba (Turquino volcanic arc) late in the Danian. Southern metamorphic terranes: 5- The southern metamorphic terranes are a main feature in the geology of Cuba. They are continental blocks sharing many stratigraphic features with the NA palaeomargin of western Cuba (Guaniguanico mountains). As the last one area seems related to the Yucatan (Maya) block, some authors consider the metamorphic terranes as fragments of the Maya block that travelled to the west.

  1. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  2. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Márquez Hernandez, Ingrid; Fraga, Jorge; Pérez, Kleich; Kerstens, Monique; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP), red and yellow (YCP), with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC₅₀) values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  3. Risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children.

    PubMed Central

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Pekovic, Vukosava; Santana, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Guoyan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore whether parental activities such as repairing cars, welding, and rebuilding car batteries are risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children in Miami-Dade County. METHODS: The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 479 children aged 12-83 months who had lived in Cuba during the six months prior to immigrating to the U.S. Lead levels were obtained, and parents provided information on demographics, home/neighborhood environment in Cuba prior to immigration, family/occupational factors prior to immigration, and child behavior factors. RESULTS: Of 479 children, 30 (6.3%) had elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs), defined as > or = 10 microg/dL, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level. In multivariate analysis, racial/ethnic identification other than white, living in a home built after 1979, car repair in the home or yard, eating paint chips, and male sex were independently associated with EBLL. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for lead poisoning among immigrant children may differ from those among U.S.-born children. Screening of immigrant children who may have been exposed in their country of origin and education of immigrant parents about lead exposure hazards associated with activities such as car repair should be considered in the design of lead poisoning prevention and control programs. PMID:15842120

  4. Probabilistic seismic hazard zonation for the Cuban building code update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Llanes-Buron, C.

    2013-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed in response to a revision and update of the Cuban building code (NC-46-99) for earthquake-resistant building construction. The hazard assessment have been done according to the standard probabilistic approach (Cornell, 1968) and importing the procedures adopted by other nations dealing with the problem of revising and updating theirs national building codes. Problems of earthquake catalogue treatment, attenuation of peak and spectral ground acceleration, as well as seismic source definition have been rigorously analyzed and a logic-tree approach was used to represent the inevitable uncertainties encountered through the whole seismic hazard estimation process. The seismic zonation proposed here, is formed by a map where it is reflected the behaviour of the spectral acceleration values for short (0.2 seconds) and large (1.0 seconds) periods on rock conditions with a 1642 -year return period, which being considered as maximum credible earthquake (ASCE 07-05). In addition, other three design levels are proposed (severe earthquake: with a 808 -year return period, ordinary earthquake: with a 475 -year return period and minimum earthquake: with a 225 -year return period). The seismic zonation proposed here fulfils the international standards (IBC-ICC) as well as the world tendencies in this thematic.

  5. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  6. 31 CFR 515.555 - Assets of Cuban firms wholly or substantially owned by U.S. citizens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Cuban firms wholly or substantially owned by U.S. citizens. (a) Specific licenses are issued to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assets of Cuban firms wholly or substantially owned by U.S. citizens. 515.555 Section 515.555 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...

  7. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 31, 2013 Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban...

  8. Conflict Resolution and Distress in Dementia Caregiver Families: Comparison of Cubans and White Non-Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Victoria B; Vaughan, Ellen L; McCabe, Brian E; Feaster, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of family conflict resolution as a mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and psychological distress in dementia caregivers. The sample was composed of the families of 182 caregivers who participated in REACH (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health). The sample consisted of 84 Cuban American and 98 non-Hispanic White American families. Mediation analyses revealed that both income and conflict resolution partially mediated the relationship between ethnicity and caregiver psychological distress. Specifically, Cuban American families were less likely than non-Hispanic White families to reach a resolution to their disagreements, which may have rendered the caregiver at greater risk for psychological distress. These results suggest that Cuban American caregivers may benefit from interventions that improve the family's ability to resolve conflicts. PMID:20448830

  9. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. Objective The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Methods Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Results Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. Conclusions INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology

  11. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  12. Hydroxide-free cubane-shaped tetranuclear [Ln4] complexes.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2014-04-01

    The reaction of the lanthanide(III) chloride salts [Gd(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III)] with a new chelating, flexible, and sterically unencumbered multisite coordinating compartmental Schiff-base ligand (E)-2-((6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-2-yl)methyleneamino)phenol (LH2) and pivalic acid (PivH) in the presence of triethylamine (Et3N) affords a series of tetranuclear Ln(III) coordination compounds, [Ln4(L)4(μ2-η(1)η(1)Piv)4]·xH2O·yCH3OH (1, Ln = Gd(III), x = 3, y = 6; 2, Ln = Tb(III), x = 6, y = 2; 3, Ln = Dy(III), x = 4, y = 6). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the molecular structure contains a distorted cubane-like [Ln4(μ3-OR)4](+8) core, which is formed by the concerted coordination action of four dianionic L(2-) Schiff-base ligands. Each lanthanide ion is eight-coordinated (2N, 6O) to form a distorted-triangular dodecahedral geometry. Alternating current susceptibility measurements of complex 3 reveal frequency- and temperature-dependent two-step out-of-phase signals under zero direct current (dc) field, which is characteristic of single-molecule magnet behavior. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic data under an applied dc field of 1000 Oe to fully or partly suppress the quantum tunneling of magnetization relaxation process affords the anisotropic barriers and pre-exponential factors: Δ/kB = 73(2) K, τ0 = 4.4 × 10(-8) s; Δ/kB = 47.2(9) K, τ0 = 5.0 × 10(-7) s for the slow and fast relaxations, respectively. PMID:24673300

  13. Life Enhancement Counseling: A Psychosocial Model of Services for Cuban Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    The Life Enhancement Counseling Model was developed specifically for the treatment of the problems of meaninglessness and purposelessness among depressed Cuban elders. The model is based on psychosocial development and ecological theoretical orientations. A life review approach is used to help the depressed individuals complete unfinished business…

  14. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  15. The Occupational Prestige of Women Immigrants: A Comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on the occupational prestige of women workers in Cuba or Mexico who immigrated to the United States showed that immigrant women do not fare so well as immigrant men in converting their resources into occupational prestige. Differences between Mexican and Cuban women, however, are larger than gender differences. (KH)

  16. Cuban medical cooperation in Haiti: one of the world's best-kept secrets.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emily J; Kirk, John M

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes Cuba's medical role in Haiti since Hurricane Georges in 1998, with particular emphasis on the Cuban government's response to the 2010 earthquake. The article examines two central themes. First, it assesses the enormous impact on public health that Cuba has made since 1998, and second, it provides a comparative analysis of Cuba's medical role since the earthquake.

  17. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  18. Reflections on Cuban Migration. Antonio Aja PhD, University of Havana's Center for Demographic Studies.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gail

    2015-10-01

    Dr Aja (pronounced á-ha) himself, is a product of the ebbs and flows of Cuban migration. His father, son of Lebanese merchant immigrants to Cuba, later studied medicine and emigrated to New York. There he met Antonio's mother, a garment worker and daughter in a poor family of Cuban émigrés. The young couple moved to Tampa, Florida-following a pattern of settlement for Cubans in the USA at the time-where Antonio was born in 1953. The whole family later returned to Cuba, amidst the 1950s rebellion against Batista. They stayed, but relatives are still sprinkled abroad…as they are today for many Cuban families. Dr Aja, says his own history is part of what prompted him to explore the relation of families, demography and migration, the complex subject he has studied for a quarter century. Under the broader scope of health and society, MEDICC Review editors asked Dr. Aja to share insights from his years of research and experience.

  19. Demographic Characteristics of Pre-Mariel Cubans Living in the United States: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Rivero, Manuel

    This paper describes and analyzes the demographic characteristics of the Pre-Mariel Cuban American population living in the United States as presented in the 1980 U.S. Census of the Population. Information is not provided for the Mariel entrants, who began arriving from Cuba on April 21, 1980, because the data were derived from a one-in-a-thousand…

  20. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government hate Cuba?" He…

  1. The Children of Mariel From Shock to Integration: Cuban Refugee Children in South Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Helga

    This report describes the impact on the Dade County, Florida, public school system of the 125 Cuban (and some Haitian) refugees arriving in the Mariel exodus. In September 1980 the school system had to absorb 13,000 new refugee students. Preparing for the students included hiring many bilingual teachers, reopening schools that had closed,…

  2. 8 CFR 212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to engage in future acts of violence, is likely to engage in future criminal activity, or is likely... house or community project; and (3) Placement with a close relative such as a parent, spouse, child, or... enforce an order of exclusion or to commence proceedings against a Mariel Cuban; or (4) The period...

  3. 8 CFR 1212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., is likely to engage in future acts of violence, is likely to engage in future criminal activity, or... house or community project; and (3) Placement with a close relative such as a parent, spouse, child, or... enforce an order of exclusion or to commence proceedings against a Mariel Cuban; or (4) The period...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7: A Cuban Case of Engineering Physics and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal Mirabal, Carlos A.

    The Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7 started in December 1987, commissioned by the [then] Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, who—concerned about introducing technological advancement into the Cuban health [system]—had for some months taken an interest in the possibility of building magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment for medical diagnosis in Cuba (Zito M, Argüelles MM et al, Y sin embargo-: ciencia: hablan 30 investigadores cubanos. Editoria April, Habana, pp 56-66, 1999; Cabal, Biofísica Médica. In: Fidel Castro Dìas-Balart (eds) Cuba. Amanecer del Tercer Milenio. Ciencia, Sociedad y Tecnología: Biofísica Médica. Debate Editorial, Madrid, pp 31-48, 2002). Many of the companies producing MRI equipment were unable to deliver this technology to Cuba due to the bloqueo, the United States embargo against Cuba. Those who were later to advance the project's progress in scientific technology initially regarded the implementation of such a project in a developing country as unfeasible due to its complexity. But Fidel's belief and confidence and in turn the Cuban scientists' commitment to him and to Cuban science proved to be an undeniable factors for its success.

  5. 8 CFR 1212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 1212.12 Section 1212.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION...; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.12 Parole determinations and revocations...

  6. 8 CFR 1212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 1212.12 Section 1212.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION...; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.12 Parole determinations and revocations...

  7. Testing the Effects of Collectively Expected Durations of Migration: The Naturalization of Mexicans and Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…

  8. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  9. Bicultural Effectiveness Training: A Treatment Intervention for Enhancing Intercultural Adjustment in Cuban American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1984-01-01

    By reducing culture conflict and acculturative stress, the Bicultural Effectiveness Training (BET) enhances adjustment in Cuban American families and reduces conduct disorders in adolescents. BET teaches family members that skills for effective functioning in different value contexts (cultural or otherwise) can be viewed as complementary and…

  10. Tampa's Splendid Little War: Local History and the Cuban War of Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mormino, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a look at the local culture of Tampa, Florida at the turn of the century and how it responded to a massive influx of troops waiting for action during the Spanish-American War. At that time, Tampa was a multiethnic city that included many Cuban-, Spanish-, and African-Americans. (MJP)

  11. Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

  12. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four…

  13. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  14. The Cuban Model for Higher Education of Older Adults: Generativity, Social Commitment, and Collaborative Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuni, José Alberto; Urbano, Claudio Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is an approach to study the "Cuban model" for educating the elderly, and its aim is to describe the main features of the experience developed by this country. The University of the Third Age is more than three decades old in Latin America, but none of the countries in the region can show a state educational policy…

  15. Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Susan; Barberia, Lorena

    2002-01-01

    Investigated differences in views and involvements between two cohorts of first generation Cuban-American immigrants. Interviews with immigrants indicated that the first wave left between 1959-1979 mainly for political reasons and publicly opposes travel to Cuba. The second wave immigrated largely for economic reasons and is enmeshed in…

  16. 45 CFR 401.12 - Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance. 401.12 Section 401.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE... refugees under Part 400 of this title. (a) For purposes of determining the eligibility of Cuban and Haitian... determination of eligibility for an amount of cash and medical assistance for refugees under subparts E and G...

  17. El Habla Cubana en las Estampas de Eladio Secades: Caudal de Cubanismos, Dichos y Frases Populares (Cuban Speech in the Writings of Eladio Secades: A Wealth of Cubanisms, Proverbs, and Popular Idioms)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lama, Sonia

    1977-01-01

    This article presents a glossary of popular expressions, slang and Cubanisms found in the writing of Eladio Secades. The words and phrases are defined in standard Spanish and translated into English. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. An Intersectoral Intervention to Prevent Early Alcohol Use in Cuban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fabelo-Roche, Justo R; Iglesias-Moré, Serguei; Gómez-García, Ana M; Hernández-Domínguez, Heydi; García-Enríquez, Iovanny

    2016-07-01

    To encourage development of negative attitudes toward alcohol use and thus prevent early onset of alcohol use, an intersectoral intervention was conducted from 2014 to 2015 among Cuban adolescents in 14 schools in Havana. The intervention included 312 students (189 girls and 123 boys) aged 14 to 15 years in 10th grade of high school or vocational school. Workshops were conducted using participatory techniques and group dynamics. Qualitative methods were applied, including narrative, desiderative and projective techniques. Indicators included attitudes, motivation, interests and perception of risk. Following the intervention, 82.7% (258/312) of participants reported healthy cultural and recreational interests and 61.9% (193/312) reinforced negative attitudes toward drinking. Such interventions can help prevent early onset of alcohol use in school settings. Given the positive results, the intervention is slated to be reproduced in other Cuban provinces. KEYWORDS Adolescents, prevention, alcoholism, attitudes, Cuba. PMID:27510934

  19. Fatal Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP5 infection in an immunocompetent Cuban patient

    PubMed Central

    Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Ortega-Gonzalez, Lilia M.; Hagen, Ferry; Martínez-Machin, Gerardo F.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first clinical case of cryptococcosis due C. gattii in a Cuban immunocompetent patient who had a traveling history two years before to Central America. Molecular characterization of the isolate showed it to be genotype AFLP5 of which MLST sequences clustered with clinical and environmental strains from Colombia. The patient died one year after the diagnosis despite a prolonged treatment with (liposomal) amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and gamma interferon. PMID:24432215

  20. Genetic features of Huntington disease in Cuban population: implications for phenotype, epidemiology and predictive testing.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimeé; Laguna-Salvia, Leonides; Laffita-Mesa, José M; González-Zaldívar, Yanetza; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Zayas-Feria, Pedro; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis

    2013-12-15

    Huntington disease is the most frequent polyglutamine disorder with variable worldwide prevalence. Although some Latin American populations have been studied, HD prevalence in Cuban population remains unknown. In order to characterize the disease in Cuba, the relative frequency of HD was determined by studying 130 patients with chorea and 63 unrelated healthy controls, emphasizing in the molecular epidemiology of the disease. Sixty-two patients with chorea belonging to 16 unrelated families carried a pathological CAG expansion in the HTT gene, ranging from 39 to 67 repeats. Eighty-three percent of them come from the eastern region of the country. A significant inverse correlation between age at onset and expanded CAG repeats was seen. Intermediate alleles in affected individuals and controls represented 4.8% and 3.97% respectively, which have been a putative source of de novo mutation. This study represents the largest molecular characterization of Huntington disease in the Cuban population. These results may have significant implications for an understanding of the disease, its diagnosis and prognosis in Cuban patients, giving health professionals the tools to implement confirmatory genetic testing, pre-symptomatic testing and clinical trials in this population.

  1. Validation of an in vitro potency test for the Cuban hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Landys Chovel Cuervo, M; Reyes Huerta, N

    2002-01-01

    Cuban Hepatitis B vaccine is used for immunisation in our country and by other countries. There is a need to harmonise the quality control procedures, mainly the potency tests. Taking into account that the in vivo potency test is more expensive, variable and longer than the alternative methods and that the commercial kits are expensive, we designed an in-house method based on the principle of the previous neutralisation test (using Hepanostika anti-HbsAg kit). This is the same principle used by the Cuban Hepatitis B manufacturer for lot release. The aim of this paper was to validate our in vitro method, to replace the in vivo test in our laboratory. We evaluated validation parameters such as specificity, accuracy, and precision with outstanding results. We also correlated our method with the in vitro test performed by the Cuban manufacturer (r=0.96, p=0.0093) and the method performed by Venezuela using commercial kits (for direct determination of antigen) and we got very good results (r=0.998, p=0.0009). The correlation with the in vivo potency test (using Hepanostika anti-HbsAg kit) was also good (r=0.995, p=0.0008).

  2. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today.

  3. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico. PMID:22171172

  4. Lessons from the margins of globalization: appreciating the Cuban health paradox.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Yassi, Annalee

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognized that Cuba, despite poor economic performance, has achieved and sustained health indices comparable to those in developed countries--the Cuban Paradox. There has been, however, remarkably little scholarship evaluating how this has been accomplished, especially during a period of extreme economic hardship. Cuba's exclusion from the mainstream of "globalization," moreover, allows us to gain insights into the population health impact of policies that have accompanied globalization. Cuba's experience challenges the conventional assumption that generating wealth is the fundamental precondition for improving health. As peoples around the world search for cost-effective ways to improve well-being, they might want to learn how alternative public policy approaches, such as those used in Cuba, may be effective. We therefore reviewed the literature on the health-wealth relationship in this globalizing era; then systematically examined public policy in Cuba, not only for health services (financing, vertical and horizontal integration, prevention and primary-care focus, inter-sectoral linkages, etc.) but for non-medical determinants of health as well. These included education, housing, nutrition, employment, etc. plus the community mobilization and social cohesion that the Cuban system has generated. It appears that the active implementation of public policy affecting a wide variety of health determinants explains the Cuban paradox, and that the international community can learn from Cuba's experience. The prospect for healthy public policy can thus exist within, rather than only on the margins of globalization. The importance of monitoring how Cuba sustains such policies as it faces growing challenges in this globalizing era is increasingly worth observing.

  5. Cobalt Clusters with Cubane-Type Topologies Based on Trivacant Polyoxometalate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Giménez-Saiz, Carlos; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-01-19

    Four novel cobalt-substituted polyoxometalates having cobalt cores exhibiting cubane or dicubane topologies have been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, electrochemistry, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray single-crystal analysis, and magnetic studies. The tetracobalt(II)-substituted polyoxometalate [Co4(OH)3(H2O)6(PW9O34)](4-) (1) consists of a trilacunary [B-α-PW9O34](9-) unit which accommodates a cubane-like {Co(II)4O4} core. In the heptacobalt(II,III)-containing polyoxometalates [Co7(OH)6(H2O)6(PW9O34)2](9-) (2), [Co7(OH)6(H2O)4(PW9O34)2]n(9n-) (3), and [Co7(OH)6(H2O)6(P2W15O56)2](15-) (4), dicubane-like {Co(II)6Co(III)O8} cores are encapsulated between two heptadentate [B-α-PW9O34](9-) (in 2 and 3) or [α-P2W15O56](15-) (in 4) ligands. While 1, 2, and 4 are discrete polyoxometalates, 3 exhibits a polymeric, chain-like structure that results from the condensation of polyoxoanions of type 2. The magnetic properties of these complexes have been fitted according to an anisotropic exchange model in the low-temperature regime and discussed on the basis of ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions with angles Co-L-Co (L = O, OH) close to orthogonality and weakly antiferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions connected through central diamagnetic Co(3+) ion. Moreover, we will show the interest of the unique spin structures provided by these cubane and dicubane cobalt topologies in molecular spintronics (molecular spins addressed though an electric field) and quantum computing (spin qu-gates). PMID:26731303

  6. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F. Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occulta sp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi. PMID:22328857

  7. The functioning of the Cuban home hospitalization programme: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Pol; Barroso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Armando; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the last decades hospital at home (HaH) programmes have been set up in many, mainly European, countries. The Cuban HaH programme is not hospital driven, but the responsibility of the first line health services, and family doctors play a pivotal role. Methods We analyse the structure and functioning of the Cuban programme. In this descriptive study, information was prospectively collected on HaH patients admitted between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2002. Results Admission rates varied between areas from 0.014 to 0.035 per person per year (ppy). The < 1y and 1–4y age groups had the highest admission rates. In one area the follow-up of pregnancy problems led to high 15–24y and 25–49y female admission rates (0,070 and 0,058 respectively). Respiratory affections were the most frequent reason for admission (32,6%), followed by early hospital discharge (16,0%) and gynaeco-obstetrical problems (10.8%). The median length of stay varied from 5 to 7 days between regions and from 5 days (early discharge) to 7 days (gynaeco-obstetrical problems) in function of the reason for admission. On average an HaH episode entailed 1.4 and 1.6 contacts per patient-day with the family doctor and nurse respectively. Conclusion Difference in admission criteria in function of geography, distance to the hospital, transport facilities, and staff factors, as well as differences in hospital policy on early discharge explain the observed variability. The programme plays an important role in the integrated approach to quality care in the Cuban health system, but could benefit from more uniform admission criteria. PMID:17540015

  8. What percentage of the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic is known?

    PubMed

    de Arazoza, Héctor; Lounes, Rachid; Pérez, Jorge; Hoang, Thu

    2003-01-01

    The data for the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic from 1986 to 2000 were presented. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of the HIV detection system, two methods were used to estimate the size of the HIV-infected population, backcalculation and a dynamical model. From these models it can be estimated that in the worst scenario 75% of the HIV-infected persons are known and in the best case 87% of the total number of persons that have been infected with HIV have been detected by the National Program. These estimates can be taken as a measure of the efficiency of the detection program for HIV-infected persons.

  9. Comparison between in vitro potency tests for Cuban hepatitis B vaccine: contribution to the standardization process.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Mario Landys Chovel; de Castro Yanes, Ania Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Quality control of recombinant Hepatitis B vaccines performed by National Control Laboratories prior to marketing vaccine batches requires in vivo and or a well validated in vitro potency assays as recommended by WHO technical series. The in vitro test must also demonstrate its suitability for monitoring the consistency of the vaccine manufacturer. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between both in vitro potency tests performed by Cuban manufacturer and National Control Laboratory for Hepatitis B vaccine and the suitability of our method for monitoring the manufacturer's test results and consistency. We also intended to contribute to the standardisation process consisting of in vitro methods for this vaccine.

  10. Topology of magnetic-field induced electron current density in the cubane molecule.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Stefano; Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2008-05-21

    A spatial model of the electronic current density induced in the cubane molecule by applying an external magnetic-field has been constructed employing quantum mechanical methods at the Hartree-Fock level of accuracy. The topological features of the current density vector field are described via a stagnation graph that shows the isolated points and the lines at which the current vanishes. Shielding density maps based on the differential Biot-Savart law, along with a collection of current density maps, explain magnetic shielding at hydrogen and carbon nuclei, and virtual shielding at ring and cage centers. PMID:18500863

  11. A Witness to French-Cuban Cooperation in Physics in the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernogora, Jacqueline

    In France in 1968 many lively discussions and debates took place at several universities and laboratories in which official authority was questioned. Very often in such debates someone would stand up and ask the previous speaker: "Who are you to assert such a thing?" or "From where are you speaking?" Forty years later, to avoid such questions, I will say right away "from where" I am writing this text, which is by no means an exhaustive study of French-Cuban collaboration in physics at that time, but rather a personal recollection.

  12. Comparison of major immunoglobulins intrathecal synthesis patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban patients with angiostrongyliasis.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Moreira, Juan M; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis.

  13. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  14. Patterns of Caregiving of Cuban, Other Hispanic, Caribbean Black, and White Elders in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Newman, Frederick L.; Mauro, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Caregivers in Miami, Florida (185 Cubans, 108 other Hispanics, 229 non-Hispanic Whites, and 73 Caribbean Blacks) were described and compared along demographic and health variables, cultural attitudes, and caregiving behaviors. Participants were recruited at random through Home Health Services (61 %) and convenience sampling in the community (39 %), and interviewed at their home. Standardized instruments and measures constructed for this study were pretested. Multivariate analyses showed that the ethnic groups differed in age, education, income, and number of persons giving care, while caregiver health and patient functioning were similar. Controlling for demographics, differences in cultural variables were small. The sense of obligation, emotional attachment, openness about who should give care, spirituality, use of family help or community services were comparable in all groups. Commitment to caregiving was high, driven mainly by patient needs. Cubans had the greatest family stability, and worked the hardest, with the lowest sense of burden. Caribbean Black caregivers lived in bigger families, were youngest, and their patients had the lowest cognitive status. Burden was felt most by White caregivers who were older than the others. Professionals need to understand complex belief systems and behavior patterns to assist caregivers in mobilizing appropriate resources. PMID:23636833

  15. Consequences of sea level variability and sea level rise for Cuban territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, M.; Martínez, C. A.; Marzo, O.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was to determine a first approximation of coastal zone flooding by 2100, taking into account the more persistent processes of sea level variability and non-accelerated linear sea level rise estimation to assess the main impacts. The annual linear rate of mean sea level rise in the Cuban archipelago, obtained from the longest tide gauge records, has fluctuated between 0.005 cm/year at Casilda and 0.214 cm/year at Siboney. The main sea level rise effects for the Cuban coastal zone due to climate change and global warming are shown. Monthly and annual mean sea level anomalies, some of which are similar to or higher than the mean sea level rise estimated for halfway through the present century, reinforce the inland seawater penetration due to the semi-daily high tide. The combination of these different events will result in the loss of goods and services, and require expensive investments for adaption.

  16. Radical-scavenging activity, protective effect against lipid peroxidation and mineral contents of monofloral Cuban honeys.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Giampieri, Francesca; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Quiles, José L; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Several monofloral Cuban honeys were analyzed to determine their free radical-scavenging activity and from this the total antioxidant content was estimated. The protective effect against lipid peroxidation in an in vitro model of rat liver homogenates was evaluated and, lastly, the mineral content of the honeys, which can be related to the maintenance of intracellular oxidative balance, was determined. The scavenging capacities against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were determined using the spin-trapping technique and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated through the production of TBARS and hydroperoxides. All honeys tested showed potential antioxidant activity with Linen vine displaying the highest scavenging capacity towards the DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, while the least efficient was Christmas vine honey. Honeys also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent mode, lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates, with Linen vine resulting the best while the least effective was Christmas vine honey. The ability to scavenge free radicals and protect against lipid peroxidation may contribute to the ability of certain Cuban honeys to help in preventing/reducing some inflammatory diseases in which oxidative stress is involved. A total of eight minerals were identified and quantified as follows: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc. Minerals found in higher concentrations were iron, zinc and manganese.

  17. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  18. Insights into the mechanism of O₂ formation and release from the Mn₄O₄L₆ "cubane" cluster.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Aleksey E; Geletii, Yurii V; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2010-11-01

    To probe photoinduced water oxidation catalyzed by the Mn₄O₄L₆ cubane clusters, we have computationally studied the mechanism and controlling factors of the O₂ formation from the [Mn₄O₄L₆] catalyst, 6. It was demonstrated that dissociation of an L = H₂PO₂⁻ ligand from 6 facilitates the direct O-O bond formation that proceeds with a 28.3 (33.4) kcal/mol rate-determining energy barrier at the transition state TS1. This step (the O-O single bond formation) of the reaction is a two-electron oxidation/reduction process, during which two oxo ligands are transformed into to μ²:η²-O₂²⁻ unit, and two ("distal") Mn centers are reduced from the 4+ to the 3+ oxidation state. Next two-electron oxidation/reduction occurs by "dancing" of the resulted O₂²⁻ fragment between the Mn¹ and Mn²/Mn(2')-centers, keeping its strong coordination to the Mn(1')-center. As a result of this four-electron oxidation/reduction process Mn centers of the Mn₄-core of I transform from {Mn¹(III)-Mn(1')(III)-Mn²(IV)-Mn(2')(IV)} to {Mn¹(II)-Mn(1')(II)-Mn²(III)-Mn(2')(III)} in IV. In other words, upon O₂ formation in cationic complex [Mn₄O₄L₅](+), I, all four Mn-centers are reduced by one electron each. The overall reaction I → TS1 → II → III → TS2 → IV → TS3 → V → VI + O₂ is found to be exothermic by 15.4 (10.5) kcal/mol. We analyze the lowest spin states and geometries of all reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products of the targeted reaction. PMID:20925417

  19. The cytotoxic effects of brown Cuban propolis depend on the nemorosone content and may be mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto L; Reis, Felippe H Z; Dalalio, Felipe M; Nuñez Figueredo, Yanier; Cuesta Rubio, Osmany; Uyemura, Sergio A; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2015-02-25

    Three main types of Cuban propolis directly related to their secondary metabolite composition have been identified: brown, red and yellow propolis; the former is majoritarian and is characterized by the presence of nemorosone. In this study, brown Cuban propolis extracts were found cytotoxic against HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes, in close association with the nemorosone contents. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver the extracts displayed uncoupling activity, which was demonstrated by the increase in succinate-supported state 4 respiration rates, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, and a marked ATP depletion. As in cells, the degree of such mitotoxic events was closely correlated to the nemorosone content. The propolis extracts that do not contain nemorosone were neither cytotoxic nor mitotoxic, except R-29, whose detrimental effect upon cells and mitochondria could be mediated by its isoflavonoids and chalcones components, well known mitochondrial uncouplers. Our results at least partly unravel the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban propolis, particularly regarding brown propolis, and raise concerns about the toxicological implication of Cuban propolis consumption.

  20. The Experiences of Cuban American Women Attending a Hispanic Serving Institution and the Influences on Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owles, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding and gather insight into the experiences of Cuban American women attending a 4-year, public, Hispanic Serving Institution and how those experiences influenced their identity development. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with 12 self-identified Cuban…

  1. The Role of the Cuban Press in International Political Communication: "Granma Weekly Review" and Castro's U.S. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Thomas V.

    This paper reviews political symbols aimed at the United States found in "Granma Weekly Review" and in Fidel Castro's speeches to see if they have changed in a predicted manner over an 18-year period and whether changes in symbol content of "Granma" and Castro's speeches correspond. The paper first explains the functions of the Cuban media, and…

  2. Cuban Youth Culture and Receding Futures: Hip Hop, Reggaetón and "Pedagogías Marginal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel; Gomez, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Cuba finds itself at the centre of various discourses yet again, as publications such as "The Economist" and others debate the future of Cuban culture and society. While issues of economics, ideology and politics are fertile ground for discussion, they do not encompass the totality of such a conversation. The authors argue that critical…

  3. A Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Framework Based on Cubane-Type [Co4 (μ3 -F)3 (μ3 -SO4 )](3+) Clusters for Gas Storage and Adsorption Selectivity of Benzene over Cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenbin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Chen, Wen-Zhe

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) not only have high water stability, but also exhibit high adsorption capacity towards organic molecules, in particular hydrocarbons. Herein we report a rare metal fluoride organic framework MFOF-1 with high hydrophobicity, which is constructed from unprecedented fluoride- and sulfate-bridged cubane-type tetranuclear cobalt clusters. MFOF-1 consists of three types of polyhedral cages with face-sharing configurations, and possesses a novel (3,9)-connected 3D+3D→3D self-interpenetrating array or the rare pyr topology. MFOF-1 shows high thermal stability and high stability in water and even acid/base aqueous solutions, and exhibits rather high H2 and CO2 storage capacities at ambient pressure. Remarkably, MFOF-1 shows little adsorption of water but considerably high uptakes of methanol, n-hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene, and exhibits a certain degree of adsorption selectivity of benzene over cyclohexane. PMID:27376623

  4. A K⁺ channel blocking peptide from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Coronas, Fredy I V; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Possani, Lourival D

    2014-03-01

    A proteomic analysis of the venom obtained from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi was performed. Venom was obtained by electrical stimulation, separated by high performance liquid chromatography, and the molecular masses of their 50 protein components were identified by mass spectrometry. A peptide of 3940 Da molecular mass was obtained in pure form and its primary structure determined. It contains 37 amino acid residues, including three disulfide bridges. Electrophysiological experiments showed that this peptide is capable of blocking reversibly K(+)-channels hKv1.1 with a Kd close to 1 μM, but is not effective against hKv1.4, hERG1 and EAG currents, at the same concentration. This is the first protein component ever isolated from this species of scorpion and was assigned the systematic number α-KTx 2.14.

  5. What percentage of the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic is known?

    PubMed

    de Arazoza, Héctor; Lounes, Rachid; Pérez, Jorge; Hoang, Thu

    2003-01-01

    The data for the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic from 1986 to 2000 were presented. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of the HIV detection system, two methods were used to estimate the size of the HIV-infected population, backcalculation and a dynamical model. From these models it can be estimated that in the worst scenario 75% of the HIV-infected persons are known and in the best case 87% of the total number of persons that have been infected with HIV have been detected by the National Program. These estimates can be taken as a measure of the efficiency of the detection program for HIV-infected persons. PMID:15849950

  6. Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

    1995-01-01

    The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country.

  7. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  8. Ethnicity and difference in dengue virus-specific memory T cell responses in Cuban individuals.

    PubMed

    de la C Sierra, Beatriz; García, Gissell; Pérez, Ana B; Morier, Luis; Alvarez, Mayling; Kourí, Gustavo; Guzmán, María G

    2006-01-01

    The different risk factors associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis needs yet additional clarification. The exceptional epidemiological circumstances in Cuba allow their evaluation in a well-defined situation. In the present study the memory T cell response of 80 Cuban donors previously infected with dengue-1 and dengue-2 during the 1977 and 1981 epidemics, and belonging to different ethnic groups, was examined. White people showed, in contrast to black people, stronger and remarkably cross-reactive dengue virus-specific memory CD4(+) T lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma release. The observed variation in T cell response according to ethnicity could be related to the immunopathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and may partially explain the epidemiological evidence that black individuals are at lower risk for the most severe dengue clinical course compared with white individuals.

  9. High time: Cuban TV serials spur debate on sensitive social issues.

    PubMed

    Trinquete, Dixie E

    2012-04-01

    A young doctor with an HIV-positive lover; a teen victim of sexual violence; a battered wife; a man who has recently discovered his homosexuality and is suffering the stigma of a machista society...these are just some of the characters who have populated prime-time Cuban TV serials over the last few years. These shows are seen by millions across the country, a cultural phenomenon unrivalled in audience share only during baseball season. While these newer telenovelas are just as fictional as their predecessors, they have outgrown the term "soap operas" and merit greater attention: the lives in their storylines hit close to home and have given their audience cause for reflection.

  10. Genetic diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii in colonized Cuban infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Diaz, Raúl; Toraño, Gilda; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a leading cause of opportunistic infections among immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of P. jirovecii from colonized Cuban infants and toddlers by analysis of four genetic loci: mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA, cytochrome b (CYB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and β-tubulin (β-tub). We determined the multilocus profiles based on concatenated genotype data (multilocus genotype; MLG) and nucleotide sequences (multilocus sequence analysis; MLSA) respectively, calculated the discriminatory power of each analysis, and investigated possible associations with demographic and clinical data. Sixteen of 51 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swab specimens (years 2010-2013) with high P. jirovecii load were selected for downstream analysis. In mixed allelic profiles all genotypes/nucleotide sequence patterns were considered separately. All samples could be genotyped based on mtLSU, CYB and β-tub locus. However, the SOD locus could be successfully amplified in only 7/16 (44%) specimens. Eight different P. jirovecii MLGs were identified among the 16 cases and eight samples presented identical MLG (MLG 1). Seventeen MLSA profiles were distinguished. No statistical association between genotypes or MLGs and demographic or clinical data could be identified. For MLSA the higher discriminatory power (S=0.976) was observed. The combination of mtLSU, CYB and β-tub loci proved to be useful for molecular epidemiology studies of P. jirovecii. A total of 17 different MLSA profiles observed in 16 specimens indicated high genetic variability of P. jirovecii circulating in colonized Cuban infants and toddlers. PMID:24412726

  11. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  12. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii.

  13. Hydroxide-bridged cubane complexes of nickel(II) and cadmium(II): magnetic, EPR, and unusual dynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Pascui, Andrea E; Pellechia, Perry J; Smith, Mark D; Jezierska, Julia; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The reactions of M(ClO4)2·xH2O (M = Ni(II) or Cd(II)) and m-bis[bis(1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (Lm) in the presence of triethylamine lead to the formation of hydroxide-bridged cubane compounds of the formula [M4(μ3-OH)4(μ-Lm)2(solvent)4](ClO4)4, where solvent = dimethylformamide, water, acetone. In the solid state the metal centers are in an octahedral coordination environment, two sites are occupied by pyrazolyl nitrogens from Lm, three sites are occupied by bridging hydroxides, and one site contains a weakly coordinated solvent molecule. A series of multinuclear, two-dimensional and variable-temperature NMR experiments showed that the cadmium(II) compound in acetonitrile-d3 has C2 symmetry and undergoes an unusual dynamic process at higher temperatures (ΔGLm‡ = 15.8 ± 0.8 kcal/mol at 25 °C) that equilibrates the pyrazolyl rings, the hydroxide hydrogens, and cadmium(II) centers. The proposed mechanism for this process combines two motions in the semirigid Lm ligand termed the “Columbia Twist and Flip:” twisting of the pyrazolyl rings along the Cpz–Cmethine bond and 180° ring flip of the phenylene spacer along the CPh–Cmethine bond. This dynamic process was also followed using the spin saturation method, as was the exchange of the hydroxide hydrogens with the trace water present in acetonitrile-d3. The nickel(II) analogue, as shown by magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, has an S = 4 ground state, and the nickel(II) centers are ferromagnetically coupled with strongly nonaxial zero-field splitting parameters. Depending on the Ni–O–Ni angles two types of interactions are observed: J1 = 9.1 cm(–1) (97.9 to 99.5°) and J2 = 2.1 cm(–1) (from 100.3 to 101.5°). “Broken symmetry” density functional theory calculations performed on a model of the nickel(II) compound support these observations.

  14. Copper(II) cubanes with a {Cu4O} core and well defined S = 1 ground state.

    PubMed

    Escuer, A; Mayans, J; Font-Bardia, M

    2016-01-28

    The reaction of 2-pyridinemethanol with copper 4-fluorobenzoate has yielded a family of type II cubanes with formula [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)3(NO3)] (), [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4] () and [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4(H2O)] (). These systems exhibit an unexpected S = 1 ground state and their magnetic properties have been unambiguously characterized and rationalized as a function of the asymmetry of the {Cu4O4} cage and Cu-O-Cu bond angles. Analysis of the coupling constants was performed applying new interaction schemes. Magneto-structural correlations have been performed from the analysis of previously reported type II copper cubanes. PMID:26687676

  15. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  16. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation.

  17. Reliability and validity of a Spanish version of the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale in a Cuban population.

    PubMed

    Garófalo Gómez, Nicolás; Fernández Concepción, Otman; Gómez García, Ana María

    2013-11-01

    The Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) is a brief, accurate, and acceptable measurement scale of the impact of pediatric epilepsy on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of both the child and the child's family as perceived by the child's parent(s). The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish language version of the IPES in Cuban children with epilepsy. The IPES was translated and adapted to Cuban culture and administered to 76 parents of children with epilepsy. The principal component analysis indicated that two factors accounted for 72% of the variance of the IPES (family relationships and health and social well-being). The IPES was also able to detect differences in HRQOL between subjects according to epilepsy severity. The internal consistency coefficient was 0.962, and the test-retest reliability was 0.979. The Cuban version of IPES can be used to measure a child's epilepsy-specific HRQOL in Cuba. PMID:23992962

  18. Binding of Reactive Oxygen Species at Fe-S Cubane Clusters.

    PubMed

    Bruska, Marta K; Stiebritz, Martin T; Reiher, Markus

    2015-12-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the biochemistry of the cell and occur in degenerative processes as well as in signal transduction. Iron-sulfur proteins are particularly oxygen-sensitive and their inorganic cofactors frequently undergo ROS-induced decomposition reactions. As experimental knowledge about these processes is still incomplete we present here a quantum chemical study of the relative energetics for the binding of the most relevant ROS to [Fe4S4] clusters. We find that cubane clusters with one uncoordinated Fe atom (as found, for instance, in aconitase) bind all oxygen derivatives considered, whereas activation of triplet O2 to singlet O2 is required for binding to valence-saturated iron centers in these clusters. The radicals NO and OH feature the most exothermic binding energies to Fe atoms. Direct sulfoxidation of coordinating cysteine residues is only possible by OH or H2O2 as attacking agents. The thermodynamic picture of ROS binding to iron-sulfur clusters established here can serve as a starting point for studying reactivity-modulating effects of the cluster-embedding protein environment on ROS-induced decomposition of iron-sulfur proteins. PMID:26585994

  19. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  20. Structure, magnetic properties, polarized neutron diffraction, and theoretical study of a copper(II) cubane.

    PubMed

    Aronica, Christophe; Chumakov, Yurii; Jeanneau, Erwann; Luneau, Dominique; Neugebauer, Petr; Barra, Anne-Laure; Gillon, Béatrice; Goujon, Antoine; Cousson, Alain; Tercero, Javier; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the synthesis, X-ray and neutron diffraction crystal structures, magnetic properties, high field-high frequency EPR (HF-EPR), spin density and theoretical description of the tetranuclear CuII complex [Cu4L4] with cubane-like structure (LH2=1,1,1-trifluoro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-aza-hept-3-en-2-one). The simulation of the magnetic behavior gives a predominant ferromagnetic interaction J1 (+30.5 cm(-1)) and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction J2 (-5.5 cm(-1)), which correspond to short and long Cu-Cu distances, respectively, as evidence from the crystal structure [see formulate in text]. It is in agreement with DFT calculations and with the saturation magnetization value of an S=2 ground spin state. HF-EPR measurements at low temperatures (5 to 30 K) provide evidence for a negative axial zero-field splitting parameter D (-0.25+/-0.01 cm(-1)) plus a small rhombic term E (0.025+/-0.001 cm(-1), E/D = 0.1). The experimental spin distribution from polarized neutron diffraction is mainly located in the basal plane of the CuII ion with a distortion of yz-type for one CuII ion. Delocalization on the ligand (L) is observed but to a smaller extent than expected from DFT calculations. PMID:18792037

  1. Mycoplasma hominis in Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis isolates: association with parasite genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jorge; Rodríguez, Nadia; Fernández, Carmen; Mondeja, Brian; Sariego, Idalia; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Rojas, Lazara

    2012-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis can be naturally infected with intracellular Mycoplasma hominis. This bacterial infection may have implications for trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. The objective of the study was to report the presence of M. hominis in Cuban T. vaginalis isolates and to describe the association between the phenotype M. hominis infected with RAPD genetic polymorphism of T. vaginalis. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine genetic differences among 40 isolates of T. vaginalis using a panel of 30 random primers and these genetic data were correlated with the infection of isolates with M. hominis. The trees drawn based on RAPD data showed no relations with metronidazole susceptibility and significantly association with the presence of M. hominis (P=0.043), which demonstrates the existence of concordance between the genetic relatedness and the presence of M. hominis in T. vaginalis isolates. This result could point to a predisposition of T. vaginalis for the bacterial enters and/or survival. PMID:22584035

  2. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25716550

  3. Spatiotemporal genetic differentiation of Cuban natural populations of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis.

    PubMed

    Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Blanco, Gloria; Sánchez, José A; Monnerot, Monique; Solignac, Michel; García-Machado, Erik

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the spatiotemporal genetic structure of Farfantepenaeus notialis populations using five microsatellites loci in order to understand the influence of natural events such as hurricanes on the genetic drift/migration balance as the main cause for the variation of allele frequencies over time. The results were compared with the previous ones obtained from allozymes and mtDNA. High and stable genetic diversity levels (He=0.879+/-0.0015) were found over eight years for the populations that inhabit the south Cuban platform, however significant changes of allele frequencies were detected over time. The F(ST) estimates, albeit low, revealed significant differences among populations inside the Ana Maria Gulf for 1995 but not for the 1999 and 2003 samples. The F(ST), AMOVA and the genetic distance analysis revealed the instability of the genetic structure over time in accordance with allozymes results. The correspondence of the microsatellite results with those obtained from allozymes confirm the effects of migration enhanced by natural events as the main cause of the temporal variation of allele frequencies. The genetic drift effect was discarded through the evaluation of Ne and the M ratio, while natural selection effects were rejected because of the lowest probability of microsatellite loci being under selective pressures. The microsatellite data are also consistent with the results obtained with mtDNA in detecting significant and persistent genetic differences between the Gulfs of Ana María and Batabanó for the years 1995 and 2003.

  4. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    PubMed

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  5. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Avila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital 'Centro Habana', in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50·0%) were aged 1-4 years, 97 (57·1%) were male, and 106 (62·4%), 92 (54·1%) and 69 (40·6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91·2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42·4%) and 62 (36·5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4·9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  6. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  7. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Martín Blanco, F; González Sansón, G; Pina Amargós, F; Clero Alonso, L

    2010-06-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2 m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m2), while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m2 at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now.

  8. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Martín Blanco, F; González Sansón, G; Pina Amargós, F; Clero Alonso, L

    2010-06-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2 m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m2), while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m2 at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now. PMID:20527467

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Recent Cuban Mycoplasma genitalium Isolates Determined by a Modified Cell-Culture-Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Mondeja, Brian A.; Rodríguez, Nadia M.; Barroto, Brenda; Blanco, Orestes

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M. genitalium strains isolated from endocervical and urethral swab specimens from Cuban patients together with four reference strains isolated from specimens collected from men in Denmark, Sweden and Australia. Azithromycin was the most active drug against two of the Cuban M. genitalium strains with MICs values of 0.008 mg/liter, however, one strain was macrolide resistant with an MIC of >8 mg/liter, and the A2059G resistant genotype. Ciprofloxacin was the least active antimicrobial drug and moxifloxacin was the most active fluoroquinolone against the new clinical strains, although an MIC of 1 mg/l was found for two strains. However, no relevant parC mutations were detected. MICs for tetracyclines were 0.5–4 mg/liter. Although the number of Cuban strains was low, the results suggest that a single-dose azithromycin treatment could be ineffective, and that a second-line treatment with moxifloxacin, should become an option in Cuba. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of M. genitalium strains from the Latin-American region, and the first detection of macrolide resistance in such strains. PMID:27679992

  10. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, José Luis; León, Gunnary; Rodríguez, Rodet; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; García-Machado, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The genus Rivulus is currently comprised of two species, R. cylindraceus and R. insulaepinorum, which are endemic to Cuba. However, the taxonomic status of the latter species remains dubious because of the poor quality of the original description. In addition, a recent barcoding survey suggests that the two species may be conspecific. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two species represent a single evolutionary clade. To delimit the species and their evolutionary history, we used a combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses, with both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, tests of phylogeographic hypotheses, combined with morphological measurements and information on known dispersal barriers and species distribution. None of the data sets support R. insulaepinorum and R. cylindraceus as separate taxa. However, a new species, restricted to the northwestern part of the main island, was identified by phylogenetic analyses, body colour pattern and geographical distribution. The evolutionary distance between the two lineages (cytb, d=15%; CAM-4, d=2.5%) indicates a long period of divergence. Phylogeographic analyses shed light on the dispersal history of R. cylindraceus, which probably originated on the Isla de la Juventud. They also suggest that each lineage had contrasting histories; Rivulus sp. is restricted to a relatively small geographic area whereas R. cylindraceus has dispersed considerably and more than once from its centre of origin, probably facilitated by sea level fluctuations. These results strengthen previous findings, i.e. that the diversity of Cuban freshwater fishes is far from well-known and deserves more in-depth studies, and that vicariance and dispersal events have resulted in a complex biogeographical landscape which has had a significant impact on the freshwater fishes of the Caribbean islands.

  11. The occupational prestige of women immigrants: a comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T A

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the occupational prestige of women workers born in Cuba and Mexico, who were at least 25 years of age at the time of immigration to the US. The empirical results indicate that the process of converting resources (examples, age, schooling, US residence) differ by both sex and nationality, with the Mexican males and females being more similar to each other than to Cubans, and vice versa. Mexicans have a more favorable 'conversion' of resources into prestige, but a lower level of resources. Immigrant women appear to be somewhat more disadvantaged relative to immigrant men, than are women workers in general, and both groups of women enjoy lower occupational prestige than their male counterparts. Unlike the case of male immigrants, US work experience tends to decrease the prestige scores for females. So does southern residence. The pattern of achieving occupational prestige is unique among women immigrants, despite nationality differences. The data suggest that the social mobility process for female immigrants differ from the process for males, perhaps because of cultural barriers that make entry to 'pink collar' jobs difficult. For instance, the widespread segregation of the labor market makes it more difficult for these women than for males to acquire useful information leading to better jobs. Their US experience thus need not be of much value. 2ndly, the existing jobs require immigrant women to learn English or other new skills at their own expense, or to turn their foreign credentials into those acceptable for the US market. Finally, relative concentration in the South may negatively women's occupational prestige, more so than men's. Immigrant women are also handicapped by a view of themselves as 'supplementary earners', and are more apprehensive about job market changes due to an unfamiliarity with American customs. Family responsibilities often hinder immigrant women's upward mobility, locking them into routine jobs with few avenues for

  12. Acquired and introduced macroparasites of the invasive Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Nicole; Price, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Rohr, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Because shifts in host–parasite relationships can alter host populations, attention should be given to the parasites that introduced species take with them or acquire in their introduced range. The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is a successful invasive species in Florida with its parasites in the native range being well-documented, but there is a void in the literature regarding what parasites were lost or introduced in its expansion. We necropsied 330 O. septentrionalis from Tampa, FL and compared their macroparasites to those of O. septentrionalis in their native range and to the parasites of anurans native to the Tampa, FL area to determine the species O. septentrionalis likely introduced or acquired in Florida. At least nine parasite species (Aplectana sp., Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai, Cylindrotaenia americana, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Centrorhynchus sp., unidentified trematode metacercariae, unidentified larval acuariids, and unidentified pentastomids) were isolated. We found no differences in parasite communities of adult male and female frogs, which averaged 19.36 parasite individuals and 1.39 parasite species per adult frog, and had an overall prevalence of 77.52%. Acuariid larvae were likely acquired by O. septentrionalis in FL because they are not found in their native range. O. lenteixeirai was likely introduced because it is commonly reported in O. septentrionalis' native range but has never been reported in FL-native anurans. Aplectana sp. is also likely introduced because it has been reported in several anurans in Cuba but only reported once in Florida. O. septentrionalis tended to harbor fewer of its native parasites in the introduced range, which is consistent with the enemy release hypothesis and potentially creates an immunological advantage for this invasive host. Because native populations can be threatened by introduced parasites, there is a need to further explore the frequency and rate at which non-native hosts

  13. Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intramolecular metal cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Rivière, Eric; Giorgi, Michel; Jamet, Hélène; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Tron, Thierry

    2013-05-20

    A novel tetranuclear copper(II) complex (1) was synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the ligand N-benzyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(1)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that complex 1 consists of a Cu4(OH)4 cubane core, where the four copper(II) centers are linked by μ3-hydroxo bridges. Each copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. X-ray analysis also evidenced an unusual metal cation-π interaction between the copper ions and phenyl substituents of the ligand. Calculations based on the density functional theory method were used to quantify the strength of this metal-π interaction, which appears as an important stabilizing parameter of the cubane core, possibly acting as a driving parameter in the self-aggregation process. In contrast, using the ligand N-phenethyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(2)), which only differs from L(1) by one methylene group, the same synthetic procedure led to a binuclear bis(μ-hydroxo)copper(II) complex (2) displaying intermolecular π-π interactions or, by a slight variation of the experimental conditions, to a mononuclear complex (3). These complexes were studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are reported and discussed.

  14. On the controversial fitting of susceptibility curves of ferromagnetic Cu(II) cubanes: insights from theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a tetranuclear Cu(II) complex, [Cu(4) (HL)(4)], which has a 4+2 cubane-like structure (H(3) L=N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(acetylacetoneimine)). These theoretical calculations indicate a quintet (S=2) ground state; the energy-level distribution of the magnetic states confirm Heisenberg behaviour and correspond to an S(4) spin-spin interaction model. The dominant interaction is the ferromagnetic coupling between the pseudo-dimeric units (J(1) =22.2 cm(-1)), whilst a weak and ferromagnetic interaction is found within the pseudo-dimeric units (J(2) =1.4 cm(-1)). The amplitude and sign of these interactions are consistent with the structure and arrangement of the magnetic Cu 3d orbitals; they accurately simulate the thermal dependence of magnetic susceptibility, but do not agree with the reported J values (J(1) =38.4 cm(-1), J(2) =-18.0 cm(-1)) that result from the experimental fitting. This result is not an isolated case; many other polynuclear systems, in particular 4+2 Cu(II) cubanes, have been reported in which the fitted magnetic terms are not consistent with the geometrical features of the system. In this context, theoretical evaluation can be considered as a valuable tool in the interpretation of the macroscopic behaviour, thus providing clues for a rational and directed design of new materials with specific properties.

  15. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    PubMed

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described.

  16. Creating Good Citizens in China: Comparing Grade 7-9 School Textbooks, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan-Choi Tse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and change in the…

  17. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  18. GPS constraints on 34 slow slip events within the Cascadia subduction zone, 1997-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, W.; Melbourne, T.; Santillan, M.; Miller, M.

    2008-04-01

    Refinements to GPS analyses in which we factor geodetic time series to better estimate both reference frames and transient deformation resolve 34 slow slip events located throughout the Cascadia subduction zone from 1997 through 2005. Timing of transient onset is determined with wavelet transformation of geodetic time series. Thirty continuous stations are included in this study, ranging from northern California to southwestern British Columbia. Our improvements in analysis better resolve the largest creep events and also identify many smaller events. At 48.5°N latitude, a 14-month average recurrence interval has been observed over eight events since 1997. Farther north along Vancouver Island a host of smaller events with a distinct 14-month periodicity also occurs. In southern Washington State, some of the largest transient displacements are observed but lack any obvious periodicity in their recurrence. Along central Oregon, an 18-month recurrence is evident, while in northern California an 11-month periodicity continues through 2005. We invert GPS offsets of the 12 best recorded events for thrust slip along the plate interface using a cross-validation scheme to derive optimal smoothing parameters. These 12 events have equivalent moment magnitudes between 6.3 and 6.8 and have 2-3 cm of slip. Unlike other subduction zones, no long-duration events are observed, and cumulative surface deformation is consistently less than 0.6 cm. The many newly resolved smaller transient events in Cascadia show that slow slip events occur frequently with GPS best capturing only the largest events. It is likely that slow slip events occur more frequently at levels not detectable with GPS.

  19. HIV awareness in China among women of reproductive age (1997-2005): a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Olga; Brown, James J; Smith, Peter W F; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-03-01

    HIV prevalence in China is less than one per cent, but the absolute number of people living with HIV/AIDS is large and growing. Given the limited scope of any potential cure for HIV, prevention plays a crucial role in controlling the epidemic. This paper examines the evolution of HIV awareness among women in China between 1997 and 2005. A regression decomposition analysis technique was used to disentangle the two main components driving a change in HIV awareness. The results show that HIV awareness has increased over time in China. The gaps between groups are narrowing over time and lower HIV awareness groups are catching up with the higher awareness groups. In 2005 education remained one of the main factors associated with HIV awareness, the other main factors being ethnicity, exposure to TV and newspapers. The increases in HIV awareness observed between 1997 and 2001 are similar between groups of women with different demographic characteristics, whereas between 2003 and 2005 increases are more pronounced among specific groups of women such as women from rural areas, women from Western parts of the country, women who belong to ethnic minorities and those with no education or with only primary education. The results suggest that the main driver of the observed change in HIV awareness over time in China is change in the environment such as in political commitment, interventions and campaigns rather than change in population structure.

  20. Community and federal collaboration to assess pregnancy outcomes in Alaska Native women, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Y; England, Lucinda J; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Wilson, Hoyt G; Klejka, Joseph; Tucker, Myra; Lewis, Claire; Kendrick, Juliette S

    2014-04-01

    The objectives are to report the estimated prevalence of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a defined population of Alaska Native women and also examine factors contributing to an intensive and successful collaboration between a tribal health center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigators abstracted medical record data from a random sample of singleton deliveries to residents of the study region occurring between 1997 and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to estimate the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of selected pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Records were examined for 505 pregnancies ending in a singleton delivery to 469 women. Pregnancy complication rates were 5.9% (95% CI 4.0, 8.4) for gestational diabetes mellitus, 6.1% (95% CI 4.2, 8.6%) for maternal chronic hypertension and 11.5% (95% CI 8.8, 14.6) for pregnancy associated hypertension, and 22.9% (95% CI 19.2-26.5 %) for anemia. The cesarean section rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.5, 7.5) and 3.8% (95% CI 2.3, 5.8) of newborns weighed >4,500 g. Few previous studies reported pregnancy outcomes among Alaska Native women in a specific geographic region of Alaska and regarding the health needs in this population. We highlight components of our collaboration that contributed to the success of the study. Studies focusing on special populations such as Alaska Native women are feasible and can provide important information on health indicators at the local level. PMID:23775248

  1. The United States' New Refugees: A Review of the Research on the Resettlement of Indochinese, Cubans, and Haitians. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This review of research on recent refugees to the United States focuses on the Indochinese, Haitians and Cubans. An introduction stresses the need for more information to enhance a better understanding of the newcomers. Succeeding sections review published literature on: (1) the development of Federal policy concerning refugees, emphasizing the…

  2. The Hedgehog and the Fox: A Discussion of the Approaches to the Analysis of ICT Reforms in Teacher Education of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ingvill; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to analyze educational reforms in which information and communications technology (ICT) is used as a central catalyst to change practises. We explore the relationship between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical findings drawing on the work of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom. We claim that reform research has…

  3. Cubans in the United States: A Bibliography for Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-1983. Bibliographies and Indexes in Sociology, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCorkle, Lyn, Comp.

    This volume brings together a wide-ranging body of English-language sources pertaining to Cuban American society. Some 1,600 references cite journal and periodical articles, dissertations, government reports, conference papers, and unpublished works. Spanish-language bibliographies that contain English-language titles or related Spanish-language…

  4. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students return from Cuba, some PICs

  5. Macrosomia Predictors in Infants Born to Cuban Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jeddú; Grandía, Raiden; Padilla, Liset; Rodríguez, Suilbert; Hernández García, Pilar; Lang Prieto, Jacinto; Márquez-Guillén, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Fetal macrosomia is the most important complication in infants of women with diabetes, whether preconceptional or gestational. Its occurrence is related to certain maternal and fetal conditions and negatively affects maternal and perinatal outcomes. The definitive diagnosis is made at birth if a newborn weighs >4000 g. OBJECTIVE Identify which maternal and fetal conditions could be macrosomia predictors in infants born to Cuban mothers with gestational diabetes. METHODS A case-control study comprising 236 women with gestational diabetes who bore live infants (118 with macrosomia and 118 without) was conducted in the América Arias University Maternity Hospital, Havana, Cuba, during 2002-2012. The dependent variable was macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). Independent maternal variables included body mass index at pregnancy onset, overweight or obesity at pregnancy onset, gestational age at diabetes diagnosis, pregnancy weight gain, glycemic control, triglycerides and cholesterol. Fetal variables examined included third-semester fetal abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight at ≥28 weeks (absolute and percentilized by Campbell and Wilkin, and Usher and McLean curves). Chi square was used to compare continuous variables (proportions) and the student t test (X ± SD) for categorical variables, with significance threshold set at p <0.05. ORs and their 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS Significant differences between cases and controls were found in most variables studied, with the exception of late gestational diabetes diagnosis, total fasting cholesterol and hypercholesterolemia. The highest OR for macrosomia were for maternal hypertriglyceridemia (OR 4.80, CI 2.34-9.84), third-trimester fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (OR 7.54, CI 4.04-14.06), and estimated fetal weight >90th percentile by Campbell and Wilkin curves (OR 4.75, CI 1.42-15.84) and by Usher and McLean curves (OR 8.81, CI 4.25-18.26). CONCLUSIONS Most variables assessed

  6. "A minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism": the Cuban experience.

    PubMed

    Gugler, J

    1980-01-01

    The case of Cuba provides social scientists with reasonably good information on urbanization policies and their implementation in 1 developing country committed to socialism. The demographic context is considered, and Cuban efforts to eliminate the rural-urban contradiction and to redefine the role of Havana are described. The impact of these policies is analyzed in terms of available data on urbanization patterns since January 1959 when the revolutionaries marched into Havana. Prerevolutionary urbanization trends are considered. Fertility in Cuba has declined simultaneously with mortality and even more rapidly. Projections assume a 1.85% annual growth rate, resulting in a population of nearly 15 million by the year 2000. Any estimate regarding the future trend in population growth must depend on prognosis of general living conditions and of specific government policies regarding contraception, abortion, female labor force participation, and child care facilities. If population growth in Cuba has been substantial, but less dramatic than that of many other developing countries, urban growth presents a similar picture. Cuba's highest rate of growth of the population living in urban centers with a population over 20,000, in any intercensal period during the 20th century, was 4.1%/year for 1943-1953. It dropped to 3.0% in the 1953-1970 period. Government policies achieved a measure of success in stemming the tide of rural-urban migration, but the aims of the revolutionary leadership went further. The objective was for urban dwellers to be involved in agriculture, and the living standards of the rural population were to be raised to approximate those of city dwellers. The goal of "urbanizing" the countryside found expression in a program designed to construct new small towns which could more easily be provided with services. A slowdown in the growth of Havana, and the concomitant weakening of its dominant position, was intended by the revolutionary leadership. Offical

  7. Impact of an improved Cuban emissions inventory on air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Gacita, M.; Alonso, M. F.; Longo, K. M.; de Freitas, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in the Central America and Caribbean regions is primarily fossil fuel based and one of the major sources of air pollution in the region. In Cuba, energy production is responsible for 99% of SO2 emissions, 98% of NOX and 94% of CO, with emissions in 2000 of 588.59 Gg, 149.57 Gg and 536.42 Gg, respectively, according to the Cuban National Inventory - CNI. Electric power generation plants, the most important sub-sector, are highlighted as point sources of high emissions, in particular, SO2. Global inventories are shown to be inaccurate for Cuba. RETRO has non-zero data for just one cell, over the city of Havana. EDGAR has deficiencies in its geographical distribution, with no emissions over the city of Havana, and the distribution of emissions by sectors is unrealistic according to the CNI: for instance, in the case of SO2, it distributes emissions nearly equally between electricity generation and the remaining sectors, which is inaccurate. More importantly, emissions are overestimated, with the notable exception of SO2 and NMVOC. The most important reasons are the particularities of Cuba, including the extensive employ of fossil fuels with little refining and high sulfur content in energy production and industrial processes such as asphalt production, and the use of low efficiency technologies. This work presents an improved emissions inventory with CNI data and detailed emissions for all major power generation plants. The impact of this improvement was assessed through numerical air quality simulations of the transport and transformation of these emissions from a regional perspective, conducted with the CCATT-BRAMS 3D atmospheric chemical transport model, developed and maintained by INPE, Brazil. Boundary conditions were supplied by global model MOCAGE with chemistry scheme RELACS. Simulations with the new inventory were conducted with CATT-BRAMS using chemical mechanism RELACS, incorporated as part of this work, for two months (January and August

  8. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer's research in a Cuban-American population: strategies to overcome the barriers.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Tappen, R; Buscemi, C; Rivera, R; Lezcano, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder's comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad). Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms. PMID:11398568

  9. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer's research in a Cuban-American population: strategies to overcome the barriers.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Tappen, R; Buscemi, C; Rivera, R; Lezcano, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder's comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad). Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms.

  10. On some Cuban species of the genus Longior Travassos & Kloss, 1958 (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Longior zayasi Coy, García & Alvarez, 1993 is established as incertae sedis because the males (declared as the holotype) are inconsistent with the generic diagnosis, particularly in relation to the morphology of the head and tail. Thus, the females of Longior zayasi species (which agree with the generic diagnosis) are renamed and re-described as Longior longior Morffe & García sp. n. We also described males found in the sample and considered as conspecific with the new species. A comparative table with the measurements of the most of the records of Longior longior is given. The male of Longior similis Morffe, García & Ventosa, 2009 is described from the type locality of the species and compared with the known males of the genus. A key to the females of the Cuban Longior is given. PMID:21594153

  11. Immunogenicity of a new Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine--vax-TyVi--in Cuban school children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Azze, Rolando Felipe Ochoa; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Martínez; Iniesta, Mónica Ginebra; Marchena, Xenia Rosa Ferriol; Alfonso, Vivian María Rodríguez; Padrón, Franklin Tomás Sotolongo

    2003-06-20

    A randomized, controlled, double blind study was carried out in Cuban children and teenagers aged 9-13 years to evaluate the immunogenicity of vax-TyVi-Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine-with respect control vaccines. Serum samples were taken before and 21 days after the immunization, and ELISA was used for the determination of antibodies to Vi polysaccharide. Subjects who received vax-TyVi and TYPHIM Vi (Pasteur-Mérieux) showed seroconversion rates of 85.61 and 78.36%, respectively. The geometric mean titer (GMT) values for Vi antibodies induced after vaccination were 6.27 microg/ml (5.40-7.38 microg/ml) and 5.97 microg/ml (5.01-7.10 microg/ml), respectively. In contrast, subjects receiving the tetanus toxoid vaccine showed 0% seroconversion.

  12. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin. PMID:24481848

  13. New Calisto species from Cuba, with insights on the relationships of Cuban and Bahamian taxa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Núnez Aguila, Rayner; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Three new species and a new subspecies of Calisto Hübner are described from Cuba, Calisto torrei sp. n. Núñez, Calisto dissimulatum sp. n. Núñez, Calisto aquilum sp. n. Núñez, and Calisto aquilum occidentalis ssp. n. Núñez. The immature stages of C. torrei and C. dissimulatum are also described. Notes on the distribution and biology of the species are given. All Cuban and Bahamian taxa form a monophyletic group which seems to have originated in northeastern Cuba spreading later to the west. DNA sequence data also allowed to recognize both Bahamian taxa, Calisto sibylla and Calisto apollinis stat. n., as distinct species, and to synonymize Calisto herophile parsonsi syn. n. under Calisto herophile.

  14. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  15. Probing the role of the bridging C509 between the [Fe4S4] cubane and the [Ni(p)Ni(d)] centre in the A-cluster of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhu, Xiaofei; Wang, Feng; Ying, Tianlei; Li, Pingwei; Huang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Xiangshi

    2011-01-28

    The A-cluster of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase consists of an [Fe(4)S(4)] cubane bridged to a [Ni(p)Ni(d)] centre via C509 cysteinate. The bridging cysteinate, which could be substituted by histidine imidazole, mediates "communication" between the [Fe(4)S(4)] cubane and the [Ni(p)Ni(d)] centre during the synthesis of acetyl-coenzyme A. PMID:21103478

  16. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  17. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. Conclusions The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides

  18. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  19. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  20. Cubane-type Cu(II)4 and Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 complexes based on pyridoxine: a versatile ligand for metal assembling.

    PubMed

    Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Julve, Miguel; De Munno, Giovanni; Martínez-Lillo, José

    2013-10-21

    By using Vitamin B6 in its monodeprotonated pyridoxine form (PN-H) [PN = 3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine], two tetranuclear compounds of formula [Mn4(PN-H)4(CH3CO2)3Cl2]Cl·2CH3OH·2H2O (1) and [Cu4(PN-H)4Cl2(H2O)2]Cl2 (2) have been synthesized and magneto-structurally characterized. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P1 whereas 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Fdd2 as space group. They exhibit Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 (1) and Cu(II)4 (2) cubane cores containing four monodeprotonated pyridoxine groups simultaneously acting as chelating and bridging ligands (1 and 2), three bridging acetate ligands in the syn-syn conformation (1), and two terminally bound chloride anions (1 and 2) plus two coordinated water molecules (2). The electroneutrality is achieved by the presence of chloride counterions in both compounds. Tri- [Mn(1) and Mn(3)] and divalent [Mn(2) and Mn(4)] manganese centers coexist in 1, all being six-coordinate with distorted Mn(1/3)O6 and Mn(2/4)O5Cl octahedral surroundings, respectively, the equatorial Mn-O bonds being about 0.2 Å shorter at the former ones. The two crystallographically independent copper(II) ions in 2 are five-coordinate in somewhat distorted CuO5 [Cu(1)] and CuO4Cl [Cu(2)] square pyramidal geometries. The values of the intracore metal-metal separation cover the ranges 3.144(1)-3.535(1) (1) and 2.922(6)-3.376(1) Å (2). The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K, and they correspond to an overall antiferromagnetic behavior with susceptibility maxima at 5.0 (1) and 65.0 K (2). The analysis of the magnetic susceptibility data showed the coexistence of intracore antiferro- and ferromagnetic interactions in the two compounds. Their values compare well with those existing in the literature for the parent systems.

  1. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  2. Heterometal cubane-type MFe(3)S(4) clusters (M = Mo, V) trigonally symmetrized with hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-) and tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate(1-) capping ligands.

    PubMed

    Fomitchev, Dmitry V; McLauchlan, Craig C; Holm, R H

    2002-02-25

    A series of heterometal cubane-type clusters containing [VFe(3)S(4)](2+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) cores has been prepared. Ligand substitution of [(DMF)(3)VFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) affords [(Tpms)VFe(3)S(4)L(3)](2)(-) (L = Cl(-) (8), EtS(-) (9), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-), p-MeC(6)H(4)O(-)). A new procedure for the preparation of molybdenum single cubanes is introduced by the reaction of recently reported [(Tp)MoS(S(4))](-) with FeCl(2)/NaSEt to afford [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) (1, 75% yield). This procedure is more efficient that the existing multistep synthesis of single cubanes, which generally affords clusters of mirror symmetry. Also prepared were [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)L(3)](-) (L = EtS(-) (2), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-)). Reduction of 1 with borohydride gives [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](2-) (5, 67%). Owing to the nature of the heterometal ligand, all clusters have idealized trigonal symmetry, reflected in their (1)H NMR spectra. Trigonal structures are demonstrated by crystallography of (Bu(4)N)[1,2], (Bu(4)N)(2)[5] x MeCN, and (Me(4)N)(2)[8,9]. The availability of 1 and 5 allows the first comparison of structures and (57)Fe isomer shifts of [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) in a constant ligand environment. Small increases in most bond distances indicate that an antibonding electron is added in the reduction of 1. Collective synthetic and electrochemical results from this and other studies demonstrate the existence of the series of oxidation states [VFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+,1+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](4+,3+,2+) whose relative stabilities within a given series are strongly ligand dependent. Isomer shifts indicate that the reduction of 1 largely affects the Fe(3) subcluster and are consistent with the formal descriptions [MoFe(3+)(2)Fe(2+)S(4)](3+) (1) and [MoFe(3+)Fe(2+)(2)S(4)](2+) (5). Reaction of 1 with excess Li(2)S in acetonitrile affords the double cubane [[(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(2)](2)(mu(2)(-)S)](2)(-), whose sulfide-bridged structure is supported by two sequential reductions separated by 290 mV, in analogy with

  3. Construction of magnet-type coordination polymers using high-spin {Ni4}-citrate cubane as secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Wang, Yanyan; Qin, Lei; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Hu, Yue-Qiao; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-06-28

    Three potassium(i)-nickel(ii)-citrate coordination polymers, [K4Ni6(cit)4(H2O)8]n (), [K14Ni17(cit)12(H2O)33]n·10nH2O () and [K8Ni12(cit)8(H2O)15]n·2nH2O (), have been self-assembled in a solvothermal synthesis. Interestingly, these three polymers share the common {Ni4(cit)4}(8-) cubane ({Ni4}-cit-cub) secondary building units. The diverse ways of linking the {Ni4}-cit-cubs and additional isolated octahedral Ni(ii) ions lead to disparate magnetic exchange-coupling interactions, namely ferromagnetic for and and antiferromagnetic for . More importantly, the weak ferromagnetic interactions do not lead to long-range magnetic ordering above 2 K in or , whereas the strong antiferromagnetic interaction in leads to uncompensated magnetic moment due to the non-collinear alignment of the spins. Further magnetic characterization confirms the coexistence of spin-canted antiferromagnetism and spin glass behaviour in . PMID:27294693

  4. A carboxylate-bridged Ni cluster with a distorted cubane topology: structure, magnetism and density functional studies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Himanshu; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2016-09-28

    Using a dicarboxylate ligand appended with (2-pyridyl)ethylamine unit, a new cluster [Ni(L(4))6(DMF)2(CH3OH)2(H2O)6][ClO4]4·2CH3OH·2CH3CO2C2H5 (1) [L(4)(2-): 3-[N-{2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl}amino]-bis(propionate)] has been synthesized, through 'coordination-driven self-assembly'. The crystal structure of 1 reveals a centrosymmetric octanuclear carboxylate-bridged nickel(ii) tetracation, with a distorted cubane topology. The four crystallographically independent nickel(ii) centres differ markedly in their coordination environment. Magnetic studies (2-300 K) reveal that in 1 the net magnetic-exchange is antiferromagnetic. Based on geometric parameters associated with two interacting nickel(ii) centres, six magnetic-exchange coupling constants (J values) were considered for magnetic data analysis. Notably, 1 provides the first example of a Ni cluster (i) bridged solely by carboxylates in three bridging modes (monatomic, syn-anti and anti-anti), (ii) exhibiting four ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic magnetic-interactions and (iii) demonstrating a good agreement between six J values (obtained from experimental data analysis) and those obtained from DFT calculations, at the B3LYP-level of theory. PMID:27530153

  5. Analysis of the experience of Cuban physicians in a Brazilian metropolis in accordance with the Paideia Method.

    PubMed

    Terra, Lilian Soares Vidal; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco; Lidola, Maria; Hernández, Silvia S; Millán, Juan Ignacio Martínez; Campos, Gastão Wagner de Sousa

    2016-09-01

    We had hoped that the Mais Médicos Program (More Doctors Program) would have generated several changes and reflections in each municipality in which it was deployed. In order to observe those changes, we sought to analyze the experience of Cuban physicians in the Mais Médicos program from an actor-centered perspective, based on the Paideia Method - an approach that seeks to enhance the ability of the subjects to analyze and intervene in their practice. We performed semi-structured interviews to analyze our research object that consisted in the experience of those actors included professionally in the Mais Médicos program in a metropolis with unique characteristics. In order to assess the interviews, we applied Content Analysis followed by Thematic Analysis. From the discourse of the actors, of which illustrative excerpts are transcribed in this article, we can affirm that the program's potential surpassed any initial barriers, presenting itself as fine-tuning instrument for replacing the biomedical model in line with the Paideia Method. PMID:27653067

  6. Direct measurement of the hydrogen-bonding effect on the intrinsic redox potentials of [4Fe-4S] cubane complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Niu, Shuqiang; Ichiye, Toshiko; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2004-12-01

    To probe how H-bonding effects the redox potential changes in Fe-S proteins, we produced and studied a series of gaseous cubane-type analogue complexes, [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(n)H(2n+1))](2-) and [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(n)H(2n)OH)](2-) (n = 4, 6, 11; Et = C(2)H(5)). Intrinsic redox potentials for the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+/3+) redox couple involved in these complexes were measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxidation energies from [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(n)H(2n)OH)](2-) to [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(n)H(2n)OH)](-) were determined directly from the photoelectron spectra to be approximately 130 meV higher than those for the corresponding [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(n)H(2n+1))](2-) systems, because of the OH...S hydrogen bond in the former. Preliminary Monte Carlo and density functional calculations showed that the H-bonding takes place between the -OH group and the S on the terminal ligand in [Fe(4)S(4)(SEt)(3)(SC(6)H(12)OH)](2-). The current data provide a direct experimental measure of a net H-bonding effect on the redox potential of [Fe(4)S(4)] clusters without the perturbation of other environmental effects.

  7. A carboxylate-bridged Ni cluster with a distorted cubane topology: structure, magnetism and density functional studies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Himanshu; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2016-09-28

    Using a dicarboxylate ligand appended with (2-pyridyl)ethylamine unit, a new cluster [Ni(L(4))6(DMF)2(CH3OH)2(H2O)6][ClO4]4·2CH3OH·2CH3CO2C2H5 (1) [L(4)(2-): 3-[N-{2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl}amino]-bis(propionate)] has been synthesized, through 'coordination-driven self-assembly'. The crystal structure of 1 reveals a centrosymmetric octanuclear carboxylate-bridged nickel(ii) tetracation, with a distorted cubane topology. The four crystallographically independent nickel(ii) centres differ markedly in their coordination environment. Magnetic studies (2-300 K) reveal that in 1 the net magnetic-exchange is antiferromagnetic. Based on geometric parameters associated with two interacting nickel(ii) centres, six magnetic-exchange coupling constants (J values) were considered for magnetic data analysis. Notably, 1 provides the first example of a Ni cluster (i) bridged solely by carboxylates in three bridging modes (monatomic, syn-anti and anti-anti), (ii) exhibiting four ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic magnetic-interactions and (iii) demonstrating a good agreement between six J values (obtained from experimental data analysis) and those obtained from DFT calculations, at the B3LYP-level of theory.

  8. Cuban epidemic neuropathy, 1991 to 1994: history repeats itself a century after the "amblyopia of the blockade".

    PubMed Central

    Ordúñez-García, P O; Nieto, F J; Espinosa-Brito, A D; Caballero, B

    1996-01-01

    The 1991 to 1994 epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba has been one of the more devastating in recent history, affecting more than 50,000 people throughout the entire country with clinical manifestations of optic and peripheral neuropathy. Although the causes are not entirely clear, it seems that a combination of acute nutritional deficiency and the toxic effects of tobacco and possibly other unidentified toxic substances is involved. The epidemic coincided with the acute worsening of the economic situation on the island following political changes in Eastern European countries and a tightening of the US economic embargo. This paper reviews reports of a strikingly similar epidemic known as the "Amblyopia of the Blockade," which occurred in Cuba almost a century ago when the island was undergoing a US naval blockade during the Cuban-Spanish-American war. It discusses the parallelism with the recent epidemic as well as the implications of this historical evidence to clarify further the ultimate causes of these epidemics. PMID:8629731

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; Tulipani, Sara; Díaz, Daimy; Estevez, Yadiley; Romandini, Stefania; Giampieri, Francesca; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Bompadre, Stefano; Battino, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Several monofloral Cuban honeys were analyzed to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, amino acid, protein and carotenoid contents as well as their radical-scavenging activity and antimicrobial capacities. The total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid contents varied considerably, and the highest values were obtained for Linen vine (Govania polygama (Jack) Urb) honey, which is classified as an amber honey. The highest amino acid content was found in Morning glory (Ipomoea triloba L.) while Liven vine had the highest protein content. Similarly Linen vine honey had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest was found in Christmas vine (Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf). Ascorbic acid was absent. Hydroxyl radical formation was studied by EPR and spin trapping, and it was found in all honeys tested. The antimicrobial activity was screened using two Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. S. aureus was the most sensitive microorganism while Pseudomonas aeruginosa presented higher minimum active dilution values. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were both moderately sensitive to honey antimicrobial activity. A correlation between radical-scavenging activity and total phenolic content was found. Correlation existed also between color vs phenolics content, vs flavonoid content or between phenolic vs flavonoid.

  10. What does pressure decide to cook with orientationally disordered plastic phase of cubane: An orientational glass or crystal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Murugan, N.

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pressure on the structure and reorientational motion of molecules in orientationally disordered (OD) crystalline phase of cubane has been investigated in detail using variable shape molecular simulations in constant-pressure constant-temperature ensemble. Complete orientational ordering occurs at a pressure of 1.0 GPa and the OD phase transforms to an orientationally ordered phase at this pressure. The transition is associated with a kink in the variation of structural parameters such as cell parameters, unit-cell volume, and interaction energy. This transition is also associated with an anomaly in specific heat. Above this transition pressure, the structural quantities display only smaller changes with further increase in pressure. The structure of high-pressure orientationally ordered (HPOO) phase has been characterized using radial distribution functions and orientational distribution function. From detailed analysis of the structure of HPOO phase we conclude that it is isostructural with low-temperature orientationally ordered phase. The OD phase has four times larger compressibility than the HPOO phase.

  11. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  12. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  13. Analysis of the experience of Cuban physicians in a Brazilian metropolis in accordance with the Paideia Method.

    PubMed

    Terra, Lilian Soares Vidal; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco; Lidola, Maria; Hernández, Silvia S; Millán, Juan Ignacio Martínez; Campos, Gastão Wagner de Sousa

    2016-09-01

    We had hoped that the Mais Médicos Program (More Doctors Program) would have generated several changes and reflections in each municipality in which it was deployed. In order to observe those changes, we sought to analyze the experience of Cuban physicians in the Mais Médicos program from an actor-centered perspective, based on the Paideia Method - an approach that seeks to enhance the ability of the subjects to analyze and intervene in their practice. We performed semi-structured interviews to analyze our research object that consisted in the experience of those actors included professionally in the Mais Médicos program in a metropolis with unique characteristics. In order to assess the interviews, we applied Content Analysis followed by Thematic Analysis. From the discourse of the actors, of which illustrative excerpts are transcribed in this article, we can affirm that the program's potential surpassed any initial barriers, presenting itself as fine-tuning instrument for replacing the biomedical model in line with the Paideia Method.

  14. Toward models for the full oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II by ligand coordination to lower the symmetry of the Mn3CaO4 cubane: demonstration that electronic effects facilitate binding of a fifth metal.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jacob S; Lin, Po-Heng; Carsch, Kurtis M; Nielsen, Robert J; Takase, Michael K; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor

    2014-10-15

    Synthetic model compounds have been targeted to benchmark and better understand the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopy, and reactivity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II, a low-symmetry Mn4CaOn cluster. Herein, low-symmetry Mn(IV)3GdO4 and Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubanes are synthesized in a rational, stepwise fashion through desymmetrization by ligand substitution, causing significant cubane distortions. As a result of increased electron richness and desymmetrization, a specific μ3-oxo moiety of the Mn3CaO4 unit becomes more basic allowing for selective protonation. Coordination of a fifth metal ion, Ag(+), to the same site gives a Mn3CaAgO4 cluster that models the topology of the OEC by displaying both a cubane motif and a "dangler" transition metal. The present synthetic strategy provides a rational roadmap for accessing more accurate models of the biological catalyst.

  15. A thiocyanato-bridged copper(I) cubane complex and its application in palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Manoj; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Abhinav; Rath, Nigam P

    2013-09-28

    Reaction of copper(I) thiocyanate with 1,1'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino) ferrocene (dtbpf) in a 2:1 molar ratio in DCM-MeOH (50:50 V/V) afforded a tetranuclear copper(I) complex [Cu4(μ3-SCN)4(κ(1)-P,P-dtbpf)2] (1) with a cubane-like structure. Complex 1 was shown to be an efficient catalyst in comparison to CuI in the Sonogashira reaction. The coupling products were obtained in high yields by using Pd loadings of 0.2 mol% as well as complex-1 of 0.1 mol%. PMID:23903662

  16. Diet of the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in pine rockland and mangrove habitats in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, B.M.; Waddle, J.H.; Crockett, M.E.; Rice, K.G.; Percival, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Native to Cuba, the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands, the Cuban Treefrog (CTF) is an invasive species in Florida, with the ability to inflict serious ecological damage to invaded habitats. By examining the diet of the CTF, a known predator of native frogs, better predictions may be made of the impacts on native species and ecosystems. From 2002 - 2003, CTF diet was investigated in south Florida at four sites, two each within pine rockland and mangrove habitat. Within each habitat, one site exhibited a low density of CTFs and the other a high density of CTFs. CTFs were captured in PVC pipes attached to trees and stomach contents were examined after euthanasia. Beetles were the most numerous and widely consumed prey item among sites; roaches, orthopterans, spiders, ants, and caterpillars were also major dietary components. There were significant differences in the proportion of taxa consumed by CTFs between low and high density populations within each habitat, with the low density site in every instance having the higher proportion. Across habitats, ants comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in mangroves, whereas beetles, orthopterans, and snails comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in pine rocklands. Approximately 3.5% of all stomachs examined contained anuran remains. Though not significant, CTFs from low density sites consumed a higher proportion of frogs than those at high density sites. Corroborating previous research, the data show the CTF to be a generalist feeder, consuming a wide variety of invertebrate prey, with anurans playing only a minor role in the overall diet.

  17. Adsorption phenomena of cubane-type tetranuclear Ni(II) complexes with neutral, thioether-functionalized ligands on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Volkmar; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Monakhov, Kirill Yu.; Besson, Claire; Kögerler, Paul; Ghisolfi, Alessio; Braunstein, Pierre; Schneider, Claus M.

    2015-11-01

    The controlled and intact deposition of molecules with specific properties onto surfaces is an emergent field impacting a wide range of applications including catalysis, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing. One strategy is to introduce grafting groups functionalized to anchor to a specific surface. While thiols and disulfides have proven to be quite effective in combination with gold surfaces, other S-containing groups have received much less attention. Here, we investigate the surface anchoring and organizing capabilities of novel charge-neutral heterocyclic thioether groups as ligands of polynuclear nickel(II) complexes. We report on the deposition of a cubane-type {Ni4} (= [Ni(μ3-Cl)Cl(HL·S)]4) single-molecule magnet from dichloromethane solution on a Au(111) surface, investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction, both immediately after deposition and after subsequent post-annealing. The results provide strong evidence for partial decomposition of the coordination complex upon deposition on the Au(111) surface that, however, leaves the magnetic {Ni4Cl4n} (n = 1 or 2) core intact. Only post-annealing above 480 K induces further decomposition and fragmentation of the {Ni4Cl4n} core. The detailed insight into the chemisorption-induced decomposition pathway not only provides guidelines for the deposition of thioether-functionalized Ni(II) complexes on metallic surfaces but also reveals opportunities to use multidentate organic ligands decorated with thioether groups as transporters for highly unstable inorganic structures onto conducting surfaces, where they are stabilized retaining appealing electronic and magnetic properties.

  18. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  19. Biogeochemical responses to nutrient inputs in a Cuban coastal lagoon: runoff, anthropogenic, and groundwater sources.

    PubMed

    González-De Zayas, R; Merino-Ibarra, M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Castillo-Sandoval, F S

    2013-12-01

    Laguna Larga, a coastal lagoon in central Cuba, has been heavily altered by tourism infrastructure construction and sewage disposal. We hypothesize that this has decreased the circulation and caused eutrophication of the lagoon. To assess this, 12 bimonthly samplings were carried out in 2007-2008. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and nitrogen, and phosphorous fractions (inorganic, organic, and total) were determined. Water and salt budgets, as well as biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated using the LOICZ budget model for the three sections of the lagoon identified by morphological constrains and salinity patterns. Laguna Larga is a choked lagoon with restricted water circulation, low exchange, and high residence times that vary significantly along its sections. Residence time was estimated to be 0.1-0.7 years for the inner section and 1-9 days for the outer one. High levels of total nitrogen (annual means 126-137 μM, peaks up to 475 μM) and phosphorus (2.5-4.4 μM, peaks up to 14.5 μM) are evidence of eutrophication of Laguna Larga. During 2007, an average precipitation year, Laguna Larga exported water (703 m(3) d(-1)) and was a source of nitrogen (9.026 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and phosphorus (0.112 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) to the adjacent sea. δ(15)N determinations in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (-1.83 to +3.02 ‰) differed significantly between sites in the lagoon and offshore reference sites located W of the inlet, but were similar to those located E of the inlet. δ(15)N determinations in the seaweed Penicillus dumetosus (+1.02 to +4.2) did not show significant differences. PMID:23856810

  20. Probing the intrinsic electronic structure of the cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster: nature's favorite cluster for electron transfer and storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Niu, Shuqiang; Yang, Xin; Ibrahim, Saad K; Pickett, Christopher J; Ichiye, Toshiko; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2003-11-19

    The cubane [4Fe-4S] is the most common multinuclear metal center in nature for electron transfer and storage. Using electrospray, we produced a series of gaseous doubly charged cubane-type complexes, [Fe4S4L4]2- (L = -SC2H5, -SH, -Cl, -Br, -I) and the Se-analogues [Fe4Se4L4]2- (L = -SC2H5, -Cl), and probed their electronic structures with photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The photoelectron spectral features are similar among all the seven species investigated, revealing a weak threshold feature due to the minority spins on the Fe centers and confirming the low-spin two-layer model for the [4Fe-4S](2+) core and its "inverted level scheme". The measured adiabatic detachment energies, which are sensitive to the terminal ligand substitution, provide the intrinsic oxidation potentials of the [Fe4S4L4]2- complexes. The calculations revealed a simple correlation between the electron donor property of the terminal thiolate as well as the bridging sulfide with the variation of the intrinsic redox potentials. Our data provide intrinsic electronic structure information of the [4Fe-4S] cluster and the molecular basis for understanding the protein and solvent effects on the redox properties of the [4Fe-4S] active sites.

  1. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  2. Photocatalytic water oxidation by molecular assemblies based on cobalt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Hua; Zhang, Biaobiao; Yu, Fengshou; Sun, Licheng

    2014-09-01

    Chromophore-catalyst molecular assemblies towards visible light-driven water oxidation were synthesized by covalent integration of a light-harvesting complex [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and a Co4O4 cubane water oxidation catalyst. The two components were assembled either in linear or macrocyclic configurations. In the presence of the sacrificial reagent, the Ru-Co metallocycle exhibits remarkable photocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of a multicomponent system and exceeds that of a linear assembly by a factor of five, offering access to highly active photocatalyst through molecular design. PMID:25111070

  3. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  4. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews with various…

  5. Corneal lipid deposition in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and its relationship to serum lipids: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Shilton, C M; Smith, D A; Crawshaw, G J; Valdes, E; Keller, C B; Maguire, G F; Connelly, P W; Atkinson, J

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the association between corneal lipid infiltration (corneal arcus) and dietary cholesterol in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), 47 wild-caught frogs were fed diets of either regular or high-cholesterol crickets containing 0.7% and 1.7% cholesterol dry matter, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured when the frogs were euthanized after 17 mo. In a subsample of frogs, serum lipoproteins were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography. The first case of corneal lipid deposition occurred in a female frog after 13 mo on the high-cholesterol diet. In the subsequent 4 mo, 5/11 males and 11/35 females developed the disease. Four of these affected frogs were females on the regular diet. Frogs with corneal lipid deposition had elevated serum total cholesterol (27.3 +/- 19.8 mmol/L) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, 17.8 +/- 18.9 mmol/L) compared with unaffected captive frogs (16.5 +/- 20.4 and 9.0 +/- 7.6 mmol/L, respectively). Corneal lipid deposition was more prevalent in frogs on the high-cholesterol diet, and this group had higher serum total cholesterol (34.1 +/- 15.2 mmol/L in females, 22.8 +/- 14.8 mmol/L in males) than did frogs on the diet of regular crickets (12.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/L in females, 10.4 +/- 3.1 mmol/L in males). Captive frogs on both diets had higher serum total cholesterol than did wild frogs (3.1 +/- 2.1 mmo/L in females, 5.3 +/- 2.6 mmo/L in males). This additional serum cholesterol was primarily carried on very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and LDL rather than high-density lipoproteins (HDL), as indicated by the significantly higher ratio of VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol over HDL cholesterol in captive frogs compared with wild frogs. Elevation in this ratio was significantly higher in captive females than in captive males. There was no evidence that increased serum cholesterol in captive females was directly related to the process of vitellogenesis.

  6. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-03-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value.

  7. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356) were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011). Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028). Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012) Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality. PMID:22152160

  8. Partial nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the envelope and the envelope/nonstructural protein-1 gene junction of four dengue-2 virus strains isolated during the 1981 Cuban epidemic.

    PubMed

    Guzman, M G; Deubel, V; Pelegrino, J L; Rosario, D; Marrero, M; Sariol, C; Kouri, G

    1995-03-01

    In 1981, an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by dengue-2 virus occurred in Cuba. This was the first DHF epidemic reported in the Western Hemisphere. In this study, we have analyzed four dengue-2 Cuban strains for two short genomic fragments: one on the envelope (E) glycoprotein and one at the E/nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) gene junction. The E segment of these 1981 Cuban isolates were more closely related to older dengue-2 virus strains such as New Guinea C 1944, Thailand 1964, Sri Lanka 1968, and Burma 1976 than to more recent isolates of this virus from Jamaica and Vietnam. More than 9% of the divergence with strains isolated from Jamaica and Vietnam was observed at the E/NS1 gene junction. One nucleotide change was observed between the first strain isolated during the epidemic and the rest of the Cuban strains. This mutation induced a nonconserved amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine at position 43 that was not observed in any of the other strains with which it was compared.

  9. Unusual Mn(III/IV)4 Cubane and Mn(III)16M4 (M = Ca, Sr) Looplike Clusters from the Use of Dimethylarsinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chakov, Nicole E; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Rheingold, Arnold L; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2016-09-01

    Three complexes are reported from the initial use of dimethylarsinic acid (Me2AsO2H) in Mn(III/IV) cluster chemistry, [Mn4O4(O2AsMe2)6] (3; 2Mn(III), 2Mn(IV)), and [Mn16X4O8(O2CPh)16(Me2AsO2)24] (X = Ca(2+) (4) or Sr(2+) (5); 16Mn(III)). They were obtained from reactions with [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] (R = Me, Ph) either without (3) or with (4 and 5) the addition of X(2+) salts. Complex 3 contains a [Mn4O4](6+) cubane, whereas isostructural 4 and 5 contain a planar loop structure comprising four Mn4 asymmetric "butterfly" units linked by alternating anti,anti μ-O2AsMe2 and {X2(O2AsMe2)(O2CPh)2} units. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (χM) data were collected on dried microcrystalline samples of 3-5 in the 5.0-300 K range in a 0.1 T (1000 G) direct-current (dc) magnetic field. Data for 3 were fit to the appropriate Van Vleck equation (using the [Formula: see text] = -2JŜi·Ŝj convention) for a cubane of virtual C2v symmetry, giving J33 = 0.0(1) cm(-1), J34 = -3.4(4) cm(-1), J44 = -9.8(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.99(1), where the Jij subscripts refer to the oxidation states of the interacting Mn atoms. The ground state thus consists of two coupled Mn(IV) and two essentially noninteracting Mn(III). For 4 and 5, low-lying excited states from the high nuclearity and weak couplings prevent fits of dc magnetization data, but in-phase alternating current susceptibility χ'MT data down to 1.8 K indicate them to possess S = 4 ground states, if considered single Mn16 units. If instead they are treated as tetramers of weakly coupled Mn4 units, then each of the latter has an S = 2 ground state. Complexes 4 and 5 also exhibit very weak out-of-phase χ″M signals characteristic of slow relaxation, and magnetization versus dc field scans on a single crystal of 4·15MeCN at T ≥ 0.04 K showed hysteresis loops but with unusual features suggesting the magnetization relaxation barrier consists of more than one contribution.

  10. Development and evaluation of an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in Cuban breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Josefina; Nápoles, Misleidy; Pérez, Inés; Ordaz, Niurka; Luzardo, Mario; Fernández, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although modern technology has extended the survival of breast cancer patients, treatment's adverse effects impact their health-related quality of life. Currently, no instrument exists capable of identifying the range of problems affecting breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Cuba's socioeconomic and cultural context. OBJECTIVES Construct and validate an instrument to measure the effects of breast cancer and radiotherapy on health-related quality of life in Cuban patients. METHODS The study was conducted at the Oncology and Radiobiology Institute, Havana, Cuba, from January 2010 through December 2011. Inclusion criteria were: adult female, histological diagnosis of breast cancer, treated with ambulatory radiotherapy, and written informed consent; patients unable to communicate orally or in writing, or who had neurologic or psychiatric conditions were excluded. Development phase: focus groups guided by a list of questions were carried out with 50 women. The patients reported 61 problems affecting their health-related quality-of-life. A nominal group (six oncologists and two nurses) identified the same problems. A syntactic analysis of the information was performed to create items for study and measurement scales. Content validity was determined by a nominal group of seven experts using professional judgment. Another 20 patients were selected to evaluate face validity. Validation phase: the instrument was applied to 230 patients at three different points: before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy and four weeks after radiotherapy was concluded. Reliability, construct validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity, interpretability and response burden were evaluated. RESULTS The final instrument developed had 33 items distributed in 4 domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, social and family relationships, and physical and emotional adverse effects of disease and treatment. There were two discrete items: perceived

  11. Unusual Mn(III/IV)4 Cubane and Mn(III)16M4 (M = Ca, Sr) Looplike Clusters from the Use of Dimethylarsinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chakov, Nicole E; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Rheingold, Arnold L; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2016-09-01

    Three complexes are reported from the initial use of dimethylarsinic acid (Me2AsO2H) in Mn(III/IV) cluster chemistry, [Mn4O4(O2AsMe2)6] (3; 2Mn(III), 2Mn(IV)), and [Mn16X4O8(O2CPh)16(Me2AsO2)24] (X = Ca(2+) (4) or Sr(2+) (5); 16Mn(III)). They were obtained from reactions with [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] (R = Me, Ph) either without (3) or with (4 and 5) the addition of X(2+) salts. Complex 3 contains a [Mn4O4](6+) cubane, whereas isostructural 4 and 5 contain a planar loop structure comprising four Mn4 asymmetric "butterfly" units linked by alternating anti,anti μ-O2AsMe2 and {X2(O2AsMe2)(O2CPh)2} units. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (χM) data were collected on dried microcrystalline samples of 3-5 in the 5.0-300 K range in a 0.1 T (1000 G) direct-current (dc) magnetic field. Data for 3 were fit to the appropriate Van Vleck equation (using the [Formula: see text] = -2JŜi·Ŝj convention) for a cubane of virtual C2v symmetry, giving J33 = 0.0(1) cm(-1), J34 = -3.4(4) cm(-1), J44 = -9.8(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.99(1), where the Jij subscripts refer to the oxidation states of the interacting Mn atoms. The ground state thus consists of two coupled Mn(IV) and two essentially noninteracting Mn(III). For 4 and 5, low-lying excited states from the high nuclearity and weak couplings prevent fits of dc magnetization data, but in-phase alternating current susceptibility χ'MT data down to 1.8 K indicate them to possess S = 4 ground states, if considered single Mn16 units. If instead they are treated as tetramers of weakly coupled Mn4 units, then each of the latter has an S = 2 ground state. Complexes 4 and 5 also exhibit very weak out-of-phase χ″M signals characteristic of slow relaxation, and magnetization versus dc field scans on a single crystal of 4·15MeCN at T ≥ 0.04 K showed hysteresis loops but with unusual features suggesting the magnetization relaxation barrier consists of more than one contribution. PMID:27504743

  12. Metal-organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln4(OH)4] building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-01

    Lanthanide-organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pYb), [Y4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pY-1) and [Y6(OH)8(25p)5(H2O)2] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y6(OH)8]10+ clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG-SDTA-MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C-H-N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction.

  13. Role of CC chemokine receptor 1 and two of its ligands in human dengue infection. Three approaches under the Cuban situation.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Beatriz; Perez, Ana B; Garcia, Gissel; Aguirre, Eglys; Alvarez, Mayling; Gonzalez, Daniel; Guzman, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    Any of the four dengue serotypes can cause a severe disease, partly due to systemic inflammation orchestrated by mediators like cytokines and chemokines. We addressed the role of CCR1 and its ligands CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES in dengue infection using three different approaches: an ex vivo model exploring memory immune response in subjects with a well characterized dengue immune background, an in vivo study in patients with primary or secondary dengue infection, and an approach in fatal dengue. CCR1 and CCL3/MIP-1α gene expression showed differences after homotypic and heterotypic challenge according to dengue immune background of subjects, in correspondence with previous observations in Cuban dengue outbreaks. CCL5/RANTES gene expression was higher after homotypic challenge. CCR1 and CCL3/MIP-1α gene expression was higher in patients with secondary infection during critical days of the dengue disease, while the increase in RANTES expression started earlier than the observed for CCR1 and CCL3/MIP-1α. CCR1 and CCL3/MIP-1α gene expression was as high in brain as in spleen tissue from necropsy. Our results confirm the strong influence of previous immunity in subsequent dengue infections, and confer a possible pathogenic role to CCR1 and CCL3/MIP-1α in dengue disease and a possible protective role for CCL5/RANTES, probably through CCR5 interaction.

  14. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  15. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  16. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes. PMID:27216175

  17. Evaluation of magnetic terms in Cu4O4 cubane-like systems from selected configuration interaction calculations: a case study of polynuclear transition-metal systems.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J; Maynau, Daniel

    2011-11-21

    We present the evaluation of magnetic terms in a Cu(4)O(4) cubane-like system from truncated CI calculations, as a case study of polynuclear transition-metal complexes. We employ a new excitation selected configuration interaction (EXSCI) method based on the use of local orbitals. Taking advantage of the locality and then of the fact that the interactions vanish when the distance is large, the dimension of the CI is largely reduced. To the best of our knowledge these CI calculations are the largest one performed for polynuclear transition metal systems so far. The results show the presence of two leading ferromagnetic interactions between bridged Cu ions. Also the interactions between the unbridged Cu ions are ferromagnetic, but very weak, in contrast to the experimental data. The nature and amplitude of all the computed interactions are consistent with the relative orientation of the magnetic orbitals in the molecule, and correctly reproduce the susceptibility versus temperature curve. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain similar fittings with sets of parameters representing different physical effects and put in evidence the drawbacks of the fitting based on oversimplified magnetic models. In this context, the presented computational strategy can be considered as a useful tool to help in the interpretation of the magnetic data and the validation of the magnetic interaction model in the polynuclear magnetic systems.

  18. Asymptomatic dengue infection in a Cuban population confirms the protective role of the RR variant of the FcgammaRIIa polymorphism.

    PubMed

    García, Gissel; Sierra, Beatriz; Pérez, Ana B; Aguirre, Eglys; Rosado, Ileana; Gonzalez, Narjara; Izquierdo, Alienys; Pupo, Maritza; Danay Díaz, Didye Ruiz; Sánchez, Lizet; Marcheco, Beatriz; Hirayama, Kenji; Guzmán, María G

    2010-06-01

    The role of human Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) has been recognized considerably over the last years. These receptors vary in their affinity for IgG subclasses and the intracellular signals elicited by them. Allelic variants of FcgammaR genes may influence the biological phagocyte activity, accounting for an inherited pre-disposition to disease. The specific FcgammaRIIa (CD32) contains a polymorphic variant (H/R131) that has been associated to a reduced risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Here, we investigated the role of this polymorphism in a very well-characterized group of Cuban individuals with antecedents of DHF, dengue fever (DF), or subclinical dengue infection. The HH131 genotype was significantly associated with dengue disease, either DF (*P = 0.016; odds ratio = 4.425; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-20.52) or DHF (P = 0.00018; odds ratio = 10.56; 95% confidence interval = 2.33-54.64) with respect to the subclinical infection.

  19. Hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Crespo, C J; Loria, C M; Burt, V L

    1996-01-01

    DESPITE THEIR HIGHER PREVALENCE of obesity and diabetes, Hispanics have lower or equal rates of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites (1-4). Healthy People 2000 objectives call for increasing the proportion of hypertensive men whose blood pressure is under control to at least 40%. In addition, the objectives recommend reducing the prevalence of overweight to 41% among hypertensive women, and to 35% among hypertensive men (5). The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) collected data on Mexican Americans (MA), Cuban Americans (CA), and Puerto Ricans (PR) living in the continental United States. A trained physician measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure twice in one visit. Our findings provide data to assess baseline estimates for several Healthy People 2000 objectives among Hispanics. Based on criteria from The Fifth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-V), we found Hispanic women to have higher rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension than men. Only 8% of MA and PR men and 9% of CA men who were hypertensive had their high blood pressure under control. The prevalence of overweight among hypertensive men ranged from 39% to 60%; and among hypertensive women, from 44% to 74%. Hispanic women with six or fewer years of education had higher prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Future research should investigate the socioeconomic factors associated with the presence of these risk factors.

  20. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils

    PubMed Central

    Laskaris, Paris; Krsek, Martin; Berry, Andrew E.; Newsham, Kevin K.; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Pearce, David A.; Vallin, Carlos; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered. PMID:26398766

  1. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract

  2. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M{sub 4}O{sub 4}, M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu; Rahaman, Badiur

    2015-11-15

    Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M{sub 4}X{sub 4} nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M{sub 4}X{sub 4} clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2). We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M{sub 4}O{sub 4} clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  3. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  4. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). PMID:26027580

  5. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on histological changes of prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, M; Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma leading to difficulty in urinating. Lipid extracts from Saw palmetto (Arecaceae) fruits are used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is a member of this family and D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, prevents prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, as opposed to dihydrotestosterone, in rodents. This study investigated whether D-004 could prevent the histological features of testosterone-induced PH in rats. Rats were distributed into six groups (10 rats per group): A negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of soy oil and treated with vehicle, and five groups injected subcutaneously with testosterone and treated with the vehicle (positive control), D-004 (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) or Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and processed for light microscopy. The histopathological findings of PH were assessed according to a score-chart protocol. D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, but not 100 mg/kg, significantly and moderately in a dose-dependent manner prevented prostate enlargement and the testosterone-induced histological changes. Compared with positive controls, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited prostate size increases and the histological score up to 56.1% and 60.7%, respectively, while Saw palmetto 400 mg/kg reduced such variables by 45.8% and 49.0%, respectively. The effects of D-004 400 mg/kg on the histological changes, not on prostate size, were greater (p < 0.05) than those of Saw palmetto. D-004 and Saw palmetto did not affect body weight values. In conclusion, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days prevented the increase of prostate size and the testosterone-induced histological changes in rats, its effects being comparable or mildly better than those of Saw palmetto. These results extend previous data showing preventive

  6. Sustained water oxidation by [Mn4O4]7+ core complexes inspired by oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Robin; Kolling, Derrick R J; Bond, Alan M; Dismukes, G Charles; Swiegers, Gerhard F; Spiccia, Leone

    2009-08-01

    The bioinspired Mn-oxo cubane complex, [Mn(4)O(4)L(6)](+) 1b(+) (L = (p-MeO-Ph)(2)PO(2)), is a model of the photosynthetic O(2)-evolving complex. It is able to electro-oxidize water at 1.00 V (vs Ag/AgCl) under illumination by UV-visible light when suspended in a proton-conducting membrane (Nafion) coated onto a conducting electrode. Electrochemical measurements, and UV-visible, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies are interpreted to indicate that 1b(+) is the dominant electro-active species in the Nafion, both before and after catalytic cycling, and thus correlates closely with activity. The observation of a possible intermediate and free phosphinate ligand within the Nafion suggests a catalytic mechanism involving photolytic disruption of a phosphinate ligand, followed by O(2) formation, and subsequent reassembly of the cubane structure. Several factors that influence catalytic turnover such as the applied potential, illumination wavelength, and energy have been examined in respect of attaining optimum catalytic activity. Catalytic turnover frequencies of 20-270 molecules O(2) h(-1) catalyst(-1) at an overpotential of 0.38 V plus light (275-750 nm) and turnovers numbers >1000 molecules O(2) catalyst(-1) are observed. The 1b(+)-Nafion system is among the most active and durable molecular water oxidation catalysts known.

  7. Effect of the Mn Oxidation State on Single-Molecule-Magnet Properties: Mn(III) vs Mn(IV) in Biologically Inspired DyMn3O4 Cubanes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Heng; Tsui, Emily Y; Habib, Fatemah; Murugesu, Muralee; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by the ferromagnetic coupling in the cubane model CaMn(IV)3O4 of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, 3d-4f mixed-metal DyMn3O4 clusters were prepared for investigation of the magnetic properties. For comparison, YMn(IV)3O4 and YMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4 clusters were investigated as well and showed ferromagnetic interactions, like the calcium analogue. DyMn(IV)3O4 displays single-molecule-magnet properties, while the one-electron-reduced species (DyMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4) does not, despite the presence of a Mn(III) center with higher spin and single-ion anisotropy. PMID:27281290

  8. Stabilization of 3:1 site-differentiated cubane-type clusters in the [Fe(4)S(4)](1+) core oxidation state by tertiary phosphine ligation: synthesis, core structural diversity, and S = 1/2 ground states.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liang; Majumdar, Amit; Lo, Wayne; Holm, R H

    2010-12-01

    An extensive series of 3:1 site-differentiated cubane-type clusters [Fe(4)S(4)(PPr(i)(3))(3)L] (L = Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), RO(-), RS(-), RSe(-)) has been prepared in 40-80% yield by two methods: ligand substitution of [Fe(4)S(4)(PPr(i)(3))(4)](1+) in tetrahydrofuran (THF)/acetonitrile by reaction with monoanions, and reductive cleavage of ligand substrates (RSSR, RSeSeR, I(2)) by the all-ferrous clusters [Fe(8)S(8)(PPr(i)(3))(6)]/[Fe(16)S(16)(PPr(i)(3))(8)] in THF. These neutral clusters are stable and do not undergo ligand redistribution reactions involving charged species in benzene and THF solutions. X-ray structural studies confirm the cubane stereochemistry but with substantial and variable distortions of the [Fe(4)S(4)](1+) core from idealized cubic core geometry. Based on Fe-S bond lengths, seven clusters were found to have compressed tetragonal distortions (4 short and 8 long bonds), and the remaining seven display other types of distortions with different combinations of long, short, and intermediate bond lengths. These results further emphasize the facile deformabililty of this core oxidation state previously observed in [Fe(4)S(4)(SR)(4)](3-) clusters. The Fe(2.25+) mean oxidation state was demonstrated from (57)Fe isomer shifts, and the appearance of two quadrupole doublets arises from the spin-coupled |9/2,4,1/2> state. The S = 1/2 ground state was further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and magnetic susceptibility data.

  9. Coeliac disease in Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Rabassa, E B; Sagaró, E; Fragoso, T; Castañeda, C; Gra, B

    1981-01-01

    Coeliac disease is generally considered to be a disease of Europe, North America, and Australasia. A series of well-authenticated cases from Cuba is presented. One of the factors responsible for the presence of this disease in Cuba may be the increase in wheat consumption in the last few years. It is likely that coeliac disease exists in other tropical countries. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7469463

  10. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates of early life stages by modifying flows in the HCR, reducing mortality imposed by the catch and release fishery, augmenting natural production through translocation or hatchery releases, and assessing detrimental effects of contaminants on reproductive potential. These proposed actions were evaluated by assessing their relative potential to affect population growth rate and by determining the feasibility of their execution, including a realistic timeframe (short-term, mid-term, long-term) for their implementation and evaluation. A multi-pronged approach for management was decided upon whereby various actions will be implemented and evaluated under different timeframes. Priority management actions include: Action I- Produce juvenile white sturgeon in a hatchery and release into the management area; Action G- Collect juvenile white sturgeon from other populations in the Snake or Columbia rivers and release them into the management area; and Action D- Restore white sturgeon passage upriver and downriver at Lower Snake and Idaho Power dams. An integral part of this approach is the continual monitoring of performance measures to assess the progressive response of the population to implemented actions, to evaluate the actions efficacy toward achieving objectives, and to refine and redirect strategies if warranted.

  11. Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

  12. Water oxidation by electrodeposited cobalt oxides--role of anions and redox-inert cations in structure and function of the amorphous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Risch, Marcel; Klingan, Katharina; Ringleb, Franziska; Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Fischer, Anna; Dau, Holger

    2012-03-12

    For the production of nonfossil fuels, water oxidation by inexpensive cobalt-based catalysts is of high interest. Films for the electrocatalysis of water oxidation were obtained by oxidative self-assembly (electrodeposition) from aqueous solutions containing, apart from Co, either K, Li or Ca with either a phosphate, acetate or chloride anion. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Co K-edge revealed clusters of edge-sharing CoO(6) octahedra in all films, but the size or structural disorder of the Co-oxido clusters differed. Whereas potassium binding is largely unspecific, CaCo(3) O(4) cubanes, which resemble the CaMn(3) O(4) cubane of the biological catalyst in oxygenic photosynthesis, may form, as suggested by XAS at the Ca K-edge. Cyclic voltammograms in a potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7 revealed that no specific combination of anions and redox-inactive cations is required for catalytic water oxidation. However, the anion type modulates not only the size (or order) of the Co-oxido clusters, but also electrodeposition rates, redox potentials, the capacity for oxidative charging, and catalytic currents. On these grounds, structure-activity relations are discussed.

  13. Spin State as a Marker for the Structural Evolution of Nature's Water-Splitting Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Cox, Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    In transition-metal complexes, the geometric structure is intimately connected with the spin state arising from magnetic coupling between the paramagnetic ions. The tetramanganese-calcium cofactor that catalyzes biological water oxidation in photosystem II cycles through five catalytic intermediates, each of which adopts a specific geometric and electronic structure and is thus characterized by a specific spin state. Here, we review spin-structure correlations in Nature's water-splitting catalyst. The catalytic cycle of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor can be described in terms of spin-dependent reactivity. The lower "inactive" S states of the catalyst, S0 and S1, are characterized by low-spin ground states, SGS = 1/2 and SGS = 0. This is connected to the "open cubane" topology of the inorganic core in these states. The S2 state exhibits structural and spin heterogeneity in the form of two interconvertible isomers and is identified as the spin-switching point of the catalytic cycle. The first S2 state form is an open cubane structure with a low-spin SGS = 1/2 ground state, whereas the other represents the first appearance of a closed cubane topology in the catalytic cycle that is associated with a higher-spin ground state of SGS = 5/2. It is only this higher-spin form of the S2 state that progresses to the "activated" S3 state of the catalyst. The structure of this final metastable catalytic state was resolved in a recent report, showing that all manganese ions are six-coordinate. The magnetic coupling is dominantly ferromagnetic, leading to a high-spin ground state of SGS = 3. The ability of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor to adopt two distinct structural and spin-state forms in the S2 state is critical for water binding in the S3 state, allowing spin-state crossing from the inactive, low-spin configuration of the catalyst to the activated, high-spin configuration. Here we describe how an understanding of the magnetic properties of the catalyst in all S states has allowed conclusions on

  14. A bifunctional nonprecious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction and water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC. PMID:20839797

  15. Reversible B/Z-DNA transition under the low salt condition and non-B-form polydApolydT selectivity by a cubane-like europium-L-aspartic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Yu, Haijia; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2006-05-01

    We report here that a cubane-like europium-L-aspartic acid complex at physiological pH can discriminate between DNA structures as judged by the comparison of thermal denaturation, binding stoichiometry, temperature-dependent fluorescence enhancement, and circular dichroism and gel electrophoresis studies. This complex can selectively stabilize non-B-form DNA polydApolydT but destabilize polydGdCpolydGdC and polydAdTpolydAdT. Further studies show that this complex can convert B-form polydGdCpolydGdC to Z-form under the low salt condition at physiological temperature 37 degrees C, and the transition is reversible, similar to RNA polymerase, which turns unwound DNA into Z-DNA and converts it back to B-DNA after transcription. The potential uses of a left-handed helix-selective probe in biology are obvious. Z-DNA is a transient structure and does not exist as a stable feature of the double helix. Therefore, probing this transient structure with a metal-amino acid complex under the low salt condition at physiological temperature would provide insights into their transitions in vivo and are of great interest.

  16. Elucidating the domain structure of the cobalt oxide water splitting catalyst by X-ray pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Pingwu; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Tiede, David M

    2012-07-11

    Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis was applied for structural characterization of the cobalt oxide water-splitting catalyst films using high energy X-ray scattering. The catalyst was found to be composed of domains consistent with a cobalt dioxide lattice sheet structure, possibly containing a Co(4)O(4) cubane-type "defect". The analysis identifies the film to consist of domains composed of 13-14 cobalt atoms with distorted coordination geometries that can be modeled by alteration in terminal oxygen atom positions at the domain edge. Phosphate is seen as a disordered component in the films. This work establishes an approach that can be applied to study the structure of in situ cobalt oxide water-splitting film under functional catalytic conditions.

  17. Site specific ligand substitution in cubane-type Mo3FeS(4)(4+) clusters: kinetics and mechanism of reaction and isolation of mixed ligand Cl/SPh complexes.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Andrés G; Basallote, Manuel G; Fernandez-Trujillo, M J; Llusar, Rosa; Pino-Chamorro, Jose A; Sorribes, Ivan; Vicent, Cristian

    2010-04-21

    The synthesis, crystal structure and solution characterization of the cubane-type [Mo(3)(FeCl)S(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3)] (1) (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphophane-ethane)) cluster are reported and the ligand substitution processes of chloride by thiophenolate investigated. The kinetics and the intimate mechanism of these substitutions reveal that compound 1 undergoes a number of Fe and Mo site specific ligand substitution reactions in acetonitrile solutions. In particular, PhS(-) coordination at the tetrahedral Fe site proceeds in a single resolved kinetic step whereas such substitutions at the Mo sites proceed more slowly. The effect of the presence of acids in the reaction media is also investigated and reveals that an acid excess hinders substitution reactions both at the Fe and Mo sites; however, an acid-promoted solvolysis of the Fe-Cl bonds is observed. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem (ESI-MS/MS) mass spectrometry allow the identification of all the reaction intermediates proposed on the basis of stopped-flow measurements. The distinctive site specific reactivity made it possible to isolate two new clusters of the Mo(3)FeS(4)(4+) family featuring mixed chlorine/thiophenolate ligands, namely Mo(3)S(4)(FeSPh)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3) (2) and [Mo(3)S(4)(FeSPh)(dmpe)(3)(SPh)(3)] (3). A detailed computational study has also been carried out to understand the details of the mechanism of substitution at the M-Cl (M = Mo and Fe) bonds as well as the solvolysis at the Fe-Cl sites, with particular emphasis on the role of acids on the substitution process. The results of the calculations are in agreement with the experimental observations, thus justifying the non-existence of an accelerating effect of acids on the thiophenolate substitution reaction, which differs from previous proposals for the Fe(4)S(4) and MoFe(3)S(4) clusters and some related compounds.

  18. Collision Induced Dissociation of [4Fe-4S] Cubane Cluster Complexes: [Fe4S4C14-x(SC2H5)x]2-/1- (x=0-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Youjun; Laskin, Julia; Wang, Lai S.

    2006-09-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on a series of [4Fe-4S] cluster ions, [Fe4S4Cl4-x(SC2H5)x]2-/1- (x = 0 - 4), revealed that their fragmentation channels change with the coordination environment. Among the three Coulomb repulsion related channels for the doubly charged species, the collision induced electron detachment channel was found to become more significant from x = 0 to 4 due to the decreasing electron binding energies and the magnitude of the repulsion Coulomb barrier, while both the ligand detachment of Cl- and the fission of the [Fe4S4]2+ core became more and more significant with the increase of the Cl- coordination, and eventually became the dominant channel at x = 0. From the parents containing the -SC2H5 ligand, neutral losses of HSC2H5 (62) and/or HSCH=CH2 (60) were observed. It was proposed that inter- and intra-ligand proton transfer could happen during the CID process, resulting in hydrogen coordination to the [4Fe-4S] cluster. In the presence of O2, [Fe4S4Cl3(SC2H5)]2- and [Fe4S4Cl4]2- can form the O2-substituted products [Fe4S4Cl2(SC2H5)O2]- and [Fe4S4Cl3O2]-, respectively. It was shown that the O2 complexation occurs by coordination to the empty iron site of the [4Fe-4S] cubane core after dissociation of one Cl- ligand.

  19. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  20. A Bioinspired Molecular Polyoxometalate Catalyst with Two Cobalt(II) Oxide Cores for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Feng, Yingying; Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Yan; Xu, Jingyin; Xiang, Rui; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Chongchao; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen

    2015-08-24

    To overcome the bottleneck of water splitting, the exploration of efficient, selective, and stable water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is crucial. We report an all-inorganic, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC based on a polyoxometalate [(A-α-SiW9 O34)2Co8(OH)6(H2O)2(CO3)3](16-) (Co8 POM). As a cobalt(II)-based cubane water oxidation catalyst, Co8POM embeds double Co(II)4O3 cores. The self-assembled catalyst is similar to the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). Using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, Co8POM exhibits excellent water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 1436, currently the highest among bioinspired catalysts with a cubical core, and a high initial turnover frequency (TOF). Investigation by several spectroscopy, spectrometry, and other techniques confirm that Co8POM is a stable and efficient catalyst for visible light-driven water oxidation. The results offer a useful insight into the design of water oxidation catalysts.

  1. Oligo-nuclear silver thiocyanate complexes with monodentate tertiary phosphine ligands, including novel 'cubane' and 'step' tetramer forms of AgSCN : PR3 (1:1)4.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, Graham A; Di Nicola, Corrado; Effendy; Hanna, John V; Healy, Peter C; King, Scott P; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Robinson, Ward T; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; Tăbăcaru, Aurel; White, Allan H

    2013-01-01

    Adducts of a number of tertiary pnicogen ligands ER(3) (triphenyl-phosphine and -arsine (PPh(3),AsPh(3)), diphenyl,2-pyridylphosphine (PPh(2)py), tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine (P(C(6)H(4)-4F)(3)), tris(2-tolyl)phosphine (P(o-tol)(3)), tris(cyclohexyl)phosphine (PCy(3))), with silver(I) thiocyanate, AgSCN are structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The 1:3 AgSCN : ER(3) complexes structurally defined (for PPh(3),AsPh(3) (diversely solvated)) take the form [(R(3)E)(3)AgX], the thiocyanate X = NCS being N-bound, thus [(Ph(3)E)Ag(NCS)]. A 1:2 complex with PPh(2)py, takes the binuclear form [(pyPh(2)P)(2)Ag()Ag(PPh(2)py)(2)] with an eight-membered cyclic core. 1:1 complexes are defined with PPh(2)py, P(o-tol)(3) and PCy(3); binuclear forms [(R(3)P)Ag()Ag(PR(3))] are obtained with P(o-tol)(3) (two polymorphs), while novel isomeric tetranuclear forms, which may be envisaged as dimers of dimers, are obtained with PPh(2)py, and, as further polymorphs, with PCy(3); these latter may be considered as extensions of the 'cubane' and 'step' forms previously described for [(R(3)E)AgX](4) (X = halide) complexes. Solvent-assisted mechanochemical or solvent-assisted solid-state synthesis methods were employed in some cases, where complexes could not be obtained by conventional solution methods, or where such methods yielded a mixture of polymorphs unsuitable for solid-state spectroscopy. The wavenumbers of the ν(CN) bands in the IR spectra are in broad agreement with the empirical rule that distinguishes bridging from terminal bonding, but exceptions occur for compounds that have a double SCN bridged dimeric structure, and replacement of PPh(3) with PPh(2)py apparently causes a significant decrease in ν(CN) to well below the range expected for bridging SCN in these structures. (31)P CP MAS NMR spectra yield additional parameters that allow a correlation between the structures and spectra.

  2. Drug use, AIDS knowledge, and HIV risk behaviors of Cuban-, Mexican-, and Puerto-Rican-born drug injectors who are recent entrants into the United States.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R C; Williams, M L; Saunders, L A

    1999-11-01

    To date, relatively little research attention has been devoted to the HIV-risky behaviors of persons who are newly arrived in the United States and who use drugs. Data gathered from street-recruited injection drug users (IDUs) recruited in 10 United States cities who were born in Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico and who are recent entrants into the United States suggest that, in comparison to US-born IDUs, Mexican-born subjects are at elevated risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV as a result of sharing needles with friends and running partners; sharing drug injection implements such as cookers, cotton, and rinse water; frequent injection in HIV-risky settings; use of unsterilized needles; and relatively frequent trading of sex for drugs or money. Puerto-Rican-born IDUs were found to inject drugs relatively frequently, and to do so relatively often in high-risk settings in which sterile injecting equipment and cleaning materials often are scarce. These data also show generally lower levels of AIDS knowledge among the in-migrant IDUs than among US-born IDUs. Respondents from each nationality group most often cited television as the source of their most useful and reliable AIDS information, but also tended to regard community outreach workers as a significant source of reliable AIDS and needle cleaning information. The high levels of involvement in HIV-risky behaviors, deficits in knowledge concerning the means of HIV transmission, and relative ease of mobility of the at-risk (for HIV) individuals examined here indicate a need for a comprehensive public health prevention initiative to limit the future spread of HIV. At a minimum, such an undertaking would do well to incorporate group-specific, culturally appropriate behavioral interventions as well as an information campaign.

  3. Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation by a Molecular Manganese Vanadium Oxide Cluster.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Forster, Johannes; Goetz, McKenna K; Yücel, Duygu; Berger, Claudia; Jacob, Timo; Streb, Carsten

    2016-05-17

    Photosynthetic water oxidation in plants occurs at an inorganic calcium manganese oxo cluster, which is known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), in photosystem II. Herein, we report a synthetic OEC model based on a molecular manganese vanadium oxide cluster, [Mn4 V4 O17 (OAc)3 ](3-) . The compound is based on a [Mn4 O4 ](6+) cubane core, which catalyzes the homogeneous, visible-light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and is stabilized by a tripodal [V4 O13 ](6-) polyoxovanadate and three acetate ligands. When combined with the photosensitizer [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) and the oxidant persulfate, visible-light-driven water oxidation with turnover numbers of approximately 1150 and turnover frequencies of about 1.75 s(-1) is observed. Electrochemical, mass-spectrometric, and spectroscopic studies provide insight into the cluster stability and reactivity. This compound could serve as a model for the molecular structure and reactivity of the OEC and for heterogeneous metal oxide water-oxidation catalysts.

  4. Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation by a Molecular Manganese Vanadium Oxide Cluster.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Forster, Johannes; Goetz, McKenna K; Yücel, Duygu; Berger, Claudia; Jacob, Timo; Streb, Carsten

    2016-05-17

    Photosynthetic water oxidation in plants occurs at an inorganic calcium manganese oxo cluster, which is known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), in photosystem II. Herein, we report a synthetic OEC model based on a molecular manganese vanadium oxide cluster, [Mn4 V4 O17 (OAc)3 ](3-) . The compound is based on a [Mn4 O4 ](6+) cubane core, which catalyzes the homogeneous, visible-light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and is stabilized by a tripodal [V4 O13 ](6-) polyoxovanadate and three acetate ligands. When combined with the photosensitizer [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) and the oxidant persulfate, visible-light-driven water oxidation with turnover numbers of approximately 1150 and turnover frequencies of about 1.75 s(-1) is observed. Electrochemical, mass-spectrometric, and spectroscopic studies provide insight into the cluster stability and reactivity. This compound could serve as a model for the molecular structure and reactivity of the OEC and for heterogeneous metal oxide water-oxidation catalysts. PMID:27062440

  5. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  6. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. PMID:24992183

  7. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.

  8. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  9. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  10. [Biological evaluation of Cuban plants VI].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Misas, C A; Rojas Hernández, N M; López Abraham, A M

    1979-01-01

    The study of the antibacterial activity of plants growing in Cuba is pursued. Aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts were prepared from five species, and it was found that the best inhibitions corresponded to the species Hamelia patens, Nephrolepis acuminata, Calocarpum sapota and Colocasia antiquorum.

  11. Haemoglobin Porto Alegre in a Cuban family.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, G; Lima, F; Wade, M; Estrada, M; Colombo, B; Heredero, L; Granda, H

    1977-01-01

    During a screening programme for abnormal haemoglobins in Habana, one case of Hb Porto Alegre was found in 23 000 cases analysed. The ability of this variant to polymerise in vitro and the absence of clinical features in the carriers have been confirmed. These observations are now explained by the findings of high levels of glutathione in the red cells of subjects heterozygous for Hb Porto Alegre: it is suggested that the increase of glutathione is responsible for the absence of in vivo polymerisation and accounts for the lack of clinical symptoms. Images PMID:604493

  12. SOME NOTES ON CUBAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Refal Milanes

    1996-01-01

    The traditional medical system of cuba is an amalgam so the medical knowledge of the Africans, Hispanics and the Amerindians of cuba. An attempt is made is this article to provide a short introduction to this fascinating body of knowledge, which awaits further investigations by scholars of ethnic medicine. PMID:22556768

  13. The cuban health sector & disaster mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo

    2008-07-01

    Over the past few years, the most important disasters affecting Cuba have caused minimal loss of human life: suffice to note that just 28 lives were lost in the 13 hurricanes and tropical storms that hit the country from 2001 to 2007. But this was not always the case. In 1963, over 1,200 people died in Hurricane Flora alone.

  14. 76 FR 5072 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...-117, 123 Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587, 3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 614. Subpart E--Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of...

  15. 77 FR 71530 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    .... L. 111-8, 123 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 111-117, 123 Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587, 3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 614. Subpart...

  16. 75 FR 10996 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Stat. 3034; E.O. 9193, 7 FR 5205, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 1174; E.O. 9989, 13 FR 4891, 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp., p. 748; Proc. 3447, 27 FR 1085, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 157; E.O. 12854, 58 FR 36587, 3... exports from the United States to Cuba pursuant to the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement...

  17. Healthy Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Systems, Water Fluoridation, Camping, Hiking, Travel… Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Community Systems, Household Treatment & Storage, Sanitation and Hygiene, Travelers’ Health… WASH-related ...

  18. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  19. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  20. Halogenated earth abundant metalloporphyrins as photostable sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation in a neutral phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    Very photostable tetrachloro-metalloporphyrins were developed as sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation coupled to cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts in concentrated (0.1 M) phosphate buffer solution. Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) acts as a sacrificial electron acceptor to oxidize the metalloporphyrin photosensitizers in their excited states. The radical cations thus produced drive the cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts: Co4O4-cubane and Co(NO3)2 as pre-catalyst for cobalt-oxide (CoOx) nanoparticles. Two different metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) both showed very high photostability in the photocatalytic reaction, as compared to non-halogenated analogues. This indicates that photostability primarily depends on the substitution of the porphyrin macrocycle, not on the central metal. Furthermore, our molecular design strategy not only positively increases the electrochemical potential by 120-140 mV but also extends the absorption spectrum up to ∼600 nm. As a result, the solar photon capturing abilities of halogenated metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) are comparable to that of the natural photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a. We successfully demonstrate long-term (>3 h) visible-light-driven water oxidation using our molecular system based on earth-abundant (first-row transition) metals in concentrated phosphate buffer solution.

  1. Halogenated earth abundant metalloporphyrins as photostable sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation in a neutral phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    Very photostable tetrachloro-metalloporphyrins were developed as sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation coupled to cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts in concentrated (0.1 M) phosphate buffer solution. Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) acts as a sacrificial electron acceptor to oxidize the metalloporphyrin photosensitizers in their excited states. The radical cations thus produced drive the cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts: Co4O4-cubane and Co(NO3)2 as pre-catalyst for cobalt-oxide (CoOx) nanoparticles. Two different metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) both showed very high photostability in the photocatalytic reaction, as compared to non-halogenated analogues. This indicates that photostability primarily depends on the substitution of the porphyrin macrocycle, not on the central metal. Furthermore, our molecular design strategy not only positively increases the electrochemical potential by 120-140 mV but also extends the absorption spectrum up to ∼600 nm. As a result, the solar photon capturing abilities of halogenated metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) are comparable to that of the natural photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a. We successfully demonstrate long-term (>3 h) visible-light-driven water oxidation using our molecular system based on earth-abundant (first-row transition) metals in concentrated phosphate buffer solution. PMID:27197873

  2. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  3. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  4. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  5. First description of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Edward J.; Brooks, Annabelle M. L.; Williams, Sean; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Abercrombie, Debra; Chapman, Demian D.; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Grubbs, R. Dean

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea chondrichthyans, like many deep-water fishes, are very poorly understood at the most fundamental biological, ecological and taxonomic levels. Our study represents the first ecological investigation of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in The Bahamas, and the first assessment of species-specific resilience to capture for all of the species captured. Standardised deep-water longline surveys (n=69) were conducted September to December 2010 and 2011 between 472 m and 1024 m deep, resulting in the capture of 144 sharks from 8 different species. These included the Cuban dogfish, Squalus cubensis, the bigeye sixgill shark, Hexanchus nakamurai, the bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis insularis, the roughskin dogfish, Centroscymnus owstoni, Springer's sawtail catshark, Galeus springeri and the false catshark, Pseudotriakis microdon. Preliminary genetic analysis indicated two or more species of gulper sharks, Centrophorus spp.; however, for the present study they were treated as a single species complex. Water depth and distance from the rocky structure of the Exuma Sound wall were inversely correlated with species richness, whereas seabed temperature was directly correlated with species richness. These variables also had a significant influence on the abundance and distribution of many species. Expanded depth ranges were established for S. cubensis and H. nakamurai, which, in the case of S. cubensis, is thought to be driven by thermal preferences. At-vessel mortality rates increased significantly with depth, and post-release mortality was thought to be high for some species, in part due to high post-release predation. This study highlights the importance of utilising strategic geographic locations that provide easy access to deep water, in combination with traditional expedition-based deep-ocean science, to accelerate the acquisition of fundamental ecological and biological insights into deep-sea elasmobranchs.

  6. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  7. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  8. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  9. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  10. Valuable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.

  11. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  12. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources.

  13. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  14. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  15. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing technology to analysis of watersheds, snow cover, snowmelt, water runoff, soil moisture, land use, playa lakes, flooding, and water quality are summarized. Recommendations are given for further utilization of this technology.

  16. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. Water Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the nature and analysis of chemical species in water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review is concerned with water characteristics. A list of 49 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  19. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  20. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration related ... that it is any more effective than other beverages for this use. ... use coconut water to replace fluids after exercise. Coconut water seems ...

  1. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  2. Water ingestion during water recreation.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Panthi, Suraj; Huang, Yue; Li, Hong; Michalek, Angela M; Pratap, Preethi; Wroblewski, Meredith; Liu, Li; Scheff, Peter A; Li, An

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative risk assessments have estimated health risks of water recreation. One input to risk assessment models is the rate of water ingestion. One published study estimated rates of water ingestion during swimming, but estimates of water ingestion are not available for common limited contact water recreation activities such as canoeing, fishing, kayaking, motor boating, and rowing. In the summer of 2009 two related studies were conducted to estimate water ingestion during these activities. First, at Chicago area surface waters, survey research methods were utilized to characterize self-reported estimates of water ingestion during canoeing, kayaking, and fishing among 2705 people. Second, at outdoor swimming pools, survey research methods and the analysis of cyanuric acid, a tracer of swimming pool water, were used to characterize water ingestion among 662 people who engaged in a variety of full-contact and limited-contact recreational activities. Data from the swimming study was used to derive translation factors that quantify the volume of self-reported estimates. At surface waters, less than 2% of canoers and kayakers reported swallowing a teaspoon or more and 0.5% reported swallowing a mouthful or more. Swimmers in a pool were about 25-50 times more likely to report swallowing a teaspoon of water compared to those who participate in limited-contact recreational activities on surface waters. Mean and upper confidence estimates of water ingestion during limited-contact recreation on surface waters are about 3-4 mL and 10-15 mL, respectively. These estimates of water ingestion rates may be useful in modeling the health risks of water recreation.

  3. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  4. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  5. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  6. Water Jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  7. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  9. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  10. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  11. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  12. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  13. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  14. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  15. Virginia's Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

    This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

  16. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  17. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  18. Water Wars

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  19. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  20. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  2. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  3. Redox potential tuning by redox-inactive cations in nature's water oxidizing catalyst and synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Neese, Frank; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-04-28

    The redox potential of synthetic oligonuclear transition metal complexes has been shown to correlate with the Lewis acidity of a redox-inactive cation connected to the redox-active transition metals of the cluster via oxo or hydroxo bridges. Such heterometallic clusters are important cofactors in many metalloenzymes, where it is speculated that the redox-inactive constituent ion of the cluster serves to optimize its redox potential for electron transfer or catalysis. A principal example is the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II of natural photosynthesis, a Mn4CaO5 cofactor that oxidizes water into dioxygen, protons and electrons. Calcium is critical for catalytic function, but its precise role is not yet established. In analogy to synthetic complexes it has been suggested that Ca(2+) fine-tunes the redox potential of the manganese cluster. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by computing the relative redox potentials of substituted derivatives of the oxygen-evolving complex with the cations Sr(2+), Gd(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Sc(3+), Na(+) and Y(3+) for two sequential transitions of its catalytic cycle. The theoretical approach is validated with a series of experimentally well-characterized Mn3AO4 cubane complexes that are structural mimics of the enzymatic cluster. Our results reproduce perfectly the experimentally observed correlation between the redox potential and the Lewis acidities of redox-inactive cations for the synthetic complexes. However, it is conclusively demonstrated that this correlation does not hold for the oxygen evolving complex. In the enzyme the redox potential of the cluster only responds to the charge of the redox-inactive cations and remains otherwise insensitive to their precise identity, precluding redox-tuning of the metal cluster as a primary role for Ca(2+) in biological water oxidation.

  4. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  5. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  6. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  7. ESW 2009: Water, Water Everywhere

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat f...

  8. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  9. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  10. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  11. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  12. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  13. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  14. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water. PMID:12019829

  15. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  16. Atomistic Texture of Amorphous Manganese Oxides for Electrochemical Water Splitting Revealed by Ab Initio Calculations Combined with X-ray Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Giuseppe; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-08-19

    Amorphous transition-metal (hydr)oxides are considered as the most promising catalysts that promote the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen, protons, and "energized" electrons, and, in turn, as fundamental parts of "artificial leaves" that can be exploited for large scale generation of chemical fuels (e.g., hydrogen) directly from sunlight. We present here a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electrodeposited amorphous manganese oxides with different catalytic activities toward water oxidation (MnCats). Combining the information content of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements with the predictive power of ab initio calculations based on density functional theory, we have been able to identify the essential structural and electronic properties of MnCats. We have elucidated (i) the localization and structural connection of Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) ions in such amorphous oxides and (ii) the distribution of protons at the MnCat/water interface. Our calculations result in realistic 3D models of the MnCat atomistic texture, formed by the interconnection of small planar Mn-oxo sheets cross-linked through different kinds of defective Mn atoms, isolated or arranged in closed cubane-like units. Essential for the catalytic activity is the presence of undercoordinated Mn(III)O5 units located at the boundary of the amorphous network, where they are ready to act as hole traps that trigger the oxidation of neighboring water molecules when the catalyst is exposed to an external positive potential. The present validation of a sound 3D model of MnCat improves the accuracy of XAFS fits and opens the way for the development of mechanistic schemes of its functioning beyond a speculative level.

  17. Atomistic Texture of Amorphous Manganese Oxides for Electrochemical Water Splitting Revealed by Ab Initio Calculations Combined with X-ray Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Giuseppe; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-08-19

    Amorphous transition-metal (hydr)oxides are considered as the most promising catalysts that promote the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen, protons, and "energized" electrons, and, in turn, as fundamental parts of "artificial leaves" that can be exploited for large scale generation of chemical fuels (e.g., hydrogen) directly from sunlight. We present here a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electrodeposited amorphous manganese oxides with different catalytic activities toward water oxidation (MnCats). Combining the information content of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements with the predictive power of ab initio calculations based on density functional theory, we have been able to identify the essential structural and electronic properties of MnCats. We have elucidated (i) the localization and structural connection of Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) ions in such amorphous oxides and (ii) the distribution of protons at the MnCat/water interface. Our calculations result in realistic 3D models of the MnCat atomistic texture, formed by the interconnection of small planar Mn-oxo sheets cross-linked through different kinds of defective Mn atoms, isolated or arranged in closed cubane-like units. Essential for the catalytic activity is the presence of undercoordinated Mn(III)O5 units located at the boundary of the amorphous network, where they are ready to act as hole traps that trigger the oxidation of neighboring water molecules when the catalyst is exposed to an external positive potential. The present validation of a sound 3D model of MnCat improves the accuracy of XAFS fits and opens the way for the development of mechanistic schemes of its functioning beyond a speculative level. PMID:26226190

  18. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  19. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

  20. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  1. Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

  2. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

  3. Be Water Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

    Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

  4. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  5. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  6. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  7. Water resources data, Arizona, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; McGuire, E.H.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Smith, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS Arizona Water Science Center water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2004. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 206 streamflow-gaging stations and 21 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and (or) content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 18 wells.

  8. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  9. Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitch, D. E.; Soensken, P.J.; Sebree, S.K.; Wilson, K.E.; Walczyk, V.C.; Drudik, R.A.; Miller, J.D.; Hull, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

  10. Water Resources Data, Alaska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Solin, G.L.; Apgar, M.L.; Hess, D.L.; Swenson, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This volume contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 4 gaging stations; water quality at 37 gaging stations; and water levels for 30 observation wells. Also included are data for 51 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

  11. State of malnutrition in cuban hospitals; a needed update.

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Justificación: El Estudio Cubano de Desnutricion Hospitalaria, conducido en el bienio 1999 – 2001 con 1,905 pacientes atendidos en 12 hospitales de 6 provincias del pais, revelo una tasa de desnutricion hospitalaria del 41.2%. Transcurrida una decada de aquella indagacion, se impone la actualizacion de este estimado. Objetivo: Actualizar el estado de la desnutricion hospitalaria en Cuba. Material y método: La presencia de desnutricion en 1,664 pacientes ingresados en 12 hospitales de 8 provincias del pais entre Marzo del 2012 y Marzo del 2014 se documento mediante la Encuesta Subjetiva Global (ESG). El estado de los procesos hospitalarios de cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales se evaluo con la Encuesta de Nutricion Hospitalaria (ENH). Resultados: La tasa corriente de desnutricion hospitalaria fue del 36.9% (Δ = +4.3%; p < 0.05). Las tasas de completamiento de los ejercicios hospitalarios de evaluacion nutricional y de uso de terapias de replecion nutricional fueron superiores. Conclusiones: Transcurridos 10 anos de la primera edicion del Estudio ELAN CUBA, se aprecian modestos avances en la identificacion y el tratamiento de la desnutricion en los hospitales en Cuba. Se percibe que la formacion e insercion de nutricionistas verticalizados en la actuacion hospitalaria haya contribuido al cambio observado. Asimismo, la actividad de la Sociedad Cubana de Nutricion Clinica y Metabolismo en el avance de las disciplinas de la terapia nutricional, la nutricion artificial y el metabolismo puede haber servido para un mejor reconocimiento del problema de salud representado por la desnutricion hospitalaria.

  12. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  13. Cuban Education: A New Man or New Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanzare, James

    1979-01-01

    Describes Cuba's unique approach to indoctrinating high school students in communist beliefs. It places urban students in work-study schools in the countryside to separate them from (1) urban elitism and (2) family influence which conditions attitudes toward career goals. As a result, young adults are more willing to be sent wherever they are…

  14. Exercise: the first prescription for Cubans of all ages.

    PubMed

    García, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise improves quality of life and benefits the body's organs and systems: it tones and strengthens muscles; improves joint function; contributes to healthier heart and lungs; increases resistance to fatigue, and thus capacity for both physical and mental exertion; helps combat anxiety, depression and stress; improves sleep patterns; and is an important factor in maintaining healthy weight. It also provides a simple way of sharing with family and friends, even an opportunity for improving intergenerational communication and relations. PMID:24487676

  15. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba if the proprietor has emigrated from Cuba and established residence in the United States or a...

  16. 31 CFR 515.544 - Gifts of Cuban origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... countries other than Cuba. (b) Specific licenses are issued for the importation directly from Cuba: (1) Of... imported by a person entering the U.S., which are claimed to have been acquired in Cuba as a bona fide gift... to Cuba or nationals thereof from the importation....

  17. 31 CFR 515.557 - Accounts of Cuban partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are issued unblocking partnerships established under the laws of Cuba as follows: (a) Where all of the general partners and limited partners, if any, have emigrated from Cuba and have established residence in...) Where one or more partners, whether general or limited, is still in Cuba (or elsewhere but still...

  18. Photograph and Speech Related to the Cuban Missile Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Potter, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    On Sunday, October 14, 1962, an American U-2 aircraft, flying a photographic reconnaissance mission over Cuba, took 928 images (one is included with this article). The next day, analysts at the National Photographic Interpretation Center concluded that the photographs showed evidence of Soviet missile site construction in Cuba and conveyed their…

  19. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones in cuban propolis; biological activity of nemorosone.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Cárdenas, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The Copey tree (Clusia rosea) has a large distribution in Cuba and its floral resin is a rich source of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. To determine the presence of these natural products, we carried out a study by HPLC of 21 propolis samples produced by honey bees (Apis mellifera) from different provinces of Cuba. Nemorosone resulted to be the most abundant polyisoprenylated benzophenone and the mixture of xanthochymol and guttiferone E was also observed, but in minor proportion. We studied the biological activity of the pure natural product nemorosone and its methyl derivatives. We found that nemorosone has cytotoxic activity against epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa), epidermoid carcinoma (Hep-2), prostate cancer (PC-3) and central nervous system cancer (U251). It also exhibited antioxidant capacity. Methylated nemorosone exhibited less biological activity than the natural product. PMID:12064743

  20. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

  1. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  2. Water in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, milk, tea, coffee, soda, drinking water, and juices. Alcohol is not a good source of water because ...

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  5. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

  6. Water Resources Data, Arizona, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; Evans, D.W.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Longsworth, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona District water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2003. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 203 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations, and 50 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and (or) content only records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 19 wells.

  7. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging station, stage for 5 stream station, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  8. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Deiwert, Clyde E.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 183 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 95 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal Agencies.

  9. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  10. Everyone into the Water!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  11. Testing the Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  12. 31 CFR 515.505 - Certain Cuban nationals unblocked; transactions of certain other Cuban nationals lawfully present...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resident alien of the United States, or has applied to become a permanent resident alien of the United... permanent residence, such as a passport, voter registration card, permanent resident alien card, or national..., such as evidence that the individual has been resident for the past two years without interruption in...

  13. 31 CFR 515.505 - Certain Cuban nationals unblocked; transactions of certain other Cuban nationals lawfully present...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resident alien of the United States, or has applied to become a permanent resident alien of the United... permanent residence, such as a passport, voter registration card, permanent resident alien card, or national..., such as evidence that the individual has been resident for the past two years without interruption in...

  14. 31 CFR 515.505 - Certain Cuban nationals unblocked; transactions of certain other Cuban nationals lawfully present...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resident alien of the United States, or has applied to become a permanent resident alien of the United... permanent residence, such as a passport, voter registration card, permanent resident alien card, or national..., such as evidence that the individual has been resident for the past two years without interruption in...

  15. 31 CFR 515.505 - Certain Cuban nationals unblocked; transactions of certain other Cuban nationals lawfully present...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specially designated national; and (2) Any entity that otherwise would be a national of Cuba solely because... until the individual thereafter becomes domiciled in or a permanent resident of Cuba, meets any of the criteria in § 515.302(a)(2) through (5), or is a “specially designated national” of Cuba, as that term...

  16. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  17. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  18. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  19. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 120 streamgaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at four stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 23 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  20. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.; Darnell, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 127 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at seven stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 16 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  1. Water resources data, Kentucky, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, Dennis L.; Moses, Clifford R.; Darnell, Roy S.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 131 stream-stations. It also includes water-quality data for 15 stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at 7 stations, and continuous water-quality at 11 stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 22 partial record sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval are published for two sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  2. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 163 stream-gaging stations, stage for 8 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 1 stream, water temperature at 11 sites, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 78 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  3. Water Resources Data, Indiana, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 148 stream-gaging stations, stage for 16 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 5 streams, water temperature at 17 sites, sediment analysis for 2 streams, water levels for 8 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  4. Water resources data, Connecticut, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jonathan; Sargent, T.C.; Martin, J.W.; Norris, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 52 streamflow-gaging stations and for 38 partial-record streamflow stations and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage-only records for 4 tidal-gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, for 18 ungaged stream sites, and temperature at 1 reservoir site; and (4) water-level records for 73 observation wells. Additional water-quality data are published for 16 miscellaneous surface-water sites and for 19 miscellaneous ground-water sites, which were not part of the systematic data-collection program.

  5. Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearman, J.L.; Stricklin, V.E.; Psinakis, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, for 41 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 47 stations; (3) water-quality records for 12 streamflow-gaging stations, for 17 ungaged streamsites, and for 2 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 14 surfacewater stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 12 stations; (6) turbidity at 3 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (9) water-quality records for 21 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

  6. Urban water recycling.

    PubMed

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  7. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2001-01-01

    Water resource data for the 2000 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 166 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 2 streams, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 79 lakes and 89 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  8. Service water assistance program

    SciTech Connect

    Munchausen, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  9. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  10. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  11. Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2011-07-01

    Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields for the period 1958-2001. To represent blue water availability, a prognostic reservoir operation scheme was included in order to produce monthly time series of global river discharge modulated by reservoir operations. To specify green water availability for irrigated areas, actual transpiration from the model was used. Thus, the computed water availability reflects the climatic variability over 1958-2001 and is contrasted against the monthly water demand using the year 2000 as a benchmark in the companion paper. As the water that is withdrawn to meet demand directly interferes with blue water availability along the drainage network, this paper evaluates model performance for three regimes reflecting different degrees of human interference: natural discharge, discharge regulated by reservoirs, and modified discharge. In the case of modified discharge, the net blue water demand for the year 2000 is subtracted directly from the regulated discharge, taking water demand equal to consumptive water use. Results show that model simulations of monthly river discharge compare well with observations from most of the large rivers. Exceptions are basins subject to large extractions for irrigation purposes, where simulated discharge exceeds the observations even when water demand is taken into account. Including the prognostic reservoir operation scheme results in mixed performance, with a poorer approximation of peak flows but with a marginally better simulation of low flows and persistence. A comparison of simulated actual evapotranspiration with that from the ERA-40 reanalysis as a proxy for observed rates shows similar patterns over nonirrigated areas but substantial deviations

  12. Investigating Water Problems. A Water Analysis Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Charles E.

    This booklet has been prepared expressly for teachers and students who are interested in investigating the quality of water supplies. The intent is to provide technical support and background information concerning water quality factors and to give basic information on field and laboratory water testing techniques. It is assumed that the reader is…

  13. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  14. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  15. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  16. Water resources data, Connecticut, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jonathan; Provencher, P.L.; Martin, J.W.; Norris, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 51 streamflow-gaging stations and for 42 partial-record streamflow stations and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage-only records for 4 tidal-gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, for 20 ungaged stream sites, and temperature at 1 reservoir site; and (4) water-level records for 74 observation wells. Additional data are published for 3 miscellaneous surface-water sites and for 60 miscellaneous ground-water sites, which were not part of the systematic data-collection program.

  17. Jumping of water striders on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jaehak; Jablonski, Piotr; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-11-01

    Small insects such as water striders, springtails, fishing spiders freely move on water by adopting various modes of locomotion, such as rowing, galloping, jumping and meniscus-climbing. As the physics of jumping have not yet been fully understood among those ways of semi-aquatic propulsion, here we present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of water striders leaping off water. We first image and analyze the trajectories of the legs and body of jumping water striders of three different species with a high-speed camera. We then theoretically compute the forces acting on the body by considering the capillary interaction between the flexible legs and deforming water meniscus. Our theory enables us to predict the maximum take-off speed for given leg lengths. The experimental measurements suggest that the water striders drive their legs near the optimal speed to gain the maximum take-off speed.

  18. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  19. Recreational Water Illness (RWI): MRSA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  20. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  1. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  2. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue. PMID:19539423

  3. Kunming experiences water shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chaozhen

    1983-07-17

    This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the present water shortage, it was decided to publicize the importance of planning the water supply and water conservation; to set limits on the amount of water used and to crack down on large consumers of water; and to make further rational and scientific uses of water. The Kunming government has proposed saving 20% of the water now being consumed.

  4. China's water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  5. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  6. Geothermal hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Dittell, E.W.

    1983-05-10

    Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.

  7. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  8. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    PubMed

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water. PMID:21076224

  9. Water footprint of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  10. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ...

  11. Water resources data, Colorado, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.; Boulger, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2004 water year (WY) in this report consist of records of stage and discharge of streams; and stage and contents of one reservoir. This report contains discharge records for 312 gaging stations, stage and contents of 1 lake and reservoir, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, and peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering states, and 34 stations operated by the Colorado Division of Water Resources are included in this report. All records (except as just noted) were collected and computed by the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of J.E. Kircher, Director, USGS Colorado Water Science Center. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  12. Potable water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  13. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  14. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  15. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  16. Water and Something Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  17. Hold the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

  18. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  19. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  20. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  1. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  2. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000.

  3. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  4. New Folklore about Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)

  5. Water use in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    For California, population data used to estimate public water-supply use comes from Urban Water Management Plans, California Department of Water Resources, California Department of Public Health, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data. Population data used to estimate domestic, self-supplied water use came from the difference between the Census population and the public-supply population.

  6. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  7. Leptospirosis from water sources

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115

  8. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  9. Reclaiming water with wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crother, C.M. )

    1994-07-01

    This article describes how officials in Riverside County, Calif. are using constructed wetlands as part of their water-resources-management program, while creating a wildlife-habitat and public-recreation area in the process. As part of its strategy, Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), along with the US Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), is investigating the use of multipurpose constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, reclaimed-water reuse, environmental enhancement, wildlife-habitat creation, and public education and recreation. EMWD is evaluating the use of wetlands to treat nitrate-contaminated ground water, recharge ground-water basins, concentrate desalination unit brines and treat storm-water runoff. By incorporating reclaimed water into its water-resources-management program, EMWD will have the flexibility to provide water of different qualities throughout the district and save potable water for potable uses.

  10. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  11. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  12. Water, something peculiar.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Some chemical and physical properties of water are discussed and compared with those of other fluids. For instance, the boiling point is much higher than one would expect considering the molecular weight of water. The heat capacity is also much higher but the viscosity is not. The dielectric constant is exceptionally high. These and other properties of water can be explained by the geometry of the water molecule and the structure of water or ice. -Author

  13. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  14. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. The global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  16. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  17. More water: better health.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the role of clean water in preventing fecal-oral transmission of infections, skin and eye diseases, water-based diseases, and insect vector diseases. Improvements to water quality are not sufficient to reduce infection. There is a need to educate people about appropriate hygiene and hand washing with soap and cleanliness of storage and eating utensils. Access to clean water is also important. Access to water reduces the household burden for women and children in time and effort. Households farthest from a supply of clean water would benefit the most from access to a clean water supply in time, effort, and money saved. The World Bank found that just the time saved in water collection was sufficient to justify house connections to a public supply of water. Most people would gladly pay for a water supply to be connected to their house. Free water at standpipes does not interfere with the demand for house connections. It was found that when water sources were shifted to locations closer than 1 km, the shift resulted in an increase in the amount of water used. When round-trip water collection takes about 30 minutes, level of use remains constant. When a water supply is moved to within a few yards of the house or piped indoors, use doubles or triples. Fecal contamination of water causes high rates of diarrheal disease, which kills over 3 million children per year. Diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, are transmitted through water-fecal links as well as contaminated food, fingers, utensils, and even clothes. More water available in the home would prevent women from using a corner of their sari to wipe dishes, wipe faces, and wipe a child's bottom. Large storage tanks do not prevent the presence of parasitic worms or insect vectors in the water supply. PMID:12321042

  18. More water: better health.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the role of clean water in preventing fecal-oral transmission of infections, skin and eye diseases, water-based diseases, and insect vector diseases. Improvements to water quality are not sufficient to reduce infection. There is a need to educate people about appropriate hygiene and hand washing with soap and cleanliness of storage and eating utensils. Access to clean water is also important. Access to water reduces the household burden for women and children in time and effort. Households farthest from a supply of clean water would benefit the most from access to a clean water supply in time, effort, and money saved. The World Bank found that just the time saved in water collection was sufficient to justify house connections to a public supply of water. Most people would gladly pay for a water supply to be connected to their house. Free water at standpipes does not interfere with the demand for house connections. It was found that when water sources were shifted to locations closer than 1 km, the shift resulted in an increase in the amount of water used. When round-trip water collection takes about 30 minutes, level of use remains constant. When a water supply is moved to within a few yards of the house or piped indoors, use doubles or triples. Fecal contamination of water causes high rates of diarrheal disease, which kills over 3 million children per year. Diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, are transmitted through water-fecal links as well as contaminated food, fingers, utensils, and even clothes. More water available in the home would prevent women from using a corner of their sari to wipe dishes, wipe faces, and wipe a child's bottom. Large storage tanks do not prevent the presence of parasitic worms or insect vectors in the water supply.

  19. Paying for water.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  20. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  1. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  2. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  3. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  4. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  5. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  6. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  7. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  8. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, João P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  9. Federal water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Federal Water Policy is a statement of the federal government's philosophy and goals for the nation's freshwater resources, and of the proposed ways of achieving them in cooperation with provincial governments. This document provides an overview of the policy, then presents details on the policy itself, the strategies for achievement of that policy, methods of applying it, and specific policy statements. These statements cover such topics as the management of toxic chemicals, water quality, ground water contamination, municipal water and sewer infrastructure, safe drinking water, wetlands preservation, hydroelectric development, navigation, native water rights, and Canada-US boundary management, among others.

  10. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  11. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  12. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  13. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  14. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  15. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ... and guidelines established to protect human health. Some pesticides have not been used for 20 to 30 ...

  16. Society and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    1972-01-01

    At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

  17. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  18. Scaling up water research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Joseph Holden, director of water@leeds -- an international climate and water research centre based at the University of Leeds -- and colleague Dabo Guan talk to Nature Climate Change about the project.

  19. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  20. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  1. Analyzing water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  2. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  3. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  4. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  5. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  6. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  7. Water-based Screenprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreneck, Lynwood

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)

  8. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  9. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  10. Exploding Water Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  11. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  12. Demystifying water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.

    1994-09-01

    Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

  13. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  14. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  15. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  16. Growing Water Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  17. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  18. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  19. Water Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, Ervin

    1975-01-01

    Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

  20. Water chlorination Vol. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Bull, R.J.; Davis, W.P.; Katz, S.; Roberts, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.