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Sample records for cuban waters 1997-2005

  1. Quality of Water in Selected Wells, Harrison County, Mississippi, 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burt, David E.; Welch, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects, on a systematic basis, data needed to determine and evaluate the ground-water resources of Harrison County, Mississippi. Water samples were collected from 1997 to 2005 at selected wells screened in the Citronelle, Graham Ferry, Pascagoula, Hattiesburg, and Catahoula Sandstone aquifers and were analyzed for field properties (temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and color), total dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Regulation (SDWR) of 500 milligrams per liter for total dissolved solids was exceeded in water from three wells in the Hattiesburg aquifer and 12 wells in the Pascagoula aquifer. Chloride concentrations did not exceed the SDWR in any of the aquifers sampled, except for the Pascagoula aquifer where water in 10 wells had concentrations that exceeded the SDWR of 250 milligrams per liter. Iron concentrations in water from nine wells completed in the Graham Ferry and four wells completed in the Pascagoula aquifers exceeded the SDWR of 300 micrograms per liter. Thirty water samples collected from the Graham Ferry and 12 from the Pascagoula aquifer exceeded the SDWR of 50 micrograms per liter for manganese.

  2. Analysis of microsatellite markers in a Cuban water buffalo breed.

    PubMed

    Uffo, Odalys; Martínez, Nadia; Acosta, Atzel; Sanz, Arianne; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Osta, Rosario; Rodellar, Clementina; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this Regional Research Communication was to validate a panel of 30 microsatellite markers recommended by FAO/ISAG for studies of biodiversity in cattle to improve the characterisation of Cuban buffalo populations. The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an economically important livestock species. Therefore, research focused on the study of the genetic relationships among water buffalo populations is useful to support conservation decisions and to design breeding schemes. Twenty-eight of the 30 tested regions were amplified, one of which (ETH10) turned out to be monomorphic. A total of 143 alleles were observed in the Cuban water buffalo population. The average number of alleles per locus was 5·04. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from two (INRA 63 and MM12) to nine (ETH185). The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0·108 (HAUT24) to 0·851 (CSSM66) and 0·104 (MM12) to 0·829(INRA32), respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0·097 (MM12) to 0·806 (INRA32), and the overall value for these markers was 0·482. Within the population, inbreeding estimates (F IS) was positive in 14 of the 30 loci analysed. This study thus highlights the usefulness of heterologous bovine microsatellite markers to assess the genetic variability in Cuban water buffalo breeds. Furthermore, the results can be utilised for future breeding strategies and conservation.

  3. Highly Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with an Immobilized Molecular Co4 O4 Cubane Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Li, Fei; Zhou, Xu; Yu, Fengshou; Du, Jian; Bai, Lichen; Sun, Licheng

    2017-06-06

    Molecular Co4 O4 cubane water oxidation catalysts were combined with BiVO4 electrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The results show that tuning the substituent groups on cobalt cubane allows the PEC properties of the final molecular catalyst/BiVO4 hybrid photoanodes to be tailored. Upon loading a new cubane complex featuring alkoxy carboxylato bridging ligands (1 h) on BiVO4 , an AM 1.5G photocurrent density of 5 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE for water oxidation was obtained, the highest photocurrent for undoped BiVO4 photoanodes. A high solar-energy conversion efficiency of 1.84 % was obtained for the integrated photoanode, a sixfold enhancement over that of unmodified BiVO4 . These results and the high surface charge separation efficiency support the role of surface-modified molecular catalysts in improving PEC performance and demonstrate the potential of molecule/semiconductor hybrids for efficient artificial photosynthesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of bioinspired Mn4O4-cubane water oxidation catalysts: lessons from photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dismukes, G Charles; Brimblecombe, Robin; Felton, Greg A N; Pryadun, Ruslan S; Sheats, John E; Spiccia, Leone; Swiegers, Gerhard F

    2009-12-21

    Hydrogen is the most promising fuel of the future owing to its carbon-free, high-energy content and potential to be efficiently converted into either electrical or thermal energy. The greatest technical barrier to accessing this renewable resource remains the inability to create inexpensive catalysts for the solar-driven oxidation of water. To date, the most efficient system that uses solar energy to oxidize water is the photosystem II water-oxidizing complex (PSII-WOC), which is found within naturally occurring photosynthetic organisms. The catalytic core of this enzyme is a CaMn(4)O(x) cluster, which is present in all known species of oxygenic phototrophs and has been conserved since the emergence of this type of photosynthesis about 2.5 billion years ago. The key features that facilitate the catalytic success of the PSII-WOC offer important lessons for the design of abiological water oxidation catalysts. In this Account, we examine the chemical principles that may govern the PSII-WOC by comparing the water oxidation capabilities of structurally related synthetic manganese-oxo complexes, particularly those with a cubical Mn(4)O(4) core ("cubanes"). We summarize this research, from the self-assembly of the first such clusters, through the elucidation of their mechanism of photoinduced rearrangement to release O(2), to recent advances highlighting their capability to catalyze sustained light-activated electrolysis of water. The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) cubane core assembles spontaneously in solution from monomeric precursors or from [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core complexes in the presence of metrically appropriate bidentate chelates, for example, diarylphosphinates (ligands of Ph(2)PO(2)(-) and 4-phenyl-substituted derivatives), which bridge pairs of Mn atoms on each cube face (Mn(4)O(4)L(6)). The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) core is enlarged relative to the [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core, resulting in considerably weaker Mn-O bonds. Cubanes are ferocious oxidizing agents, stronger than analogous complexes

  5. The spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Rind, E; Pearce, J

    2010-10-01

    In New Zealand Campylobacter infection rates have increased steadily since 1980, reaching a peak in 2003 (396/100,000 population). Compared to other nations, disease rates are unfavourably high (e.g. Australia 117/100,000 population, UK 85/100,000 population, USA 13/100,000 population). This ecological study investigated spatial variations in Campylobacter infection rates across New Zealand's Territorial Local Authorities (TLAs, n=73) for the period 1997-2005. Applying multiple linear regression, we examined whether geographical factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, climate, land use, water and the food environment were associated with local differences in the occurrence of Campylobacter infection rates. The results suggested significant variations in campylobacteriosis across TLAs (average annual rates ranging from 97 to 526/100,000 population), with higher rates in the South Island. Disease rates were associated with lower socio-economic deprivation (P<0.01), the proportion of the population aged 25-44 years (P<0.01) and fresh food outlet density (P<0.76). The results underline the role of area-level characteristics in explaining the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. In particular, the findings draw attention to the relatively unexplored role of fresh food outlets as a potential risk factor for increased Campylobacter notifications.

  6. Water Oxidation Catalysis by Co(II) Impurities in Co(III)4O4 Cubanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The observed water oxidation activity of the compound class Co4O4(OAc)4(Py–X)4 emanates from a Co(II) impurity. This impurity is oxidized to produce the well-known Co-OEC heterogeneous cobaltate catalyst, which is an active water oxidation catalyst. We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening analysis, and electrochemical titrations to establish the existence of the Co(II) impurity as the major source of water oxidation activity that has been reported for Co4O4 molecular cubanes. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry is used to characterize the fate of glassy carbon at water oxidizing potentials and demonstrate that such electrode materials should be used with caution for the study of water oxidation catalysis. PMID:25407218

  7. Tracking the Development of China's Top Universities Using Scientometric Indicators, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Niancai

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the developments of 9 Chinese top universities supported by "985 Project" during 1997-2005 based on the analysis of a series of scientometric indicators, including the total number of publications indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, the cumulated impact factor of publications,…

  8. Cuban Roosters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The rooster is an important symbol in Cuban culture. It represents strength and power. It is considered a compliment for a male to be called a rooster. Jesus Rivera, a folk artist, who is best known for using Cuban symbolism in his ceramics and illustrations, visited the class described in this article. Senor Rivera described the culture of Cuba…

  9. The effect of water hyacinths for wastewater treatment under Cuban climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Jenssen, P D

    2005-01-01

    The purification capacity of systems using floating aquatic plants depend on the climatic conditions under which they are used. This study from Cuban conditions evaluate the effects of the organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate and water depth on the purification capacity of water hyacinths, as well as the effect of some climatic variables on the kinetics of the treatment processes. The experimental system consisted of two consecutive tanks simulating a system of ponds in series. The water depths used were 0.5 m and 1.12 m. In the shallower system with shorter retention times and greater superficial organic loading higher removal efficiencies are obtained. With the data obtained, empirical relations were sought. From these correlations it is possible to determine the values for some parameters used in the design of aquatic treatment systems with water hyacinths. The results revealed a relationship between the purification capacity of the water hyacinth and its velocity of growth. The specific velocity of growth varied with the months of the year and was associated with the temperature and the solar radiation. A multiple correlation equation describing these relations was obtained.

  10. Reorganization of substrate waters between the closed and open cubane conformers during the S2 to S3 transition in the oxygen evolving complex.

    PubMed

    Capone, Matteo; Bovi, Daniele; Narzi, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-10-27

    A crucial step in the mechanism for oxygen evolution in the Photosystem II complex resides in the transition from the S2 state to the S3 state of Kok–Joliot’s cycle, in which an additional water molecule binds to the cluster. On the basis of computational chemistry calculations on Photosystem II models, we propose a reorganization mechanism involving a hydroxyl (W2) and a μ2-oxo bridge (O5) that is able to link the closed cubane S2B intermediate conformer to the S3 open cubane structure. This mechanism can reconcile the apparent conflict between recently reported water exchange and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, and theoretical studies.

  11. An analysis of the growth based on the size and age distributions of the hawksbill sea turtle inhabiting Cuban waters.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M

    2000-11-01

    The first costal scute (C 1) collected from 2, 749 hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) captured in Cuban waters in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed to determine their body size and age distributions. The C 1 width (C 1 W) was converted to the straight carapace length (SCL) using a formula, SCL = 4.3527 (C 1 W)0.8484, to examine its body size distribution. The SCL ranged from 51.3 to 96.1 cm with 68.8 cm of mean and 68.6 cm of median. Ages of captured turtles estimated from the C 1 surface patterns were ranged from 3.3 to 61.5 years old with 15.8 years of mean and 14.5 years of median. A growth function of van Bertalanffy, M(t) = A(1-Be-kt), was applied to determine the relationship between the age and body size (SCL). A formula, SCL = 80.4(1 -0.663e-0.118(Age)), was derived and indicated a slowdown in the growth after about 14 years old. The maturation age and the rate of sexually matured Cuban hawksbill turtles were also discussed based on these results.

  12. 3d-4f {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} Cubanes as Bio-Inspired Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Fabio; Moré, René; Hodel, Florian; Luber, Sandra; Patzke, Greta Ricarda

    2015-09-02

    Although the {CaMn4O5} oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II is a major paradigm for water oxidation catalyst (WOC) development, the comprehensive translation of its key features into active molecular WOCs remains challenging. The [Co(II)3Ln(hmp)4(OAc)5H2O] ({Co(II)3Ln(OR)4}; Ln = Ho-Yb, hmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) cubane WOC series is introduced as a new springboard to address crucial design parameters, ranging from nuclearity and redox-inactive promoters to operational stability and ligand exchange properties. The {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} cubanes promote bioinspired WOC design by newly combining Ln(3+) centers as redox-inactive Ca(2+) analogues with flexible aqua-/acetate ligands into active and stable WOCs (max. TON/TOF values of 211/9 s(-1)). Furthermore, they open up the important family of 3d-4f complexes for photocatalytic applications. The stability of the {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} WOCs under photocatalytic conditions is demonstrated with a comprehensive analytical strategy including trace metal analyses and solution-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations. The productive influence of the Ln(3+) centers is linked to favorable ligand mobility, and the experimental trends are substantiated with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies.

  13. Self-reported diabetes in Hispanic subgroup, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white populations: National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D; Dallo, Florence J; Baquero, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Hispanic subgroup (Puerto Rican, Mexican, Mexican American, Cuban, Dominican, Central and South American, and other Hispanic), non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white populations aged 20 years and older. Using the National Health Interview Survey 1997-2005, we limited these analyses to 272,041 records of adults aged 20 years and older, including 46,749 records for Hispanic respondents. We used logistic regression to assess the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and self-reported diabetes before and after adjusting for selected characteristics. Compared with non-Hispanic white respondents, Mexican American (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75, 2.34), Mexican (OR=1.52; 95% CI 1.31, 1.91), Puerto Rican (OR=1.53; 95% CI 1.23, 1.91), other Hispanic (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.68, 2.58), and non-Hispanic black (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.35, 1.61) respondents had greater odds of reporting diabetes. When compared with non-Hispanic white respondents, Mexican American respondents with less than a high school diploma had the lowest odds of reporting diabetes, while those with at least a college degree had greater odds of reporting diabetes. However, Puerto Rican respondents with less than a high school education, Mexican respondents with at least some college education, and other Hispanic respondents with at least a high school diploma/general equivalency diploma had greater odds of reporting diabetes. Although Hispanic respondents bear a greater burden of diabetes than non-Hispanic white respondents, this burden is unevenly distributed across subgroups. These findings call attention to data disaggregation whenever possible for U.S. racial/ethnic populations classified under categories considered homogeneous.

  14. Cuban Studies Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Center for International Studies.

    This is the first issue of the Cuban Studies Newsletter, a biannual publication designed to provide comprehensive and timely communication among those interested in Cuban Studies. The purpose of the newsletter stated in a recommendation by the International Conference on Cuban Bibliography and Acquisitions, April, 1970, is to promote the scholarly…

  15. Cuban Studies Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Center for International Studies.

    This is the first issue of the Cuban Studies Newsletter, a biannual publication designed to provide comprehensive and timely communication among those interested in Cuban Studies. The purpose of the newsletter stated in a recommendation by the International Conference on Cuban Bibliography and Acquisitions, April, 1970, is to promote the scholarly…

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Jun J.; Ohdachi, Satoshi D.; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M.; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L.; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised. PMID:27498968

  17. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear genes suggests a Cenozoic over-water dispersal origin for the Cuban solenodon.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Echenique-Diaz, Lazaro M; Borroto-Páez, Rafael; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Delgado-Labañino, Jorge L; Gámez-Díez, Jorgelino; Alvarez-Lemus, José; Nguyen, Son Truong; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kita, Masaki

    2016-08-08

    The Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) is one of the most enigmatic mammals and is an extremely rare species with a distribution limited to a small part of the island of Cuba. Despite its rarity, in 2012 seven individuals of S. cubanus were captured and sampled successfully for DNA analysis, providing new insights into the evolutionary origin of this species and into the origins of the Caribbean fauna, which remain controversial. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (Apob, Atp7a, Bdnf, Brca1 and Rag1; total, 4,602 bp) from 35 species of the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. Based on Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses, the family Solenodontidae diverged from other eulipotyphlan in the Paleocene, after the bolide impact on the Yucatan Peninsula, and S. cubanus diverged from the Hispaniolan solenodon (S. paradoxus) in the Early Pliocene. The strikingly recent divergence time estimates suggest that S. cubanus and its ancestral lineage originated via over-water dispersal rather than vicariance events, as had previously been hypothesised.

  18. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Koh, Howard

    2007-10-01

    To determine whether nicotine yields in the smoke of cigarettes would show an overall increase over time or an increasing trend limited to any particular market category (eg, full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight; mentholated vs non-mentholated), manufacturer, or brand family or brand style, and whether nicotine yields in smoke would be associated with measurable trends in cigarette design. Machine-based measures of nicotine yield in smoke and measures of cigarette design features related to nicotine delivery (ventilation, nicotine content in the tobacco rod and number of puffs), as well as market category descriptors, were obtained from annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public by tobacco manufacturers for 1997-2005. Trends in nicotine yield and its relationship with design features and market parameters were analysed with multilevel mixed-effects regression modelling procedures. A statistically significant trend was confirmed in increased nicotine yield, of 0.019 (1.1%) mg/cig/year over the period 1997-2005 and 0.029 (1.6%) mg/cig/year over the period 1998-2005. The increasing trend was observed in all major market categories (mentholated vs non-mentholated, and full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight). Nicotine yield in smoke was positively associated with nicotine concentration in the tobacco and number of puffs per cigarette, both of which showed increasing trends during the study period. This study confirms increased machine-measured levels of nicotine, the addictive agent in cigarettes, in smoke, to be a result of increased nicotine in the tobacco rod and other design modifications.

  19. Distribution and abundance of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Lake Erie, 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krieger, K.A.; Bur, M.T.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Barton, D.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia limbata and H. rigida) recolonized sediments of the western basin of Lake Erie in the 1990s following decades of pollution abatement. We predicted that Hexageniawould also disperse eastward or expand from existing localized populations and colonize large regions of the other basins. We sampled zoobenthos in parts of the western and central basins yearly from 1997–2005, along the north shore of the eastern basin in 2001–2002, and throughout the lake in 2004. In the island area of the western basin, Hexagenia was present at densities ≤1,278 nymphs/m2and exhibited higher densities in odd years than even years. By contrast, Hexagenia became more widespread in the central basin from 1997–2000 at densities ≤48 nymphs/m2 but was mostly absent from 2001–2005. Nymphs were found along an eastern basin transect at densities ≤382/m2 in 2001 and 2002. During the 2004 lake-wide survey, Hexagenia was found at 63 of 89 stations situated throughout the western basin (≤1,636 nymphs/m2, mean = 195 nymphs/m2, SE = 32, N = 89) but at only 7 of 112 central basin stations, all near the western edge of the basin (≤708 nymphs/m2), and was not found in the eastern basin. Hexagenia was found at 2 of 62 stations (≤91 nymphs/m2) in harbors, marinas, and tributaries along the south shore of the central basin in 2005. Oxygen depletion at the sediment-water interface and cool temperatures in the hypolimnion are probably the primary factors preventing successful establishment throughout much of the central basin. Hexagenia can be a useful indicator of lake quality where its distribution and abundance are limited by anthropogenic causes.

  20. [Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children: results from the population registry of the Madrid Region, 1997-2005].

    PubMed

    Zorrilla Torras, Belén; Cantero Real, José Luis; Barrios Castellanos, Raquel; Ramírez Fernández, Joaquín; Argente Oliver, Jesús; González Vergaz, Angeles

    2009-04-18

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) varies importantly worldwide, including European countries, and even among regions within a country. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of type 1 DM in the Madrid Region. We included 1130 new cases of type 1 DM in children below 15 years of age, which were notified to the diabetes registry from January, 1997 to December, 2005. Case ascertainment was evaluated through the capture-recapture method. The data was analysed using Poisson regression models. The incidence rate in this period was 15.9/100,000 persons-years (95% confidence interval, 15.0-16.8). Completeness of ascertainment was 82%. The incidence by age group was 12.1 (0-4 years), 18.2 (5-9 years) and 17.4 by 100,000 persons-years (10-14 years). The incidence data showed no significant changes in the studied period. We observed a seasonal variation in the incidence, with the greatest incidence in the cold months. The estimated incidence of type 1 DM ranks in an intermediate position with regard to that estimated more recently in other Spanish regions. During the period 1997-2005, the incidence has maintained stable in the Madrid Region.

  1. Cubanes As Solid Propellant Ingredients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunkle, Glen T.; Willer, Rodney L.

    1988-05-01

    Nine diesters of cubane 1,4-dicarboxylic acid were synthesized and evaluated as advanced propellant plasticizers. Three energetic cubyl ammonium salts of amino and 1,4-diamino cubane were synthesized as models for more highly substituted cubyl ammonium salt oxidizers. Methyl carbamates of amino cubanes have been successfully nitrated with 100% HNO3/(CH3C0)20. These nitrated carbamates are precursors to unsubstituted nitramino cubanes.

  2. {Co4O4} and {CoxNi4-xO4} Cubane Water Oxidation Catalysts as Surface Cut-Outs of Cobalt Oxides.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangyuan; Moré, René; Schilling, Mauro; Smolentsev, Grigory; Azzaroli, Nicolo; Fox, Thomas; Luber, Sandra; Patzke, Greta R

    2017-10-11

    The future of artificial photosynthesis depends on economic and robust water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Cobalt-based WOCs are especially promising for knowledge transfer between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst design. We introduce the active and stable {Co(II)4O4} cubane [Co(II)4(dpy{OH}O)4(OAc)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (Co4O4-dpk) as the first molecular WOC with the characteristic {H2O-Co2(OR)2-OH2} edge-site motif representing the sine qua non moiety of the most efficient heterogeneous Co-oxide WOCs. DFT-MD modelings as well as in situ EXAFS measurements indicate the stability of the cubane cage in solution. The stability of Co4O4-dpk under photocatalytic conditions ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)/S2O8(2-)) was underscored with a wide range of further analytical methods and recycling tests. FT-IR monitoring and HR-ESI-MS spectra point to a stable coordination of the acetate ligands, and DFT-MD simulations along with (1)H/(2)H exchange experiments highlight a favorable intramolecular base functionality of the dpy{OH}O ligands. All three ligand types enhance proton mobility at the edge site through a unique bioinspired environment with multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions. In situ XANES experiments under photocatalytic conditions show that the {Co(II)4O4} core undergoes oxidation to Co(III) or higher valent states, which recover rather slowly to Co(II). Complementary ex situ chemical oxidation experiments with [Ru(bpy)3](3+) furthermore indicate that the oxidation of all Co(II) centers of Co4O4-dpk to Co(III) is not a mandatory prerequisite for oxygen evolution. Moreover, we present the [Co(II)xNi4-x(dpy{OH}O)4(OAc)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (CoxNi4-xO4-dpk) series as the first mixed Co/Ni-cubane WOCs. They newly bridge homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst design through fine-tuned edge-site environments of the Co centers.

  3. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and…

  4. A Cuban tektite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, G.D.; Naeser, C.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1971-01-01

    A large tektite from Cuba is classified with other North American tektites on the basis of its age. The major-element chemistry, oxygen isotopic composition, refractive index and density of the Cuban tektite are within the ranges exhibited by bediasites. ?? 1971.

  5. Managing environmental problems in Cuban karstic aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Leslie Molerio; Parise, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The Cuban archipelago hosts some of the most typical karst features in the Caribbean, and has very important and high-quality resources of karst water. Carbonate rocks cover about 70% of the country area, with a great variety of karst features, and outstanding exokarstic landforms such as the cone karst; in addition, many caves are regarded as cultural and historical sites. Protection of the karst hydric resources is therefore essential. In karst, the intrinsic vulnerability of the environment makes it highly susceptible to pollution, which may result in dramatic consequences for both the quality of karst water and the amount of water available. Many anthropogenic activities produce negative changes in the karst aquifers, in some cases with unrecoverable effects. In Cuba, five main sources of pollution to karst aquifers have been identified: sea water intrusion, agricultural practices, waste disposal, industrial activity, and mining and oil production. Due to the narrow and elongated configuration of the main island, wide portions of the territory are mostly affected by seawater intrusion problems, exacerbated by the concentration of both population and human activities in the largest towns located along, or very close to, the coasts. Seawater intrusion, however, is not the only source of pollution for Cuban karst aquifers. The other aforementioned sources are important, and may locally prevail (e.g. pollution resulting from sugar cane factories). Considerations on the management of karst aquifers and a brief description of the water quality monitoring system of Cuban inland waters are also provided.

  6. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Steece, Aaron; Lemann, Zachary K.; Lazare, Remy; Beck, James W.

    2016-01-01

    USA: LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: on private property on Allen Road in Slidell (ca. 30.262°N, 89.741°W; WGS 84). 2 April 2013. Aaron Steece. Verified by Hardin Waddle. Florida Museum of Natural History (UF 177727, photo voucher). New parish record. This adult was found ca. 2 m high on a branch at the edge of a wooded area behind a house. It was photographed and released, as the species identity and significance was unknown. The origin of this individual is unknown. The homeowner stated that he bought nursery plants often, but checked them thoroughly as he put them indoors. Since this initial finding, the homeowner learned more about Cuban Treefrogs and searched for them on many occasions at this location for two years, but detected no additional Cuban Treefrogs.

  7. My Collaboration with Cuban Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leccabue, Fabrizio

    My first meeting with the scientific Cuban community was in 1969 when the first of four young Cuban physicists, Joaquín Torres Orosco†, came to the Physics Department of Parma University through the `Andrea Levialdi Fellowship,' an Italian bursary promoted by Roberto Fieschi using a fund, subscribed to voluntarily by the Italian physics community.

  8. The Cuban Americans: Ethnic Exiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Paul F.

    Cuban Americans as a demographic group have violated many of the normally observed patterns concerning immigrant groups to the United States. Although included under the term "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have had a unique demographic, political, economic, and social history in the United States which has differentiated them from other Hispanic…

  9. Systematics and biogeography of Cuban porcelain crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae).

    PubMed

    Diez, Yander L; Lira, Carlos

    2017-01-10

    Marine crustaceans are a well-known invertebrates group in Cuban waters, but some taxa are not well catalogued and the literature about them is scattered. In this work, we present the checklist of porcelain crabs of Cuban Archipelago, including the literature registers and unpublished author's data. A key to the identification of 8 genera and 23 species of the Cuban porcelain crabs is provided. Information about the local distribution of species is presented. In addition, we analyzed the porcelain crab faunal affinities between the ecoregions of the Cuban platform, Greater Antilles islands and the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic (TNA) province. For the first time, we record the presence of the monotypic genus Parapetrolisthes Haig in Cuba. On the Cuban platform, the highest similarities are between the Southcentral and Northwestern ecoregions (50%) and between Northcentral and Northeastern (40%). In the Greater Antilles, Cuba and Puerto Rico are the most similar (54%), but in general, the porcelain crab composition shows a high variation (e. g. 19% between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico). In the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic, five homogeneous groups of porcelain crab species are distinguished. Cuban fauna is most similar to that of Floridian, Western Caribbean and Southern Gulf of Mexico ecoregions. The decrease in species richness is evident from south to north in the TNA Province.

  10. Prehospital cardiac care Cuban style.

    PubMed

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sadosty, Annie T

    2004-09-01

    The Cuban national Integrated Medical Emergeny System or "Sistema Integrado de Urgencias Medicas" (SIUM) was formed in 1997. In 1998, the SIUM began an active out-of-hospital thrombolysis program using Heberkinasa, the only streptokinase obtained through recombinant DNA techniques, produced by the Cuban Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. An active community training program has also been implemented, standardizing training for the almost 20,000 members of the national emergency medical services.

  11. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  12. Cuban-Americans in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonen, Norma, Comp.

    A statistical profile of Cuban Americans was provided by the 1980 Census and by a comprehensive telephone survey. Major findings include the following: (1) In most Cuban American households, Spanish is the language most spoken, but 85 percent of the Cuban American surveyed felt that residents of the United States should use English in their public…

  13. Cuban-Americans in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonen, Norma, Comp.

    A statistical profile of Cuban Americans was provided by the 1980 Census and by a comprehensive telephone survey. Major findings include the following: (1) In most Cuban American households, Spanish is the language most spoken, but 85 percent of the Cuban American surveyed felt that residents of the United States should use English in their public…

  14. The Cuban Americans. The New Americans Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Pando, Miguel

    The experiences of Cuban Americans, immigrants who often came to the United States reluctantly, are explored to introduce this prominent minority population to others. The following chapters are included: (1) "Historical Background"; (2) "Genesis of the Cuban Exile"; (3) "Development of the Cuban Exile Country"; (4)…

  15. [Frequency and determinants of inter-hospital transfers in the Local Health Unit of Frosinone, Italy in the years 1997-2005].

    PubMed

    Tersigni, Ivan; Federico, B; Capelli, G

    2008-01-01

    Community and rural hospitals rely to a greater extent on transferring acute patients to other settings which can provide the required definitive care. Using data on all hospital discharges of patients from the 11 acute care hospitals of the Frosinone Local Health Unit (7 of which were publicly run, and 4 were run by privates) over the period 1997-2005, a study was carried out to assess the frequency, time-trend and determinants of transfers. Between 1997 and 2005, 8,009 patients (1.3%) were transferred to acute care hospitals, while 2,499 (0.4%) were transferred to long-term and rehabilitation hospitals. The proportion of patients transferred to acute care hospitals increased over time, while that of patients transferred to long-term services was stable. Men, the elderly, those admitted in intensive care units and those with orthopaedic injuries, burns, traumas, drug abuse, mental illnesses, neurological and cardiovascular diseases were more likely to be transferred. Adjusting for other risk factors, the hospital of Ceccano had a higher frequency of transfers (8.7%) compared to the other hospitals, while privately administered hospitals showed a much lower percentage of inter-hospital transfers.

  16. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.

  17. Paratropic ring currents in cubane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Remco W. A.; Fowler, Patrick W.; Steiner, Erich

    2003-04-01

    Visualisation, at the ab initio CTOCD-DZ/RHF/6-31G ** level, of current density induced in the cubane molecule, C 8H 8, by a magnetic field along a fourfold axis shows a pair of strong face-localised paratropic ring currents in this saturated system that account for the strong deshielding effects at both face and cube centres predicted in previous calculations.

  18. A Demographic Profile of Cuban Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.

    This study offers a demographic profile of the U.S. Cuban population, using data from the decennial census and current population surveys. Part one estimates the number of Cuban Americans and describes their geographic distribution nationwide. Part two compares the socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, educational attainment, income,…

  19. 77 FR 71530 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 515 Cuban Assets Control Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Cuban Assets Control Regulations to authorize...

  20. 75 FR 10996 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 515 Cuban Assets Control Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Cuban Assets Control Regulations to implement...

  1. Cuban Refugees and the American Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    The influx of Cuban refugees following Castro's rise to power and the Bay of Pigs invasion is described. Their settlement in southern Florida was aided by the educational community, particularly the schools and colleges of Miami, whose task will continue to be that of unifying the American and Cuban cultures. (LBH)

  2. Cuban Refugee Camp Newspapers in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danky, James P.

    This paper presents bibliographic information on ten newspapers that were published during 1980 in Cuban refugee camps in order to acquaint Cuban exiles with life in the camps and in the United States and later were collected and reproduced on microfilm by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The newspapers are described as a more accurate…

  3. Isoflavonoids isolated from Cuban propolis.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; De Simone, Francesco; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-11-16

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Cuban propolis sample has led to the isolation of 11 isoflavonoids (2 isoflavones, 3 isoflavans, and 6 pterocarpans), together with gallic acid, isoliquiritigenin, and (-)-liquiritigenin. Structural determination, including the absolute stereochemistry, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly CD and 2D NMR techniques. The fragmentation behavior of pterocarpans was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion-trap analyzer, and a generalized fragmentation pathway, useful in the identification and structural characterization of pterocarpans, is proposed. Isoflavonoids are reported for the first time from propolis samples.

  4. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa S.; Patel, Dhaval; Rodríguez Leyva, Delfin; Khan, Bobby V.; Sperling, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba. PMID:22203917

  5. The 1980 Cuban Crisis: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Ronald

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the 1980 Cuban migration to the United States. Examines policy questions concerning unexpected mass migrations and the way the U.S. government responds. The Haitian immigration is discussed similarly. (Author/APM)

  6. Cuban Libraries: 30 Years after the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Cuban library system includes comments from interviews with leading librarians in that country. Effects of the Castro regime and the U.S. embargo on Cuba and its libraries are considered. (MES)

  7. Cuban Libraries: 30 Years after the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Cuban library system includes comments from interviews with leading librarians in that country. Effects of the Castro regime and the U.S. embargo on Cuba and its libraries are considered. (MES)

  8. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  9. Synthesis of Cubane Based Energetic Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-13

    cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group , (N(NO2)2). Our work on the preparation of the dinitamide group led... groups creates exceptionally dense and powerful explosives, propellants, and fuels. The cubane system is geometrically very different from ordinary...routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group , N(NO2)2 in other investigations related to this program. This work resulted in new, more efficient

  10. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  11. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  12. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  13. The surgical trends and time-frame comparison of primary surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2006-2010 vs 1997-2005: a population-based nation-wide follow-up descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Jen; Tong, Yat-Ching; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Liang, Ching-Chung; Liang, So-Jung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the surgical trends for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during 2006-2010, and a time-frame comparison with 1997-2005, based upon the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data in Taiwan. Women who underwent various primary surgeries for SUI during 2006-2010 were identified, with a total of 15,099 inpatients. The variables included surgical types, patient age, surgeon age and gender, specialty, and hospital accreditation levels. Chi-squared tests and SAS version 9.3.1 were used for statistical analysis. During the follow-up study, midurethral sling (MUS) application increased significantly from 53.09 % in 2006 to 78.74 % in 2010. It was associated concomitantly with a decrease in retropubic urethropexy (RPU) from 29.68 % to 12.99 %, and pubovaginal sling treatment (PVS) from 9.33 % to 3.46 %. MUS was most commonly used among all patients' and surgeons' age groups, and different accreditation hospital levels. MUS was more commonly used by gynecologists (71.38 %) than urologists (57.91 %); while PVS and periurethral injection were more commonly performed by urologists than gynecologists. Similar surgical trends were found during time-frame comparison, 2006-2010 vs 1997-2005. SUI surgeries increased in patients aged ≥60, surgeons aged ≥ 50, and in regional hospitals. This follow-up study depicts the increase in popularity of MUS and offers evidence of surgical trends and a paradigm shift for female SUI surgery. More older women were willing to seek healthcare and undergo surgery. The surgical skills and knowledge spread from medical centers into regional hospitals. The time-frame shift may have a profound impact on patients, as well as the healthcare providers.

  14. Study of the Cuban fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M. O. C.; Córdoba, D.

    2010-03-01

    With the help of aerial photographs, satellite photographs and imageries, contour maps, geological and geomorphological information (personal correspondence and unpublished works), geophysical regional data, and field work, it has been possible to map a network of fractures, alignments, and faults in 26 areas (distinguishing them quantitatively and hierarchically). Links with known regional structures were also studied. Interpretation of the linear relief elements confirms the very different density, dimensions, strikes, and function of the fracturation and also, from a microtectonic perspective, explains the activity of some active faults better. It has confirmed some previous results and improved on others; for example, the Oriente fault which is the most active in Cuba with two segments (Western: Cabo Cruz—Santiago de Cuba; Eastern: Santiago de Cuba—Punta de Maisí, the Western fault being the most active); the Nortecubana fault, forming the northern limit of the Cuban megablock, and divided into three segments; and the Cauto—Nipe fault, forming the limit of the neotectonic units, presenting two segments with three seismoactive knots.

  15. Evaluation and Identification of Policy Issues in the Cuban Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Guarione M., Ed.

    The research described in this report identifies the major health, education, and welfare-related needs of Cuban Americans as defined by directors of Cuban community service organizations and Cuban beneficiary populations in the selected urban areas of Miami/Dade County, Union City/West New York, New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Data from…

  16. Cuban History and Culture, Social Studies: 6478.19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alchin, Don D.

    In this elective quinmester course clustering around behavioral studies, Junior high students study Cuban heritage; Cuban events leading up to the migration to the U.S.; and Cuban-American population as it now exists in the U.S., including refugee problems, contributions, and the future. The focus is upon helping teachers and students understand…

  17. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  18. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  19. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  20. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  1. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  2. Much Ado about Something: Cuban Biotech.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cuban advances in biotech have made headlines, particularly since the US-Cuba rapprochement and signing of the historic memorandum of understanding between the US Department of Health and Human Services and Cuba's Ministry of Public Health in June. Some 34 Cuban institutions with 22,000 employees are the backbone of a biotech industry that dates to the early 1980s, obtaining novel products that have sparked interest among potential global partners. While a number of these Cuban products are registered in various countries, their testing in the USA remains ensnared in the red tape of embargo laws that tend to make investors skittish and thus delay, if not curtail, joint research and clinical trial applications to the FDA.

  3. Cubans team up for better nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-10-01

    A ham and cheese sandwich every day. Fried chicken and pork rinds. White rice, white bread, and few leafy greens. Soft drinks with every meal. When interviewers asked a nationwide sample of Cubans what they ate on a typical day, and what they would put on a daily menu if they could choose whatever they wanted, these were among the top responses. Results of that landmark study revealed that a majority of Cubans eat too much sugar, not enough fruits and vegetables, and have an unhealthy predilection for fried food, red meat and saturated fats.

  4. Community social support for Cuban refugees in Texas.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Donelle M; Aguilar, Rocio

    2007-02-01

    Social support has been linked to positive health outcomes for many populations across multiple health issues. The interactional approach defines social support as a complex, transactional process between the person and his or her social environment. Being part of a community enhances the likelihood of social bonding, leading to increased perceived support. In this study, the authors describe recently arrived adult Cuban refugees' perceptions of community-level support in Texas. Practical and emotional support needs included jobs and companionship away from everyday problems. The two major sources of practical support were resettlement agencies and other Cubans. The two major sources of emotional support were other Cubans and English-speaking friends. There were no local Cuban clubs or associations where Cubans could meet. Besides receiving support, many Cubans were also supporting other Cubans locally and in Cuba, and some experienced discrimination.

  5. Synthetic control and empirical prediction of redox potentials for Co4O4 cubanes over a 1.4 V range: implications for catalyst design and evaluation of high-valent intermediates in water oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Andy I.; Wang, Jianing; Levine, Daniel S.; ...

    2017-04-07

    The oxo-cobalt cubane unit [Co4O4] is of interest as a homogeneous oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) catalyst, and as a functional mimic of heterogeneous cobalt oxide OER catalysts. The synthesis of several new cubanes allows evaluation of redox potentials for the [Co4O4] cluster, which are highly sensitive to the ligand environment and span a remarkable range of 1.42 V. The [CoIII4O4]4+/[CoIII3CoIVO4]5+ and [CoIII3CoIVO4]5+/[CoIII2CoIV2O4]6+ redox potentials are reliably predicted by the pKas of the ligands. Hydrogen bonding is also shown to significantly raise the redox potentials, by ~500 mV. The potential-pKa correlation is used to evaluate the feasibility of various proposed OER catalyticmore » intermediates, including high-valent Co-oxo species. The synthetic methods and structure–reactivity relationships developed by these studies should better guide the design of new cubane-based OER catalysts.« less

  6. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multi-ethnic students with information and teaching resources on Cubans in order to enhance the multicultural awareness of the total school population. The guide was designed for use in the Detroit, Michigan public schools. An historical overview of Cuba from pre-Columbian times to the present outlines Cuba's…

  7. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  8. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  9. Cuban/US Research Interactions Since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamargo, Maria C.

    Interactions between Cuban physicists and researchers in the United States are difficult, to say the least. The complexities associated with communication and travel between Cuba and the US greatly hamper these efforts. Nevertheless, scientific interactions are permitted within the limits of the US embargo, and travel to Cuba to attend international scientific conferences or for well-documented research and educational purposes is allowed.

  10. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  11. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda K.; McAuliffe, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)

  12. Synthesis of Tetra-Functional Cubane Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-03

    cubane-1,4-diacid (Figure 15) shows a similar sharp decomposition exotherm at 246’C and a smaller unexplained exotherm at 220°C. TGA analysis revealed...in CH 2 C] 2 on a Perkin- Elmer 700 spectrometer. DSC and TGA analysis were performed on a Dupont 9900 Thermoanalyzer. 18 0 19) (0- - ~ t-4 ,10 In do

  13. Conversion of core oxos to water molecules by 4e-/4H+ reductive dehydration of the Mn4O2(6+) core in the manganese-oxo cubane complex Mn4O4(Ph2PO2)6: a partial model for photosynthetic water binding and activation.

    PubMed

    Ruettinger, W F; Dismukes, G C

    2000-03-06

    Reaction of the Mn4O4(6+) "cubane" core complex, Mn4O4L6 (1) (L = diphenylphosphinate, Ph2PO2-), with a hydrogen atom donor, phenothiazine (pzH), forms the dehydrated cluster Mn4O2L6 (2), which has lost two mu-oxo bridges by reduction to water (H2O). The formation of 2 was established by electrospray mass spectrometry, whereas FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the release of water molecules into solution during the reduction of 1. UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies established the stoichiometry and chemical form of the pzH product by showing the production of 4 equiv of the neutral pz radical. By contrast, the irreversible decomposition of 1 to individual Mn(II) ions occurs if the reduction is performed using electrons provided by various proton-lacking reductants, such as cobaltocene or electrochemical reduction. Thus, cubane 1 undergoes coupled four-electron/four-proton reduction with the release of two water molecules, a reaction formally analogous to the reverse sequence of the steps that occur during photosynthetic water oxidation leading to O2 evolution. 1H NMR of solutions of 2 reveal that all six of the phosphinate ligands exhibit paramagnetic broadening, due to coordination to Mn ions, and are magnetically equivalent. A symmetrical core structure is thus indicated. We hypothesize that this structure is produced by the dynamic averaging of phosphinato ligand coordination or exchange of mu-oxos between vacant mu-oxo sites. The paramagnetic 1H NMR of water molecules in solution shows that they are able to freely exchange with water molecules that are bound to the Mn ion(s) in 2, and this exchange can be inhibited by the addition of coordinating anions, such as chloride. Thus, 2 possesses open or labile coordination sites for water and anions, in contrast to solutions of 1, which reveal no evidence for water coordination. Complex 2 exhibits greater paramagnetism than that of 1, as seen by 1H NMR, and it possesses a broad (440 G wide) EPR absorption, centered at g = 2

  14. Mental Health in Mariel Cubans and Haitian Boat People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.; Garrison, Roberta

    1992-01-01

    Presents prevalence data on 4 specific mental disorders among 452 Cuban immigrants who arrived in the Mariel crisis and 500 Haitians who arrived in the United States at the same time. Only among the Cubans was the standard inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and rate of mental disorder observed. (SLD)

  15. Race, Wages, and Assimilation among Cuban Immigrants. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavodny, Madeline

    This study uses data from the 1980 and 1990 Census and the 1994-2000 Current Population Survey to examine the determinants of earnings among male Cuban immigrants in the United States by race. Nonwhite Cuban immigrants earn about 15 percent less than Whites, on average. Much of the racial wage gap is due to differences in educational attainment,…

  16. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Final /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of syllable- and word-final /s/ among two generations of Cubans in Miami, Florida (USA): older, early exile immigrants who arrived in Miami as adults in the 1960s and 1970s, and young Miami-born Cubans whose maternal and paternal grandparents immigrated to Miami from Cuba prior to 1980. Since sibilant weakening is…

  17. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  18. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Final /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of syllable- and word-final /s/ among two generations of Cubans in Miami, Florida (USA): older, early exile immigrants who arrived in Miami as adults in the 1960s and 1970s, and young Miami-born Cubans whose maternal and paternal grandparents immigrated to Miami from Cuba prior to 1980. Since sibilant weakening is…

  19. Cuban Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    Cuban Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque announced that Mexico would began to repatriate Cubans who arrive in Mexico with proper documents.47 The...and Barbara A. Salazar (archived, available on request). 60 CRS Report RL32730, Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress, by Mark P. Sullivan. 61 CRS

  20. The Cuban-American Experience. Culture, Images and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Thomas D.; Curtis, James R.

    This book is a discussion of the major social, economic, political, and geographical topics relating to Cuban settlement and culture in the United States. First, the book examines Cubans as an ethnic minority, as well as some of the events and people that have helped shape the popular images that Americans may have of this group. The focus then…

  1. Accomplishments in Cuban Physics (up to 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.; Trallero-Giner, Carlos

    In late October 1995, one of the authors (CRH) paid a personal visit to Cuba. While there, he took advantage of a longstanding invitation to present a research seminar to the Cuban Physics Society. With respect to the development of physics in Cuba, curiosity led to subsequent visits to various centers including the University of Havana (UH), the Pedagogical Institute, the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), the Institute for Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics (ICIMAF), the Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE), the Neuroscience Center, and the National Center for Scientific Research (CNIC).

  2. Is N sub 8 cubane stable

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Stine, J.R. )

    1990-07-26

    The question of N{sub 8} cubane's stability is addressed via ab initio calculations. An O{sub h} symmetry stationary point is found on the energy hypersurface for all three levels of theory used; these were restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) self-consistent-field theory using STO-3G, 4-31G, and 4-31G* basis sets. Vibrational frequency calculations, at the same three levels of theory, all indicate that the cubic structure is stable. The effect of correlation on the stable structure energies is examined with Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory up to fourth order; these post-Hartree-Fock calculations were performed at the RHF optimized geometries. The calculations indicate that, if it could be synthesized, N{sub 8} cubane would be a highly energetic material, metastable to dissociation to four N{sub 2} molecules; the energy release for this reaction is predicted to be 530 {plus minus} 50 kcal/mol. The energy barrier to dissociation is estimated via reaction coordinate calculations.

  3. Dietary reference intakes for the cuban population, 2008.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Porrata, Carmen; Jiménez, Santa; Rodríguez, Armando; Carrillo, Olimpia; García, Alvaro; Valdés, Lourdes; Esquivel, Mercedes

    2009-10-01

    Recommended dietary reference intakes (DRI) for energy and nutrients for the Cuban population were first established by the Nutrition and Food Hygiene Institute (INHA, its Spanish acronym) in 1996.[1] International organizations and Cuban public health research subsequently generated a considerable volume of new information on food-based energy and nutrient requirements,[2-4] resulting in the need for a revision. Updated DRIs were therefore compiled by a multidisciplinary group of specialists and published in 2008 by INHA and the Cuban Ministry of Public Health.[5,6].

  4. Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

  5. Molecular Mixed-Metal Manganese Oxido Cubanes as Precursors to Heterogeneous Oxygen Evolution Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Sandy; McCrory, Charles C L; Tran, Rosalie; Gul, Sheraz; Yano, Junko; Agapie, Theodor

    2015-09-14

    Well-defined mixed-metal [CoMn3 O4 ] and [NiMn3 O4 ] cubane complexes were synthesized and used as precursors for heterogeneous oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. The discrete clusters were dropcasted onto glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and the OER activities of the resulting films were evaluated. The catalytic surfaces were analyzed by various techniques to gain insight into the structure-function relationships of the electrocatalysts' heterometallic composition. Depending on preparation conditions, the Co-Mn oxide was found to change metal composition during catalysis, while the Ni-Mn oxides maintained the NiMn3 ratio. XAS studies provided structural insights indicating that the electrocatalysts are different from the molecular precursors, but that the original NiMn3 O4 cubane-like geometry was maintained in the absence of thermal treatment (2-Ni). In contrast, the thermally generated 3-Ni develops an oxide-like extended structure. Both 2-Ni and 3-Ni undergo structural changes upon electrolysis, but they do not convert into the same material. The observed structural motifs in these heterogeneous electrocatalysts are reminiscent of the biological oxygen-evolving complex in Photosystem II, including the MMn3 O4 cubane moiety. The reported studies demonstrate the use of discrete heterometallic oxide clusters as precursors for heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts of novel composition and the distinct behavior of two sets of mixed metal oxides.

  6. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  7. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  8. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  9. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign firms. 515.558 Section 515.558 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned...

  10. Effects of Humanitarian Aid: A Cuban Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    three-fourths thought the health 16 care system was good and four-fifths thought that the education system was good (Perez- Lopez ). Severely limited...appeal to those trading partners. An exception might be Cuban biotech products, which have considerable export potential to the region (Perez- Lopez ...Perspective. Latin American Research Review. Albuquerque. 1998. Perez- Lopez . The Cuban Economy in the Age of Hemispheric Integration. Journal

  11. The Cuban health care system and factors currently undermining it.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, K

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of health and health care in Cuba during a period of severe crisis by placing it within its economic, social, and political context using a comparative historical approach. It outlines Cuban achievements in health care as a consequence of the socialist transformations since 1959, noting the full commitment by the Cuban state, the planned economy, mass participation, and a self-critical, working class perspective as crucial factors. The roles of two external factors, the U.S. economic embargo and the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation (CMEA), are explored in shaping the Cuban society and economy, including its health care system. It is argued that the former has hindered health efforts in Cuba. The role of the latter is more complex. While the CMEA was an important source for economic growth, Cuban relations with the Soviet bloc had a damaging effect on the development of socialism in Cuba. The adoption of the Soviet model of economic development fostered bureaucracy and demoralization of Cuban workers. As such, it contributed to two internal factors that have undermined further social progress including in health care: low productivity of labor and the growth of bureaucracy. While the health care system is still consistently supported by public policy and its structure is sound, economic crisis undermines its material and moral foundations and threatens its achievements. The future of the current Cuban health care system is intertwined with the potentials for its socialist development.

  12. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    PubMed

    Abreu-Pérez, Mercedes; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana; the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 75 species have been identified from Cuban waters: Asteroidea (20 species) and Ophiuroidea (55 species).

  13. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    PubMed

    del Valle García, Rosa; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Abreu Pérez, Mercedes; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana, and the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 53 species were recorded (eight Crinoids, 22 Echinoids and 23 Holothuroids), in 37 genera, 19 families and 12 orders. Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874) and Phyllophorus (Urodemella) occidentalis (Ludwig, 1885) are new records for Cuban waters.

  14. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    PubMed

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.

  15. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  16. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  17. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  18. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  19. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  20. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin....

  1. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject to...

  2. Speaking from experience: today's Cuban women and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Over 2200 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in Cuba, and a decade ago I became one of them. Late in 2000, I underwent breast cancer surgery at the National Oncology and Radiology Institute in the Cuban capital. My experience-both with the disease and as a sociologist at the University of Havana studying gender relations-serves as the basis for the following essay. The article characterizes today's Cuban women, particularly those of us with or at risk of breast cancer, and describes my own and others' responses to our disease. My aim is to provide insights useful to the physicians, nurses, engineers, physicists, technicians, and service and administrative workers in Cuba's health services who interact with us, whose increased awareness will make us feel more deeply understood and respected. In this context, I also reflect on the Cuban media's portrayal of cancer, with recommendations for dismantling the biases of fatalism and even pity often conveyed.

  3. Molecular Vibrations of Cubane and Its Deuterated Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyvin, S. J.; Cyvin, B. N.; Brunvoll, J.

    1983-11-01

    A harmonic field for cubane is developed by means of the following experimental data from literature: vibrational frequencies for C8H8, sym-C8H6D2, sym-C8H2D6 and C8D8, in addition to three Coriolis constants of C8H8. As a part of this analysis a new iteration method was developed for simultaneous fitting of vibrational frequencies and first-order Coriolis constants of a threedimensional symmetry block. The force constants were used to calculate the vibrational frequencies of all the twenty existing partially deuterated cubanes, in addition to the unsubstituted (C8H8) and perdeuterated (C8D8) molecules. Also the first-order Coriolis constants, mean amplitudes of vibration and perpendicular amplitude correction coefficients for selected cubane molecules are reported

  4. Rule on Mariel Cuban Parole Determination, 21 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Rule establishes a separate immigration parole review process for certain detained, excludable nationals of Cuba who came to the US during the 1980 Mariel Cuban boatlift. The effect of the Rule is to institute several levels of review to determine whether the Mariel Cubans should be paroled and to set forth procedures governing such parole decisions. It establishes a new Departmental Release Review Program under the general supervision of the Associate Attorney General which will provide eligible aliens, otherwise denied parole, with an additional review.

  5. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a public health problem related to the Cuban Democracy Act of the United States.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the USA embargo on Cuba was tightened through the passage of the Cuban Democracy Act (CDA) that explicitly restricts food and medical supplies. The embargo has contributed to cause a number of public health problems in Cuba including: (1) an epidemic of more than 50,000 cases of optic and peripheral neuropathies in 1992-1993, resulting from dietary deficiency; (2) an epidemic of esophageal stenoses in toddlers who inadvertently drank liquid lye as a result of a soap shortage for which liquid lye was substituted; (3) an outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Havana, in June and July 1994, resulting from water contamination due to lack of chemicals for water treatment to eliminate Campylobacter sp.; (4) outbreaks of self-inflicted disease and injuries caused by rioting among Cubans detained at the US Naval base at Guantánamo Bay, and (5) a decline in medical practice standards and public health indicators in Cuba resulting from the enactment of the CDA, documented by the American Public Health Association in 1993 and confirmed in March 1997 by the American Association for World Health. Despite this evidence, the Cuban embargo remains a politically sensitive subject in the USA, resistant to public health concerns, as evidenced by the recent passage of the Helms-Burton Act. The public health effects of the CDA need to be reviewed with possible revocation or at least modification.

  6. The thermochemistry of cubane 50 years after its synthesis: a high-level theoretical study of cubane and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Agapito, Filipe; Santos, Rui C; Borges dos Santos, Rui M; Martinho Simões, José A

    2015-03-26

    The gas-phase enthalpy of formation of cubane (603.4 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)) was calculated using an explicitly correlated composite method (W1-F12). The result obtained for cubane, together with the experimental value for the enthalpy of sublimation, 54.8 ± 2.0 kJ mol(-1), led to 548.6 ± 4.5 kJ mol(-1) for the solid-phase enthalpy of formation. This value is only 6.8 kJ mol(-1) higher than the 50-year-old original calorimetric result. The carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation enthalpy (C-H BDE) of cubane (438.4 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), together with properties relevant for its experimental determination using gas-phase ion thermochemistry, namely the cubane gas-phase acidity (1704.6 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubyl radical electron affinity (45.8 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubane ionization energy (1435.1 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubyl radical cation proton affinity (918.8 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubane cation appearance energy (1099.6 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), and cubyl ionization energy (661.2 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), were also determined. These values were compared with those calculated for unstrained hydrocarbons (viz., methane, ethane, and isobutane). The strain energy of cubane (667.2 kJ mol(-1)) and cubyl radical (689.4 kJ mol(-1)) were independently estimated via quasihomodesmotic reactions. These values were related via a simple model to the C-H BDE in cubane. Taking into account the accuracy of the computational method, the comparison with high-precision experimental results, and the data consistency afforded by the relevant thermodynamic cycles, we claim an uncertainty better than ±4 kJ mol(-1) for the new enthalpy of formation values presented.

  7. South-South Collaboration: Cuban Teachers in Jamaica and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Cuba has concentrated more than most developing countries on building a sound educational system, and as a result, it has been able to collaborate with other countries in their efforts to improve educational planning and practice. Based on recent research in the field, this paper examines the work of Cuban teachers in schools and sports programmes…

  8. A Look at Cuban Schools: What Is Cuba Doing Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    A retired elementary school principal, who first visited Cuba as an exchange student, returns 46 years later as an international consultant and finds that the Cubans have made health care and education the top priorities of their society with strong principals and a solid system of supervision and evaluation. (Author/MLF)

  9. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  10. Cuban Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    Felipe Perez Roque announced that Mexico would began to repatriate Cubans who arrive in Mexico with proper documents.47 The director of the Cancun...Gonzalez: Legal Basics, by Larry M. Eig, and CRS Report RL30570, Elian Gonzalez: Chronology and Issues, by Ruth Ellen Wasem and Barbara A. Salazar

  11. When Fear Ruled: Rethinking the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an insightful look at the administrative and negotiative processes that accompanied the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Although John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev both worked to avoid nuclear war, the stress and exhaustion of the negotiating process created serious blunders. Eventually both sides backed away from nuclear annihilation. (MJP)

  12. Cuban Geography in Higher Education: Survival in the "Special Period."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a concise and interesting overview of the state of higher education in Cuba, specifically focusing on geography. The interests, methodologies, and programs of Cuban geographers are similar to other countries, albeit at a truncated level due to the United States embargo. Discusses international educational exchange efforts. (MJP)

  13. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  14. When Fear Ruled: Rethinking the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an insightful look at the administrative and negotiative processes that accompanied the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Although John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev both worked to avoid nuclear war, the stress and exhaustion of the negotiating process created serious blunders. Eventually both sides backed away from nuclear annihilation. (MJP)

  15. Language Use and Identity in the Cuban Community in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushkina, Maria; Olson, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    A significant body of research has begun to explore the association between language and identity, a relationship that becomes more complex when considering multilingual communities. Important for this field, a number of studies have examined the interrelation between language and identity in the Cuban population in the USA, a case in which…

  16. Cuban Voices: A Case Study of English Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven John

    2016-01-01

    This case study uses qualitative research methods and a postcolonial paradigm to listen to the voices of Cuban teacher educators describing how they educate and prepare English language teachers in Cuba. English language teacher education in Cuba includes features that are considered innovative, contemporary and good practice in the Western world.…

  17. Mechanisms of the rotational dynamics of C70 in C70-cubane heteromolecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faro, Tatiana M. C.; Skaf, Munir S.; Coluci, Vitor R.

    2011-12-01

    Fullerenes and cubane (C8H8) can be arranged to form heteromolecular crystals that exhibit interesting crystal phases. Experimental measurements indicate a rotor-stator phase for C60-cubane crystals in which the C60 molecules rotate freely whereas cubane molecules are essentially static. A similar phase is found for C70-cubane crystals but, due to C70's asymmetry, hindered rotations can be observed in specific crystal phases. Details of the rotational dynamics of the fullerenes in these heteromolecular crystals are difficult to be completely assessed by experiments. To this end, we have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of C70-cubane crystals to investigate the behavior of C70 fullerenes and cubanes in the face-centered cubic and body-centered tetragonal crystallographic phases. Our simulations show that, in the cubic phase, C70 molecules are allowed to freely rotate whereas cubanes act as molecular bearings. In the tetragonal phase, the cubane molecules also remain practically fixed and the rotation of C70 fullerenes becomes hindered. In this phase, C70 molecules rotate around the fivefold axis, which in turn precesses about the c crystallographic direction of the unit cell. Details regarding the dynamics (e.g., energy barriers, reorientational relaxation processes, and phonon-libration coupling) of the C70 molecules in both crystal phases are discussed. In general, our results agree with previous experimental findings for C70-cubane crystals.

  18. FAILURE OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE IN THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    not used during the crisis lends itself towards the convenience of a nuclear deterrence success , but a closer look at the actual events and covert...make the case for how possession of nuclear weapons alone does not always lead to deterrent success by examining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy’s...perfect record of success , the implications on US national strategic policy, based primarily on deterrence, are profound. The decisive lesson from this

  19. Joint Operational Problems in the Cuban Missile Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro’s regime. Unlike the 1961 disaster at the Bay of Pigs, this 1962 plan, code-named " Mongoose ," allegedly was...to be accompanied by conventional American air and ground attacks on Cu ba2 Quite apart from the alleged Mongoose Plan, the crisis began much...operations plans at any time on or after 20 October. Thus, quite apart from any support for the Bay of Pigs sequel, Mongoose , the armed forces

  20. The Impact of Cuban Economic Reform on Older Persons.

    PubMed

    Strug, David L

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the economic reforms initiated by Cuban President Raúl Castro in 2008 and its effect on the country's fast-growing, vulnerable population of older persons 60+ years of age. Cubans are living longer and the country has a very low birthrate. These two factors combined have reduced the proportion of the population in the work force. This adversely affects the economy. Population aging is a major reason why the government has introduced structural reforms and reduced social spending, which have weakened the welfare state on which older persons depend. Many older persons have become critical of the reforms over time. Policy makers need to address the impact the reforms are having on older Cubans and consider them as active participants in economic reform. Data for this paper come from qualitative, case study research carried out in Havana between the years 2008-15 and from a review of the literature on aging and economic reforms in Cuba. Two case studies illustrate the impact of the economic reforms on older persons.

  1. The Cuban immigration of 1980: a special mental health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, L B; Silver, B J; Silverman, M M; Prescott, W; del Pollard, L

    1985-01-01

    The 124,769 Cubans who entered the United States from Cuba in a boatlift in 1980 included a small minority of people who needed mental health care. Some had been taken involuntarily from psychiatric hospitals, mental retardation facilities, jails, and prisons. The National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service (PHS), was responsible for mental health screening, evaluation, and treatment of the Cuban Entrants. Bilingual psychiatrists and psychologists found that many Entrants given preliminary evaluations showed evidence of transient situational stress reactions, not psychiatric illnesses. Entrants who had not yet been sponsored were consolidated into one facility in October 1980, and about 100 of those with severe problems were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service-PHS evaluation facility in Washington, DC. Between March 1, 1981, and March 1, 1982, a total of 3,035 Entrants were evaluated at both facilities. Among the 1,307 persons who presented symptoms, there was a primary diagnosis of personality disorders for 26 percent, schizophrenic disorders for 15 percent, adjustment disorders for 14.5 percent, mental retardation for 8.6 percent, chronic alcohol abuse for 8.6 percent, and major depression for 7.2 percent. Only 459 Cubans with symptoms were found to be in need of further psychiatric care. As of October 1984, many Entrants with psychiatric illnesses remained under inpatient or community-based halfway house psychiatric care as a direct Federal responsibility. A PHS program for further placement in community-based facilities is underway. PMID:3918322

  2. SEISMIC STRUCTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY OF NORTHERN EDGE OF BAHAMAN-CUBAN COLLISION ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.

    1985-01-01

    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  3. Seismic structure and stratigraphy of northern edge of Bahaman-Cuban collision zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.

    1985-01-01

    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  4. Recovery of native treefrogs after removal of nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.G.; Waddle, J.H.; Miller, M.W.; Crockett, M.E.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Florida is home to several introduced animal species, especially in the southern portion of the state. Most introduced species are restricted to the urban and suburban areas along the coasts, but some species, like the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis), are locally abundant in natural protected areas. Although Cuban Treefrogs are known predators of native treefrog species as both adults and larvae, no study has demonstrated a negative effect of Cuban Treefrogs on native treefrog survival, abundance, or occupancy rate. We monitored survival, capture probability, abundance, and proportion of sites occupied by Cuban Treefrogs and two native species, Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella), at four sites in Everglades National Park in southern Florida with the use of capture–mark–recapture techniques. After at least 5 mo of monitoring all species at each site we began removing every Cuban Treefrog captured. We continued to estimate survival, abundance, and occupancy rates of native treefrogs for 1 yr after the commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal. Mark–recapture models that included the effect of Cuban Treefrog removal on native treefrog survival did not have considerable Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) weight, although capture rates of native species were generally very low prior to Cuban Treefrog removal. Estimated abundance of native treefrogs did increase after commencement of Cuban Treefrog removal, but also varied with the season of the year. The best models of native treefrog occupancy included a Cuban Treefrog removal effect at sites with high initial densities of Cuban Treefrogs. This study demonstrates that an introduced predator can have population-level effects on similar native species.

  5. Shapers of Their Destiny: A History of the Education of Cuban Children in the United States since 1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant presence of Cuban children in the U.S. public schools since the late 1950s, no historical interpretation of their educational experiences exists. This essay is the first to develop such an interpretation. It sketches, in broad strokes, the role that Cuban exiles and Cuban Americans played in shaping their children's…

  6. The Three Roots of Cuban Heritage. (Los Tres Raices de la Herencia Cubana.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzaga, Florinda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legacies of traits left by Cuba's three ethnic streams--the Spanish, Black, and Taino--that together explain Cuban personality and way of life. Asserts that by understanding what each group has contributed, Cubans can better know themselves and better project for their future, both individually and collectively. (DS)

  7. Operation Pedro Pan: The Flight to Neverland for More than 14,000 Cuban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of the 22-month program involving the political exodus of thousands of Cuban children to the United States in the early 1960s. Fearing communist indoctrination and the rumor of patria potestad--the government assuming legal guardianship of their children--Cuban parents sent their unaccompanied children…

  8. Operation Pedro Pan: The Flight to Neverland for More than 14,000 Cuban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of the 22-month program involving the political exodus of thousands of Cuban children to the United States in the early 1960s. Fearing communist indoctrination and the rumor of patria potestad--the government assuming legal guardianship of their children--Cuban parents sent their unaccompanied children…

  9. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  10. The Afro-Cuban Community in Ybor City and Tampa, 1886-1910.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the origin and growth of Afro-Cuban communities in Ybor City and Tampa, Florida, that began in the late 1880s as the cigar-making industry grew. Calls for more research into the history of black Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans. (CFR)

  11. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  12. 14 CFR 91.713 - Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... registry. 91.713 Section 91.713 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft § 91.713 Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry. No person may operate a civil aircraft of Cuban registry except in controlled airspace and...

  13. Adaptation and Adjustment of Cubans: West New York, New Jersey. Monograph No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogg, Eleanor Meyer; Cooney, Rosemary Santana

    This monograph reports on a study that examined the adaptation and adjustment of Cuban migrants in West New York, New Jersey. Data were collected through interviews with the heads of 300 Cuban families. A review of relevant literature and an overview of the research design and methodology are presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides descriptive…

  14. Ethnic Enclaves: A Comparison of the Cuban and Black Economies in Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth L.; Martin, W. Allen

    1982-01-01

    Hypotheses that link the relative advantage in ethnic enclaves to their economic structures are tested in a comparative analysis of Cuban and Black businesses in Miami, Florida. Businesses in the advantaged Cuban community were more interdependent and less dependent on majority industry than businesses in the less-advantaged Black enclaves.…

  15. A Look at the Socio-Economic Adaptation of Mariel Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Heriberto

    This paper briefly describes Cuban immigration to the United States since the late 1800s, and examines the available demographic and social adjustment data for the latest group of immigrants--the approximately 125,000 persons who came by sea from Mariel Harbor in 1980. The latest wave of Cubans is characterized as poorer, less educated, and less…

  16. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  17. The Three Roots of Cuban Heritage. (Los Tres Raices de la Herencia Cubana.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzaga, Florinda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legacies of traits left by Cuba's three ethnic streams--the Spanish, Black, and Taino--that together explain Cuban personality and way of life. Asserts that by understanding what each group has contributed, Cubans can better know themselves and better project for their future, both individually and collectively. (DS)

  18. Field-Independence: A Function of Sex and Socialization in Cuban and American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britain, Susan D.; Abad, Marcy

    The relationship between field-dependence and cultural biases towards control and discipline practices was explored. It was hypothesized that the strict control practices described for the Cuban culture would foster greater field-dependence in their adolescents than would the practice of a U. S. born group. Seventy-two Cuban and U. S. born…

  19. Synthesis of Tetra-Functional Cubane Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-30

    dibromo-2,2-diethoxycyclopentane in 84% yield. The trimethylene ketal of cyclopentanone was prepared by treatment of cyclopentanone with 1,3- propanediol ... propanediol (75.0 mL, 1.038 inol), toluene (125 mL), and p- 26 toluenesulfonic acid (0.70 g) was refluxed and water was removed azeotropical- ly with a Dean

  20. U.S. and Cuban Relations: Prospects for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    April 17, 1961, the consideration for direct intervention in Cuba from April 1961 to October 1962 and the missile crisis with the resulting blockade, up...Jorge I. Dominguez, "Cuban Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, Fall 1978, p. 85. 24 18. Maisie McAdoo, "Twenty Years of El Bloque ," Nation, December 4, 1982...61-91. LeoGrande, William M. "Cuba Policy Revisited." Foreign Policy. No. 26, Spring 1982, pp. 105-119. McAdoo, Maisie. "Twenty Years of El Bloque

  1. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  2. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using p<0.05 as significance threshold. Results were presented in tables and figures. Centers presented greater absolute size and higher average adipose (22.8±1.7 kg) and bone (7.1±0.6 kg) mass. The mean somatotype of all volleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly

  3. Work-related amputations in Washington state, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Work-related amputations are infrequent but devastating injuries. Attempts to more accurately estimate the burden of amputations and industries at risk have led the Washington State occupational surveillance program to explore new methods for case identification in Washington State workers' compensation data. Two methods were utilized for case identification of work-related amputations. The first method used the ANSI Z16 nature code for amputation. An alternative method utilized medical, hospital, and claim administration coding of medical bills and bill payment systems. After identifying suspected amputation claims, a sample of the medical records associated with different case identification methods were reviewed to verify that an amputation likely occurred. From 1997 to 2005, 2,528 amputations were identified using the ANSI Z16 code for amputation (Nature = 100) and an additional 3,912 amputations were identified using the alternative method. There was an increasing trend of amputation injuries over the time period using the ANSI amputation definition; however, the trend in amputation injuries captured by the alternative method was decreasing. This may indicate a bias in estimating a trend due to misclassification of amputation injuries. The sectors with the highest amputation claims rates were Manufacturing; Construction; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; Accommodation and Food Services; and Wholesale and Retail Trade. Current methods to identify work-related amputations in the workers' compensation data system underestimate the burden of amputations in Washington State. By utilizing alternative case identification methods, we estimate that there were about 150% more amputations in Washington State over the time period. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. HLA genes in Cubans and the detection of Amerindian alleles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Roberto; Moscoso, Juan; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Suarez, Jose; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Caribbean Islands including Cuba were first inhabited by Meso-American and later by Arawak-speaking Amerindians from nowadays Venezuela. Spanish invaders brought to almost extinction to the Amerindian population after 1492. Black slaves from West Africa were taken into Cuba by Europeans. The degree of admixture among populations is approached. HLA alleles were studied by DNA techniques. Comparison with other worldwide populations (a total of 14.094 chromosomes) included genetic distances, Neighbour-Joining dendrograms, correspondence analyses and calculation of extended haplotypes. While African-European HLA features were clearly found, Amerindian HLA characteristics are less evident, indicating that Amerindian devastation was particularly marked after 1492 AD. However, typical Amerindian alleles have been found in our Cuban sample, i.e. DRB1*0403, DRB1*0404, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0802 and DRB1*1602. The presence of Amerindian alleles in Cubans [corrected] may have a bear in the making up of transplantation registries (both for bone marrow and solid organ transplantation) at the regional level and also be important for epidemiological studies of diseases linked to HLA.

  5. Seasonal variations of antioxidant imbalance in Cuban healthy men.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Fleites, P; Chassagne, M; Verdura, T; Barnouin, J; Richard, M J; Chacornac, J P; Garcia, I G; Perez-Cristia, R; Favier, A E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the antioxidant imbalance in healthy Cuban men 2y after the end of the epidemic neuropathy (50 862 cases from 1991 to 1993) and to evaluate its change over 1 y. Prospective study. La Lisa health centres (Havana, Cuba). One-hundred and ninety-nine healthy middle-aged men were selected and 106 completed the study. Subjects were studied at 3 month intervals over 1 year. No invervention. An assessment of dietary intake and the determination of blood lipid peroxides (TBARS), glutathione, diglutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, carotenoids, copper, zinc and selenium were performed at each period. While dietary zinc, vitamins C and E, carotenoids and fat dietary intakes and blood concentrations were low for adult men compared to international reference ranges, serum TBARS concentrations were high at every period. Some significant seasonal variations were observed. The lowest carotenoids (P < 0.002) and vitamin C(P = 0.0001) intakes, serum beta-carotene (P = 0.0001) and lutein/zeaxanthin (P < 0.05) concentrations, and the highest blood TBARS (P = 0.0001) and diglutathione (P < 0.001) concentrations were observed at the end of the rainy season (October). This period seemed to pose the greatest risk of antioxidant imbalance. Cuban men still represent a vulnerable population in terms of antioxidant imbalance. A national program of vegetable growing and increase in fruit and vegetable consumption is now evaluated in Cuba.

  6. Chemical characterization of Cuban propolis by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR: the brown, red, and yellow Cuban varieties of propolis.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Rosado, Arístides; Rastrelli, Luca

    2007-09-05

    Sixty-five samples of propolis were collected from eleven regions of Cuba; methanolic extracts of propolis were prepared from all samples, and a classification method was developed using a combination of NMR, HPLC-PDA, and HPLC-ESI/MS techniques. The analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and chromatographic profiles of all propolis extracts allowed the definition of three main types of Cuban propolis directly related to their secondary metabolite classes: brown Cuban propolis (BCP), rich in polyisoprenylated benzophenones, red Cuban propolis (RCP), containing isoflavonoids as the main constituents, and yellow Cuban propolis (YCP), probably with aliphatic compounds. Subsequently, the principal compounds of the brown and red types were characterized by HPLC-ESI/MS analysis. Instrumental techniques used are complementary; NMR was shown to be a quick and informative tool for the rapid analysis of crude propolis polar extracts and allowed the identification of the main class of secondary metabolites, while LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques were useful tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of marker compounds of Cuban propolis.

  7. 31 CFR 515.522 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... deceased, e.g., birth or marriage certificates; (4) A description of the assets involved, including...

  8. 31 CFR 515.522 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... deceased, e.g., birth or marriage certificates; (4) A description of the assets involved, including...

  9. 31 CFR 515.522 - U.S. assets of certain Cuban decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... deceased, e.g., birth or marriage certificates; (4) A description of the assets involved, including...

  10. Eating Behaviors in Cuban Adults: Results from an Exploratory Transcultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Innamorati, Marco; Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Harnic, Désirée; Janiri, Luigi; Rivas-Suárez, Saira R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158) and Italy (n = 125). Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history. PMID:27725806

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: RATIONAL POLICY, ORGANIZATION PROCESS, AND BUREAUCRATIC POLITICS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This paper constitutes an abstract of a Ph.D. dissertation, ’Policy Process, and Politics: Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis,’ accepted by the Department of Government, Harvard University , January, 1968.

  12. Helicity inversion and redox chemistry of chiral manganese(II) cubanes.

    PubMed

    Deville, Claire; Granelli, Matteo; Downward, Alan M; Besnard, Céline; Guenée, Laure; Williams, Alan F

    2014-09-14

    The chiral ligand S-1,2-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethanol, 1, reacts with manganese(II) salts to form cubanes which readily undergo oxidation reactions leading either to a tetranuclear manganese(II,III) mixed valence complex 4 or to a tetranuclear complex of ligand 5 where the secondary alcohol has been oxidised to an enolate. N-methylation of ligand 1 slows the oxidation reaction and stable manganese(II) cubanes may be isolated. The fully methylated ligand 2 gives a cubane of opposite helicity to that found previously for 1 with cobalt. The inversion may be explained by conformational analysis. Cyclic voltammetry suggests that the manganese cubanes reported here are insufficiently robust to store oxidising equivalents as in the oxygen evolving system of photosystem II.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolated from Cuban individuals.

    PubMed

    Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor M; Noa, Enrique; Martín, Dayamí; Blanco, Madeline; Díaz, Dervel F; Sánchez, Yordank R; Nibot, Carmen; Sánchez, Lourdes; Dubed, Marta

    2014-08-01

    The presence of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) in Cuba has been previously documented. However, genetic information on the strains that circulate in the Cuban people is still unknown. The present work constitutes the first study concerning the phylogenetic relationship of HIV-2 Cuban isolates conducted on 13 Cuban patients who were diagnosed with HIV-2. The env sequences were analyzed for the construction of a phylogenetic tree with reference sequences of HIV-2. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that all the Cuban sequences clustered in group A of HIV-2. The analysis indicated several independent introductions of HIV-2 into Cuba. The results of the study will reinforce the program on the epidemiological surveillance of the infection in Cuba and make possible further molecular evolutionary studies.

  14. Refugee remittances: conceptual issues and the Cuban and Nicaraguan experiences.

    PubMed

    Diaz-briquets, S; Perez-lopez, J

    1997-01-01

    "This article assesses the notion that the determinants of remittances generated by refugee flows, particularly from Communist-inspired systems, are different from those associated with labor migrations....These differences have a major bearing on how labor migrants and refugees perceive their relationship with countries of origin. The propensity of labor migrants to dissociate themselves from the home country is considerably less than among refugees whose perceptions are mediated by opposition to the ruling regime and other factors, such as political relations between refugee-sending and refugee-receiving countries and whether or not there has been a regime change or one is expected to occur. The conceptual issues elaborated here are based on the Cuban-American experience, but also reflect an assessment of Nicaraguan emigration during the 1980s."

  15. Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

  16. Cuban mill set to produce quality bagasse newsprint

    SciTech Connect

    Matics, D.

    1981-10-01

    It is reported that a pilot plant has been constructed at Quivican, Cuba which is capable of producing up to 35 tons of mechanical pulp and approximately 35 tons of newsprint daily from bagasse. In addition to the experimental bagasse newspaper plant, the Cuban government is constructing a large bleached bagasse pulp and paper mill for production of 250 tons of bleached bagasse pulp and paper daily. The installation is scheduled to go into operation in early 1982. The United Nations Development Programme hopes that newsprint and other products which can be produced from the sugar cane stalk will lessen third world nations dependecy on an uncertain world sugar market and help stabilize their economy.

  17. Biochemical studies of patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernandez, M; Hirano, M; Naini, A; Santiestéban, R

    2001-01-01

    In 1992-1994, a disorder known as the epidemic neuropathy afflicted more than 50,000 Cubans. Three different forms of the illness were identified: epidemic optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and mixed optic and peripheral neuropathy. The causes are still unknown. Skeletal muscle biopsy samples were analyzed by standard histological techniques and by biochemical assays. Elevated activities of citrate synthase, a non-respiratory-chain mitochondrial matrix enzyme, suggested possible mitochondrial proliferation in 7 of the 8 patients. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) levels were higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.04). Levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and the reduced compounds NADH and NADPH were comparable in patients and controls. Elevations of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activities and high NADP(+) levels suggest that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be associated with this disorder.

  18. A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

    PubMed Central

    González, R; Ballester, J M; Estrada, M; Lima, F; Martínez, G; Wade, M; Colombo, B; Vento, R

    1976-01-01

    Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. PMID:1008061

  19. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    PubMed

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations.

  20. [Contributions made by the Cuban advisory work to the entomological surveillance in Haiti].

    PubMed

    Marquetti Fernández, María del Carmen; Fuster Callaba, Carlos A; Estévez Torres, Gonzalo; Somarriba López, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    the earthquake occurred in Haiti in January 2010 led to the worsening of the hygienic, sanitary and environmental conditions and increased the number of breeding sites for disease-borne vectors in the country. to report the first results of the entomological surveillance set by the Cuban advisory group in Haiti after the earthquake. the work was carried out in 7 sites located in West department, one of the ten departments of the country; larval sampling was conducted in reservoirs and natural breeding sites based on the methodologies for both. The sampling was weekly in the May-October period in 2010. twelve mosquito species were reported in the West department as well as the presence of Triatoma rubrofasciata. The fundamental breeding sites of the three most important mosquito species were identified including Aedes aegypti with water tanks followed by worn car rubbers and small artificial deposits, Anopheles albimanus in rice fields, animal footprints and coastal swampy plains, and Culex quinquefasciatus, one lymphatic phylarosis-borne vector still existing in Haiti, in drains and waste water ditches. these results are the first ones from this surveillance program after the earthquake and represent valuable information for the decision-making at the time of designing a control program to face the occurrence of any epidemics in which these insect vectors might be involved in this department.

  1. Contemporary Cuban Physics Through Scientific Publications: An Insider’s View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    In a previous paper, the author reached some conclusions on the tendencies of the publications by Cuban physicists in international journals (Altshuler, Rev Cub Fís 22(2):173-182, 2005) and called for a systematic bibliometric study of the subject. Such a study has now been undertaken (a contribution to this volume entitled "Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics" by Werner Marx and Manuel Cardona, referred to in this paper as Marx and Cardona) and supports the main conclusions of the former work. The scenario of Cuban physics since 1995 has been conditioned by two main facts interacting in a nontrivial way: the serious material shortages affecting local physics laboratories and bibliographic resources, and an increase in the country's international collaboration. As a positive result, the total volume of Cuban publications in international physics journals has increased since 1995, perhaps reaching a peak around the year 2000, while the number of citations of Cuban papers and the impact of the journals in which they were published have continued to increase since the mid-1990s. Theoretical work produced by physicists from a number of Cuban institutions in international collaborations strongly contribute to those numbers. In the last years, international publications suggest a `self-organized' opening of Cuban physics towards interdisciplinary subjects, which is increasing the `bibliometric visibility' of autochthonous experimental work.

  2. The Cuban Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa: Lessons in Solidarity.

    PubMed

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2017-01-01

    In December 2013 the first case of Ebola appeared in Guinea. In September 2014 the United Nations (UN) and its specialized agency the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a call for medical collaboration in response to the medical crisis and social disaster caused by the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Cuban authorities responded immediately to the call by offering specialized help for the epidemic, in collaboration with WHO. A group of 256 Cuban doctors, nurses and other health professionals provided direct care during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Equatorial Guinea from October 2014 to April 2015. This paper explains the main features of the Cuban health system, describes the development of Cuba's international medical cooperation approach, and highlights the work done by Cuban health collaborators in addressing the damage caused by the Ebola epidemic. Information used includes reports and documents of the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba, reports of WHO and PAHO, and articles published in scientific journals and newspaper articles. The response of the Cuban medical teams to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa is only one example of the Cuban efforts to strengthening health care provision in areas of need throughout the world.

  3. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    PubMed Central

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in Cuba, cancer of the lung and cancer of the prostate, because of their relatively high death rates. The age-adjusted death rates for both of these cancers are lower among the Cuban-born in the United States than they are among Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Death rates for cancer of the cervix and cancer of the rectum among the Cuban-born in this country are also low relative to Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Stomach cancer mortality among Cuban-born men in the United States is lower than for men in Cuba or for white men in the United States, but Cuban-born women in this country have rates that are slightly higher than those of U.S white women. Mortality rates from colon cancer in both sexes and breast cancer among women are intermediate between the lower rates in Cuba and the higher rates among U.S. whites. Finally, the Cuban-born in the United States have higher death rates from cancer of the liver than do Cubans in Cuba or whites in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1899942

  4. Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene Geological Evolution of the Northwestern Caribbean - Constraints from Cuban Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobiella, J.; Hueneke, H.; Meschede, M.; Sommer, M.

    2006-05-01

    Cuba: Ophiolites: 1- The age of the rocks of the northern ophiolite belt is Upper Jurassic-Albian. Oceanic lithosphere formation, at least in the "Cuban" Proto-Caribbean, ended in the Albian. Cretaceous volcanic arcs: 2- At least two volcanic arc Cretaceous sections are present in Cuba, separated in several regions by a mainly sedimentary Albian-Cenomanian section. The lower arc is probably of Aptian-Albian age. The Cenomanian (or Turonian?) -Campanian upper arc is calcalkalic and contains abundant sedimentary marine interbeds. 3- Some thin tuff beds are present in the southernmost deep water deposits of the North American palaeomargin in western and central Cuba in the Aptian-Cenomanian. This fact could be explained by a volcanic arc located several hundred km to the south of the NA palaeomargin. 4- Cretaceous volcanism ended during the early Campanian all along Cuba. Sedimentary upper Campanian and Maastrichtian sections rest on top of the older Cretaceous sections. Volcanism is only reassumed in SE Cuba (Turquino volcanic arc) late in the Danian. Southern metamorphic terranes: 5- The southern metamorphic terranes are a main feature in the geology of Cuba. They are continental blocks sharing many stratigraphic features with the NA palaeomargin of western Cuba (Guaniguanico mountains). As the last one area seems related to the Yucatan (Maya) block, some authors consider the metamorphic terranes as fragments of the Maya block that travelled to the west.

  5. Reduction potentials of heterometallic manganese-oxido cubane complexes modulated by redox-inactive metals.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emily Y; Agapie, Theodor

    2013-06-18

    Understanding the effect of redox-inactive metals on the properties of biological and heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts is important both fundamentally and for improvement of future catalyst designs. In this work, heterometallic manganese-oxido cubane clusters [MMn3O4] (M = Sr(2+), Zn(2+), Sc(3+), Y(3+)) structurally relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II were prepared and characterized. The reduction potentials of these clusters and other related mixed metal manganese-tetraoxido complexes are correlated with the Lewis acidity of the apical redox-inactive metal in a manner similar to a related series of heterometallic manganese-dioxido clusters. The redox potentials of the [SrMn3O4] and [CaMn3O4] clusters are close, which is consistent with the observation that the OEC is functional only with one of these two metals. Considering our previous studies of [MMn3O2] moieties, the present results with more structurally accurate models of the OEC ([MMn3O4]) suggest a general relationship between the reduction potentials of heterometallic oxido clusters and the Lewis acidities of incorporated cations that applies to diverse structural motifs. These findings support proposals that one function of calcium in the OEC is to modulate the reduction potential of the cluster to allow electron transfer.

  6. One-century decline of mollusk diversity as consequence of accumulative anthropogenic disturbance in a tropical estuary (Cuban Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Maickel; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Fernández-Garcés, Raúl; Hernández, Carlos Alonso; Helguera-Pedraza, Yusmila; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Agraz-Hernández, Claudia; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-12-15

    In order to infer changes in sediments and mollusk assemblages for the last century, we used biogeochemical data from two (210)Pb dated cores collected in Sagua La Grande estuary, Cuban Archipelago. We found evidences of cumulative anthropogenic disturbance during the last century, causing considerable depletion of mollusk assemblage diversity and enhancement of the dominance of deposit feeding species. The sequence of impacts assessed was i) eutrophication due to nutrient releases from urban settlements, ii) habitat alteration due to water channeling and damming, and iii) mercury pollution. These successive impacts caused a steady diversity depletion from ca. 70 mollusk species in 1900 to less than five in 2010. Only two species persisted in the estuary: Nuculana acuta and Finella dubia. Hurricanes did not impact the molluscan fauna in the long term. The effects of the anthropogenic impacts suggest that the resilience of this estuarine system is compromised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ ligand formation in the synthesis of an octanuclear dysprosium 'double cubane' cluster displaying single molecule magnet features.

    PubMed

    Chesman, Anthony S R; Turner, David R; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Deacon, Glen B; Batten, Stuart R

    2012-04-07

    The nucleophilic addition of methanol and water to the dicyanonitrosomethanide anion, resulting in the formation of cyano(imino(methoxy)methyl)nitrosomethanide (cmnm) and carbamoylcyanonitrosomethanide (ccnm), respectively, is used as a means of in situ ligand synthesis during the formation of [Dy(8)(OH)(6)(OMe)(6)(cmnm)(10)(ccnm)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(MeOH)(2)] (1). This is the first time these reactions have been observed to be promoted by the presence of a lanthanoid ion. The core of the octanuclear cluster consists of two cubane moieties ([Dy(4)(OH)(3)(OMe)]), bridged by four methoxide ligands to form a central [Dy(8)(OH)(6)(OMe)(6)] moiety. The complex displays magnetic properties that are indicative of probable single molecule magnet features.

  8. Probabilistic seismic hazard zonation for the Cuban building code update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Llanes-Buron, C.

    2013-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed in response to a revision and update of the Cuban building code (NC-46-99) for earthquake-resistant building construction. The hazard assessment have been done according to the standard probabilistic approach (Cornell, 1968) and importing the procedures adopted by other nations dealing with the problem of revising and updating theirs national building codes. Problems of earthquake catalogue treatment, attenuation of peak and spectral ground acceleration, as well as seismic source definition have been rigorously analyzed and a logic-tree approach was used to represent the inevitable uncertainties encountered through the whole seismic hazard estimation process. The seismic zonation proposed here, is formed by a map where it is reflected the behaviour of the spectral acceleration values for short (0.2 seconds) and large (1.0 seconds) periods on rock conditions with a 1642 -year return period, which being considered as maximum credible earthquake (ASCE 07-05). In addition, other three design levels are proposed (severe earthquake: with a 808 -year return period, ordinary earthquake: with a 475 -year return period and minimum earthquake: with a 225 -year return period). The seismic zonation proposed here fulfils the international standards (IBC-ICC) as well as the world tendencies in this thematic.

  9. Cuban healthcare providers in Venezuela: a case study.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, W W; Rodriguez, R; Cousins, C; McDermott, R J

    2010-09-01

    Approximately 31,000 Cuban healthcare providers reside in Venezuela as part of an initiative to increase Venezuelans' access to health care. The concept began in 1999 as part of the new constitution, and has grown steadily to include 6000 clinics, health promotion and prevention programmes, an integrated healthcare system, and a vision to train and deploy community public health physicians selected from and trained within the neighbourhood. In the case study described herein, physician-patient consultations increased from 3.5 million to 17 million, and the numbers of primary care physicians, nurses and dentists increased dramatically. Furthermore, in Caracas, there has been a 30% reduction in the use of emergency rooms at public hospitals. Estimates are provided for preventive services and potential lives saved. As health care is a politically-laden issue in many countries, all approaches to reducing healthcare disparities are worth analysing for their potential contributions to population health improvement. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Pekovic, Vukosava; Santana, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Guoyan

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to explore whether parental activities such as repairing cars, welding, and rebuilding car batteries are risk factors for lead poisoning among Cuban refugee children in Miami-Dade County. The authors performed a cross-sectional study of 479 children aged 12-83 months who had lived in Cuba during the six months prior to immigrating to the U.S. Lead levels were obtained, and parents provided information on demographics, home/neighborhood environment in Cuba prior to immigration, family/occupational factors prior to immigration, and child behavior factors. Of 479 children, 30 (6.3%) had elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs), defined as > or = 10 microg/dL, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level. In multivariate analysis, racial/ethnic identification other than white, living in a home built after 1979, car repair in the home or yard, eating paint chips, and male sex were independently associated with EBLL. Risk factors for lead poisoning among immigrant children may differ from those among U.S.-born children. Screening of immigrant children who may have been exposed in their country of origin and education of immigrant parents about lead exposure hazards associated with activities such as car repair should be considered in the design of lead poisoning prevention and control programs.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Márquez Hernandez, Ingrid; Fraga, Jorge; Pérez, Kleich; Kerstens, Monique; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP), red and yellow (YCP), with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC₅₀) values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  12. Macronutrient intakes among adult Hispanics: a comparison of Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed Central

    Loria, C M; Bush, T L; Carroll, M D; Looker, A C; McDowell, M A; Johnson, C L; Sempos, C T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare energy and macronutrient intakes between adult Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, mainland Puerto Ricans, and non-Hispanics. METHODS. Age-specific mean intakes were estimated based on 24-hour recalls from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) (1982 to 1984) and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) (1976 to 1980) and were compared with the use of t tests. RESULTS. Mexican Americans had higher total fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes than did Puerto Ricans and older Cuban Americans. Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans had similar intakes, except for younger Cuban Americans, who had higher total and saturated fat and lower carbohydrate intakes. Cholesterol intakes among Mexican American men and 60- to 74-year-old women were higher than those among other Hispanic groups. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were higher among Hispanic groups compared with those among non-Hispanics while total fat intakes were generally lower. CONCLUSIONS. Since macronutrient intakes differ between Hispanic groups, dietary research, recommendations, and interventions should be targeted to each group individually. Older Puerto Rican and Cuban American adults met population guidelines for reducing chronic disease risk for more macronutrients than any other group. PMID:7733429

  13. Structural tailoring effects on the magnetic behavior of symmetric and asymmetric cubane-type Ni complexes.

    PubMed

    Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Kim, Namseok; Hwang, Jaewon; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; van Tol, Johan; Ozarowski, Andrew; Park, Jena; Jang, Zeehoon; Suh, Byoungjin; Yoon, Sungho; Choi, Kwang-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Using two kinds of carboxylate ligands with small but significant differences in steric size, symmetric and asymmetric Fe(II) and Ni(II) cubanes have been synthesized in a controlled fashion. Fast sweeping pulsed field measurements showed magnetization hysteresis loops for two cubane-type molecular complexes, [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(4F-Ph))4(HOMe)8] and [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(Tol))4(HOMe)6], thus suggesting single-molecule magnet behavior. To differentiate the magnetic properties between the symmetric and asymmetric cubanes, detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed. From the EPR data, taken at various frequencies and temperatures, zero-field splitting parameters D, E, and other higher-order parameters for both cubane samples were extracted. Compared to the symmetric Ni-cubane, the asymmetric one shows an increase in the D and E values by about 20%, thereby suggesting structural engineering effects on the magnetic properties. By using the magnetic parameters determined by EPR, a static magnetization curve at 2 K and a temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility were simulated. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental data confirms the validity of the values obtained from EPR measurements.

  14. Synthesis of 1,4-annulated cyclooctatetraenophanes based on a novel cubane building block approach.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Robert M; Pavlović, Drazen

    2004-08-06

    A general synthetic approach to strained 1,4-annulated cyclooctatetraene-based cyclophanes is described. A key feature in this approach is exploitation of the cubane core as a masked cyclooctatetraene synthon. Thus, 1,4-disubstituted cubanes 3 and 4 used as precursors to cyclooctatetraenophanes have been prepared in four steps from the readily available 1,4-cubanedicarboxaldehyde (5). The synthesis of 3 was effected by palladium/copper-mediated coupling of 1,4-bis[(Z,Z)-2-iodovinyl]cubane (6) and 1,4-bis[(Z,Z)-but-1-en-3-ynyl]cubane (8). For the synthesis of 4, on the other hand, modified Eglington-Glaser coupling was applied for the macrocyclization step. The general characteristic of Rh(I) to induce [2 + 2] cycloreversion of the cubane core to syn-tricyclo[4.2.0.0(2,5)]octa-3,7-diene followed by thermal rearrangement to cyclooctatetraene was applied as a key structural transformation toward targeted cyclooctatetraenophanes 1 and 2.

  15. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  16. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  17. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  18. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  19. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  20. Cuban Value Orientations. Cultural Monograph Number 1. Bilingual Multicultural Education Training Project for School Psychologists and Guidance Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided in this monograph to facilitate understanding of Cuban cultural values and their implications for counseling limited English proficient students. Also provided is a beginning conceptual model for increasing the understanding of cross-cultural theory and practice. The overview of Cuban culture is based on a perspective of…

  1. 31 CFR 515.555 - Assets of Cuban firms wholly or substantially owned by U.S. citizens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.555 Assets... applicants requesting the unblocking of their stock in Cuban corporations if: (1) The corporation was wholly...

  2. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  3. Conflict Resolution and Distress in Dementia Caregiver Families: Comparison of Cubans and White Non-Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Feaster, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of family conflict resolution as a mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and psychological distress in dementia caregivers. The sample was composed of the families of 182 caregivers who participated in REACH (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health). The sample consisted of 84 Cuban American and 98 non-Hispanic White American families. Mediation analyses revealed that both income and conflict resolution partially mediated the relationship between ethnicity and caregiver psychological distress. Specifically, Cuban American families were less likely than non-Hispanic White families to reach a resolution to their disagreements, which may have rendered the caregiver at greater risk for psychological distress. These results suggest that Cuban American caregivers may benefit from interventions that improve the family’s ability to resolve conflicts. PMID:20448830

  4. A structural analysis of {M4O4} cubanes where M = Mn and Fe.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan F

    2008-02-14

    The structures of the M4O4 units found in manganese and iron cubanes are analysed. The model used is that established previously for cobalt and nickel cubanes based on a distortion of the cube by compression of the oxygen atoms along a body diagonal. Further distortion which maintains a S4 or, less frequently, a C3 axis is generally seen. In spite of the distortion, average M-M distances in a cubane are quite constant for a given oxidation state and generally decrease as the metal is oxidised. The angles at the oxygen atoms increase from 90 degrees for the ideal cube to around 97 degrees . For metal oxidation states above or equal to +iii micro3-hydroxo ligands transform to micro3-oxo ligands. Ligands such as carboxylates which can bridge diagonal faces of the cube are generally seen with higher oxidation states.

  5. A case analysis of INFOMED: the Cuban national health care telecommunications network and portal.

    PubMed

    Séror, Ann C

    2006-01-27

    The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology and interpretation of values such as individual

  6. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. Objective The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Methods Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Results Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. Conclusions INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology

  7. Paradise lost: older Cuban American exiles' ambiguous loss of leaving the homeland.

    PubMed

    Perez, Rose M

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experience of leaving Cuba, 2 Cuban American émigrés interviewed 20 Cuban exiles aged 65 or older, who left Cuba between 1959 and 1971. The interviews were conducted in New York and New Jersey using a phenomenological approach (Moutsakas, 1994). Themes included feeling betrayed by the Revolution, the inevitability of leaving, the expectation of a temporary refuge, and longing for and idealizing the past. The psychological presence that participants expressed, along with an endless sense of loss, resonates with ambiguous loss theory (Boss, 2006)-themes that have yet to be explored in the literature and that have research and practice implications.

  8. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  9. Development of hypertension in a cohort of Cuban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Marlene; Fernández-Britto, José E; Bacallao, Jorge; Pérez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Primary hypertension has its origins in childhood and is a risk factor for atherosclerosis; it is considered an important health problem because of its high prevalence worldwide. Describe the development of hypertension during adolescence, including some factors that influence its persistence and progression in Cuban adolescents. A cohort study was conducted in an intentional sample of 252 apparently healthy adolescents from the catchment area of the Héroes del Moncada Polyclinic in Plaza de la Revolución Municipality, Havana. They were assessed in two cross-sectional studies in 2004 and 2008. Mean age at first assessment was 13.2 years, 17.1 years at the second. Variables were weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking, family history of hypertension and birth weight. Correlation coefficients and growth curve analyses were applied to assess blood pressure persistence. Risk of developing prehypertension and hypertension was estimated in the second assessment, based on predictors identified in the 2004 cut. Forecasting models with these factors were developed using classification trees as analytical tools. Of the six adolescents categorized as hypertensive in the first assessment, five still showed blood pressure alterations after four years. The main factors related to hypertension in those aged 16-19 were blood pressure itself and a body mass index >90th percentile, followed by low birth weight and abdominal obesity. Prognostic models for predicting this condition at the end of adolescence demonstrated the importance of blood pressure alterations at age 12-15 years. High rates of persistence and progression of hypertension during adolescence highlights the need for systematic blood pressure screening at the primary health care level and adoption of primary prevention strategies beginning in childhood.

  10. [Transthyretin levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid sustain the nutrio-viral hypothesis of the Cuban epidemic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Dorta-Contreras, A J; Barshatzky, M; Noris-García, E; Serrano-Sánchez, T

    Transthyretin is considered an excellent marker for monitoring nutritional status in serum. In cerebrospinal fluid it is synthesized by chroroid plexus. Cuban epidemic neuropathy is an emergent disease with a hypothetically viral and nutritional origin. To know the behavior of this transport molecule in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid was quantified in 11 patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy, eight patients suffering from other neuropathies and 15 patients with Down's syndrome and 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Serum transthyretin was diminished in patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy, other neuropathies and Alzheimer's disease. Down's syndrome patients had significantly higher transthyretin levels in comparison with Cuban epidemic neuropathy and Alzheimer's disease. Cerebrospinal fluid transthyretin was significantly increased in patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy in comparison with the normal values and with Alzheimer's disease patients whose values were settled below the normal values. The decrement of serum transthyretin in Cuban epidemic neuropathy indicates malnutrition and its higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid also indicate a viral infection. These findings support the nutrio-viral hypothesis of the disease.

  11. Cuban medical cooperation in Haiti: one of the world's best-kept secrets.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emily J; Kirk, John M

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes Cuba's medical role in Haiti since Hurricane Georges in 1998, with particular emphasis on the Cuban government's response to the 2010 earthquake. The article examines two central themes. First, it assesses the enormous impact on public health that Cuba has made since 1998, and second, it provides a comparative analysis of Cuba's medical role since the earthquake.

  12. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  13. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  14. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  15. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  16. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities…

  17. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  18. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  19. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  20. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  1. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  2. The Cuban Model for Higher Education of Older Adults: Generativity, Social Commitment, and Collaborative Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuni, José Alberto; Urbano, Claudio Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is an approach to study the "Cuban model" for educating the elderly, and its aim is to describe the main features of the experience developed by this country. The University of the Third Age is more than three decades old in Latin America, but none of the countries in the region can show a state educational policy…

  3. Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Susan; Barberia, Lorena

    2002-01-01

    Investigated differences in views and involvements between two cohorts of first generation Cuban-American immigrants. Interviews with immigrants indicated that the first wave left between 1959-1979 mainly for political reasons and publicly opposes travel to Cuba. The second wave immigrated largely for economic reasons and is enmeshed in…

  4. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  5. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…

  6. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.62 Treatment of eligible... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian...

  7. Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

  8. A Case Analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal.

    PubMed

    Séror, Ann C

    2008-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a longer article that appeared in Séror, A. A Case analysis of INFOMED: The Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2006;8(1). Access this article in original publication http://www.jmir.org/2006/1/e1.

  9. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…

  10. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  11. Structure and Spontaneity: Pedagogical Tensions in the Construction of a Simulation of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 5-day simulation workshop on the Cuban Missile Crisis developed for 60 secondary school students participating in the Indiana University summer gifted and talented program. Uses role playing and game situations to teach critical thinking. Finds these techniques effective in providing a sense of power and competence. (NL)

  12. Herbert L. Matthews and the Cuban Story. Journalism Monographs No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Herbert L. Matthews, a veteran journalist for the "New York Times," traveled to Cuba in 1957 to interview Fidel Castro, then a revolutionary seeking the overthrow of the Batista regime. This monograph considers the impact of Matthews' newspaper articles about those interviews and of his subsequent articles about the Cuban situation and…

  13. Professional Adaptation of the Cuban Electrical Engineer in the U. S., 1959-69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncarz, Raul

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the re-adaptation of education and training brought to the U.S. by Cuban electrical engineers in an effort to discover which personal and occupational characteristics provided better adjustment to the new environment. (Author/PR)

  14. Life Enhancement Counseling: A Psychosocial Model of Services for Cuban Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    The Life Enhancement Counseling Model was developed specifically for the treatment of the problems of meaninglessness and purposelessness among depressed Cuban elders. The model is based on psychosocial development and ecological theoretical orientations. A life review approach is used to help the depressed individuals complete unfinished business…

  15. The Children of Mariel From Shock to Integration: Cuban Refugee Children in South Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Helga

    This report describes the impact on the Dade County, Florida, public school system of the 125 Cuban (and some Haitian) refugees arriving in the Mariel exodus. In September 1980 the school system had to absorb 13,000 new refugee students. Preparing for the students included hiring many bilingual teachers, reopening schools that had closed,…

  16. Herbert L. Matthews and the Cuban Story. Journalism Monographs No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Herbert L. Matthews, a veteran journalist for the "New York Times," traveled to Cuba in 1957 to interview Fidel Castro, then a revolutionary seeking the overthrow of the Batista regime. This monograph considers the impact of Matthews' newspaper articles about those interviews and of his subsequent articles about the Cuban situation and…

  17. Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7: A Cuban Case of Engineering Physics and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal Mirabal, Carlos A.

    The Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7 started in December 1987, commissioned by the [then] Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, who—concerned about introducing technological advancement into the Cuban health [system]—had for some months taken an interest in the possibility of building magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment for medical diagnosis in Cuba (Zito M, Argüelles MM et al, Y sin embargo-: ciencia: hablan 30 investigadores cubanos. Editoria April, Habana, pp 56-66, 1999; Cabal, Biofísica Médica. In: Fidel Castro Dìas-Balart (eds) Cuba. Amanecer del Tercer Milenio. Ciencia, Sociedad y Tecnología: Biofísica Médica. Debate Editorial, Madrid, pp 31-48, 2002). Many of the companies producing MRI equipment were unable to deliver this technology to Cuba due to the bloqueo, the United States embargo against Cuba. Those who were later to advance the project's progress in scientific technology initially regarded the implementation of such a project in a developing country as unfeasible due to its complexity. But Fidel's belief and confidence and in turn the Cuban scientists' commitment to him and to Cuban science proved to be an undeniable factors for its success.

  18. Insulating an Ideology: The Enclave Effect on South Florida's Cuban Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Chris; Grenier, Guillermo J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Cuban Americans embrace a distinctive anti-Castro ideology. Although this ideology supports the embargo against Cuba--purportedly to bring about the Castro regime's compliance or collapse--the real objectives may be more symbolic than practical. Ultimately, the institutional completeness provided by the enclave in South Florida insulates and…

  19. Professional Adaptation of the Cuban Electrical Engineer in the U. S., 1959-69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncarz, Raul

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the re-adaptation of education and training brought to the U.S. by Cuban electrical engineers in an effort to discover which personal and occupational characteristics provided better adjustment to the new environment. (Author/PR)

  20. Palabras de origen chino en el habla cubana (Words of Chinese Origin in Cuban Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Beatriz

    1979-01-01

    Presents a historical analysis of the Chinese in Cuba and examines the influence of the Chinese language on Spanish. Examples are given of Chinese words used in Cuba today and it is concluded that they have made a considerable contribution to Cuban Spanish. (NCR)

  1. Contemporary Puerto Rican, Cuban-in-Exile, and Mexican-American Literature in a Pluralistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Gerard R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes of the Spanish-speaking people living in the United States as expressed in their prose, poetry, and drama. The scope of the paper includes the literature of Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Mexican Americans in the United States written between 1960 and 1973. The literature is surveyed to uncover…

  2. Structure and Spontaneity: Pedagogical Tensions in the Construction of a Simulation of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 5-day simulation workshop on the Cuban Missile Crisis developed for 60 secondary school students participating in the Indiana University summer gifted and talented program. Uses role playing and game situations to teach critical thinking. Finds these techniques effective in providing a sense of power and competence. (NL)

  3. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense]in the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla, Cuban club-rush, is an invasive aquatic weed that is spreading northward in the southeastern United States. It is reported for the first time from Mississippi and from significantly farther northward in Alabama than previously known. Oxycaryum cubense dis...

  4. Testing the Effects of Collectively Expected Durations of Migration: The Naturalization of Mexicans and Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…

  5. Bicultural Effectiveness Training: A Treatment Intervention for Enhancing Intercultural Adjustment in Cuban American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1984-01-01

    By reducing culture conflict and acculturative stress, the Bicultural Effectiveness Training (BET) enhances adjustment in Cuban American families and reduces conduct disorders in adolescents. BET teaches family members that skills for effective functioning in different value contexts (cultural or otherwise) can be viewed as complementary and…

  6. The Occupational Prestige of Women Immigrants: A Comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on the occupational prestige of women workers in Cuba or Mexico who immigrated to the United States showed that immigrant women do not fare so well as immigrant men in converting their resources into occupational prestige. Differences between Mexican and Cuban women, however, are larger than gender differences. (KH)

  7. Testing the Effects of Collectively Expected Durations of Migration: The Naturalization of Mexicans and Cubans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…

  8. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities…

  9. Tampa's Splendid Little War: Local History and the Cuban War of Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mormino, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a look at the local culture of Tampa, Florida at the turn of the century and how it responded to a massive influx of troops waiting for action during the Spanish-American War. At that time, Tampa was a multiethnic city that included many Cuban-, Spanish-, and African-Americans. (MJP)

  10. The Cuban Model for Higher Education of Older Adults: Generativity, Social Commitment, and Collaborative Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuni, José Alberto; Urbano, Claudio Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is an approach to study the "Cuban model" for educating the elderly, and its aim is to describe the main features of the experience developed by this country. The University of the Third Age is more than three decades old in Latin America, but none of the countries in the region can show a state educational policy…

  11. Aging and Generational Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to describe life-course patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans residing in mainland United States. Found age differences in patterns of consumption among Mexican American and Puerto Rican males that reflect aging effects. Found…

  12. [The migration crisis of the summer of 1994. Balance and perspectives of Cuban emigration flows: 1984-1996].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Chavez, E

    1996-01-01

    "The article argues that the rafters crisis of 1994 and the resulting migration agreements between the United States and Cuba in 1994 and 1995 were a radical turn in policies and migration flows between the two countries. The article also describes the general evolution of Cuban migration flows towards the U.S. from the 1984 bilateral agreement up to 1996. As a context, it describes the structural elements of recent Cuban emigration and the place Cubans occupy in the general immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean." (EXCERPT)

  13. El Habla Cubana en las Estampas de Eladio Secades: Caudal de Cubanismos, Dichos y Frases Populares (Cuban Speech in the Writings of Eladio Secades: A Wealth of Cubanisms, Proverbs, and Popular Idioms)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lama, Sonia

    1977-01-01

    This article presents a glossary of popular expressions, slang and Cubanisms found in the writing of Eladio Secades. The words and phrases are defined in standard Spanish and translated into English. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  14. Force Projection, the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and the Planned Amphibious Assault during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Military History by TIMOTHY R. NEWKIRK, MAJOR, U.S. MARINE CORPS B.S., Embry Riddle Aeronautical...operations. Additionally, a brief history regarding the development of the Cuban invasion plans is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the 5th...and combat operations. Additionally, a brief history regarding the development of the Cuban invasion plans is reviewed with special emphasis on the

  15. Emergency Response to Earthquake in Chile: Experience of a Cuban Field Hospital.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos R

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the author's experiences in deploying and later establishing a Cuban field hospital in response to the major earthquake that struck Chile in February 2010. It also reveals the initial difficulties the medical team faced and how collaboration with local social, medical and military partners contributed to response efficiency, and highlights the importance of Cuba's international health cooperation, especially in emergency situations. Over 254 days, Cuban health professionals had 50,048 patient encounters (outpatient visits and hospitalizations), a daily average of 197. They performed 1778 surgeries (1427 major, 80.2% of total) and accumulated valuable experience in managing a field hospital in a disaster situation. KEYWORDS Earthquake, humanitarian aid, health care, emergency response, disaster medicine, logistics, Chile, Cuba.

  16. "Enticing case study" or "celebrated anomaly"? Policy learning from the Cuban health system.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Rob; Lambie, George

    2017-09-06

    Cuba is regarded as having achieved very good health outcomes for its level of economic development. It has adopted policies and programs that focus on prevention, universal access to healthcare, a strong primary care system, the integration of health in all policies, and public participation in health. It has also established a strong and accessible system of medical education and provides substantial medical aid and support to other countries. Why then, it may be asked, has the Cuban experience not had greater influence on health policies and reforms elsewhere? This article, based on a literature review and new primary sources, analyzes various factors highlighted in the policy transfer literature to explain this. It also notes other factors that have created greater awareness of Cuban health achievements in some countries and which provide a basis for learning lessons from its policies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Activity of Cuban propolis extracts on Leishmania amazonensis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; García Parra, Marley; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the antiprotozoal effects of eighteen Cuban propolis extracts (brown, red and yellow type) collected in different geographic areas, using Leishmania amazonensis (as a model of intracellular protozoa) and Trichomonas vaginalis (as a model of extracellular protozoa). All evaluated propolis extracts caused inhibitory effect on intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis. However, cytotoxicity on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice was observed. Only five samples decreased the viability of T. vaginalis trophozoites at concentrations lower than 10 microg/mL. No correlation between the type of propolis and antiprotozoal activity was found. Cuban propolis extracts demonstrated activity against both intracellular and extracellular protozoa model, as well as the potentialities of propolis as a natural source to obtain new antiprotozoal agents.

  18. Granma: Cuban News and Propaganda Analysis for the Period, 1-31 December 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    and Salvador Allende . e The CIA protects Joseph Mengele and other Nazi war criminals. * Drugs and terrorists. Miami, Florida is the center for the...base for supplying military aid to El Salvador and Hon- duras. 9 Terrorists in Nicaragua. The American supported contras murdered 21 innocent civilian...Cuban propaganda pertaining to Latin American countries: e The guerrillas in El Salvador have completely paralyzed the national transportation system

  19. "All Cubans are doctors!" news coverage of health and bioexceptionalism in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-10-01

    In a multi-country study of media coverage of health, professionals often deem reporters as only interested in selling newspapers and criticizing physicians. Since the health system and the media are controlled by the socialist state, Cuba provides an interesting test case. Health, the key symbol of the Cuban revolution, is constantly characterized as unique. In this study I asked: will health media also exhibit bioexceptionalism-will coverage differ dramatically from that in capitalist countries? I compiled all health stories published in 2002 in three national newspapers, others appearing 2003-2011, plus television and radio coverage (totaling 961). I recorded interviews during fieldwork periods in 2005, 2006, and 2008 with health and media professionals and laypersons; ethnography focused on media and health institutions and lay reception. Cuban health news stories generally project knowledge as produced in biomedical institutions, circulated by media and health professionals, and received by laypersons, a model common in capitalist countries. A second type lauds "achievements of the revolution" but similarly subordinates lay participation. Nevertheless, avid reception of biomedical knowledge leads many Cubans to describe themselves as "frustrated doctors" who know as much as their physicians. Inviting charges of self-medication, lay reception most closely embodied bioexceptionalism. Stories projecting the quality, accessibility, and humanism of Cuban medicine gained importance as the post-Soviet "Special Period" catalyzed shortages of medications and services and greater inequality; nevertheless, the frustrated citizen-consumers described by researchers do not figure in health coverage or lay reception. Media constructions of laypersons as passive recipients of professional knowledge contradict appeals for popular participation and reveal how political ideologies and health policies often fail to match the way that media coverage differentially projects

  20. Successful Insurgent Revolutions in Latin America: Analysis of the Cuban and Nicaraguan Revolutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    The intention of this thesis is to explore the factors that led to the success of two Latin American revolutions in Cuba (1959) and the Sandinista...the post-World War II era, have taken power by overthrowing the incumbent regimes by force of arms. Understanding the most prominent factors that led...the four critical factors that contributed to the success of the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions are leadership (strategy), popular support (the

  1. Novel tetranuclear copper |2 + 4| cubanes resulting from unprecedented C-O bond formation cum dearomatization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-21

    Novel tetranuclear copper |2 + 4| cubanes 1 and 2 have been synthesized from the reaction of hydrated copper salts/precursors with N,O chelating β-ketoaminato ligands. Creation of 1 and 2 occurs by in situ generation of the tridentate chelating species HL1O(2-) via copper mediated C-O bond formation and dearomatization of H3L1, while anhydrous salts afforded mononuclear complex 3.

  2. Evolutionary history of Cuban crocodiles Crocodylus rhombifer and Crocodylus acutus inferred from multilocus markers.

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Frias-Soler, Roberto; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramos-Targarona, Roberto; Rodríguez-Soberón, Roberto; Alonso-Tabet, Manuel; Thorbjarnarson, John; Sanjur, Oris I; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2011-07-01

    Among crocodilians, Crocodylus rhombifer is one of the world's most endangered species with the smallest natural distribution. In Cuba, this endemic species coexists with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Hybridization between these two species is well known in captivity and might occur in the wild, but has never been demonstrated genetically. Here, we combined molecular data with environmental, geographic, and fossil data to infer the evolutionary history of Crocodylus in the Cuban Archipelago, and to evaluate genealogical support for species boundaries. We analyzed seven microsatellite loci plus DNA sequence data from nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I) genes from 89 wild-caught individuals in Cuba, Grand Cayman Island, Jamaica, and Central America, and two samples from zoo collections. Microsatellites showed evidence of introgression, suggesting potential hybridization among Cuban groups. In Cuba, C. acutus contained one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, whereas C. rhombifer contained two haplotypes. MtDNA data showed that C. acutus is paraphyletic with respect to C. rhombifer, revealing 1% sequence divergence between species within Cuba vs. 8% divergence between Cuban forms and mainland C. acutus. We suggest that hybridization has been a historical as well as a current phenomenon between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. These findings suggest that long-term conservation of crocodiles in Cuba will require identification of genetically pure and hybrid individuals, and a decrease in anthropogenic activities. We also recommend more extensive morphological and genetic analyses of Cuban population to establish clear boundaries of the hybrid zone between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Genetic features of Huntington disease in Cuban population: implications for phenotype, epidemiology and predictive testing.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimeé; Laguna-Salvia, Leonides; Laffita-Mesa, José M; González-Zaldívar, Yanetza; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Zayas-Feria, Pedro; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis

    2013-12-15

    Huntington disease is the most frequent polyglutamine disorder with variable worldwide prevalence. Although some Latin American populations have been studied, HD prevalence in Cuban population remains unknown. In order to characterize the disease in Cuba, the relative frequency of HD was determined by studying 130 patients with chorea and 63 unrelated healthy controls, emphasizing in the molecular epidemiology of the disease. Sixty-two patients with chorea belonging to 16 unrelated families carried a pathological CAG expansion in the HTT gene, ranging from 39 to 67 repeats. Eighty-three percent of them come from the eastern region of the country. A significant inverse correlation between age at onset and expanded CAG repeats was seen. Intermediate alleles in affected individuals and controls represented 4.8% and 3.97% respectively, which have been a putative source of de novo mutation. This study represents the largest molecular characterization of Huntington disease in the Cuban population. These results may have significant implications for an understanding of the disease, its diagnosis and prognosis in Cuban patients, giving health professionals the tools to implement confirmatory genetic testing, pre-symptomatic testing and clinical trials in this population.

  4. Partial island submergence and speciation in an adaptive radiation: a multilocus analysis of the Cuban green anoles.

    PubMed Central

    Glor, Richard E.; Gifford, Matthew E.; Larson, Allan; Losos, Jonathan B.; Schettino, Lourdes Rodríguez; Chamizo Lara, Ada R.; Jackman, Todd R.

    2004-01-01

    Sympatric speciation is often proposed to account for species-rich adaptive radiations within lakes or islands, where barriers to gene flow or dispersal may be lacking. However, allopatric speciation may also occur in such situations, especially when ranges are fragmented by fluctuating water levels. We test the hypothesis that Miocene fragmentation of Cuba into three palaeo-archipelagos accompanied species-level divergence in the adaptive radiation of West Indian Anolis lizards. Analysis of morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) and nuclear DNA in the Cuban green anoles (carolinensis subgroup) strongly supports three pre dictions made by this hypothesis. First, three geographical sets of populations, whose ranges correspond with palaeo-archipelago boundaries, are distinct and warrant recognition as independent evolutionary lineages or species. Coalescence of nuclear sequence fragments sampled from these species and the large divergences observed between their mtDNA haplotypes suggest separation prior to the subsequent unification of Cuba ca. 5 Myr ago. Second, molecular phylogenetic relationships among these species reflect historical geographical relationships rather than morphological similarity. Third, all three species remain distinct despite extensive geographical contact subsequent to island unification, occasional hybridization and introgression of mtDNA haplotypes. Allopatric speciation initiated during partial island submergence may play an important role in speciation during the adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards. PMID:15539351

  5. Tuning the photoinduced O2-evolving reactivity of Mn4O47+, Mn4O46+, and Mn4O3(OH)6+ manganese-oxo cubane complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Zhong; De Angelis, Filippo; Carrell, Thomas G; Yap, Glenn P A; Sheats, John; Car, Roberto; Dismukes, G Charles

    2006-01-09

    The manganese-oxo "cubane" core complex Mn(4)O(4)L(1)(6) (1, L(1) = Ph(2)PO(2-)), a partial model of the photosynthetic water oxidation site, was shown previously to undergo photodissociation in the gas phase by releasing one phosphinate anion, an O(2) molecule, and the intact butterfly core cation (Mn(4)O(2)L(1)(5+)). Herein, we investigate the photochemistry and electronic structure of a series of manganese-oxo cubane complexes: [Mn(4)O(4)L(2)(6)] (2), 1(+)(ClO(4-)), 2(+)(ClO(4-)), and Mn(4)O(3)(OH)L(1)(6) (1H). We report the atomic structure of [Mn(4)O(4)L(2)(6)](ClO(4)), 2(+)(ClO(4-)) [L(2) = (4-MeOPh)(2)PO(2-)]. UV photoexcitation of a charge-transfer band dissociates one phosphinate, two core oxygen atoms, and the Mn(4)O(2)L(5)(+) butterfly as the dominant (or exclusive) photoreaction of all cubane derivatives in the gas phase, with relative yields: 1H > 2 > 1 > 2(+) > 1(+). The photodissociation yield increases upon (1) reducing the core oxidation state by hydrogenation of a corner oxo (1H), (2) increasing the electron donation from the phosphinate ligand (L(2)), and (3) reducing the net charge from +1 to 0. The experimental Mn-O bond lengths and Mn-O bond strengths and the calculated ligand binding energy explain these trends in terms of weaker binding of phosphinate L(2) versus L(1) by 14.7 kcal/mol and stronger Mn-(mu(3)-O)(core) bonds in the oxidized complexes 2(+) and 1(+) versus 2 and 1. The calculated electronic structure accounts for these trends in terms of the binding energy and antibonding Mn-O(core) and Mn-O'(ligand) character of the degenerate highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), including (1) energetic destabilization of the HOMO of 2 relative to 1 by 0.75 eV and (2) depopulation of the antibonding HOMO and increased ionic binding in 1(+) and 2(+) versus 1 and 2.

  6. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Rand National Defense Research Institute. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World . Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1992. Ratliff...gone and democracy is attempted. The political and economic power of the one million or so Cuban-Americans - living primarily in southern Florida...U.S./Latin-American History ............................... 6 Tightening the Chokehold on Cuba: Cuban Democracy Act of 1992

  7. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico. PMID:22171172

  8. The functioning of the Cuban home hospitalization programme: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Pol; Barroso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Armando; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the last decades hospital at home (HaH) programmes have been set up in many, mainly European, countries. The Cuban HaH programme is not hospital driven, but the responsibility of the first line health services, and family doctors play a pivotal role. Methods We analyse the structure and functioning of the Cuban programme. In this descriptive study, information was prospectively collected on HaH patients admitted between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2002. Results Admission rates varied between areas from 0.014 to 0.035 per person per year (ppy). The < 1y and 1–4y age groups had the highest admission rates. In one area the follow-up of pregnancy problems led to high 15–24y and 25–49y female admission rates (0,070 and 0,058 respectively). Respiratory affections were the most frequent reason for admission (32,6%), followed by early hospital discharge (16,0%) and gynaeco-obstetrical problems (10.8%). The median length of stay varied from 5 to 7 days between regions and from 5 days (early discharge) to 7 days (gynaeco-obstetrical problems) in function of the reason for admission. On average an HaH episode entailed 1.4 and 1.6 contacts per patient-day with the family doctor and nurse respectively. Conclusion Difference in admission criteria in function of geography, distance to the hospital, transport facilities, and staff factors, as well as differences in hospital policy on early discharge explain the observed variability. The programme plays an important role in the integrated approach to quality care in the Cuban health system, but could benefit from more uniform admission criteria. PMID:17540015

  9. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F. Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occulta sp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi. PMID:22328857

  10. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occultasp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi.

  11. Specific incorporation of chalcogenide bridge atoms in molybdenum/tungsten-iron-sulfur single cubane clusters.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Amit; Holm, R H

    2011-11-07

    An extensive series of heterometal-iron-sulfur single cubane-type clusters with core oxidation levels [MFe(3)S(3)Q](3+,2+) (M = Mo, W; Q = S, Se) has been prepared by means of a new method of cluster self-assembly. The procedure utilizes the assembly system [((t)Bu(3)tach)M(VI)S(3)]/FeCl(2)/Na(2)Q/NaSR in acetonitrile/THF and affords product clusters in 30-50% yield. The trisulfido precursor acts as a template, binding Fe(II) under reducing conditions and supplying the MS(3) unit of the product. The system leads to specific incorporation of a μ(3)-chalcogenide from an external source (Na(2)Q) and affords the products [((t)Bu(3)tach)MFe(3)S(3)QL(3)](0/1-) (L = Cl(-), RS(-)), among which are the first MFe(3)S(3)Se clusters prepared. Some 16 clusters have been prepared, 13 of which have been characterized by X-ray structure determinations including the incomplete cubane [((t)Bu(3)tach)MoFe(2)S(3)Cl(2)(μ(2)-SPh)], a possible trapped intermediate in the assembly process. Comparisons of structural and electronic features of clusters differing only in atom Q at one cubane vertex are provided. In comparative pairs of complexes differing only in Q, placement of one selenide atom in the core increases core volumes by about 2% over the Q = S case, sets the order Q = Se > S in Fe-Q bond lengths and Q = S > Se in Fe-Q-Fe bond angles, causes small positive shifts in redox potentials, and has an essentially nil effect on (57)Fe isomer shifts. Iron mean oxidation states and charge distributions are assigned to most clusters from isomer shifts. ((t)Bu(3)tach = 1,3,5-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. What percentage of the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic is known?

    PubMed

    de Arazoza, Héctor; Lounes, Rachid; Pérez, Jorge; Hoang, Thu

    2003-01-01

    The data for the Cuban HIV-AIDS epidemic from 1986 to 2000 were presented. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of the HIV detection system, two methods were used to estimate the size of the HIV-infected population, backcalculation and a dynamical model. From these models it can be estimated that in the worst scenario 75% of the HIV-infected persons are known and in the best case 87% of the total number of persons that have been infected with HIV have been detected by the National Program. These estimates can be taken as a measure of the efficiency of the detection program for HIV-infected persons.

  13. A Witness to French-Cuban Cooperation in Physics in the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernogora, Jacqueline

    In France in 1968 many lively discussions and debates took place at several universities and laboratories in which official authority was questioned. Very often in such debates someone would stand up and ask the previous speaker: "Who are you to assert such a thing?" or "From where are you speaking?" Forty years later, to avoid such questions, I will say right away "from where" I am writing this text, which is by no means an exhaustive study of French-Cuban collaboration in physics at that time, but rather a personal recollection.

  14. Acculturation, risk behaviors and physical dating violence victimization among Cuban-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Williams, Jessica R; Merisier, Mireille; Cummings, Amanda M; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the relationships among acculturation, risk behaviors, and reported physical dating violence among Cuban-American ninth grade adolescents. Participants (N=82) completed a questionnaire that assessed their level of acculturation to the U.S. (Americanism), their maintenance of the Hispanic culture (Hispanicism), binge drinking, drug use, sexual intercourse, condom use and physical dating violence victimization. Multiple logistic regression was conducted. Hispanicism was associated with a decrease in odds of reporting physical dating violence victimization. Drug use and not using a condom were associated with an increase in odds of reporting physical dating violence victimization.

  15. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  16. Consequences of sea level variability and sea level rise for Cuban territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, M.; Martínez, C. A.; Marzo, O.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was to determine a first approximation of coastal zone flooding by 2100, taking into account the more persistent processes of sea level variability and non-accelerated linear sea level rise estimation to assess the main impacts. The annual linear rate of mean sea level rise in the Cuban archipelago, obtained from the longest tide gauge records, has fluctuated between 0.005 cm/year at Casilda and 0.214 cm/year at Siboney. The main sea level rise effects for the Cuban coastal zone due to climate change and global warming are shown. Monthly and annual mean sea level anomalies, some of which are similar to or higher than the mean sea level rise estimated for halfway through the present century, reinforce the inland seawater penetration due to the semi-daily high tide. The combination of these different events will result in the loss of goods and services, and require expensive investments for adaption.

  17. Synthesis, High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, and Vibrational Structure of Cubane, C8H8.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Lamy, M; Dugue-Boyé, F; Pirali, O; Gruet, S; D'Accolti, L; Fusco, C; Annese, C; Alikhani, M E

    2016-06-30

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family ( Pirali , O. ; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2012 , 136 , 024310 ). There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C8H8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp(3) hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. We report a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. They cover the 600-3200 cm(-1) region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11, and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensorial formalism developed in the Dijon group. A comparison with ab initio calculations, allowing to identify some combination bands, is also presented.

  18. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  19. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level.

  20. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  1. Molecular evidence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in colorectal tumours from Cuban patients

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Yudira; Limia, Celia Maria; González, Licet; Grá, Bienvenido; Hano, Olga Marina; Martínez, Pedro Ariel; Kourí, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58). Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63) of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24) and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18). HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009). The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients. PMID:27812599

  2. Circomics of Cuban geminiviruses reveals the first alpha-satellite DNA in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Holger; Kober, Sigrid; Schäfer, Benjamin; Strohmeier, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Circomics (circular DNA genomics), the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and pyro-sequencing, has been used recently to identify geminiviruses with high efficiency and low costs. Circular DNAs associated with Cuban geminiviruses were characterised by RCA/RFLP analysis and 454 sequencing of two batches of DNA amplified from selected plant samples as well as individual cloning and Sanger sequencing of DNA components and compared to other geminiviral DNAs by phylogenetic analysis. Cuban geminiviruses that were closely related to each other challenged the circomics approach. Ten geminiviral components and one alpha-satellite DNA were determined and compared to three geminiviral components obtained by conventional cloning. New strains of Sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), tomato yellow distortion leaf virus (ToYDLV), Sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV) and Sida golden mosaic Liguanea virus (SiGMLV) are described with host plant species being classified by molecular PCR-based bar coding. A new virus species is named Peristrophe mosaic virus. The first alpha-satellite found in Middle America establishes the New World branch of these elements which are related to nanoviruses and were previously thought to be restricted to the Old World. In conclusion, circomics is efficient for complex infections and closely related viruses to detected unexpected viral DNAs, but may need some scrutinisation by direct sequencing and cloning of individual components for certain cases.

  3. In situ characterization of cofacial Co(IV) centers in Co4O4 cubane: Modeling the high-valent active site in oxygen-evolving catalysts.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Casey N; Hadt, Ryan G; Hayes, Dugan; Reinhart, Benjamin J; Li, Nancy; Chen, Lin X; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-04-11

    The Co4O4 cubane is a representative structural model of oxidic cobalt oxygen-evolving catalysts (Co-OECs). The Co-OECs are active when residing at two oxidation levels above an all-Co(III) resting state. This doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 state may be captured in a Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane. We demonstrate that the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane may be electrochemically generated and the electronic properties of this unique high-valent state may be probed by in situ spectroscopy. Intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) bands in the near-IR are observed for the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane, and spectroscopic analysis together with electrochemical kinetics measurements reveal a larger reorganization energy and a smaller electron transfer rate constant for the doubly versus singly oxidized cubane. Spectroelectrochemical X-ray absorption data further reveal systematic spectral changes with successive oxidations from the cubane resting state. Electronic structure calculations correlated to experimental data suggest that this state is best represented as a localized, antiferromagnetically coupled Co(IV)2 dimer. The exchange coupling in the cofacial Co(IV)2 site allows for parallels to be drawn between the electronic structure of the Co4O4 cubane model system and the high-valent active site of the Co-OEC, with specific emphasis on the manifestation of a doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 center on O-O bond formation.

  4. In situ characterization of cofacial Co(IV) centers in Co4O4 cubane: Modeling the high-valent active site in oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Brodsky, Casey N.; Hadt, Ryan G.; Hayes, Dugan; ...

    2017-03-27

    The Co4O4 cubane is a representative structural model of oxidic cobalt oxygen evolving catalysts (Co-OECs). The Co-OECs are active when residing at two oxidation levels above an all Co(III) resting state. This doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 state may be captured in a Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane. We demonstrate that the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane may be electrochemically generated and the electronic properties of this unique high-valent state may be probed by in situ spectroscopy. Intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) bands in the near-IR are observed for the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane, and spectroscopic analysis together with electrochemical kinetics measurements reveal a larger reorganization energy and a smaller electronmore » transfer rate constant for the doubly versus singly oxidized cubane. Spectroelectrochemical X-ray absorption data further reveal systematic spectral changes with successive oxidations from the cubane resting state. Electronic structure calculations correlated to experimental data suggest that this state is best represented as a localized, antiferromagnetically coupled Co(IV)2 dimer. The exchange coupling in the cofacial Co(IV)2 site allows for parallels to be drawn between the electronic structure of the Co4O4 cubane model system and the high valent active site of the Co-OEC, with specific emphasis on the manifestation of a doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 center on O–O bond formation.« less

  5. Effects of prescribed fire on conditions inside a Cuban parrot (Amazona Leucocephala) surrogate nesting cavity on Great Abaco, Bahamas

    Treesearch

    Joseph O' Brien; Caroline Stahala; Gina P. Mori; Mac Callaham; Chris M. Bergh

    2006-01-01

    Cuban Parrots (Amazona leucocephala) on the island of Great Abaco in the Bahamas forage and nest in native pine forests. The population is unique in that the birds nest in limestone solution holes on the forest floor. Bahamian pine forests are fire-dependent with a frequent surface fire regime. The effects of fire on the parrots, especially while nesting, are not well...

  6. Cuban Youth Culture and Receding Futures: Hip Hop, Reggaetón and "Pedagogías Marginal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel; Gomez, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Cuba finds itself at the centre of various discourses yet again, as publications such as "The Economist" and others debate the future of Cuban culture and society. While issues of economics, ideology and politics are fertile ground for discussion, they do not encompass the totality of such a conversation. The authors argue that critical…

  7. The cytotoxic effects of brown Cuban propolis depend on the nemorosone content and may be mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto L; Reis, Felippe H Z; Dalalio, Felipe M; Nuñez Figueredo, Yanier; Cuesta Rubio, Osmany; Uyemura, Sergio A; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2015-02-25

    Three main types of Cuban propolis directly related to their secondary metabolite composition have been identified: brown, red and yellow propolis; the former is majoritarian and is characterized by the presence of nemorosone. In this study, brown Cuban propolis extracts were found cytotoxic against HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes, in close association with the nemorosone contents. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver the extracts displayed uncoupling activity, which was demonstrated by the increase in succinate-supported state 4 respiration rates, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, and a marked ATP depletion. As in cells, the degree of such mitotoxic events was closely correlated to the nemorosone content. The propolis extracts that do not contain nemorosone were neither cytotoxic nor mitotoxic, except R-29, whose detrimental effect upon cells and mitochondria could be mediated by its isoflavonoids and chalcones components, well known mitochondrial uncouplers. Our results at least partly unravel the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban propolis, particularly regarding brown propolis, and raise concerns about the toxicological implication of Cuban propolis consumption.

  8. Comparison of Childrearing Practices of Anglos, Cuban-Americans, and Latin Americans. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escovar, Luis; Escovar, Peggy L.

    In this report perceived childrearing practices among three cultural groups (American Anglos, Cuban Americans, and Latin Americans) were compared. Subjects were 445 college students (168 males and females from universities in Colombia and Venezuela, and 154 from a university in South Florida). A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to…

  9. Cuban Youth Culture and Receding Futures: Hip Hop, Reggaetón and "Pedagogías Marginal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel; Gomez, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Cuba finds itself at the centre of various discourses yet again, as publications such as "The Economist" and others debate the future of Cuban culture and society. While issues of economics, ideology and politics are fertile ground for discussion, they do not encompass the totality of such a conversation. The authors argue that critical…

  10. A Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Framework Based on Cubane-Type [Co4 (μ3 -F)3 (μ3 -SO4 )](3+) Clusters for Gas Storage and Adsorption Selectivity of Benzene over Cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenbin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Chen, Wen-Zhe

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) not only have high water stability, but also exhibit high adsorption capacity towards organic molecules, in particular hydrocarbons. Herein we report a rare metal fluoride organic framework MFOF-1 with high hydrophobicity, which is constructed from unprecedented fluoride- and sulfate-bridged cubane-type tetranuclear cobalt clusters. MFOF-1 consists of three types of polyhedral cages with face-sharing configurations, and possesses a novel (3,9)-connected 3D+3D→3D self-interpenetrating array or the rare pyr topology. MFOF-1 shows high thermal stability and high stability in water and even acid/base aqueous solutions, and exhibits rather high H2 and CO2 storage capacities at ambient pressure. Remarkably, MFOF-1 shows little adsorption of water but considerably high uptakes of methanol, n-hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene, and exhibits a certain degree of adsorption selectivity of benzene over cyclohexane.

  11. "Maricón," "pájaro," and "loca": Cuban and Puerto Rican linguistic practices, and sexual minority participation, in U.S. Santería.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the United States are, to varying degrees, practitioners of the Afro-Cuban religion popularly known as Santería. Cuban and Puerto Rican forms of referencing LGBT populations are illustrated in this article, which is drawing from interviews and participant observation conducted in the United States, with close to 30 practitioners, many of whom were Cuban, Cuban American, and Puerto Rican. I discuss the ways in which Santería gatherings produce an alternative use of otherwise stigmatized language for "gay" practitioners. Through the use of distinctive language to reference all of these populations, we may rethink the relationship between identities and practices, and within that, gender presentations vis a vis identities.

  12. A K⁺ channel blocking peptide from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Coronas, Fredy I V; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Possani, Lourival D

    2014-03-01

    A proteomic analysis of the venom obtained from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi was performed. Venom was obtained by electrical stimulation, separated by high performance liquid chromatography, and the molecular masses of their 50 protein components were identified by mass spectrometry. A peptide of 3940 Da molecular mass was obtained in pure form and its primary structure determined. It contains 37 amino acid residues, including three disulfide bridges. Electrophysiological experiments showed that this peptide is capable of blocking reversibly K(+)-channels hKv1.1 with a Kd close to 1 μM, but is not effective against hKv1.4, hERG1 and EAG currents, at the same concentration. This is the first protein component ever isolated from this species of scorpion and was assigned the systematic number α-KTx 2.14.

  13. Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

    1995-01-01

    The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country.

  14. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  15. Well child care: a comprehensive strategy for Cuban children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Mercedes; Álvarez, Gisela; Izquierdo, María Elena; Martínez, Daisy; Tamayo, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    The notable rise in survival rates of Cuban children has presented new challenges in the search for continued improvement of their welfare and quality of life. These advances can be achieved only to the extent that preventive care and health promotion are also improved. This article describes the design of a strategy for comprehensive care of children and adolescents based on better quality of well child visits, defining visit components, age-specific activities for each visit, and guidelines for followup based on visit findings. Complementary to the strategy, indicators and standards are identified for systematic evaluation of visit quality, enabling collection of objective and specific information about individual visits and assessment of trends over time, which in turn facilitates further improvements in this strategy over the long term.

  16. Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert C; Kirchman, Jeremy J; Dumbacher, John P; Bevier, Louis; Dove, Carla; Rotzel, Nancy C; Edwards, Scott V; Lammertink, Martjan; Miglia, Kathleen J; Moore, William S

    2006-09-22

    We used ancient DNA analysis of seven museum specimens of the endangered North American ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) and three specimens of the species from Cuba to document their degree of differentiation and their relationships to other Campephilus woodpeckers. Analysis of these mtDNA sequences reveals that the Cuban and North American ivory bills, along with the imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) of Mexico, are a monophyletic group and are roughly equidistant genetically, suggesting each lineage may be a separate species. Application of both internal and external rate calibrations indicates that the three lineages split more than one million years ago, in the Mid-Pleistocene. We thus can exclude the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced North American ivory-billed woodpeckers to Cuba. Our sequences of all three woodpeckers also provide an important DNA barcoding resource for identification of non-invasive samples or remains of these critically endangered and charismatic woodpeckers.

  17. Mycoplasma hominis in Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis isolates: association with parasite genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jorge; Rodríguez, Nadia; Fernández, Carmen; Mondeja, Brian; Sariego, Idalia; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Rojas, Lazara

    2012-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis can be naturally infected with intracellular Mycoplasma hominis. This bacterial infection may have implications for trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. The objective of the study was to report the presence of M. hominis in Cuban T. vaginalis isolates and to describe the association between the phenotype M. hominis infected with RAPD genetic polymorphism of T. vaginalis. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to determine genetic differences among 40 isolates of T. vaginalis using a panel of 30 random primers and these genetic data were correlated with the infection of isolates with M. hominis. The trees drawn based on RAPD data showed no relations with metronidazole susceptibility and significantly association with the presence of M. hominis (P=0.043), which demonstrates the existence of concordance between the genetic relatedness and the presence of M. hominis in T. vaginalis isolates. This result could point to a predisposition of T. vaginalis for the bacterial enters and/or survival.

  18. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  19. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  20. [Nutritional status of Cuban elders in three different geriatric scenarios: community, geriatrics service, nursery home].

    PubMed

    González Hernández, Alina; Cuyá Lantigua, Magdalena; González Escudero, Hilda; Sánchez Gutiérrez, Ramón; Cortina Martínez, Rafael; Barreto Penié, Jesús; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Rojas Pérez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    The undernutrition rates observed in Cuban elders surveyed in three different geriatric scenarios: Community: coastal town of Cojímar (City of Havana); Geriatrics Service ("Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital, City of Havana); and Nursery Home (city of Cárdenas, province of Matanzas) by means of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of the Elderly are presented. Undernutrition rates were 2.7% among elders surveyed in the coastal community of Cojímar, but increased to become 91.6% among those admitted to the hospital Geriatrics Service, and 95.3% for those institutionalized in the Nursery Home, respectively. The occurrence of undernutrition can be low among elders living freely in the community, but it might affect a vast number of those seeking medical assistance at the public health institutions. Extent of undernutrition among elders in geriatric assistance scenarios should lead to the adoption of the required measures for early identification, and timely treatment, of this health problem.

  1. High time: Cuban TV serials spur debate on sensitive social issues.

    PubMed

    Trinquete, Dixie E

    2012-04-01

    A young doctor with an HIV-positive lover; a teen victim of sexual violence; a battered wife; a man who has recently discovered his homosexuality and is suffering the stigma of a machista society...these are just some of the characters who have populated prime-time Cuban TV serials over the last few years. These shows are seen by millions across the country, a cultural phenomenon unrivalled in audience share only during baseball season. While these newer telenovelas are just as fictional as their predecessors, they have outgrown the term "soap operas" and merit greater attention: the lives in their storylines hit close to home and have given their audience cause for reflection.

  2. CUBAN AMERICANS HAVE THE HIGHEST RATES OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN DIVERSE HISPANIC/LATINO COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Raij, Leopoldo; Kaplan, Robert; Ostfeld, Robert J.; Pattany, Maria S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Criqui, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since Hispanic ethnicity in the United States is heterogeneous, the purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) within US Hispanic/Latino groups defined by national background. Methods 9,648 men and women over the age of 45 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study – Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) included in this analysis. The ankle brachial index (ABI) was computed as the higher of the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis systolic blood pressures (SBP) for each leg divided by the higher brachial artery SBP. The index ABI was the higher of the two. An ABI ≤ 0.90 was criterion for the presence of PAD. Results The mean age was 56 years and 55% were female. Overall, the prevalence of an ABI ≤ 0.90 (PAD), 0.90 to 0.99 (borderline), 1.0 to 1.39 (normal) and ≥ 1.40 (high) was 5.7, 19.3, 72.5 and 2.6%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for PAD risk factors, and compared to Mexicans, Cubans had nearly a 3-fold higher odds for PAD (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9 – 4.4). The odds of PAD for the other Hispanic/Latino groups ranged from 1.2 to 1.8. Although males had over a 3-fold higher odds of an ABI ≥ 1.40 (3.6, 2.0 – 6.5), the odds did not differ significantly by Hispanic/Latino background. Conclusions Compared to Mexican Americans, all other Hispanic/Latino background groups have a significantly higher odds of having PAD, with the odds being nearly 3-fold higher among Cubans. PMID:26141696

  3. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii.

  5. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  6. Cuban Americans have the highest rates of peripheral arterial disease in diverse Hispanic/Latino communities.

    PubMed

    Allison, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Raij, Leopoldo; Kaplan, Robert; Ostfeld, Robert J; Pattany, Maria S; Heiss, Gerardo; Criqui, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Because Hispanic ethnicity in the United States is heterogeneous, the purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) within U.S. Hispanic/Latino groups defined by national background. This analysis included 9648 men and women older than 45 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The ankle-brachial index (ABI) was computed as the higher of the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis systolic blood pressures for each leg divided by the higher brachial artery systolic blood pressure. The index ABI was the higher of the two. An ABI ≤0.90 was the criterion for the presence of PAD. The mean age was 56 years, and 55% were female. Overall, the prevalence of an ABI ≤0.90 (PAD), 0.90 to 0.99 (borderline), 1.0 to 1.39 (normal), and ≥1.40 (high) was 5.7%, 19.3%, 72.5%, and 2.6%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for PAD risk factors and compared with Mexicans, Cubans had a nearly threefold higher odds for PAD (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-4.4). The odds of PAD for the other Hispanic/Latino groups ranged from 1.2 to 1.8. Although men had a more than threefold higher odds of an ABI ≥1.40 (3.6; 2.0-6.5), the odds did not differ significantly by Hispanic/Latino background. Compared with Mexican Americans, all other Hispanic/Latino background groups have a significantly higher odds of having PAD, with the odds being nearly threefold higher among Cubans. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Walk Score®: associations with purposive walking in recent Cuban immigrants.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott C; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-08-01

    Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (mean age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (mean=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants' addresses, walking, and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant's residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. What determines catalyst functionality in molecular water oxidation? Dependence on ligands and metal nuclearity in cobalt clusters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Kaplan, Christopher; Sheats, John E; Robinson, David M; McCool, Nicholas S; Mezle, Nicholas; Dismukes, G Charles

    2014-02-17

    The metal-oxo M4O4 "cubane" topology is of special significance to the field of water oxidation as it represents the merging of bioinspired structural principles derived from natural photosynthesis with successful artificial catalysts known to date. Herein, we directly compare the rates of water oxidation/O2 evolution catalyzed by six cobalt-oxo clusters including the Co4O4 cubanes, Co4O4(OAc)4(py)4 and [Co4O4(OAc)2(bpy)4](2+), using the common Ru(bpy)3(2+)/S2O8(2-) photo-oxidant assay. At pH 8, the first-order rate constants for these cubanes differ by 2-fold, 0.030 and 0.015 s(-1), respectively, reflecting the number of labile carboxylate sites that allow substrate water binding in a pre-equilibrium step before O2 release. Kinetic results reveal a deprotonation step occurs on this pathway and that two electrons are removed before O2 evolution occurs. The Co4O4 cubane core is shown to be the smallest catalytic unit for the intramolecular water oxidation pathway, as neither "incomplete cubane" trimers [Co3O(OH)3(OAc)2(bpy)3](2+) and [Co3O(OH)2(OAc)3(py)5](2+) nor "half cubane" dimers [Co2(OH)2(OAc)3(bpy)2](+) and [Co2(OH)2(OAc)3(py)4](+) were found capable of evolving O2, despite having the same ligand sets as their cubane counterparts. Electrochemical studies reveal that oxidation of both cubanes to formally Co4(3III,IV) (0.7 V vs Ag/AgCl) occurs readily, while neither dimers nor trimers are oxidized below 1.5 V, pointing to appreciably greater charge delocalization in the [Co4O4](5+) core. The origin of catalytic activity by Co4O4 cubanes illustrates three key features for water oxidation: (1) four one-electron redox metals, (2) efficient charge delocalization of the first oxidation step across the Co4O4 cluster, allowing for stabilization of higher oxidizing equivalents, and (3) terminal coordination site for substrate aquo/oxo formation.

  10. Prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section rates at Mater Mothers' Hospital Brisbane 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sarah; Wallace, Karen L; Chang, Allan M Z

    2008-12-01

    To document the rise in prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section and the demographic and medical factors contributing to the rise. Data from 52,423 deliveries between January 1997 to May 2005 were analysed for yearly change in caesarean section rates and multiple demographic and medical factors. The prepartum caesarean section rate increased by 1.6% per year and the intrapartum caesarean section rate by 0.8% per year. There was no increase in the overall prevalence of obesity, short stature, advanced maternal age, medical complications or previous caesarean section. There were significant increases in nulliparity, private care, induction of labour and the use of electronic monitoring, but these were insufficient to explain the magnitude of the rise. The increase in prepartum and intrapartum caesarean section displayed was not fully explained by medical and demographic changes in the population.

  11. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  12. Creating Good Citizens in China: Comparing Grade 7-9 School Textbooks, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan-Choi Tse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and change in the…

  13. HIV awareness in China among women of reproductive age (1997-2005): a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Olga; Brown, James J; Smith, Peter W F; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-03-01

    HIV prevalence in China is less than one per cent, but the absolute number of people living with HIV/AIDS is large and growing. Given the limited scope of any potential cure for HIV, prevention plays a crucial role in controlling the epidemic. This paper examines the evolution of HIV awareness among women in China between 1997 and 2005. A regression decomposition analysis technique was used to disentangle the two main components driving a change in HIV awareness. The results show that HIV awareness has increased over time in China. The gaps between groups are narrowing over time and lower HIV awareness groups are catching up with the higher awareness groups. In 2005 education remained one of the main factors associated with HIV awareness, the other main factors being ethnicity, exposure to TV and newspapers. The increases in HIV awareness observed between 1997 and 2001 are similar between groups of women with different demographic characteristics, whereas between 2003 and 2005 increases are more pronounced among specific groups of women such as women from rural areas, women from Western parts of the country, women who belong to ethnic minorities and those with no education or with only primary education. The results suggest that the main driver of the observed change in HIV awareness over time in China is change in the environment such as in political commitment, interventions and campaigns rather than change in population structure.

  14. Local Alliances for Girls' Education Guinea, 1997-2005: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Countless studies over the past decade and more all point to a single, undeniable conclusion: educating girls is imperative to the development of nations. Increasingly, data suggest that educating girls is not only beneficial to developing countries but that it has a greater impact than educating boys. Better educated women have smaller,…

  15. The tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening experience in North Carolina: 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Frazier, D M; Millington, D S; McCandless, S E; Koeberl, D D; Weavil, S D; Chaing, S H; Muenzer, J

    2006-02-01

    North Carolina (NC) was the first US state to initiate universal tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) newborn screening. This began as a statewide pilot project in 1997 to determine the incidence and feasibility of screening for fatty acid oxidation, organic acid and selected amino acid disorders. The MS/MS analyses were done by a commercial laboratory and all follow-up and confirmatory testing was performed through the NC Newborn Screening (NBS) Program. In April 1999, the NC NBS Laboratory began the MS/MS analyses in-house. Between 28 July 1997 and 28 July 2005, 944,078 infants were screened and 219 diagnoses were confirmed on newborns with elevated screening results, for an overall incidence of 1:4,300. Ninety-nine infants were identified with fatty acid oxidation disorders, 58 with organic acidaemias and 62 with aminoacidopathies. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency and disorders of phenylalanine metabolism were the most common disorders detected. Identification of affected infants has allowed retrospective testing of other family members, resulting in an additional 16 diagnoses. Seven neonates died from complications of their metabolic disorders/prematurity despite timely MS/MS screening. In addition, there were six infants who were not identified by elevated NBS results but who presented with symptoms later in infancy. The NC MS/MS NBS Program uses a two-tier system, categorizing results as either 'borderline' or 'diagnostic' elevated, for both the cutoffs and follow-up protocol. Infants with an initial borderline result had only a repeat screen. Infants with a diagnostic or two borderline results were referred for confirmatory testing. The positive predictive value of the NC MS/MS NBS for those infants requiring confirmatory testing was 53% for 2003 and 2004. The success of the NC MS/MS NBS Program in identifying infants with metabolic disorders was dependent on a comprehensive follow-up protocol integrating the public health laboratory and the academic metabolic centres.

  16. Community and federal collaboration to assess pregnancy outcomes in Alaska Native women, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Y; England, Lucinda J; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Wilson, Hoyt G; Klejka, Joseph; Tucker, Myra; Lewis, Claire; Kendrick, Juliette S

    2014-04-01

    The objectives are to report the estimated prevalence of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a defined population of Alaska Native women and also examine factors contributing to an intensive and successful collaboration between a tribal health center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigators abstracted medical record data from a random sample of singleton deliveries to residents of the study region occurring between 1997 and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to estimate the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of selected pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Records were examined for 505 pregnancies ending in a singleton delivery to 469 women. Pregnancy complication rates were 5.9% (95% CI 4.0, 8.4) for gestational diabetes mellitus, 6.1% (95% CI 4.2, 8.6%) for maternal chronic hypertension and 11.5% (95% CI 8.8, 14.6) for pregnancy associated hypertension, and 22.9% (95% CI 19.2-26.5 %) for anemia. The cesarean section rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.5, 7.5) and 3.8% (95% CI 2.3, 5.8) of newborns weighed >4,500 g. Few previous studies reported pregnancy outcomes among Alaska Native women in a specific geographic region of Alaska and regarding the health needs in this population. We highlight components of our collaboration that contributed to the success of the study. Studies focusing on special populations such as Alaska Native women are feasible and can provide important information on health indicators at the local level.

  17. Creating Good Citizens in China: Comparing Grade 7-9 School Textbooks, 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan-Choi Tse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and change in the…

  18. Copper(II) cubanes with a {Cu4O} core and well defined S = 1 ground state.

    PubMed

    Escuer, A; Mayans, J; Font-Bardia, M

    2016-01-28

    The reaction of 2-pyridinemethanol with copper 4-fluorobenzoate has yielded a family of type II cubanes with formula [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)3(NO3)] (), [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4] () and [Cu4(pymO)4(4-F-PhCOO)4(H2O)] (). These systems exhibit an unexpected S = 1 ground state and their magnetic properties have been unambiguously characterized and rationalized as a function of the asymmetry of the {Cu4O4} cage and Cu-O-Cu bond angles. Analysis of the coupling constants was performed applying new interaction schemes. Magneto-structural correlations have been performed from the analysis of previously reported type II copper cubanes.

  19. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  20. Revolution and Intervention: U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 20th Century. SSEC American History Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegnell, Geoffrey; Ladenburg, Thomas

    This unit for U.S. history courses examines a number of questions raised by U.S.-Cuban relations beginning with the Spanish-American War of 1898 and ending with the missile crisis 64 years later. These questions are on such topics as the appropriate U.S. stance toward a nationalistic reform movement, a social revolution, and a military build up in…

  1. Revolution and Intervention: U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 20th Century. SSEC American History Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegnell, Geoffrey; Ladenburg, Thomas

    This unit for U.S. history courses examines a number of questions raised by U.S.-Cuban relations beginning with the Spanish-American War of 1898 and ending with the missile crisis 64 years later. These questions are on such topics as the appropriate U.S. stance toward a nationalistic reform movement, a social revolution, and a military build up in…

  2. A chiral 60-metal sodalite cage featuring 24 vertex-sharing [Er4(mu3-OH)4] cubanes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Jian; Wu, Yinglan; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Lan-Sun; Zheng, Zhiping

    2009-05-27

    A chiral, cagelike, high-nuclearity lanthanide hydroxide cluster containing 60 Er(III) ions is reported. The cluster core possesses a fascinating sodalite-like structure with 24 vertex-sharing cubane-like [Er(4)(mu(3)-OH)(4)](8+) units. The hexagonal face of the sodalite cage features a templating mu(6)-CO(3)(2-) ion. Magnetic studies revealed weak antiferromagnetic interactions.

  3. Litter assessment on 99 Cuban beaches: A baseline to identify sources of pollution and impacts for tourism and recreation.

    PubMed

    Botero, C M; Anfuso, G; Milanes, C; Cabrera, A; Casas, G; Pranzini, E; Williams, A T

    2017-05-15

    Litter presence was assessed on the entire Cuban coastline, and includes 99 beaches from all Cuban regions, during field work carried out in 2012 and 2015. A standard method verified in several countries was applied, which classified beaches for nine types of litter into four grades (A-excellent to D-poor). Almost half of the Cuban beaches obtained excellent cleanliness scores, although many needed to be better managed. In this baseline, the most common types of residue were general litter (8% grade D and 35% grades B/C) and potentially harmful litter (<68% with grade A). Resort beaches and those with international visitors showed the best litter management. Tourism Impacts seems to be related to visitor origin therefore choices to develop sustainable tourism in rural and village beaches (64%) appears low, if beach cleaning gross investment is focused on resort beaches (24%). Finally, this paper highlights geographical distribution and types of litter patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis, structure and properties of {M4O4} cubanes containing nickel(II) and cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Isele, Katharina; Gigon, Fabienne; Williams, Alan F; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Franz, Patrick; Decurtins, Silvio

    2007-01-21

    A survey of the crystal structures containing simple {M4O4} cubane units is reported. It shows that the average M-M distance in these complexes is relatively constant for a given metal ion M. The structures are all distorted from the idealised cube to a T(d) structure, and most show a further distortion which, however, usually maintains some elements of symmetry. A system for classifying the different types of ligand in these complexes is proposed. Two new cubanes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with the ligand (R,R)-bis-1,2-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol, (R,R)- or its enantiomer have been isolated and the crystal structure of the cobalt(II) complex confirms the cubane structure. Electronic, CD and (1)H NMR spectra and magnetic susceptibility data are reported. The magnetic data for these and other compounds in the literature are discussed in terms of the structural parameters.

  5. National trends in smoking behaviors among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lyzette; Garcia, Robert; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; White, Martha M; Messer, Karen; Pierce, John P; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2014-05-01

    We examined trends in smoking behaviors across 2 periods among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. We constructed 2 data sets (1990s vs 2000s) to compare smoking behaviors between the 2 periods. Significant decreases in ever, current, and heavy smoking were accompanied by increases in light and intermittent smoking across periods for all Latino groups, although current smoking rates among Puerto Rican women did not decline. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that in the 2000s, younger Mexicans and those interviewed in English were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers. Mexican and Cuban light and intermittent smokers were less likely to be advised by healthcare professionals to quit smoking. Mexicans and Puerto Ricans who were unemployed and Mexicans who worked outdoors were more likely to be heavy smokers. Increases in light and intermittent smoking among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Americans suggest that targeted efforts to further reduce smoking among Latinos may benefit by focusing on such smokers.

  6. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation.

  7. Carbamylated vimentin represents a relevant autoantigen in Latin American (Cuban) rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Goitybell; Gómez, Jorge A; Bang, Holger; Martínez-Gamboa, Lorena; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Torres, Barbara; Prada, Dinorah; Feist, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Smoking produces substances that activate proinflammatory, prothrombotic and vasoconstrictive mediators via posttranslational carbamylation of proteins. As a new consequence of carbamylation, induction of anti-carbamylated autoantibodies were observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, sometimes prior to onset of the disease. The overall aim of this study was to characterize the reactivity of different isotypes of autoantibodies against carbamylated antigens of vimentin in relation to established rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and markers of disease activity in a so far largely uncharacterized population of Latin American (Cuban) patients with RA. Antigenic properties of carbamylated vimentin as well as vimentin peptides were analyzed in 101 patients with RA, 50 disease controls and 51 healthy controls. The diagnostic performance was compared with established commercial ELISA rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies of second generation (anti-CCP2) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibodies. Prevalence of anti-MCV IgG (86 %), anti-carbamylated vimentin (carbVIM) IgG (77 %) and anti-carbamylated MCV (carbMCV) IgG antibodies (65 %) was higher than the classical RF IgM (60 %) and anti-CCP2 IgG (52 %) in this RA cohort. Of note, smoking status was associated with positive IgG antibody reactivity against CCP2 in 75.0 % and against MCV in 90 % of patients. Furthermore, IgM antibody response against carbMCV and carbVIM was observed in 80 and 90.0 % of smokers, respectively. Due to a high sensitivity of the IgM antibody isotype of anti-carbVIM of 85.2 %, the combination of ACPA with anti-carbVIM IgM provided the best diagnostic performance so far achieved in a RA cohort of this ethnic origin. We demonstrate a high prevalence of anti-carbVIM antibodies and correlation with smoking in Latin American (Cuban) RA patients. Anti-carbVIM IgM represents an useful marker in ACPA

  8. Disability-adjusted Life Years for Diabetes in Cuban Children and Adolescents, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Shifts in diabetes onset to earlier ages, globally and in Cuba, signify greater risk of early complications and premature death, with consequent economic and social repercussions for families and health systems. OBJECTIVE Describe the trend in diabetes burden in Cuban children and adolescents in the period 1990 to 2010, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted of diabetes burden in Cuba, analyzing the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 for the age group 0-19 years. Disability-adjusted life years were obtained from the sum of potential years of life lost plus years lived with disability. The first is calculated based on total deaths in the country in which diabetes was recorded as underlying cause; the second from the product of severity, as assigned to diabetes in similar studies, and incidence and average duration, provided by the DISMOD II program, which estimates six internally consistent epidemiological indicators. RESULTS Mortality indicators improved, with a decrease in the rate of potential years of life lost in boys from 21.9/100,000 population in 1990 to 0 in 2010, and in girls from 38.8/100,000 in 1990 to 4.9/100,000 in 2010 (1% of disability-adjusted life years in girls in 2010, corresponding to one death). In contrast, years lived with disability increased by 134.5% in boys and 156.4% in girls. The net result was that disability-adjusted life years increased by >100% in both sexes (from 137.2 to 321.9/100,000 in boys and from 157.3 to 403.3/100,000 in girls, increases of 102.3% and 108.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Disability-adjusted life years lost for diabetes in Cuban children and adolescents have increased, due to disability, while mortality has decreased. KEYWORDS Diabetes mellitus, childhood, adolescence, disability-adjusted life years, potential years of life lost, years lived with disability, Cuba.

  9. On the pursuit of a nuclear development capability: The case of the Cuban nuclear program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin-Alvarado, Jonathan Calvert

    1998-09-01

    While there have been many excellent descriptive accounts of modernization schemes in developing states, energy development studies based on prevalent modernization theory have been rare. Moreover, heretofore there have been very few analyses of efforts to develop a nuclear energy capability by developing states. Rarely have these analyses employed social science research methodologies. The purpose of this study was to develop a general analytical framework, based on such a methodology to analyze nuclear energy development and to utilize this framework for the study of the specific case of Cuba's decision to develop nuclear energy. The analytical framework developed focuses on a qualitative tracing of the process of Cuban policy objectives and implementation to develop a nuclear energy capability, and analyzes the policy in response to three models of modernization offered to explain the trajectory of policy development. These different approaches are the politically motivated modernization model, the economic and technological modernization model and the economic and energy security model. Each model provides distinct and functionally differentiated expectations for the path of development toward this objective. Each model provides expected behaviors to external stimuli that would result in specific policy responses. In the study, Cuba's nuclear policy responses to stimuli from domestic constraints and intensities, institutional development, and external influences are analyzed. The analysis revealed that in pursuing the nuclear energy capability, Cuba primarily responded by filtering most of the stimuli through the twin objectives of economic rationality and technological advancement. Based upon the Cuban policy responses to the domestic and international stimuli, the study concluded that the economic and technological modernization model of nuclear energy development offered a more complete explanation of the trajectory of policy development than either the

  10. Cubane, cuneane, and their carboxylates: a calorimetric, crystallographic, calculational, and conceptual coinvestigation.

    PubMed

    Roux, Maria Victoria; Dávalos, Juan Z; Jiménez, Pilar; Notario, Rafael; Castaño, Obis; Chickos, James S; Hanshaw, William; Zhao, Hui; Rath, Nigam; Liebman, Joel F; Farivar, Behzad S; Bashir-Hashemi, A

    2005-07-08

    [reaction: see text] This study is a multinational, multidisciplinary contribution to the thermochemistry of dimethyl1,4-cubanedicarboxylate and the corresponding isomeric, cuneane derivative and provides both structural and thermochemical information regarding the rearrangement of dimethyl 1,4-cubanedicarboxylate to dimethyl 2,6-cuneanedicarboxylate. The enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase at T = 298.15 K of dimethyl 1,4-cubanedicarboxylate (dimethyl pentacyclo[4.2.0.0.(2,5)0.(3,8)0(4,7)]octane-1,4-dicarboxylate) and dimethyl 2,6-cuneanedicarboxylate (dimethyl pentacyclo[3.3.0.0.(2,4)0.(3,7)0(6,8)]octane-2,6-dicarboxylate) have been determined by combustion calorimetry, delta(f) H(o)m (cr)/kJ x mol(-1) = -232.62 +/- 5.84 and -413.02 +/- 5.16, respectively. The enthalpies of sublimation have been evaluated by combining vaporization enthalpies evaluated by correlation-gas chromatography and fusion enthalpies measured by differential scanning calorimetry and adjusted to T = 298.15 K, delta(cr) (g)Hm (298.15 K)/kJ x mol(-1) = 117.2 +/- 3.9 and 106.8 +/- 3.0, respectively. Combination of these two enthalpies resulted in delta(f) H(o)m (g., 298.15 K)/kJ x mol(-1) of -115.4 +/- 7.0 for dimethyl 1,4-cubanedicarboxylate and -306.2 +/- 6.0 for dimethyl 2,6-cuneanedicarboxylate. These measurements, accompanied by quantum chemical calculations, resulted in values of delta(f) Hm (g, 298.15 K) = 613.0 +/- 9.5 kJ x mol(-1) for cubane and 436.4 +/- 8.8 kJ x mol(-1) for cuneane. From these enthalpies of formation, strain enthalpies of 681.0 +/- 9.8 and 504.4 +/- 9.1 kJ x mol(-1) were calculated for cubane and cuneane by means of isodesmic reactions, respectively. Crystals of dimethyl 2,6-cuneanedicarboxylate are disordered; the substitution pattern and structure have been confirmed by determination of the X-ray crystal structure of the corresponding diacid.

  11. Crustal velocity model along the southern Cuban margin: implications for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Bladimir; Grandison, Margaret; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2002-11-01

    A new 1-D velocity model along the southern Cuban margin has been determined using local earthquake data, which are the result of the merged Cuban and Jamaican catalogues. Simultaneous inversion using joint-hypocentre determination was applied to solve the coupled hypocentre-velocity model problem. We obtained a seven-layer model with an average Moho interface at 20 km. The average velocity was found to be 7.6 km s-1 on the top of the crust-mantle transition zone and 6.9 km s-1 in the basaltic layer of the crust. The improvement in the earthquake locations allowed us for the first time to use local seismicity to characterize the activity on local faults and the stress regime in the area. For this purpose, 34 earthquake focal mechanisms were determined along the eastern segments of the Oriente Fault. These solutions are consistent with the known left-lateral strike-slip motion along this major structure as well as with the stress regime of two local structures: (1) the Cabo Cruz Basin and (2) the Santiago deformed belt. The first structure is dominated by normal faults with minor strike-slip components and the second by reverse faults. The shallow seismicity in the Cabo Cruz Basin is associated with fault planes trending N55°-58°E and dipping 38°-45° to the north. The Santiago deformed belt, on the other hand, exhibits diverse fault plane orientations. These local structures account for most of the earthquake activity along the southern Cuban margin. Deep seismicity observed in the Santiago deformed belt, supported by focal mechanisms, suggests underthrusting of the Gonave Microplate beneath the Cuban Block in this area. The principal stress orientations obtained from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest a thrust faulting regime along the Southern Cuban margin. We obtained a nearly horizontal σ1 and nearly vertical σ3, which indicates active compressional deformation along the major Oriente transcurrent fault in agreement with the dominant

  12. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  13. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  14. Optical Coherence Tomographic Comparison of Cuban Epidemic and Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Santiesteban-Freixas, Rosaralis; Pola-Alvarado, Lester; Columbie-Garbey, Yannara; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Alina; Juvier-Riesgo, Tamara; Hernandez-Echevarria, Odelaisys; Hedges, Thomas R.; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Following the epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy, which occurred in Cuba between 1991 and 1993, a number of patients have been re-evaluated, including testing with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electrophysiology. At the same time, a number of patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy have also been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to detect residual loss of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in patients who suffered Cuban epidemic optic neuropathy (CEON), and to compare these findings with those in patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Optical coherence tomography as well as clinical examinations were performed on 11 patients diagnosed with CEON 15 years following the epidemic and 14 patients with LHON. OCT in CEON patients showed thinning of the RNFL in the temporal sector and normal thickness in other quadrants. However, patients with chronic LHON had more diffuse RNFL loss throughout the retina. OCT findings corresponded with clinical findings in CEON and LHON. There was drop out of the papillomacular bundle in both diseases. Two patients in the acute stages of LHON and three LHON carriers showed thinning of the temporal RNFL only. This is the first report of OCT in CEON that shows residual damage in the papillomacular bundle compared with chronic LHON where there is more diffuse and progressive loss of the RNFL. The importance of OCT for the diagnosis and evaluation of similar optic neuropathies is emphasised. PMID:27928368

  15. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Avila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital 'Centro Habana', in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50·0%) were aged 1-4 years, 97 (57·1%) were male, and 106 (62·4%), 92 (54·1%) and 69 (40·6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91·2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42·4%) and 62 (36·5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4·9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease.

  16. Sexual Dimorphisms of Appendicular Musculoskeletal Morphology Related to Social Display in Cuban Anolis Lizards.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Wataru; Cádiz, Antonio; Endo, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    In Anolis lizards, sexual dimorphism has been reported in morphological and ecological traits. Males show larger body size and longer limbs related to territorial combat and courtship display with the dewlap. Although functional-anatomical traits are closely related to locomotor behaviors, differences between sexes in musculoskeletal traits on limbs remain unclear. We explored the relationships among sexual dimorphisms in musculoskeletal morphology, habitat, and locomotor traits in Anolis lizards. Specifically, we examined appendicular musculoskeletal morphology in three species of Cuban Anolis by measuring muscle mass and lengths of moment arms. Through comparisons of crossing locomotion, we found that the runner species possessed larger extensors in hindlimbs, which are advantageous for running, whereas the masses of the humeral and femoral retractors were larger in climber species, allowing these lizards to hold up their bodies and occupy tree substrates. Comparisons between the sexes showed different trends among the three species. Males of A. porcatus, which inhabit narrow branches or leaves, had stronger elbow extensors that maintain the display posture. In contrast, males of A. sagrei, which occupy broad surfaces, did not show sexual differences that affected social display. Moreover, A. bartschi indicated sexual differences despite the absence of dewlapping behavior. Our findings suggest that both sexes show fundamentally similar relationships between muscular morphology and locomotor habits to adapt arboreal or terrestrial substrates, and yet sexual dimorphism in forelimb muscles may additionally affected by male specific display with the dewlap.

  17. The Cuban experience in public health: does political will have a role?

    PubMed

    Pagliccia, Nino; Alvarez Pérez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The role of political will in public health has been largely ignored. In Cuba, however, for the past 50 years, political will has been the ultimate, encompassing intersectoral action in public health. The excellent achievements in population health in Cuba during these 50 years have been widely recognized. Researchers have sought to explain this "Cuban paradox" by focusing on a large array of public health factors, including health promotion, primary care activities, and intersectoral action on health determinants. These factors constitute necessary but not sufficient conditions to achieve good health outcomes. This article defines political will and uses the experience of Cuba to illustrate the potential role of political will in public health. The authors suggest a framework for the evaluation of political will aimed at achieving good health, examining the "Five R's of political will," five observable features that may provide systematic information on the direction and realization of political will: (1) renewal of commitment, (2) reform of the system, (3) resource development, (4) review of performance, and (5) responsible management. These five features focus the spotlight on the consistency between health goals and public discourse and action.

  18. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    PubMed

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  19. Spatiotemporal genetic differentiation of Cuban natural populations of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis.

    PubMed

    Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Blanco, Gloria; Sánchez, José A; Monnerot, Monique; Solignac, Michel; García-Machado, Erik

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the spatiotemporal genetic structure of Farfantepenaeus notialis populations using five microsatellites loci in order to understand the influence of natural events such as hurricanes on the genetic drift/migration balance as the main cause for the variation of allele frequencies over time. The results were compared with the previous ones obtained from allozymes and mtDNA. High and stable genetic diversity levels (He=0.879+/-0.0015) were found over eight years for the populations that inhabit the south Cuban platform, however significant changes of allele frequencies were detected over time. The F(ST) estimates, albeit low, revealed significant differences among populations inside the Ana Maria Gulf for 1995 but not for the 1999 and 2003 samples. The F(ST), AMOVA and the genetic distance analysis revealed the instability of the genetic structure over time in accordance with allozymes results. The correspondence of the microsatellite results with those obtained from allozymes confirm the effects of migration enhanced by natural events as the main cause of the temporal variation of allele frequencies. The genetic drift effect was discarded through the evaluation of Ne and the M ratio, while natural selection effects were rejected because of the lowest probability of microsatellite loci being under selective pressures. The microsatellite data are also consistent with the results obtained with mtDNA in detecting significant and persistent genetic differences between the Gulfs of Ana María and Batabanó for the years 1995 and 2003.

  20. Genetic diversity and differentiation of five Cuban cattle breeds using 30 microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A C; Uffo, O; Sanz, A; Ronda, R; Osta, R; Rodellar, C; Martin-Burriel, I; Zaragoza, P

    2013-02-01

    Conservation and improvement strategies in farm animals should be based on a combination of genetic and phenotypic characteristics. Genotype data from 30 microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationships among five Cuban cattle breeds (Siboney de Cuba, Criollo Cubano, Cebú Cubano, Mambí de Cuba and Taíno de Cuba). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.67 ± 0.02 in the Taíno de Cuba breed to 0.75 ± 0.02 in the Mambí de Cuba breed, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.66 ± 0.03 in the Cebú Cubano breed to 0.73 ± 0.02 in the Siboney de Cuba breed. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (F(ST)). The exact test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within breeds showed a significant deviation in each breed (p < 0.0003) for one or more loci. The genetic distance and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle population and that all breeds studied could be considered genetically distinct. The Siboney de Cuba and Mambí de Cuba breeds seem to be the most genetically related among the studied five breeds. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Mental Health and Psychosocial Adjustment of Cuban Immigrants in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cislo, Andrew M.; Spence, Naomi J; Gayman, Mathew D

    2010-01-01

    Given documented variation in pre-migration and migration-related experiences, Cuban immigrants in the U.S. who arrived during or subsequent to 1980 may be disadvantaged in mental health and psychosocial adjustment relative to earlier arrivals. Using wave 1 of the Physical Challenge and Health study, we compare earlier and later arriving immigrants in levels of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem and test whether adversity and social support, acculturation-related factors, or pre-migration conditions account for any differences observed among a sample of adults living in South Florida (N=191). Bivariate analyses reveal that later arrivals are relatively disadvantaged in anxiety and self-esteem and marginally so in depression. While later arrivals do not report more adversity in the U.S., they have lower levels of family support to cope with any adversity experienced. Later arrivals are also less likely to interview in English or to have a strong American identity, and they were more likely to have arrived as adults. Relative disadvantages in anxiety and self-esteem are best explained by indicators of acculturation and family support. Policies and programs that address acculturation difficulties and increase family support could improve the health and adjustment of these and similar immigrants. PMID:20643498

  2. [Economic and social impact of the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTCP) on the Cuban population].

    PubMed

    González, E; Armas, L; Baly, A; Gálvez, A; Alvarez, M; Ferrer, G; Mesa, A C

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control strategies provide one of the greatest cost/effectiveness results. To assess the impact of the national TB control program on the Cuban population, the time series of new TB cases and death reports, potential years of life lost, and the numbers of beds for TB case hospitalization in the entire country during 1964-91 and 1992-96 were described by common simple calculation on the basis of estimated expected values. The reduction in new TB cases and deaths, potential years of life saved, and savings in expenditures for treatment, hospitalization, and unemployment compensation were estimated. From 1965 to 1991 new case reports were reduced by 94.6% (4% per year); 86,500 cases were avoided; 166,439 potential years of life were saved; 2,831,625 million pesos were saved on tuberculostatic drugs; 82.7 million pesos were saved on unemployment compensation under the social security system for workers with active TB. Estimated savings totaled 494,919,631.3 pesos. Nationwide intervention for TB control produced an important impact on the basis of the sociopolitical status making it possible to approach complete elimination of the disease in the future.

  3. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Martín Blanco, F; González Sansón, G; Pina Amargós, F; Clero Alonso, L

    2010-06-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2 m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m2), while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m2 at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now.

  4. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Autosomal dominant ataxia: Genetic evidence for locus heterogeneity from a cuban founder-effect population

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Diaz, Guillermo Orozco; Capote, Raul Ferreira; Sanchez, Suzana Gispert; Perez, Marta Paradoa; del Cueto, Marianela Estrada; Meneses, Mirna Garcia; Farrall, Martin; Williamson, Robert; Chamberlain, Susan; Baute, Luis Heredero

    1990-01-01

    The locus for autosomal dominant ataxia with a diagnosis of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy at autopsy has been previously assigned to chromosome 6p. However, evidence for two alternative locations has been reported. We have recently described a large potential founder-effect population of such patients in the Holguin province of Cuba. With an estimated 1,000 patients available for analysis, this extensive cluster of families provides a unique opportunity for the definitive localization of the genetic mutation. Linkage analysis between the disease locus in this population and markers within and flanking the HLA region on chromosome 6 were undertaken in 12 families comprising over 100 affected individuals. Despite similarity in the clinical phenotype between those families where the disease locus has been reported to be linked to the HLA locus and the Cuban patients, no evidence of linkage to this region could be demonstrated in the latter. The disease locus was excluded from a 96-cM genetic interval of the short arm of chromosome 6, encompassing the F13A1–HLA–GLO1–MUT/D6S4 loci. These data strongly support the existence of genetic heterogeneity for the disease. PMID:1971152

  6. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  7. Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984.

    PubMed

    Flegal, K M; Ezzati, T M; Harris, M I; Haynes, S G; Juarez, R Z; Knowler, W C; Perez-Stable, E J; Stern, M P

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans in the United States and compare these estimates to data from prior surveys for U.S. non-Hispanic whites and blacks. Data for this study are from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a multipurpose cross-sectional survey of three U.S. Hispanic populations conducted in 1982-1984. The interviewed sample of people aged 20-74 yr included 3935 Mexican Americans in the southwest, 1134 Cubans in Florida, and 1519 Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. The diabetes component consisted of interview questions on diabetes diagnosis and treatment and an oral glucose tolerance test administered to a subsample. The prevalence of diabetes was two to three times greater for Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans than for non-Hispanic whites surveyed in 1976-1980. In Cubans, the prevalence was similar to that for non-Hispanic whites. In men and women 45-74 yr of age, the prevalence of diabetes was extremely high for both Mexican Americans (23.9%) and Puerto Ricans (26.1%) compared with Cubans (15.8%) or non-Hispanic whites (12%). The total prevalence of diabetes was not significantly different for Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans but was significantly lower for Cubans. The relatively lower prevalence of diabetes among Cubans and the high prevalence in both Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans may be related to socioeconomic, genetic, behavioral, or environmental factors.

  8. OSBPL10, RXRA and lipid metabolism confer African-ancestry protection against dengue haemorrhagic fever in admixed Cubans

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Pedro; Garcia, Gissel; Perez, Ana B.; Aguirre, Eglys; Cavadas, Bruno; Regnault, Béatrice; Alvarez, Mayling; Ruiz, Didye; Guzman, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip. Global ancestry was ascertained through ADMIXTURE and used in a fine-matched corrected association study, while local ancestry was inferred by the RFMix algorithm. The expression of candidate genes was evaluated by RT-PCR in a Cuban dengue patient cohort and gene set enrichment analysis was performed in a Thai dengue transcriptome. OSBPL10 and RXRA candidate genes were identified, with most significant SNPs placed in inferred weak enhancers, promoters and lncRNAs. OSBPL10 had significantly lower expression in Africans than Europeans, while for RXRA several SNPs may differentially regulate its transcription between Africans and Europeans. Their expression was confirmed to change through dengue disease progression in Cuban patients and to vary with disease severity in a Thai transcriptome dataset. These genes interact in the LXR/RXR activation pathway that integrates lipid metabolism and immune functions, being a key player in dengue virus entrance into cells, its replication therein and in cytokine production. Knockdown of OSBPL10 expression in THP-1 cells by two shRNAs followed by DENV2 infection tests led to a significant reduction in DENV replication, being a direct functional proof that the lower OSBPL10 expression profile in Africans protects this ancestry against dengue disease. PMID:28241052

  9. OSBPL10, RXRA and lipid metabolism confer African-ancestry protection against dengue haemorrhagic fever in admixed Cubans.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Beatriz; Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Garcia, Gissel; Perez, Ana B; Aguirre, Eglys; Oliveira, Marisa; Cavadas, Bruno; Regnault, Béatrice; Alvarez, Mayling; Ruiz, Didye; Samuels, David C; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Pereira, Luisa; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-02-01

    Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip. Global ancestry was ascertained through ADMIXTURE and used in a fine-matched corrected association study, while local ancestry was inferred by the RFMix algorithm. The expression of candidate genes was evaluated by RT-PCR in a Cuban dengue patient cohort and gene set enrichment analysis was performed in a Thai dengue transcriptome. OSBPL10 and RXRA candidate genes were identified, with most significant SNPs placed in inferred weak enhancers, promoters and lncRNAs. OSBPL10 had significantly lower expression in Africans than Europeans, while for RXRA several SNPs may differentially regulate its transcription between Africans and Europeans. Their expression was confirmed to change through dengue disease progression in Cuban patients and to vary with disease severity in a Thai transcriptome dataset. These genes interact in the LXR/RXR activation pathway that integrates lipid metabolism and immune functions, being a key player in dengue virus entrance into cells, its replication therein and in cytokine production. Knockdown of OSBPL10 expression in THP-1 cells by two shRNAs followed by DENV2 infection tests led to a significant reduction in DENV replication, being a direct functional proof that the lower OSBPL10 expression profile in Africans protects this ancestry against dengue disease.

  10. Synthesis, magnetic properties, and STM spectroscopy of cobalt(II) Cubanes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL)(4)].

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Andreas; Ako, Ayuk M; Saalfrank, Rolf W; Heinemann, Frank W; Hampel, Frank; Petukhov, Konstantin; Gieb, Klaus; Stocker, Michael; Müller, Paul

    2010-04-26

    Reaction of cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate with N-substituted diethanolamines H(2)L(2-4) (3) in the presence of LiH in anhydrous THF leads under anaerobic conditions to the formation of three isostructural tetranuclear cobalt(II) complexes [Co(II) (4)(Cl)(4)(HL(2-4))(4)] (4) with a [Co(4)(mu(3)-O)(4)](4+) cubane core. According to X-ray structural analyses, the complexes 4 a,c crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a, whereas for complex 4 b the tetragonal space group P$\\bar 4$ was found. In the solid state the orientation of the cubane cores and the formation of a 3D framework were controlled by the ligand substituents of the cobalt(II) cubanes 4. This also allowed detailed magnetic investigations on single crystals. The analysis of the SQUID magnetic susceptibility data for 4 a gave intramolecular ferromagnetic couplings of the cobalt(II) ions (J(1) approximately 20.4 K, J(2) approximately 7.6 K), resulting in an S=6 ground-state multiplet. The anisotropy was found to be of the easy-axis type (D=-1.55 K) with a resulting anisotropy barrier of Delta approximately 55.8 K. Two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) Hall magnetization measurements revealed that complex 4 a is a single-molecule magnet and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics with typical temperature and sweep-rate dependencies below a blocking temperature of about 4.4 K. The hysteresis loops collapse at zero field owing to fast quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM). The structural and electronic properties of cobalt(II) cubane 4 a, deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, were investigated by means of STM and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) at RT and standard atmospheric pressure. In CITS measurements the rather large contrast found at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules indicated the presence of a strongly localized LUMO.

  11. Biological and Molecular Properties of Dengue 2 Strains Isolated during the DHF/DSS Cuban Epidemic, 1981

    PubMed Central

    González, Lester; Álvarez, Mayling; del Rosario, Delfina; Pavón, Alequis; Prado, Irina; Díaz, Joel; Morier, Luis; Guzmán, María G.

    2007-01-01

    To study some biological and molecular properties of nine DENV-2 strains isolated during the 1981 Cuban epidemic, temperature sensitivity, viral plaque size, the kinetic of virus replication in newborn mice inoculated by intracerebral route, the influence of pH medium on virus-cell attachment phase and the restriction enzyme pattern were studied. Strains were classified in two patterns according to temperature sensitivity, plaque size, and virus replication in mouse brain and cell culture and restriction enzymatic pattern the changes observed differentiate clearly the strains isolated at the beginning and at the end of the epidemic suggesting that viruses with different characteristics circulated. PMID:23675036

  12. Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.

    1993-04-02

    This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

  13. Antiproliferative activity of brown Cuban propolis extract on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Ada; Piccinelli, Lisa Anna; Morello, Silvana; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Rastrelli, Luca; Pinto, Aldo

    2009-12-01

    Brown Cuban propolis (BCP) is the major type of propolis in Cuba; its chemical composition is exclusive and the principal component is nemorosone. In this study we investigated the antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of BCP on human breast cancer cell lines. The MTT assay showed a significant antiproliferative activity (P<0.005) of BCP on MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive ER+) rather than MDA-MB 23 1 (ER-). This effect was concentration- (1-25 microg/mL) and time- (24-48 h) dependent, but it is only partially attributable to apoptosis. Indeed, our data showed that BCP administration to MCF-7 caused a significant (P>0.01) inhibition of cell growth in the G1 phase of cell cycle, which was mechanism dose- and time-dependent. 17-beta Estradiol (10 nM) administration to MCF-7 caused a significant (P<0.001), but not total reduction of BCP antiproliferative activity at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 microg/mL, but not at the highest concentration (25 microg/mL). The coadministration of ICI 182,780 (100 nM), an antagonist of ER, on MCF-7 totally reduced the effect of BCP at 24 h, and showed a significant (P<0.001) reduction of BCP antiproliferative activity at 48 h. Thus it was hypothesized that BCP possesses an estrogen-like activity. It is to be noted, however, that BCP application to MDA-MB 23 1 at 48 h also induced increased cell mortality. Thus, it cannot be ruled out that BCP could not only interact with the ER, but also have an ER-independent activity.

  14. The occupational prestige of women immigrants: a comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T A

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the occupational prestige of women workers born in Cuba and Mexico, who were at least 25 years of age at the time of immigration to the US. The empirical results indicate that the process of converting resources (examples, age, schooling, US residence) differ by both sex and nationality, with the Mexican males and females being more similar to each other than to Cubans, and vice versa. Mexicans have a more favorable 'conversion' of resources into prestige, but a lower level of resources. Immigrant women appear to be somewhat more disadvantaged relative to immigrant men, than are women workers in general, and both groups of women enjoy lower occupational prestige than their male counterparts. Unlike the case of male immigrants, US work experience tends to decrease the prestige scores for females. So does southern residence. The pattern of achieving occupational prestige is unique among women immigrants, despite nationality differences. The data suggest that the social mobility process for female immigrants differ from the process for males, perhaps because of cultural barriers that make entry to 'pink collar' jobs difficult. For instance, the widespread segregation of the labor market makes it more difficult for these women than for males to acquire useful information leading to better jobs. Their US experience thus need not be of much value. 2ndly, the existing jobs require immigrant women to learn English or other new skills at their own expense, or to turn their foreign credentials into those acceptable for the US market. Finally, relative concentration in the South may negatively women's occupational prestige, more so than men's. Immigrant women are also handicapped by a view of themselves as 'supplementary earners', and are more apprehensive about job market changes due to an unfamiliarity with American customs. Family responsibilities often hinder immigrant women's upward mobility, locking them into routine jobs with few avenues for

  15. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, José Luis; León, Gunnary; Rodríguez, Rodet; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; García-Machado, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The genus Rivulus is currently comprised of two species, R. cylindraceus and R. insulaepinorum, which are endemic to Cuba. However, the taxonomic status of the latter species remains dubious because of the poor quality of the original description. In addition, a recent barcoding survey suggests that the two species may be conspecific. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two species represent a single evolutionary clade. To delimit the species and their evolutionary history, we used a combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses, with both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, tests of phylogeographic hypotheses, combined with morphological measurements and information on known dispersal barriers and species distribution. None of the data sets support R. insulaepinorum and R. cylindraceus as separate taxa. However, a new species, restricted to the northwestern part of the main island, was identified by phylogenetic analyses, body colour pattern and geographical distribution. The evolutionary distance between the two lineages (cytb, d=15%; CAM-4, d=2.5%) indicates a long period of divergence. Phylogeographic analyses shed light on the dispersal history of R. cylindraceus, which probably originated on the Isla de la Juventud. They also suggest that each lineage had contrasting histories; Rivulus sp. is restricted to a relatively small geographic area whereas R. cylindraceus has dispersed considerably and more than once from its centre of origin, probably facilitated by sea level fluctuations. These results strengthen previous findings, i.e. that the diversity of Cuban freshwater fishes is far from well-known and deserves more in-depth studies, and that vicariance and dispersal events have resulted in a complex biogeographical landscape which has had a significant impact on the freshwater fishes of the Caribbean islands.

  16. Serotypes, virulence genes, and PFGE patterns of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Cuban pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Miguel; Lazo, Leonel; Blanco, Jesús E; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; López, Cecilia; González, Enrique A; Blanco, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Thirty-six enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Cuban pigs with diarrhea were serotyped and screened by PCR for the presence of virulence genes. The 36 isolates belonged to 11 O serogroups and 14 O:H serotypes, with 53% of the isolates belonging to only two serotypes: O141:H- (13 isolates) and O157:H19 (6 isolates). Genes coding for STb, STa, VT2e, and LT toxins were identified in 69, 61, 53, and 6% of the isolates, respectively. The most prevalent fimbrial adhesin was F18, detected in 22 (61%) isolates. The gene encoding F6 (P987) colonization factor was identified in three (8%) isolates. None of the 36 isolates assayed contained genes encoding F4 (K88), F5 (K99), or F41. The seropathotype O141:H-:STa/STb/VT2e/F18 (13 isolates) was the most frequently detected, followed by O157:H19:VT2e/F18 (5 isolates). A genetic diversity study, carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 24 representative isolates, revealed 21 distinct restriction patterns clustered in 18 groups (I-XVIII). Isolates of the same serotype were placed together in a dendrogram, but isolates of serotype O157:H19 showed a high degree of polymorphism. The results of this study demonstrate the presence in Cuba of different clusters among one of the most prevalent serotypes isolated from pigs with diarrhea. Further experiments are needed to determine whether some of these clusters have appeared recently; if so, their evolution, as well as their possible association with pathogenicity in farms should be studied.

  17. Potential hepatoprotective effects of new Cuban natural products in rat hepatocytes culture.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Donato, M T; Martínez, I; Hernández, I; Garrido, G; González-Lavaut, J A; Menéndez, R; Laguna, A; Castell, J V; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2008-08-01

    The protective effects of five Cuban natural products (Mangifera indica L. (MSBE), Erythroxylum minutifolium, Erythroxylum confusum, Thalassia testudinum and Dictyota pinnatifida extracts and mangiferin) on the oxidative damage induced by model toxicants in rat hepatocyte cultures were studied. Cells were pre-incubated with the natural products (5-200 microg/mL) for 24 h. Then hepatotoxins (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide) were individually added and post-incubated for another 24 h. After treatments, cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Mangiferin and MSBE exhibited the highest cytoprotective potential (EC50 between 50 and 125 microg/mL), followed by T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts, whereas no significant protective effects was produced by Dictyota extract treatment. Antioxidant properties of the natural products against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were then investigated. The results show that at 36 h pre-treatment of cells with mangiferin or MSBE, concentrations of T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts ranging from 25 to 100 microg/mL significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (100 and 250 microM) and increased the GSH levels reduced by the toxicant. D. pinnatifida inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not preserve GSH levels. In conclusion, MSBE, E. minutifolium, E. confusum and T. testudinum extracts and mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against induced damage in all the experimental series, where mangiferin and the extracts of MSBE and T. testudinum were the best candidates to inhibit "in vitro" damage to rat hepatocytes. This hepatoprotective effect found could be associated with the antioxidant properties observed for the products.

  18. T Cell Subpopulations in Healthy Elderly and Lung Cancer Patients: Insights from Cuban Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Danay; Garcia, Beatriz; Lage, Agustin

    2017-01-01

    The senescence of the immune system and the risk of cancer increase with aging. Age itself entails changes in the immune system, which are related to a decrease in thymic output of naïve lymphocytes, an accumulation of chronic antigenic load, notably chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), and replicative senescence of lymphocytes. These changes could eventually contribute to cancer risk and affect the response to cancer treatment. However, several confounding factors make it difficult to draw a picture of causal relationships. Studies in diverse human populations could contribute to clarify these complex relationships. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the senescence of the T cells, the relationship with CMV infection, cancer, and cancer treatment. We also review the results of a series of studies performed in Cuba whose population is characterized by the unusual combination of long life expectancy and high antigenic load, including high seroprevalence of CMV, typical of tropical countries. Although immunosenescence affects almost all components and functions of the immune response, its most salient feature is a decrease in numbers and proportions of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes and an accretion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T lymphocytes. These features were confirmed by the Cuban studies, but interestingly a clear gender effect also appeared. Moreover, as aging is a global phenomenon, a fast increase in elderly with malignancies is expected; therefore, the evaluation of patient’s immune status would support the decision of treating them with immunotherapy and predict the efficacy of such treatments, thereby improving benefits for the patients. PMID:28261208

  19. Acquired and introduced macroparasites of the invasive Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Nicole; Price, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Rohr, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Because shifts in host-parasite relationships can alter host populations, attention should be given to the parasites that introduced species take with them or acquire in their introduced range. The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is a successful invasive species in Florida with its parasites in the native range being well-documented, but there is a void in the literature regarding what parasites were lost or introduced in its expansion. We necropsied 330 O. septentrionalis from Tampa, FL and compared their macroparasites to those of O. septentrionalis in their native range and to the parasites of anurans native to the Tampa, FL area to determine the species O. septentrionalis likely introduced or acquired in Florida. At least nine parasite species (Aplectana sp., Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai, Cylindrotaenia americana, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Centrorhynchus sp., unidentified trematode metacercariae, unidentified larval acuariids, and unidentified pentastomids) were isolated. We found no differences in parasite communities of adult male and female frogs, which averaged 19.36 parasite individuals and 1.39 parasite species per adult frog, and had an overall prevalence of 77.52%. Acuariid larvae were likely acquired by O. septentrionalis in FL because they are not found in their native range. O. lenteixeirai was likely introduced because it is commonly reported in O. septentrionalis' native range but has never been reported in FL-native anurans. Aplectana sp. is also likely introduced because it has been reported in several anurans in Cuba but only reported once in Florida. O. septentrionalis tended to harbor fewer of its native parasites in the introduced range, which is consistent with the enemy release hypothesis and potentially creates an immunological advantage for this invasive host. Because native populations can be threatened by introduced parasites, there is a need to further explore the frequency and rate at which non-native hosts

  20. Attitudes toward living kidney donation in transplant hospitals: a Spanish, Mexican, and Cuban multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Abdo-Cuza, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; López-López, A; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Camacho, A; Suárez-López, J; Castellanos, R; Rodríguez, J S; Martínez, M A; Nieto, A; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2010-01-01

    Living donor kidney (LKD) transplantation provides better results than deceased donor donation, involving minimum risk for the donor. However, LKD donation rates are low in most countries. We analyzed attitudes toward LKD in transplant hospitals in Spain, Mexico, and Cuba. Data were obtained from five transplant hospitals through the International Collaborative Program "Proyecto Donante Vivo, Murcia" in three countries: Spain (n = 1168), Mexico (n = 903), and Cuba (n = 202). The random sample (2273 employees) was stratified according to job category. The instrument used to evaluate attitude was a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis included Student t test, the chi(2) test, and multivariate analysis. Eighty eight percent (n = 2002) of Spanish, Mexican, and Cuban transplant hospital personnel were in favor of related LKD and 24% nonrelated LKD (n = 555). Attitudes were more favorable among centers in Cuba 97% (n = 195), followed by Mexico 88% (n = 793) and by Spain 87% (n = 1014; P < .001). According to job category, 91% (n = 617) of physicians were in favor, 88% (n = 543) of nurses, 85% (n = 198) of health care assistants, and 85% (n = 198) of auxiliary personnel. Attitudes were related to variables of: attitude toward deceased donation (P < .001), discussion about organ donation and transplantation (P < .001), concern about body mutilation after donation (P = .001), a possible need for a transplant in the future (P < .001), and attitude toward living liver donation (P < .001). Attitudes toward LKD in Hispanic/Latin Transplant Hospitals were favorable and could encourage an increase in LKD in the coming years assuming suitable sociopolitical and economic condition, as well as support from nephrologists.

  1. Acquired and introduced macroparasites of the invasive Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Nicole; Price, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Rohr, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Because shifts in host–parasite relationships can alter host populations, attention should be given to the parasites that introduced species take with them or acquire in their introduced range. The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is a successful invasive species in Florida with its parasites in the native range being well-documented, but there is a void in the literature regarding what parasites were lost or introduced in its expansion. We necropsied 330 O. septentrionalis from Tampa, FL and compared their macroparasites to those of O. septentrionalis in their native range and to the parasites of anurans native to the Tampa, FL area to determine the species O. septentrionalis likely introduced or acquired in Florida. At least nine parasite species (Aplectana sp., Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai, Cylindrotaenia americana, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Centrorhynchus sp., unidentified trematode metacercariae, unidentified larval acuariids, and unidentified pentastomids) were isolated. We found no differences in parasite communities of adult male and female frogs, which averaged 19.36 parasite individuals and 1.39 parasite species per adult frog, and had an overall prevalence of 77.52%. Acuariid larvae were likely acquired by O. septentrionalis in FL because they are not found in their native range. O. lenteixeirai was likely introduced because it is commonly reported in O. septentrionalis' native range but has never been reported in FL-native anurans. Aplectana sp. is also likely introduced because it has been reported in several anurans in Cuba but only reported once in Florida. O. septentrionalis tended to harbor fewer of its native parasites in the introduced range, which is consistent with the enemy release hypothesis and potentially creates an immunological advantage for this invasive host. Because native populations can be threatened by introduced parasites, there is a need to further explore the frequency and rate at which non-native hosts

  2. Condensation of a nickel tetranuclear cubane into a heptanuclear single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sarah; Neugebauer, Petr; Pilet, Guillaume; Chastanet, Guillaume; Barra, Anne-Laure; Antunes, Arlei B; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Luneau, Dominique

    2012-06-18

    A tetranuclear complex, [Ni(4)], with a cubane-like structure synthesized from hexafluoroacetylacetone gives, after drying at high temperature and treatment with pyridine, a heptanuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni(7)]. The crystal structures of both compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their magnetic properties have been studied by SQUID and μ-SQUID magnetometry as well as by high-frequency EPR spectroscopy (HF-EPR). For [Ni(4)], the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility can be fitted by taking into account strong Ni···Ni ferromagnetic interactions which lead to an S = 4 ground-state spin, in good agreement with the HF-EPR study. For [Ni(7)], the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility shows that the Ni···Ni ferromagnetic interactions are kept within the metal core. However, it was not possible to fit this with a clear set of parameters, and the ground-state spin was undetermined. The field dependence of the magnetization indicates an S = 7 ground-state spin at high field. In contrast, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicates a ground-state spin of S = 6 or even S = 5. These results agree with complicated high-frequency EPR spectra which have been ascribed to the superposition of signals from the ground spin multiplet and from an excited spin multiplet very close in energy, with the excited state having a larger S value than the ground state. Very low temperature studies show that only the heptanuclear complex behaves as a single-molecule magnet.

  3. Evaluation of the timeliness and completeness of communicable disease reporting: Surveillance in The Cuban Hospital, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Hernandez, Tania M. Fernandez; Abdo, Elmusbasher Abu Baker; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva

    2014-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems should be evaluated periodically, and should involve an assessment of system attributes. Objective: Evaluate hospital-based surveillance of communicable diseases using the elements of timeliness and data quality. Method: Descriptive study was conducted of communicable diseases reported at The Cuban Hospital, Qatar during January 2012 to December 2013. The completeness of notifications were assessed for contact number, address, place of work, and date of symptom onset. Time between the symptoms onset and physician notification, time between physician and Supreme Council of Health notification and time between physician notification and lab confirmation were calculated for each case. Analysis: Percentage of cases with documented essential information and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of time were calculated. Results: 1065 patients were reported, 75% were male, 80% non-qataries and 91.5% were group 1 (high priority) diseases. Symptom onset date was documented in 91.5% (95% CI, 89.8; 93.2) of cases; contact number in 84.7% (82.5;86.8), with lower frequencies for address (68.1%, 65.3;70.9) and place of work (60.5%, 57.5;63.4). Diagnostic time for tuberculosis was 61.7 days (SD 93.0), acute hepatitis 18.5 days (SD 17.6), typhoid fever 17.0 days (SD 11.6 days), other diseases of sexual transmission 300.2 days, chronic hepatitis 165 days and AIDS 154.5 days. The time of notification to the Supreme Council of Health for group 1 diseases was 1.2 days (SD 1.4). Conclusion: Our results show that the quality of essential data and timeliness is not sufficient to meet the needs of the health system. Additional studies should focus on the evaluation of time delay for diagnosis of high priority diseases. PMID:25320693

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead in it. For homes served by public water systems, data on lead in tap water may be available ... Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to ...

  5. Unprecedented solvent-assisted reactivity of Hydrido W3CuS4 cubane clusters: the non-innocent behaviour of the cluster-core unit.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Andrés G; Feliz, Marta; Fernández-Trujillo, M Jesús; Llusar, Rosa; Safont, Vicent S; Vicent, Cristian; Basallote, Manuel G

    2009-01-01

    Opening the cluster core: Substitution of the chloride ligand in the novel cationic cluster [W(3)CuS(4)H(3)Cl(dmpe)(3)](+) (see figure; dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) by acetonitrile is promoted by water addition. Kinetic and density functional theory studies lead to a mechanistic proposal in which acetonitrile or water attack causes the opening of the cluster core with dissociation of one of the Cu--S bonds to accommodate the entering ligand.Reaction of the incomplete cuboidal cationic cluster [W(3)S(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](+) (dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) with Cu(I) compounds produces rare examples of cationic heterodimetallic hydrido clusters of formula [W(3)CuClS(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](+) ([1](+)) and [W(3)Cu(CH(3)CN)S(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](2+) ([2](2+)). An unexpected conversion of [1](+) into [2](2+), which involves substitution of chloride by CH(3)CN at the copper centre, has been observed in CH(3)CN/H(2)O mixtures. Surprisingly, formation of the acetonitrile complex does not occur in neat acetonitrile and requires the presence of water. The kinetics of this reaction has been studied and the results indicate that the process is accelerated when the water concentration increases and is retarded in the presence of added chloride. Computational studies have also been carried out and a mechanism for the substitution reaction is proposed in which attack at the copper centre by acetonitrile or water causes disruption of the cubane-type core. ESI-MS experiments support the formation of intermediates with an open-core cluster structure. This kind of process is unprecedented in the chemistry of M(3)M'Q(4) (M=Mo, W; Q=S, Se) clusters, and allows for the transient appearance of a new coordination site at the M' site which could explain some aspects of the reactivity and catalytic properties of this kind of clusters.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Cuban cave-fishes of the genus Lucifuga: evidence for cryptic allopatric diversity.

    PubMed

    García-Machado, Erik; Hernández, Damir; García-Debrás, Alfredo; Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Metcalfe, Cushla; Bernatchez, Louis; Casane, Didier

    2011-11-01

    Underground environments are increasingly recognized as reservoirs of faunal diversity. Extreme environmental conditions and limited dispersal ability of underground organisms have been acknowledged as important factors promoting divergence between species and conspecific populations. However, in many instances, there is no correlation between genetic divergence and morphological differentiation. Lucifuga Poey is a stygobiotic fish genus that lives in Cuban and Bahamian caves. In Cuba, it offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of habitat fragmentation on the genetic divergence of stygobiotic species and populations. The genus includes four species and one morphological variant that have contrasting geographical distributions. In this study, we first performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Lucifuga Cuban species using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The mitochondrial phylogeny revealed three deeply divergent clades that were supported by nuclear and morphological characters. Within two of these main clades, we identified five lineages that are candidate cryptic species and a taxonomical synonymy between Lucifuga subterranea and Lucifuga teresinarum. Secondly, phylogeographic analysis using a fragment of the cytochrome b gene was performed for Lucifuga dentata, the most widely distributed species. We found strong geographical organization of the haplotype clades at different geographic scales that can be explained by episodes of dispersal and population expansion followed by population fragmentation and restricted gene flow. At a larger temporal scale, these processes could also explain the diversification and the distribution of the different species.

  7. Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intramolecular metal cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Rivière, Eric; Giorgi, Michel; Jamet, Hélène; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Tron, Thierry

    2013-05-20

    A novel tetranuclear copper(II) complex (1) was synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the ligand N-benzyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(1)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that complex 1 consists of a Cu4(OH)4 cubane core, where the four copper(II) centers are linked by μ3-hydroxo bridges. Each copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. X-ray analysis also evidenced an unusual metal cation-π interaction between the copper ions and phenyl substituents of the ligand. Calculations based on the density functional theory method were used to quantify the strength of this metal-π interaction, which appears as an important stabilizing parameter of the cubane core, possibly acting as a driving parameter in the self-aggregation process. In contrast, using the ligand N-phenethyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(2)), which only differs from L(1) by one methylene group, the same synthetic procedure led to a binuclear bis(μ-hydroxo)copper(II) complex (2) displaying intermolecular π-π interactions or, by a slight variation of the experimental conditions, to a mononuclear complex (3). These complexes were studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are reported and discussed.

  8. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    PubMed

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A new tetranuclear copper(II) Schiff base complex containing Cu 4O 4 cubane core: Structural and spectral characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, Shyamapada; Rosair, Georgina; Mitra, Samiran

    2011-04-01

    A new tetra-nuclear coordination complex [Cu 4(HL) 4] ( 1) containing Cu 4O 4 cubane core has been synthesized by using Schiff base ligand [(OH)C 6H 4CH dbnd N sbnd C(CH 3)(CH 2OH) 2] (H 3L), obtained by the 1:1 condensation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol with salicylaldehyde and thoroughly characterized by micro-analytical, FT-IR, UV-Vis, thermal and room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Structural characterization of the complex has been done by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural elucidation reveals versatile coordination modes for two identical alkoxo oxygen atoms of the Schiff base ligand; one in its deprotonated form exhibits μ 3-bridging to bind three similar copper(II) centers whilst the protonated one remains as monodentate or non-coordinating. Structural analysis also shows that the Cu 4O 4 cubane core in 1 consists of four μ 3-alkoxo oxygen bridged copper(II) atoms giving an approximately cubic array of alternating oxygen atoms and copper(II) atoms where the metal centers display both distorted square pyramidal and distorted octahedral geometries.

  10. The Hedgehog and the Fox: A Discussion of the Approaches to the Analysis of ICT Reforms in Teacher Education of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ingvill; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to analyze educational reforms in which information and communications technology (ICT) is used as a central catalyst to change practises. We explore the relationship between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical findings drawing on the work of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom. We claim that reform research has…

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Study of Octanuclear Iron-Oxo Clusters Containing a Redox-Active Fe4O4-Cubane Core

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Peter; Boča, Roman; Chakraborty, Indranil; Giapintzakis, John; Herchel, Radovan; Huang, Qing; McGrady, John E.; Sanakis, Yiannis; Simopoulos, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    A one pot synthetic procedure yields the octanuclear FeIII-complexes Fe8(μ4-O)4(μ-pz*)12X4, where X = Cl and pz* = pyrazolate anion (pz = C3H3N2-) (1), 4-Cl-pz (2) and 4-Me-pz (3), or X = Br and pz* = pz (4). The crystal structures of complexes 1 – 4, determined by X-ray diffraction, show an Fe4O4-cubane core encapsulated in a shell composed of four interwoven Fe(μ-pz*)3X-units. Complexes 1 – 4 have been characterized by 1H-nmr, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis distinguishes the cubane and outer FeIII-centers by their different isomer shift and quadrupole splitting values. Electrochemical analyses by cyclic voltammetry show four consecutive, closely spaced, reversible reduction processes for each one of the four complexes. Magnetic susceptibility studies, corroborated by Density Functional Theory calculations, reveal weak antiferromagnetic coupling among the four cubane Fe-centers and strong antiferromagnetic coupling between cubane and outer Fe-atoms of 1. The structural similarity between the antiferromagnetic Fe8(μ4-O)4-core of 1 – 4 and the also antiferromagnetic units contained in the minerals ferrihydrite and maghemite is demonstrated by X-ray and Mössbauer data. PMID:18078337

  12. Spectroscopic identification of bond strain and pi interactions in a series of saturated carbon-cage molecules: adamantane, twistane, octahedrane, and cubane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, J. R. I.; van Buuren, T.; Landt, L.; Schreiner, P. R.; Fokin, A. A.; Tkachenko, B. A.; Fokina, N. A.; Brehmer, D.

    2011-03-01

    Novel nanocarbons such as fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, and nanodiamond reside at the cutting edge of nanoscience and technology. Along with chemical functionalization, geometrical constraints such as extreme curvature or defects in crystallites can modify the electronic properties. This paper presents a fundamental study of how bond strain affects electronic structure in a benchmark series of novel saturated carbon cage compounds. Adamantane, the smallest diamondoid, has carbon atoms commensurate with the diamond lattice. Twistane has the same stoichiometry (C10 H16) , but introduces some bond strain into the cage. Octahedrane (C12 H12) and cubane (C8 H8) have increasing strain, culminating in cubane where C-C bonds lie either parallel, or orthogonal to one another. Using gas-phase NEXAFS spectroscopy, we observe the broad C-C σ * splits into two more narrow and intense resonances with increasing strain. Also, LUMO states associated with tertiary C-H σ * broaden and shift to lower energy, and are 3X more intense in cubane than octadedrane. The differences are entirely due to the shape rather than stoichiometry, and indicate, we believe, some π interaction between parallel C-C bonds in the cubane.

  13. The United States' New Refugees: A Review of the Research on the Resettlement of Indochinese, Cubans, and Haitians. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This review of research on recent refugees to the United States focuses on the Indochinese, Haitians and Cubans. An introduction stresses the need for more information to enhance a better understanding of the newcomers. Succeeding sections review published literature on: (1) the development of Federal policy concerning refugees, emphasizing the…

  14. The Hedgehog and the Fox: A Discussion of the Approaches to the Analysis of ICT Reforms in Teacher Education of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ingvill; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to analyze educational reforms in which information and communications technology (ICT) is used as a central catalyst to change practises. We explore the relationship between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical findings drawing on the work of Larry Cuban and Yrjo Engestrom. We claim that reform research has…

  15. In the eye of the Cuban epidemic neuropathy storm: Rosaralis Santiesteban MD PhD, Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute. Interview by Christina Mills.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christina

    2011-01-01

    When Cuba was hit by a neuropathy epidemic two decades ago, Dr Rosaralis Santiesteban was one of the Cuban health professionals who played a key role in its management, as reflected in a recent issue of Seminars in Ophthalmology. She was well prepared for her part: trained in medicine at the University of Havana before completing a residency in ophthalmology and eventually a doctorate in medical sciences, she has received multiple honors for her research, publishing and teaching. In 2007, she was named Distinguished Researcher by the Cuban Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment. She has headed the Department of Neuro-ophthalmology at Cuba's Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute since 1977. Now called Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy, the 1990s epidemic that affected over 50,000 Cubans is the largest and best-documented of its kind in history. As researchers pressed to unravel the mystery of its etiology to hasten the epidemic's end, Dr Santiesteban recognized that similar outbreaks had occurred during Cuba's wars of independence in the late 1800s--described in her book, Epidemias y Endemias de neuropatía en Cuba. In the proverbial eye of the storm during the 1990s epidemic, she shares her reflections below on the context, causes, evolution and lessons learned from the challenge that put Cuba's health system to the test.

  16. The Effects of Communication and Socioeconomic Status on the Political Participation of Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, and Cubans in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subervi-Velez, Federico A.

    An examination was undertaken of the relationship between some socioeconomic variables, particularly communication exposure variables, and the political participation of Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, and Cubans living in Chicago, Illinois. Data for the investigation were taken from an earlier survey of the communication patterns and…

  17. Cubans in the United States: A Bibliography for Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-1983. Bibliographies and Indexes in Sociology, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCorkle, Lyn, Comp.

    This volume brings together a wide-ranging body of English-language sources pertaining to Cuban American society. Some 1,600 references cite journal and periodical articles, dissertations, government reports, conference papers, and unpublished works. Spanish-language bibliographies that contain English-language titles or related Spanish-language…

  18. "A minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism": the Cuban experience.

    PubMed

    Gugler, J

    1980-01-01

    The case of Cuba provides social scientists with reasonably good information on urbanization policies and their implementation in 1 developing country committed to socialism. The demographic context is considered, and Cuban efforts to eliminate the rural-urban contradiction and to redefine the role of Havana are described. The impact of these policies is analyzed in terms of available data on urbanization patterns since January 1959 when the revolutionaries marched into Havana. Prerevolutionary urbanization trends are considered. Fertility in Cuba has declined simultaneously with mortality and even more rapidly. Projections assume a 1.85% annual growth rate, resulting in a population of nearly 15 million by the year 2000. Any estimate regarding the future trend in population growth must depend on prognosis of general living conditions and of specific government policies regarding contraception, abortion, female labor force participation, and child care facilities. If population growth in Cuba has been substantial, but less dramatic than that of many other developing countries, urban growth presents a similar picture. Cuba's highest rate of growth of the population living in urban centers with a population over 20,000, in any intercensal period during the 20th century, was 4.1%/year for 1943-1953. It dropped to 3.0% in the 1953-1970 period. Government policies achieved a measure of success in stemming the tide of rural-urban migration, but the aims of the revolutionary leadership went further. The objective was for urban dwellers to be involved in agriculture, and the living standards of the rural population were to be raised to approximate those of city dwellers. The goal of "urbanizing" the countryside found expression in a program designed to construct new small towns which could more easily be provided with services. A slowdown in the growth of Havana, and the concomitant weakening of its dominant position, was intended by the revolutionary leadership. Offical

  19. Overweight, obesity, central adiposity and associated chronic diseases in cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María Elena; Jiménez, Santa; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Wong, Iraida

    2009-10-01

    Introduction Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing burden of noncommunicable chronic diseases. According to the World Health Organization, in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion individuals aged ≥15 years were overweight and at least 400 million were obese; by 2015 these figures will almost double. Central distribution of adiposity has also been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Objective Determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity, and their association with noncommunicable chronic diseases and related lifestyle risk factors in Cuban adults. Methods The Second National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases (ENFRENT II), conducted in 2000-2001, surveyed a representative sample of males and females aged ≥15 years using a stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling design. Data from a sub-sample of 19,519 individuals aged ≥20 years were analyzed and prevalence calculated for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and for each of these variables in association with overweight, obesity and central distribution of adiposity, and with the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol consumption, eating regular daily meals and daily breakfast. Results Estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population was 30.8% (CI: 30.1-31.5) and 11.8% (CI: 11.2-12.4), respectively. Obesity prevalence was twice as high in women (15.4%; CI: 14.5-16.3) as in men (7.9%; CI: 7.3-8.6). Obesity was significantly more frequent in diabetics, hypertensives and people with heart disease, while central adiposity was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, obesity and overweight. Smoking and alcohol consumption were low among overweight and obese subjects, who exhibited a higher prevalence of irregular and inadequate eating patterns

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in anal intraepithelial lesions from HIV infected Cuban men.

    PubMed

    Limia, Celia M; Soto, Yudira; García, Yanara; Blanco, Orestes; Kourí, Vivian; López, María V; Toledo, María E; Pérez, Lissette; Baños, Yoanna; Caturla, Yaniris; Aguayo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    An association between HPV infection and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) has been established, specifically in high-risk populations such as HIV-infected men. In this population, anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies. A cross-sectional study to detect anal lesions and HPV infection was performed. Anal mucosa samples were collected from 56 HIV-infected men from Cuba. The cytological diagnosis was done according to Bethesda 2001 System. HPV DNA detection was determined by qPCR for six high-risk HPV types and end point PCR for low-risk HPV types (6 and 11). The end point PCR with nucleotide sequencing technique was achieved to detect other genotypes of HPV not included in the qPCR in those samples negative for HPV- 6 and 11 or negative for the six genotypes identified in the qPCR. Cytological diagnosis identified 53 of 56 (95%) men with abnormal anal cytology. Among those, 26% (14/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 4% (2/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high-grade lesions (ASC-H), 64% (34/53) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 6% (3/53) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV DNA was detected in 89% (50/56) of men and 79% had at least one of the high-risk HPV types. HPV- 16 was the most common genotype (52%), while HPV-18 was the most frequently detected genotype in men with HSIL. We found statistically significant differences in the HPV viral loads with respect to the cytology results (p = 0.0006) and that the practice of receptive anal sex was a risk factor for anal HPV infection (p = 0.032). This study shows a high prevalence of ASIL and high-risk HPV infections in the study group and is the first study showing the distribution of HPV genotypes in HIV infected Cuban men with abnormal anal cytology. This information may be of importance for local decision makers to improve

  1. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH4OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10(-5) and 7.35 × 10(-5) mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO2 and Al2O3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Macrosomia Predictors in Infants Born to Cuban Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jeddú; Grandía, Raiden; Padilla, Liset; Rodríguez, Suilbert; Hernández García, Pilar; Lang Prieto, Jacinto; Márquez-Guillén, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Fetal macrosomia is the most important complication in infants of women with diabetes, whether preconceptional or gestational. Its occurrence is related to certain maternal and fetal conditions and negatively affects maternal and perinatal outcomes. The definitive diagnosis is made at birth if a newborn weighs >4000 g. OBJECTIVE Identify which maternal and fetal conditions could be macrosomia predictors in infants born to Cuban mothers with gestational diabetes. METHODS A case-control study comprising 236 women with gestational diabetes who bore live infants (118 with macrosomia and 118 without) was conducted in the América Arias University Maternity Hospital, Havana, Cuba, during 2002-2012. The dependent variable was macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). Independent maternal variables included body mass index at pregnancy onset, overweight or obesity at pregnancy onset, gestational age at diabetes diagnosis, pregnancy weight gain, glycemic control, triglycerides and cholesterol. Fetal variables examined included third-semester fetal abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight at ≥28 weeks (absolute and percentilized by Campbell and Wilkin, and Usher and McLean curves). Chi square was used to compare continuous variables (proportions) and the student t test (X ± SD) for categorical variables, with significance threshold set at p <0.05. ORs and their 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS Significant differences between cases and controls were found in most variables studied, with the exception of late gestational diabetes diagnosis, total fasting cholesterol and hypercholesterolemia. The highest OR for macrosomia were for maternal hypertriglyceridemia (OR 4.80, CI 2.34-9.84), third-trimester fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (OR 7.54, CI 4.04-14.06), and estimated fetal weight >90th percentile by Campbell and Wilkin curves (OR 4.75, CI 1.42-15.84) and by Usher and McLean curves (OR 8.81, CI 4.25-18.26). CONCLUSIONS Most variables assessed

  3. Impact of an improved Cuban emissions inventory on air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Gacita, M.; Alonso, M. F.; Longo, K. M.; de Freitas, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in the Central America and Caribbean regions is primarily fossil fuel based and one of the major sources of air pollution in the region. In Cuba, energy production is responsible for 99% of SO2 emissions, 98% of NOX and 94% of CO, with emissions in 2000 of 588.59 Gg, 149.57 Gg and 536.42 Gg, respectively, according to the Cuban National Inventory - CNI. Electric power generation plants, the most important sub-sector, are highlighted as point sources of high emissions, in particular, SO2. Global inventories are shown to be inaccurate for Cuba. RETRO has non-zero data for just one cell, over the city of Havana. EDGAR has deficiencies in its geographical distribution, with no emissions over the city of Havana, and the distribution of emissions by sectors is unrealistic according to the CNI: for instance, in the case of SO2, it distributes emissions nearly equally between electricity generation and the remaining sectors, which is inaccurate. More importantly, emissions are overestimated, with the notable exception of SO2 and NMVOC. The most important reasons are the particularities of Cuba, including the extensive employ of fossil fuels with little refining and high sulfur content in energy production and industrial processes such as asphalt production, and the use of low efficiency technologies. This work presents an improved emissions inventory with CNI data and detailed emissions for all major power generation plants. The impact of this improvement was assessed through numerical air quality simulations of the transport and transformation of these emissions from a regional perspective, conducted with the CCATT-BRAMS 3D atmospheric chemical transport model, developed and maintained by INPE, Brazil. Boundary conditions were supplied by global model MOCAGE with chemistry scheme RELACS. Simulations with the new inventory were conducted with CATT-BRAMS using chemical mechanism RELACS, incorporated as part of this work, for two months (January and August

  4. Level of acceptance of solid organ xenotransplantation among personnel in Spanish, Mexican, and Cuban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; López-Navas, Ana; Ayala-García, Marcos; Sebastián, Ma José; Abdo-Cuza, Anselmo; Ramírez, Ector Jaime; Muñoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suárez-López, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; González, Beatriz; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Díaz, Ernesto; Nieto, Adrián; Ramis, Gillermo; Ramírez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is still a long way from becoming a clinical reality. However, in an emergency situation, it could be used as a bridge for replacing vital organs until the arrival of a human organ. To analyze the attitude toward xenotransplantation among hospital personnel from several hospitals in Spain and Latin America. A random sample stratified according to the type of hospital and job category (n = 2618) in 10 hospitals in three different countries: Spain (n = 821), Mexico (n = 1595), and Cuba (n = 202). A validated questionnaire (PCID-XenoTx Rios) was self-administered and completed anonymously by the respondents. If the results of xenotransplantation were similar to those achieved using human donor organs, 61% (n = 1591) of the respondents would be in favor, while 9% (n = 234) would be against and 30% (n = 793) would be unsure. The analysis of the variables affecting attitude toward xenotransplantation revealed that attitude varied according to the country of reference and was more favorable among personnel in Cuban hospitals (70% a favor) than in Spanish (57%) and Mexican ones (62%; P = 0.000). However, these differences are mainly determined by job category with the physicians having the most favorable attitude. The ancillary staff, in contrast, had the least favorable attitude (76 vs. 51% respectively; P = 0.000). Of the remaining variables, attitude is significantly related to variables connected to human donation: attitude toward the different kinds of human organ donation (deceased [P < 0.001] and living [P < 0.001]), the possibility of needing a transplant oneself in the future (P < 0.001), and attitude toward donating the organs of a deceased family member (P = 0.004). A third of healthcare personnel from several hospitals are not in favor of xenotransplantation. It is necessary to provide more information about the matter, especially in hospitals where there is a preclinical xenotransplantation program or where there is access to one, such as

  5. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students return from Cuba, some PICs

  6. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  7. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer's research in a Cuban-American population: strategies to overcome the barriers.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Tappen, R; Buscemi, C; Rivera, R; Lezcano, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder's comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad). Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms.

  8. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin.

  9. New Calisto species from Cuba, with insights on the relationships of Cuban and Bahamian taxa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Núnez Aguila, Rayner; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Three new species and a new subspecies of Calisto Hübner are described from Cuba, Calisto torrei sp. n. Núñez, Calisto dissimulatum sp. n. Núñez, Calisto aquilum sp. n. Núñez, and Calisto aquilum occidentalis ssp. n. Núñez. The immature stages of C. torrei and C. dissimulatum are also described. Notes on the distribution and biology of the species are given. All Cuban and Bahamian taxa form a monophyletic group which seems to have originated in northeastern Cuba spreading later to the west. DNA sequence data also allowed to recognize both Bahamian taxa, Calisto sibylla and Calisto apollinis stat. n., as distinct species, and to synonymize Calisto herophile parsonsi syn. n. under Calisto herophile.

  10. Cuban refugee health care: response of the American health care system to the unexpected arrival of 125,000 immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Bienia, R A; VanDerDecker, J D; Bienia, B H

    1982-01-01

    During the spring of 1980, over 120,000 Cuban refugees emigrated to the United States. Their rapid, unexpected arrival overwhelmed existing health care facilities in south Florida. Government-operated screening centers capable of handling large patient loads were established. Health screening involved a brief history and physical examination and a search for active tuberculosis and venereal disease. Thousands of refugees were processed rapidly and released to waiting relatives and sponsors. Many others, who for social or psychological reasons could not be released. were transferred to holding centers in various parts of the country. US Public Health Service physicians were faced with difficulties whose basic cause could be traced to the boredom of camp life and stresses due to uncertainty regarding the future. Acting out and compliance problems with medical aftermaths were common. About 3,000 refugees remain in custody today. PMID:7072877

  11. On some Cuban species of the genus Longior Travassos & Kloss, 1958 (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Longior zayasi Coy, García & Alvarez, 1993 is established as incertae sedis because the males (declared as the holotype) are inconsistent with the generic diagnosis, particularly in relation to the morphology of the head and tail. Thus, the females of Longior zayasi species (which agree with the generic diagnosis) are renamed and re-described as Longior longior Morffe & García sp. n. We also described males found in the sample and considered as conspecific with the new species. A comparative table with the measurements of the most of the records of Longior longior is given. The male of Longior similis Morffe, García & Ventosa, 2009 is described from the type locality of the species and compared with the known males of the genus. A key to the females of the Cuban Longior is given. PMID:21594153

  12. Cuban epidemic neuropathy, 1991 to 1994: history repeats itself a century after the "amblyopia of the blockade".

    PubMed

    Ordúñez-García, P O; Nieto, F J; Espinosa-Brito, A D; Caballero, B

    1996-05-01

    The 1991 to 1994 epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba has been one of the more devastating in recent history, affecting more than 50,000 people throughout the entire country with clinical manifestations of optic and peripheral neuropathy. Although the causes are not entirely clear, it seems that a combination of acute nutritional deficiency and the toxic effects of tobacco and possibly other unidentified toxic substances is involved. The epidemic coincided with the acute worsening of the economic situation on the island following political changes in Eastern European countries and a tightening of the US economic embargo. This paper reviews reports of a strikingly similar epidemic known as the "Amblyopia of the Blockade," which occurred in Cuba almost a century ago when the island was undergoing a US naval blockade during the Cuban-Spanish-American war. It discusses the parallelism with the recent epidemic as well as the implications of this historical evidence to clarify further the ultimate causes of these epidemics.

  13. Cuban refugee health care: response of the American health care system to the unexpected arrival of 125,000 immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bienia, R A; VanDerDecker, J D; Bienia, B H

    1982-06-01

    During the spring of 1980, over 120,000 Cuban refugees emigrated to the United States. Their rapid, unexpected arrival overwhelmed existing health care facilities in south Florida. Government-operated screening centers capable of handling large patient loads were established. Health screening involved a brief history and physical examination and a search for active tuberculosis and venereal disease. Thousands of refugees were processed rapidly and released to waiting relatives and sponsors. Many others, who for social or psychological reasons could not be released. were transferred to holding centers in various parts of the country. US Public Health Service physicians were faced with difficulties whose basic cause could be traced to the boredom of camp life and stresses due to uncertainty regarding the future. Acting out and compliance problems with medical aftermaths were common. About 3,000 refugees remain in custody today.

  14. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  15. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (L174 M) in a large Cuban family with early onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bertoli Avella, A M; Marcheco Teruel, B; Llibre Rodriguez, J J; Gomez Viera, N; Borrajero Martinez, I; Severijnen, E A; Joosse, M; van Duijn, C M; Heredero Baute, L; Heutink, P

    2002-10-01

    We studied a Cuban family with presenile dementia (autosomal dominant) consisting of 281 members within six generations, the proband descended from a Spanish founder. Mean age at onset was 59 years of age. Memory impairment was the main symptom in all patients, additionally, ischemic episodes were described in 4 (n = 18) patients. Neuropathological examination of brain material (1 patient) revealed neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Thirty DNA samples were genotyped (regions on chromosome 1, 3, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 20, and 21). A maximum Lod score of 3.79 at theta = 0 was obtained for marker D14S43, located in a 9-cM interval in which all patients shared the same haplotype. Sequencing of the PSEN1 gene revealed a heterozygous base substitution, C520A (exon 6), which is predicted to cause an amino acid change from leucine to methionine in the TMIII of the presenilin 1 protein. The mutation was found to co-segregate with the disease phenotype and the associated disease haplotype. The C --> A change was not observed in 80 control chromosomes from the Cuban population. Leucine at position 174 is highly conserved among species and is identical in presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 proteins. We propose the L174 M mutation might lead to an abnormal N-terminal and probably C-terminal fragments and malfunction of the protein complex. In conclusion, we found a novel PSEN1 mutation in a large family with clinical and pathological diagnosis of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, which may be relevant for other Hispanic populations.

  16. Prevalence of vacA, cagA and babA2 genes in Cuban Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Lino E; Melián, Karelia; Moreno, Arlenis; Alonso, Jordis; Sabatier, Carlos A; Hernández, Mayrín; Bermúdez, Ludisleydis; Rodríguez, Boris L

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and blood adhesion binding antigen (babA2) genotypes of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) isolates from Cuban dyspeptic patients. METHODS: DNA was extracted from H pylori-positive cultures taken from 130 dyspeptic patients. Genotyping was performed by PCR, using specific primers for vacA (s1, s2, m1, m2), cagA and babA2 genes. Endoscopic observations and histological examinations were used to determine patient pathologies. RESULTS: vacA alleles s1, s2, m1 and m2 were detected in 96 (73.8%), 34 (26.2%), 75 (57.7%) and 52 isolates (40%), respectively, while the cagA gene was detected in 95 isolates (73.2%). One hundred and seven isolates (82.3%) were babA2-positive. A significant correlation was observed between vacAs1m1 and cagA and between vacAs1m1 and babA2 genotypes (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and between babA2 genotype and cagA status (P < 0.05); but, no correlation was observed between vacAs1 and babA2 genotypes. Eighty five (65.4%) and 73 (56.2%) strains were type 1 (vacAs1-cagA-positive) and “triple-positive” (vacAs1-cagA-babA2-positive), respectively, and their presence was significantly associated with duodenal ulcer (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The distribution of the main virulence factors in the Cuban strains in this study resembled that of the Western-type strains, and the more virulent H pylori isolates were significantly associated with duodenal ulcer, ulcer disease being the worst pathology observed in the group studied. PMID:19132771

  17. Preferences for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer information among Mexican, Cuban and Puerto Rican women at risk.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; McIntyre, Jessica; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the preferences of at-risk Hispanic women to gain information on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). This study sought to qualitatively explore preferences for HBOC information among at-risk Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban women and to pilot a mock brochure aimed at Hispanic women. Hispanic women aged 18-65 years with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer participated in a semistructured interview. Data were analyzed using a combination of open-coding and content analysis. Fifty-three women participated in the study. For the majority of content areas, there were no major differences between the subethnicities. All women reported discussing cancer with a doctor after a family member had been diagnosed and discussing cancer within their families; however, the content of the discussion varied. Cuban and Puerto Rican women reported using the Internet routinely for health care information while Mexican women said they did not have access to computers and did not use them. All women liked the content and photos in the brochure but Mexican women thought the reading level was too high. Preferences for the spokesperson focused on the need for Spanish-speaking health care providers. While the data show some similarities, such as patterns of cancer discussion and appreciation of the mock brochure, there were differences between the groups on information preferences. In designing HBOC education information for Hispanic audiences, it is important to consider varied channels for dissemination and preferences for specific types of information across subethnicities. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. Conclusions The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides

  19. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  20. Synthetic model of the asymmetric [Mn3CaO4] cubane core of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shreya; Stull, Jamie A.; Yano, Junko; Stamatatos, Theocharis C.; Pringouri, Konstantina; Stich, Troy A.; Abboud, Khalil A.; Britt, R. David; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Christou, George

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory synthesis of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II has been the objective of synthetic chemists since the early 1970s. However, the absence of structural information on the OEC has hampered these efforts. Crystallographic reports on photosystem II that have been appearing at ever-improving resolution over the past ten years have finally provided invaluable structural information on the OEC and show that it comprises a [Mn3CaO4] distorted cubane, to which is attached a fourth, external Mn atom, and the whole unit attached to polypeptides primarily by aspartate and glutamate carboxylate groups. Such a heterometallic Mn/Ca cubane with an additional metal attached to it has been unknown in the literature. This paper reports the laboratory synthesis of such an asymmetric cubane-containing compound with a bound external metal atom, [(1)] . All peripheral ligands are carboxylate or carboxylic acid groups. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data have established 1 to possess an S = 9/2 ground state. EPR spectroscopy confirms this, and the Davies electron nuclear double resonance data reveal similar hyperfine couplings to those of other MnIV species, including the OEC S2 state. Comparison of the X-ray absorption data with those for the OEC reveal 1 to possess structural parameters that make it a close structural model of the asymmetric-cubane OEC unit. This geometric and electronic structural correspondence opens up a new front in the multidisciplinary study of the properties and function of this important biological unit. PMID:22308383

  1. Synthetic model of the asymmetric [Mn3CaO4] cubane core of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shreya; Stull, Jamie A; Yano, Junko; Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Pringouri, Konstantina; Stich, Troy A; Abboud, Khalil A; Britt, R David; Yachandra, Vittal K; Christou, George

    2012-02-14

    The laboratory synthesis of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II has been the objective of synthetic chemists since the early 1970s. However, the absence of structural information on the OEC has hampered these efforts. Crystallographic reports on photosystem II that have been appearing at ever-improving resolution over the past ten years have finally provided invaluable structural information on the OEC and show that it comprises a [Mn(3)CaO(4)] distorted cubane, to which is attached a fourth, external Mn atom, and the whole unit attached to polypeptides primarily by aspartate and glutamate carboxylate groups. Such a heterometallic Mn/Ca cubane with an additional metal attached to it has been unknown in the literature. This paper reports the laboratory synthesis of such an asymmetric cubane-containing compound with a bound external metal atom, [(1)]. All peripheral ligands are carboxylate or carboxylic acid groups. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data have established 1 to possess an S = 9/2 ground state. EPR spectroscopy confirms this, and the Davies electron nuclear double resonance data reveal similar hyperfine couplings to those of other Mn(IV) species, including the OEC S(2) state. Comparison of the X-ray absorption data with those for the OEC reveal 1 to possess structural parameters that make it a close structural model of the asymmetric-cubane OEC unit. This geometric and electronic structural correspondence opens up a new front in the multidisciplinary study of the properties and function of this important biological unit.

  2. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  3. On the taxonomic placement of the Cuban spider Nops ariguanabo Alayón and the description of a new Mexican Tarsonops (Araneae, Caponiidae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ruiz, Alexander; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2015-01-27

    The Cuban spider species Nops ariguanabo Alayón, 1986 is transferred to the genus Tarsonops Chamberlin based on the presence of several false sutures on the anterior tarsi and metatarsi, and a broad, subcircular carapace. A redescription of the species, including the description of female internal genitalia is provided. Additionally, a new species of Tarsonops from Mexico is described. The first SEM photos and a new diagnosis for the genus Tarsonops are included. 

  4. Inadequacy of micronutrients, fat, and fiber consumption in the diets of Haitian-, African- and Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Zarini, Gustavo G; Biller, Daiane; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-08-01

    Micronutrient insufficiency, low dietary fiber, and high saturated fat intake have been associated with chronic diseases. Micronutrient insufficiencies may exacerbate poor health outcomes for persons with type 2 diabetes and minority status. We examined dietary intakes using the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of micronutrients, and Adequate Intakes (AIs) of fiber, and Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) for saturated fat in Haitian-, African-, and Cuban- Americans (n = 868), approximately half of each group with type 2 diabetes. Insufficient intakes of vitamins D and E and calcium were found in over 40 % of the participants. Over 50 % of African- and Cuban- Americans consumed over 10 % of calories from saturated fat. Haitian-Americans were more likely to have insufficiencies in iron, B-vitamins, and vitamins D and E, and less likely to have inadequate intake of saturated fat as compared to Cuban-Americans. Vitamin D insufficiency was more likely for Haitian-Americans as compared to African- Americans. Diabetes status alone did not predict micronutrient insufficiencies; however, Haitian-Americans with no diabetes were more likely to be insufficient in calcium. Adjusting for age, gender, energy, smoking, physical activity, access to health care, and education negated the majority of micronutrient insufficiency differences by ethnicity. These findings suggest that policies are needed to ensure that low-cost, quality produce can be accessed regardless of neighborhood and socioeconomic status.

  5. Heterometal cubane-type MFe(3)S(4) clusters (M = Mo, V) trigonally symmetrized with hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-) and tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate(1-) capping ligands.

    PubMed

    Fomitchev, Dmitry V; McLauchlan, Craig C; Holm, R H

    2002-02-25

    A series of heterometal cubane-type clusters containing [VFe(3)S(4)](2+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) cores has been prepared. Ligand substitution of [(DMF)(3)VFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) affords [(Tpms)VFe(3)S(4)L(3)](2)(-) (L = Cl(-) (8), EtS(-) (9), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-), p-MeC(6)H(4)O(-)). A new procedure for the preparation of molybdenum single cubanes is introduced by the reaction of recently reported [(Tp)MoS(S(4))](-) with FeCl(2)/NaSEt to afford [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) (1, 75% yield). This procedure is more efficient that the existing multistep synthesis of single cubanes, which generally affords clusters of mirror symmetry. Also prepared were [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)L(3)](-) (L = EtS(-) (2), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-)). Reduction of 1 with borohydride gives [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](2-) (5, 67%). Owing to the nature of the heterometal ligand, all clusters have idealized trigonal symmetry, reflected in their (1)H NMR spectra. Trigonal structures are demonstrated by crystallography of (Bu(4)N)[1,2], (Bu(4)N)(2)[5] x MeCN, and (Me(4)N)(2)[8,9]. The availability of 1 and 5 allows the first comparison of structures and (57)Fe isomer shifts of [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) in a constant ligand environment. Small increases in most bond distances indicate that an antibonding electron is added in the reduction of 1. Collective synthetic and electrochemical results from this and other studies demonstrate the existence of the series of oxidation states [VFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+,1+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](4+,3+,2+) whose relative stabilities within a given series are strongly ligand dependent. Isomer shifts indicate that the reduction of 1 largely affects the Fe(3) subcluster and are consistent with the formal descriptions [MoFe(3+)(2)Fe(2+)S(4)](3+) (1) and [MoFe(3+)Fe(2+)(2)S(4)](2+) (5). Reaction of 1 with excess Li(2)S in acetonitrile affords the double cubane [[(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(2)](2)(mu(2)(-)S)](2)(-), whose sulfide-bridged structure is supported by two sequential reductions separated by 290 mV, in analogy with

  6. Strategic Considerations of the Sino-Cuban Relationship as the United States Renews Relations with Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Western Hemisphere, possesses a shared ideology, strategic location, an emerging market , a deep water commercial port, regional influence, and natural...Cuba, the PRC’s oldest ally in the Western Hemisphere, possesses a shared ideology, strategic location, an emerging market , a deep water...Western Hemisphere is Cuba. Cuba’s attributes of strategic location, its status as an emerging market and potential regional commerce hub, regional

  7. Verification and value of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology township seasonal rainfall forecasts in Australia, 1997 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizard, A. L.; Anderson, G. A.; Buckley, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    We verified the Bureau of Meteorology's seasonal rainfall forecasts for 262 townships throughout Australia, from its inception in June 1997 to May 2005. The results indicate that the forecasting system had low skill. Brier Skill Score and the receiver operating characteristic values were uniformly close to the no skill value. Forecast variances were consistently small. The overall observed variance was 0.0048, 2.1% of the variance of a perfect system. The estimate of the gradient of the outcome against forecast was 0.42 and was imprecise. Definitive statements about bias cannot be made. The value of the forecasts for decision-makers was estimated using value score curves, calculated for six forecast scenarios. All curves indicated that no economic benefit could have been reliably derived by users of the seasonal rainfall forecasts, with the exception of users with decisions triggered by a small shift in the forecast from climatology, in which case small economic gains may have occurred. Small value scores were associated with the observed forecast variance, not the observed bias. We examined the expected change in value scores associated with any future increase in forecast variance. This showed that a moderate increase from the observed variance would bring limited benefits. Substantial value to a broad range of users will only occur with a large increase in forecast variance. To deliver this, new lead indicators with markedly better predictive characteristics may need to be developed for the seasonal rainfall forecasting system.

  8. The epidemiology, clinical features, and long-term prognosis of Japanese encephalitis in central sarawak, malaysia, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Mong How; Lewthwaite, Penny; Lai, Boon Foo; Mohan, Anand; Clear, Daniela; Lim, Lina; Krishnan, Shekhar; Preston, Teresa; Chieng, Chae Hee; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Wong, See Chang; Cardosa, Jane; Solomon, Tom

    2008-08-15

    Japanese encephalitis is a major public health problem in Asia. However, there is little data on the long-term outcome of Japanese encephalitis survivors. We prospectively evaluated children with serologically confirmed Japanese encephalitis over an 8.3-year period. The patients were assessed and their outcomes were graded with a functional outcome score at hospital discharge and at follow-up appointments. We examined how patient outcome at hospital discharge compared with that at long-term follow-up visits, when changes in outcome occurred, and the prognostic indicators of the eventual outcome. One hundred and eighteen patients were recruited into the study, and 10 (8%) died during the acute phase of illness. At hospital discharge, 44 (41%) of the 108 patients who survived had apparent full recovery; 3 (3%) had mild, 28 (26%) had moderate, and 33 (31%) had severe neurological sequelae. Eighty six of the 108 patients were followed up for a median duration of 52.9 months (range, 0.9-114.9 months). During follow-up, 31 patients experienced improvement, but 15 patients experienced deterioration in their outcome grade. In most cases, assessment during the first 3-6 months after hospital discharge was predictive of the long-term outcome. More than one-half of the patients continued to experience neuropsychological sequelae and behavioral disorders. A combination of poor perfusion, Glasgow coma score < or =8, and > or =2 witnessed seizures predicted a poor long-term outcome with 65% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Neurological assessment of Japanese encephalitis survivors at hospital discharge does not predict long-term outcome. Seizures and shock are treatable risk factors for a poor outcome at hospital discharge and at long-term follow-up visits.

  9. How do we measure shortages of dental hygienists and dental assistants? Evidence from California: 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy T; Finlayson, Tracy L; Scheffler, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the labor market for registered dental hygienists (RDHs) and dental assistants (DAs) in California from 1997 to 2005 to determine whether there was a shortage in either market. This analysis used economic indicators interpreted within an economic framework to investigate trends in labor force numbers and market-determined wages for RDHs and DAs. Rising inflation-adjusted mean wages indicated a labor shortage, while declining inflation-adjusted mean wages indicated a labor surplus. From 1999 to 2002, the wages for RDHs increased 48 percent and then stabilized, indicating a shortage had occurred, after which the market achieved equilibrium. Wages for DAs increased 13.9 percent from 1997 to 2001, but then declined from 2001 to 2005, indicating a shortage that then became a surplus. The market for DAs may not have stabilized. Wages increased for RDHs and DAs, suggesting that labor shortages occurred in both markets. The large supply response in the market for DAs resulted in wages declining after their initial rise. Tracking the local labor markets for RDHs and DAs will enable dental professionals to respond more efficiently to market signals.

  10. Biogeographic origin and radiation of Cuban Eleutherodactylus frogs of the auriculatus species group, inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Nevado, Bruno; Machordom, Annie; Verheyen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    We studied phylogenetic relationships of the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus species group to infer colonization and diversification patterns in this endemic radiation of terrestrial frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in the largest of the Greater Antilles, Cuba. An initial screening of genetic diversity based on partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene in almost 100 individuals of all species of the group and covering the complete known geographic range of their occurrence found most species endemic to small ranges in the eastern Cuban mountains while a single species was widespread over most of Cuba. Our molecular phylogeny, based on 3731 bp of four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene, suggests that most cladogenetic events within the group occurred among clades restricted to the eastern mountains, which acted as refugia and facilitated the diversification in this group. Our results reveal two separate colonization events of Central and Western Cuba and allow inferring the timing of the subsequent diversification events that occurred between 11 and 2 Mya. Because populations previously assigned to E. auriculatus represent four genetically strongly divergent lineages that also differ in their advertisement calls, we propose that E. auriculatus as currently recognized comprises four species. The difficulties in assigning the name auriculatus to any of these four species, and the fact that E. principalis is nested within one of them, stress the need for a thorough taxonomic revision of this group.

  11. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  12. Cuban epidemic neuropathy, 1991 to 1994: history repeats itself a century after the "amblyopia of the blockade".

    PubMed Central

    Ordúñez-García, P O; Nieto, F J; Espinosa-Brito, A D; Caballero, B

    1996-01-01

    The 1991 to 1994 epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba has been one of the more devastating in recent history, affecting more than 50,000 people throughout the entire country with clinical manifestations of optic and peripheral neuropathy. Although the causes are not entirely clear, it seems that a combination of acute nutritional deficiency and the toxic effects of tobacco and possibly other unidentified toxic substances is involved. The epidemic coincided with the acute worsening of the economic situation on the island following political changes in Eastern European countries and a tightening of the US economic embargo. This paper reviews reports of a strikingly similar epidemic known as the "Amblyopia of the Blockade," which occurred in Cuba almost a century ago when the island was undergoing a US naval blockade during the Cuban-Spanish-American war. It discusses the parallelism with the recent epidemic as well as the implications of this historical evidence to clarify further the ultimate causes of these epidemics. PMID:8629731

  13. A molecular phylogeny reveals the Cuban enigmatic genus Behaimia as a new piece in the Brongniartieae puzzle of papilionoid legumes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci de; São-Mateus, Wallace; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Torke, Benjamin M; Lewis, Gwilym P; Dorado, Óscar; Ardley, Julie K; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Cardoso, Domingos

    2017-04-01

    The papilionoid legume tribe Brongniartieae comprises a collection of 15 genera with disparate morphologies that were previously positioned in at least four remotely related tribes. The Brongniartieae displays a wide geographical disjunction between Australia and the New World and previous phylogenetic studies had provided conflicting results about the relationships between the American and Australian genera. We carry out phylogenetic analyses of (1) a plastid matK dataset extensively sampled across legumes to solve the enigmatic relationship of the Cuban-endemic monospecific genus Behaimia; and (2) multilocus datasets with focus on all genera ever referred to Brongniartieae. These analyses resulted in a well-resolved and strongly-supported phylogenetic tree of the Brongniartieae. The monophyly of all American genera of Brongniartieae is strongly supported. The doubtful position of the Australian genus Plagiocarpus is resolved within a clade comprising all Australian genera. Behaimia has been traditionally classified in tribe Millettieae, but our new molecular data and re-assessment of morphological traits have resolved the genus within the early-branching papilionoid tribe Brongniartieae. Characters including the pinnately multifoliolate (vs. unifoliolate) leaves, a sessile (vs. stipitate) ovary, and an indehiscent or late dehiscent one-seeded pod distinguish Behaimia from its closer relatives, the South American genera Cyclolobium and Limadendron.

  14. Analysis of the experience of Cuban physicians in a Brazilian metropolis in accordance with the Paideia Method.

    PubMed

    Terra, Lilian Soares Vidal; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco; Lidola, Maria; Hernández, Silvia S; Millán, Juan Ignacio Martínez; Campos, Gastão Wagner de Sousa

    2016-09-01

    We had hoped that the Mais Médicos Program (More Doctors Program) would have generated several changes and reflections in each municipality in which it was deployed. In order to observe those changes, we sought to analyze the experience of Cuban physicians in the Mais Médicos program from an actor-centered perspective, based on the Paideia Method - an approach that seeks to enhance the ability of the subjects to analyze and intervene in their practice. We performed semi-structured interviews to analyze our research object that consisted in the experience of those actors included professionally in the Mais Médicos program in a metropolis with unique characteristics. In order to assess the interviews, we applied Content Analysis followed by Thematic Analysis. From the discourse of the actors, of which illustrative excerpts are transcribed in this article, we can affirm that the program's potential surpassed any initial barriers, presenting itself as fine-tuning instrument for replacing the biomedical model in line with the Paideia Method.

  15. Recovery of metals from Cuban nickel tailings by leaching with organic acids followed by precipitation and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, C M F; Banza, A N; Gock, E

    2007-01-02

    The percolation leaching of the Cuban nickel tailings containing 0.34% Ni, 0.08% Co and 44.2% Fe was investigated by using tartaric and oxalic acids at different concentrations. About 70% Ni, 80% Co and 30% Fe were extracted after 5 days of leaching with the mixture of 0.15 mol/L tartaric acid and 0.05 mol/L oxalic acid at ambient temperature and normal pressure. Nickel and cobalt extraction of 80% as well as iron extraction of 50% were achieved from the pregnant solution by means of precipitation at 80 degrees C for 2h. The precipitation at ambient temperature led to a similar result after 16 days. Cobalt, nickel and iron oxalates were found in the precipitate by using the X-ray diffraction method. The regeneration of acids during the precipitation step made possible the reuse of the raffinate at the leaching step. Heating of the precipitate at 200 degrees C increased the metal concentration to 1.22% Ni and 0.33% Co, which can be fed in the existing nickel plant in Moa, Cuba. The magnetic processing of the leaching residues led to a non-magnetic product containing less than 20% Fe and a magnetic product containing more than 50% Fe.

  16. Biodistribution of the Cuban anti-meningococcal vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC, in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, O; Lastre-González, M; Díaz-Orellana, M; Zayas-Vignier, C; Caso, R; Hernández, I; Sierra-González, G

    1997-01-01

    VA-MENGOC-BC is the Cuban vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis BC. Its iodination and biodistribution measurement in Balb/c mice were the main goals of this study. The Chloramine-T method was effective for radiolabelling the proteoliposome, the main vaccine structure. The biodistribution demonstrated that the thyroid (50.4%), muscle (21.5%) and regional lymph nodes (20.5%) were the most radioactive organs and the kinetic of radioactivity was correlated with the primary (muscle, highest values in the first 3 days and lymph nodes, in the first 7 days) and secondary (muscle and lymph nodes, highest values in the first day) response. Early occurrence of slight radioactivity in the spleen was also observed. This was the first time that the iodination and biodistribution of this vaccine was carried out. The present study corroborated that the time selected in previous trials to obtain the lymph nodes and spleen cell, after a first (7 days) and second (3 days) dose, was actually the optimal for in vitro studies.

  17. Buying for Armageddon: Factors influencing post-World War II weapons purchases since the Cuban Missile Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Boies, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The central problem of this study is the role that the economy and economic interests play in decisions about US weapons-systems acquisition. Despite a voluminous literature discussing the formation of military policy, journalistic accounts of business influence on military policy dominate the literature. A notable exception to this pattern is Griffin, Devine, and Wallace's use of time-series data on military expenditures to assess Baran and Sweezy's thesis that military expenditures are necessary to the good health of the monopoly sector of the US economy. Using similar techniques and an expanded data set, the effect of business political action and major economic forces on the quantity and types of weapons purchased since the Cuban Missile Crisis are investigated. Findings indicate that defense contractor rates of profit have a positive relationship to procurement expenditures of most types. This is opposite of the effect posited by most of the literature. Elite political mobilization, measured by the activity of the Committee on the Present Danger, a group at the core of the New Right Social Movement, has a positive effect on expenditures.

  18. A carboxylate-bridged Ni cluster with a distorted cubane topology: structure, magnetism and density functional studies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Himanshu; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2016-09-28

    Using a dicarboxylate ligand appended with (2-pyridyl)ethylamine unit, a new cluster [Ni(L(4))6(DMF)2(CH3OH)2(H2O)6][ClO4]4·2CH3OH·2CH3CO2C2H5 (1) [L(4)(2-): 3-[N-{2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl}amino]-bis(propionate)] has been synthesized, through 'coordination-driven self-assembly'. The crystal structure of 1 reveals a centrosymmetric octanuclear carboxylate-bridged nickel(ii) tetracation, with a distorted cubane topology. The four crystallographically independent nickel(ii) centres differ markedly in their coordination environment. Magnetic studies (2-300 K) reveal that in 1 the net magnetic-exchange is antiferromagnetic. Based on geometric parameters associated with two interacting nickel(ii) centres, six magnetic-exchange coupling constants (J values) were considered for magnetic data analysis. Notably, 1 provides the first example of a Ni cluster (i) bridged solely by carboxylates in three bridging modes (monatomic, syn-anti and anti-anti), (ii) exhibiting four ferromagnetic and two antiferromagnetic magnetic-interactions and (iii) demonstrating a good agreement between six J values (obtained from experimental data analysis) and those obtained from DFT calculations, at the B3LYP-level of theory.

  19. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Genetic characterization of captive Cuban crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer) and evidence of hybridization with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus).

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jeremy P; Rodriguez, David; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Cedeño-Vázquez, José Rogelio; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2008-12-01

    There is a surprising lack of genetic data for the Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer), especially given its status as a critically endangered species. Samples from captive individuals were used to genetically characterize this species in comparison with other New World crocodilians. Partial mitochondrial sequence data were generated from cyt-b (843 bp) and the tRNA(Pro)- tRNA(Phe)-D-loop region (442 bp). Phylogenetic analyses were performed by generating maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian-based topologies. In addition, in an effort to identify species-specific alleles, ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were genotyped. Distance and model-based clustering analyses were performed on microsatellite data, in addition to a model-based assignment of hybrid types. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers identified two distinct C. rhombifer genetic sub-clades (alpha and beta); and microsatellite analyses revealed that most admixed individuals were F(2) hybrids between C. rhombifer-alpha and the American crocodile (C. acutus). All individuals in the C. rhombifer-beta group were morphologically identified as C. acutus and formed a distinct genetic assemblage. J. Exp. Zool. 309A:649-660, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Toward models for the full oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II by ligand coordination to lower the symmetry of the Mn3CaO4 cubane: demonstration that electronic effects facilitate binding of a fifth metal.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jacob S; Lin, Po-Heng; Carsch, Kurtis M; Nielsen, Robert J; Takase, Michael K; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor

    2014-10-15

    Synthetic model compounds have been targeted to benchmark and better understand the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopy, and reactivity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II, a low-symmetry Mn4CaOn cluster. Herein, low-symmetry Mn(IV)3GdO4 and Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubanes are synthesized in a rational, stepwise fashion through desymmetrization by ligand substitution, causing significant cubane distortions. As a result of increased electron richness and desymmetrization, a specific μ3-oxo moiety of the Mn3CaO4 unit becomes more basic allowing for selective protonation. Coordination of a fifth metal ion, Ag(+), to the same site gives a Mn3CaAgO4 cluster that models the topology of the OEC by displaying both a cubane motif and a "dangler" transition metal. The present synthetic strategy provides a rational roadmap for accessing more accurate models of the biological catalyst.

  2. The Healthy Eating Index and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index as predictors of 10-year CHD risk in Cuban Americans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Zarini, Gustavo G; McNamara, Elizabeth; Nagarajan, Aarthi

    2011-11-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary patterns, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and 10-year predicted CHD risk in Cuban Americans with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a cross-sectional study participants were selected from two randomly generated mailing lists of individuals with and without T2D. HEI and AHEI scores were calculated from a self-reported FFQ. CHD risk was determined using the 10-year CHD risk calculator of the Adult Treatment Panel III. Miami Dade and Broward Counties, FL, USA. Cuban Americans (n 358) aged ≥30 years. Participants with T2D had a higher waist circumference (P = 0·001) and 10-year CHD risk score (P = 0·008) compared with those without T2D. Participants without T2D had a higher energy intake (P = 0·034), total blood cholesterol (P = 0·007), HDL cholesterol (P = 0·001) and HEI score (P = 0·006) compared with participants with T2D. AHEI score was a significant predictor of 10-year CHD risk (F(1,351) = 4·44, P = 0·036). An association between AHEI and 10-year CHD risk was found only for participants with T2D (β = -0·244, se = 0·049, P = 0·001).ConclusionThe present study showed that only participants with T2D with significantly higher AHEI scores had lower scores for 10-year predicted CHD risk. No association was found between HEI score and CHD risk among Cuban Americans. Individuals with T2D are advised to follow the AHEI dietary pattern.

  3. Cubane-like tetranuclear Cu(ii) complexes bearing a Cu4O4 core: crystal structure, magnetic properties, DFT calculations and phenoxazinone synthase like activity.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Shipra; Sengupta, Swaraj; Mota, Antonio J; Chattopadhyay, Shyamal K; Espinosa Ferao, Arturo; Riviere, Eric; Lewis, William; Naskar, Subhendu

    2017-01-24

    In the present work, two new copper complexes 3a and 3b with a Cu4O4 cubane core are reported. Both complexes are obtained by means of the in situ conversion of the imine functionality of Schiff's base ligands 1a [(E)-4-chloro-2-((thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol] and 1b [(E)-4-bromo-2-((thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol] into amino alcohols 2a (4-chloro-2-(hydroxy(thiazol-2-ylamino)methyl)phenol) and 2b (4-bromo-2-(hydroxy(thiazol-2-ylamino)methyl)phenol), respectively. The ligand transformation may be metal assisted and the generated ligands show an interesting mode of coordination in which the alkoxo-O atom binds in a μ(3)-manner connecting simultaneously three copper centers and forming a Cu4O4 cubane core. The first analysis of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveals that both molecules possess a [4 + 2] cubane-type core, and low temperature magnetic measurements show antiferromagnetic behaviour, in agreement with DFT calculations. However, the best fit and DFT calculations point out three pairs of coupling constants, more coherent with a [2 + 2 + 2] situation, in accordance with the fine analysis of structural data. Finally, phenoxazinone synthase activity has been measured for both molecules, finding kcat = 86.3 h(-1) for the chloride derivative copper(ii) complex in methanol, whereas the bromide derivative copper(ii) complex displays kcat = 3.4026 × 10(2) h(-1) and 10.289 × 10(2) h(-1) in methanol and DMSO, respectively.

  4. The Evolution of the Soviet Use of Surrogates in Military Relations with the Third World, with Particular Emphasis on Cuban Participation in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Soviet Union initiated the strategy of surrogate operations is academic, because it serves the purposes of both parties. However, WX- 22 North Korean...vicissitudes of the world market for sugar, was in very poor shape after the 1970 "Great Sugar Harvest" failed to yield desired rF. ults (falling...to assume the burden of carrying Cuba’s financial debt (to the tune of cver S5 1t7 billion), while subsidizing Cuban sugar at several times the market

  5. Diet of the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in pine rockland and mangrove habitats in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, B.M.; Waddle, J.H.; Crockett, M.E.; Rice, K.G.; Percival, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Native to Cuba, the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands, the Cuban Treefrog (CTF) is an invasive species in Florida, with the ability to inflict serious ecological damage to invaded habitats. By examining the diet of the CTF, a known predator of native frogs, better predictions may be made of the impacts on native species and ecosystems. From 2002 - 2003, CTF diet was investigated in south Florida at four sites, two each within pine rockland and mangrove habitat. Within each habitat, one site exhibited a low density of CTFs and the other a high density of CTFs. CTFs were captured in PVC pipes attached to trees and stomach contents were examined after euthanasia. Beetles were the most numerous and widely consumed prey item among sites; roaches, orthopterans, spiders, ants, and caterpillars were also major dietary components. There were significant differences in the proportion of taxa consumed by CTFs between low and high density populations within each habitat, with the low density site in every instance having the higher proportion. Across habitats, ants comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in mangroves, whereas beetles, orthopterans, and snails comprised a significantly higher proportion of the diet in pine rocklands. Approximately 3.5% of all stomachs examined contained anuran remains. Though not significant, CTFs from low density sites consumed a higher proportion of frogs than those at high density sites. Corroborating previous research, the data show the CTF to be a generalist feeder, consuming a wide variety of invertebrate prey, with anurans playing only a minor role in the overall diet.

  6. [Severe acute respiratory infection in Cuban patients during the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Cuba, 2009].

    PubMed

    Savón Valdés, Clara Estela; Acosta Herrera, Belsy; Piñón Ramos, Alexander; Valdés Ramírez, Odalys; Oropesa Fernández, Suset Isabel; González Muñoz, Grehete; Arencibia García, Amely; Quilarte García, Elías; González Baez, Guelsys; Hernández Espinosa, Bárbara; Goyenechea Hernández, Angel; Llop Hernández, Alina; Guzmán Tirado, María Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    On April 2009, the Mexican health authorities reported increased hospitalization indexes caused by pneumonia with high mortality rates to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). The National Epidemiological Surveillance System of Mexico noticed that this increase mainly occurred in the 20-40 year old population. A new type of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified by laboratory studies as the etiological agent of the first pandemic of the 21st century. On April 26 2009, the National Anti-pandemic Plan was activated by the Cuban Ministry of Public Health, and on May 7th, the lab-confirmed index case appeared. An integrated surveillance system with laboratory confirmation was set up. To detect pandemic influenza virus during the pandemic wave. The epidemiological weeks 37 to 41 witnessed a rise of the number of sick people seen by the medical services. In this period, the samples taken from patients clinically diagnosed with severe acute respiratory infection were selected for this analysis; they were divided into three groups, that is, 370 children and adults in critical condition, 55 pregnant women in severe condition and 30 fatal cases. The diagnosis of the pandemic virus was performed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Test (PCR). Other respiratory viruses were tested by conventional PCR. The pandemic influenza virus was detected in 65 children and adults, 20 pregnant women and 9 fatal cases. The seasonal influenza A (H3N2) virus was identified in 81 cases of severe acute respiratory infection covering all age groups, 10 pregnant women and 5 deceased on the basis of real time polymerase chain reaction test. Other respiratory viruses were also monitored by the end-point polymerase chain reaction. The comprehensive analysis of these results contributes to the national and regional surveillance of respiratory viruses for the improvement of the prevention and control programs of the acute respiratory infections.

  7. Adsorption phenomena of cubane-type tetranuclear Ni(II) complexes with neutral, thioether-functionalized ligands on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Volkmar; Matthes, Frank; Bürgler, Daniel E.; Monakhov, Kirill Yu.; Besson, Claire; Kögerler, Paul; Ghisolfi, Alessio; Braunstein, Pierre; Schneider, Claus M.

    2015-11-01

    The controlled and intact deposition of molecules with specific properties onto surfaces is an emergent field impacting a wide range of applications including catalysis, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing. One strategy is to introduce grafting groups functionalized to anchor to a specific surface. While thiols and disulfides have proven to be quite effective in combination with gold surfaces, other S-containing groups have received much less attention. Here, we investigate the surface anchoring and organizing capabilities of novel charge-neutral heterocyclic thioether groups as ligands of polynuclear nickel(II) complexes. We report on the deposition of a cubane-type {Ni4} (= [Ni(μ3-Cl)Cl(HL·S)]4) single-molecule magnet from dichloromethane solution on a Au(111) surface, investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction, both immediately after deposition and after subsequent post-annealing. The results provide strong evidence for partial decomposition of the coordination complex upon deposition on the Au(111) surface that, however, leaves the magnetic {Ni4Cl4n} (n = 1 or 2) core intact. Only post-annealing above 480 K induces further decomposition and fragmentation of the {Ni4Cl4n} core. The detailed insight into the chemisorption-induced decomposition pathway not only provides guidelines for the deposition of thioether-functionalized Ni(II) complexes on metallic surfaces but also reveals opportunities to use multidentate organic ligands decorated with thioether groups as transporters for highly unstable inorganic structures onto conducting surfaces, where they are stabilized retaining appealing electronic and magnetic properties.

  8. Biogeochemical responses to nutrient inputs in a Cuban coastal lagoon: runoff, anthropogenic, and groundwater sources.

    PubMed

    González-De Zayas, R; Merino-Ibarra, M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Castillo-Sandoval, F S

    2013-12-01

    Laguna Larga, a coastal lagoon in central Cuba, has been heavily altered by tourism infrastructure construction and sewage disposal. We hypothesize that this has decreased the circulation and caused eutrophication of the lagoon. To assess this, 12 bimonthly samplings were carried out in 2007-2008. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and nitrogen, and phosphorous fractions (inorganic, organic, and total) were determined. Water and salt budgets, as well as biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated using the LOICZ budget model for the three sections of the lagoon identified by morphological constrains and salinity patterns. Laguna Larga is a choked lagoon with restricted water circulation, low exchange, and high residence times that vary significantly along its sections. Residence time was estimated to be 0.1-0.7 years for the inner section and 1-9 days for the outer one. High levels of total nitrogen (annual means 126-137 μM, peaks up to 475 μM) and phosphorus (2.5-4.4 μM, peaks up to 14.5 μM) are evidence of eutrophication of Laguna Larga. During 2007, an average precipitation year, Laguna Larga exported water (703 m(3) d(-1)) and was a source of nitrogen (9.026 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and phosphorus (0.112 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) to the adjacent sea. δ(15)N determinations in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (-1.83 to +3.02 ‰) differed significantly between sites in the lagoon and offshore reference sites located W of the inlet, but were similar to those located E of the inlet. δ(15)N determinations in the seaweed Penicillus dumetosus (+1.02 to +4.2) did not show significant differences.

  9. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  10. Novel techniques and insights into the deployment of pop-up satellite archival tags on a small-bodied deep-water chondrichthyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Oliver N.; Howey, Lucy A.; Tolentino, Emily R.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring movement data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans is challenged by extreme effects of capture and handling stress, and post-release predation, however, it is urgently required to examine important fisheries interactions and assess the ecological role of these species within deep-water food webs. Here we suggest a novel release-cage mechanism to deploy pop-up satellite archival tags, as well as present vertical habitat data for a data-deficient, small-bodied, deep-water bycatch species, the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis). Data were gathered from seven of eight High Rate X-Tags deployed on mature Cuban dogfish in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas. Recovery periods appeared variable between individuals and are likely driven by capture-and-handling stress and tag burden. Application of the cross-correlation function to time-series depth and temperature data indicated three of the seven individuals suffered mortality through predation, which occurred during daytime, and suggests Cuban dogfish may constitute a proportion of deep-water apex predator diet in the Exuma Sound. Two animals were successfully released via a novel release-cage mechanism and displayed either no, or rapid (<15 mins) vertically stationary recovery periods and were not consumed by predators; data for these individuals were recorded for the entire deployment duration (14 days). Vertical habitat data suggests Cuban dogfish are diel-vertical migrators, similar to other deep-water taxa, and exhibit a relatively broad temperature and depth range, which may be driven by preference for specific bathymetric structures. These techniques provide an important first step into acquiring and presenting vertical habitat data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans, which can be directly applied to fisheries and ecosystem-based management approaches.

  11. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews…

  12. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  13. The politics of suffering: the impact of the U.S. embargo on the health of the Cuban people. Report of a fact-finding trip to Cuba, June 6-11, 1993.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, D

    1994-01-01

    The past several years have been difficult for the Cuban people. The economies of Cuba's major trading partners have collapsed. The 33-year U.S. embargo was tightened with passage of "The Cuban Democracy Act of 1992" to include trade--mostly in food and medicines--by subsidiaries of U.S. companies in other countries. The March 1993 "Storm of the Century," which devastated communities from the Caribbean to Canada, caused an estimated $1 billion in damage to Cuba. A mysterious disease known as neuropathy, which can affect vision, appeared in late 1991 and has spread throughout the island. All this has created a situation of scarcity and uncertainty that has affected all aspects of Cuban society, including its health care system. In June 1993 a delegation that included members of the American Public Health Association traveled to Cuba to investigate the current health situation in the country, with an emphasis on the impact of the U.S. embargo. The delegation found that compared to two and three years ago, the general standard of living in Cuba and the quality of health services have declined dramatically. It concluded that while the overall health of the Cuban population has not yet seriously eroded as a result of the economic decline, severe problems threaten to emerge in the future. The delegation called for lifting of the embargo as part of a new approach in U.S. policy toward Cuba.

  14. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews…

  15. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  16. Genetic diversity, phylogeny and evolution of alkaloid sequestering in Cuban miniaturized frogs of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Gehara, Marcelo; Vences, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    -4). Traces of alkaloids were found in other species only remotely related to the E. limbatus group, i.e., E. caspari, E. goini, E. ricordii, and E. tetajulia. According to these findings, it can be hypothesized that the capacity to sequester dietary alkaloids into the skin evolved first in an ancestral, litter-dwelling and small-sized Cuban Eleutherodactylus, followed by evolution of miniaturization and diurnality in the early representatives of the E. limbatus group, and eventually by increased brightness of color with probable aposematic function and a highly efficient mechanism of alkaloid sequestering.

  17. Prevention and control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: the Cuban experience (1986–1996–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Nordet, Porfirio; Lopez, Raimundo; Sarmiento, Luis; Nordet, Porfirio; Dueñas, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are still major medical and public health problems mainly in developing countries. Pilot studies conducted during the last five decades in developed and developing countries indicated that the prevention and control of RF/RHD is possible. During the 1970s and 1980s, epidemiological studies were carried out in selected areas of Cuba in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RF/RHD, and to test several long-term strategies for prevention of the diseases. Methods Between 1986 and 1996 we carried out a comprehensive 10-year prevention programme in the Cuban province of Pinar del Rio and evaluated its efficacy five years later. The project included primary and secondary prevention of RF/RHD, training of personnel, health education, dissemination of information, community involvement and epidemiological surveillance. Permanent local and provincial RF/RHD registers were established at all hospitals, policlinics and family physicians in the province. Educational activities and training workshops were organised at provincial, local and health facility level. Thousands of pamphlets and hundreds of posters were distributed, and special programmes were broadcast on the public media to advertise the project. Results There was a progressive decline in the occurrence and severity of acute RF and RHD, with a marked decrease in the prevalence of RHD in school children from 2.27 patients per 1 000 children in 1986 to 0.24 per 1 000 in 1996. A marked and progressive decline was also seen in the incidence and severity of acute RF in five- to 25-year-olds, from 18.6 patients per 100 000 in 1986 to 2.5 per 100 000 in 1996. There was an even more marked reduction in recurrent attacks of RF from 6.4 to 0.4 patients per 100 000, as well as in the number and severity of patients requiring hospitalisation and surgical care. Regular compliance with secondary prophylaxis increased progressively and the

  18. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Aparup; Bertolasi, Valerio; Figuerola, Albert; Manna, Subal Chandra

    2017-05-01

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu4(L1)4]•2(dmf) (1), [Cu4(L1)4] (2) and [Cu4(L2)2(HL2)2(H2O)2]•2(ClO4)·6(H2O) (3) (H2L1, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H2L2, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the complexes 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. Complexes 1 and 2 possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C-H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for complexes 1 and 2. At room temperature complexes 1, 2 and 3, exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φs) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2-300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =- J1(S1S2+S1S2'+S1'S2+S1'S2') - J2S1S1', where S1 = S1' = S2 = S2' = SCu =1/2, was used for studying complexes 1 and 2. Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J1 =-20 cm-1 and J2 =0 cm-1 for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =- J1(S1S4+S2S3) - J2(S1S3+S2S4) - J3S1S2, where S1 = S2 = S3 = S4 = SCu =1/2, was used to study the magnetic behaviour of the double open cubane core of complex 3 and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was found by using the parameters g1 = g2 =2.20, g3 = g4 =2.18, J1 =-36 cm-1, J2 =-44 cm-1 and J3 =0 cm-1.

  19. Level crossings and zero-field splitting in the {Cr8}-cubane spin-cluster studied using inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaknin, D.; Garlea, Vasile O; Demmel, F.; Mamontov, Eugene; Nojiri, H; Martin, Catalin; Chiorescu, Irinel; Qiu, Y.; Luban, M.; Kogerler, P.; Fielden, J.; Engelhardt, L; Rainey, C

    2010-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in variable magnetic field and high-field magnetization measurements in the millikelvin temperature range were performed to gain insight into the low-energy magnetic excitation spectrum and the field-induced level crossings in the molecular spin cluster {Cr8}-cubane. These complementary techniques provide consistent estimates of the lowest level-crossing field. The overall features of the experimental data are explained using an isotropic Heisenberg model, based on three distinct exchange interactions linking the eight CrIII paramagnetic centers (spins s = 3/2), that is supplemented with a relatively large molecular magnetic anisotropy term for the lowest S = 1 multiplet. It is noted that the existence of the anisotropy is clearly evident from the magnetic field dependence of the excitations in the INS measurements, while the magnetization measurements are not sensitive to its effects.

  20. Level crossings and zero-field splitting in the {Cr8}-cubane spin cluster studied using inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, D; Garlea, V O; Demmel, F; Mamontov, E; Nojiri, H; Martin, C; Chiorescu, I; Qiu, Y; Kögerler, P; Fielden, J; Engelhardt, L; Rainey, C; Luban, M

    2010-11-24

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in variable magnetic field and high-field magnetization measurements in the millikelvin temperature range were performed to gain insight into the low-energy magnetic excitation spectrum and the field-induced level crossings in the molecular spin cluster {Cr(8)}-cubane. These complementary techniques provide consistent estimates of the lowest level-crossing field. The overall features of the experimental data are explained using an isotropic Heisenberg model, based on three distinct exchange interactions linking the eight Cr(III) paramagnetic centers (spins s = 3/2), that is supplemented with a relatively large molecular magnetic anisotropy term for the lowest S = 1 multiplet. It is noted that the existence of the anisotropy is clearly evident from the magnetic field dependence of the excitations in the INS measurements, while the magnetization measurements are not sensitive to its effects.

  1. Covalent Metal-Metal-Bonded Mn4 Tetrahedron Inscribed within a Four-Coordinate Manganese Cubane Cluster, As Evidenced by Unexpected Temperature-Independent Diamagnetism.

    PubMed

    Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Jovinelli, Daniel J; McKendry, Ian G; Zdilla, Michael J

    2017-03-17

    The electronic structures of the manganese(IV) cubane cluster Mn(μ3-N(t)Bu)4(N(t)Bu)4 (1) and its one-electron-oxidized analogue, the 3:1 Mn(IV)/Mn(V) cluster [Mn(μ3-N(t)Bu)4(N(t)Bu)4](+)[PF6](-) (1(+)[PF6]), are described. The S = 0 spin quantum number of 1 is explained by a diamagnetic electronic structure where all metal-based d electrons are paired in Mn-Mn bonding orbitals. Temperature- and power-dependent studies of the S = (1)/2 electron paramagnetic resonance signal of 1(+) are consistent with an electronic structure described as a delocalized one-electron radical.

  2. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer’s research in a Cuban-American population: Strategies to overcome the barriers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Tappen, Ruth; Buscemi, Charles; Rivera, Richard; Lezcano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder’s comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad) Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms. PMID:11398568

  3. Cuban-American Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Second, the current policy will be analyzed by discussing the “ends,” “ways,” and “ means .” Suitability, feasibility, and acceptability of the current...present policy. Second, the current policy will be analyzed by discussing the “ends,” “ways,” and “ means .” Suitability, feasibility, and acceptability...remained one of hostility, isolation and economic denial as witnessed by the “ Mariel ” crisis in 1980 and the U.S. military intervention of Grenada in

  4. Is peanut causing food allergy in Cuba? Preliminary assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis; Torralba-Averoff, Damaris; Cruz-Jimenez, Rayza; Oliva-Díaz, Yunia; Álvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Ciria-Martín, Alexander; Jiménez-Frandín, Marlene; Reyes-Zamora, Mary Carmen; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Tamargo-García, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Peanut allergy is increasing at an alarming pace in developed countries. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a common food in Cuba. Nevertheless, reported values of sensitization and symptom severity are usually low. As our objective, we carried out an evaluation of allergic sensitivity to perform an assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients. The Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed for each patient, using two glycerinated allergenic extracts, prepared from raw or roasted peanuts. Overall, 316 food allergic patients (159 adults and 157 children) attending allergy services at four hospitals in Havana were included, as well as 303 adult non- allergic volunteers. The IgE binding profile of 26 selected SPT positive patients was further analyzed by immunoblotting. The prevalence of sensitization to peanut was 4.6% in general adult population, whereas in adult food-allergic patients it was 18.6%. Prevalence rates were even greater in food allergic children achieving 25.8%. Sensitization frequencies were apparently greater for roasted, as compared to raw peanuts, although the difference was not significant (p> 0.05, Mc Nemar's). IgE binding was shown mostly by the 15 and 17 kDa bands, tentatively identified as the major allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The IgG4 binding profile was similar to IgE, although with more prominence of the bands at 37 and 28 KDa, corresponding to an Ara h 3 fragment and Peanut Agglutinin. The study estimated a relatively high prevalence of peanut sensitization in population. Data reported here suggest that IgE sensitization in Cuban patients is focused mostly on MW bands corresponding to the major allergens Ara h 6 and Ara h 2. Sensitization to peanut allergen is indeed relatively frequent in Cuba. The IgE profile is congruent to a sensitization pattern by ingestion of roasted peanuts and is directed to well-known major allergens.

  5. Assessment of IL-28: rs12979860 and rs8099917 Polymorphisms in a Cohort of Cuban Chronic HCV Genotype 1b Patients

    PubMed Central

    Palenzuela Gardón, Daniel; Guillen, Isabel Alicia; Fernández, Julio R.; Camacho, Hamlet; Estevez, Zurina Cinza; Dueñas, Santiago; Alvares-Lajonchere, Liz; Amador, Yalena; Martinez-Donato, Gillian; Han, Junsong; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaona; Gao, Yang; Campaña, Juan Roca; Novoa, Lidia I.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant global public health problem with >185 million infections worldwide. A series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified IL-28B polymorphisms as a predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR), as well as spontaneous clearance in chronic HCV genotype 1 patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms in Cuban chronic HCV patients. The study cohort included 73 chronic HCV patients treated with concomitant administration of CIGB-230 and nonpegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin (non-pegIFN-α/R) antiviral therapy. The genotype distribution of IL-28B rs12979860CC, -CT, and -TT was 29, 41, and 30%, respectively, and the distribution for rs8099917TT, -TG, and -GG was 63, 31, and 5%, respectively. The allele frequencies for rs12979860C and -T alleles were 51 and 49%, respectively, and for rs8099917G and -T alleles, the values were 21 and 79%, respectively. SVR rates were 55, 42, and 35% for rs12979860CC, -CT, and -TT, respectively, and 52, 30, and 25% for rs8099917TT, -GT, and -GG, respectively. The combined assessment of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulted in 3 major genotypes (rs12979860CC/rs8099917TT, rs12979860CT/rs8099917TT, and rs12979860CT/rs8099917GG) with a frequency of 30.1, 21.9, and 20.5%, respectively. In patients with heterozygous variant rs12979860CT, the additional genotyping of rs8099917 contributed to increase the SVR rate. It is concluded that in Cuban HCV-infected patients, the responder homogeneous variant rs8099917TT is the most frequent genotype. The simultaneous genotyping of 2 IL-28B SNPs could improve the prediction of SVR contributing to better therapeutic decisions and treatment management. PMID:28058039

  6. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation

    PubMed Central

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value. PMID:25335559

  7. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation.

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-03-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value.

  8. TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IL-10, IL-6, and INF-gamma alleles among African Americans and Cuban Americans. Report of the ASHI Minority Workshops: Part IV.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Nancy L; Esquenazi, Violet; Lucas, Donna P; Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2004-12-01

    Point mutations or single nucleotide substitutions in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may affect levels of cytokine expression and have been associated with acute and chronic rejection in organ transplantation, severity of graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and predisposition to autoimmune disorders. Because these cytokine variants have been studied primarily among Caucasians, we defined the alleles and frequencies of five cytokines among 691 unrelated, adult African Americans and 296 Cuban Americans in the American Society for Histocompatibility/National Institutes of Health Minority HLA Workshops. The genotypes of all cytokines, except for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta among African Americans, were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Genotype frequencies among African American and Cuban American participants were compared with those of 75 North American Caucasian bone marrow donors and with published frequencies. Significant differences were observed in all comparisons except between Cuban and Caucasian Americans for alleles of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. The most notable differences were in genotype frequencies of African Americans compared with those of the two other populations. The frequency of the IFN-gamma genotype A/A, which is associated with low expression, was significantly higher in African Americans than in Caucasian or Cuban Americans (0.66 vs 0.37 and 0.26, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). The high-expression G/G genotype for IL-6 was more than twice as prevalent among African Americans as among Caucasians and 1.5 times more frequent than among Cuban Americans (respective frequencies: 0.85 vs 0.38 and 0.49; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In African Americans, the frequency of the high-expression genotype for IL-10, GCC/GCC, was approximately half that of the frequency in Cuban and Caucasian Americans (0.10 vs 0.19 and 0.23, respectively; p < 0

  9. Metal-organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln4(OH)4] building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-01

    Lanthanide-organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pYb), [Y4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pY-1) and [Y6(OH)8(25p)5(H2O)2] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y6(OH)8]10+ clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG-SDTA-MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C-H-N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction.

  10. Development and evaluation of an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in Cuban breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Josefina; Nápoles, Misleidy; Pérez, Inés; Ordaz, Niurka; Luzardo, Mario; Fernández, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although modern technology has extended the survival of breast cancer patients, treatment's adverse effects impact their health-related quality of life. Currently, no instrument exists capable of identifying the range of problems affecting breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Cuba's socioeconomic and cultural context. OBJECTIVES Construct and validate an instrument to measure the effects of breast cancer and radiotherapy on health-related quality of life in Cuban patients. METHODS The study was conducted at the Oncology and Radiobiology Institute, Havana, Cuba, from January 2010 through December 2011. Inclusion criteria were: adult female, histological diagnosis of breast cancer, treated with ambulatory radiotherapy, and written informed consent; patients unable to communicate orally or in writing, or who had neurologic or psychiatric conditions were excluded. Development phase: focus groups guided by a list of questions were carried out with 50 women. The patients reported 61 problems affecting their health-related quality-of-life. A nominal group (six oncologists and two nurses) identified the same problems. A syntactic analysis of the information was performed to create items for study and measurement scales. Content validity was determined by a nominal group of seven experts using professional judgment. Another 20 patients were selected to evaluate face validity. Validation phase: the instrument was applied to 230 patients at three different points: before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy and four weeks after radiotherapy was concluded. Reliability, construct validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity, interpretability and response burden were evaluated. RESULTS The final instrument developed had 33 items distributed in 4 domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, social and family relationships, and physical and emotional adverse effects of disease and treatment. There were two discrete items: perceived

  11. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils.

    PubMed

    Amos, Gregory C A; Borsetto, Chiara; Laskaris, Paris; Krsek, Martin; Berry, Andrew E; Newsham, Kevin K; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Pearce, David A; Vallin, Carlos; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered.

  12. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa (Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (∼200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  13. Therapeutic Targeting of CD6 in Autoimmune Diseases: A Review of Cuban Clinical Studies with the Antibodies IOR-T1 and Itolizumab.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Patricia; Moreno, Ernesto; Aira, Lazaro E; Rodríguez, Pedro C

    2016-01-01

    The CD6 molecule is a pan T cell marker involved in T cell regulation. Although CD6 expression has been correlated with human autoimmune diseases, only a few therapeutic approaches are exploring this molecule as target in the clinic. The biological functions and mechanisms of actions of CD6 have not been definitively established. It is probable that this molecule plays a dual role as a modulator of intracellular signaling. Itolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for human CD6, developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology in Havana, Cuba. Its parent murine antibody, the IOR-T1 mAb, had been obtained in the 80's at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology, also in Havana. This article provides an overview of the clinical data obtained in Cuban patients with autoimmune diseases who have been treated with IOR-T1 mAb or itolizumab. Furthermore, we discuss the possible mechanism of action of itolizumab basing the analysis on recent site mutagenesis and structural data, which, contrary to previous interpretations, points to a steric blocking of the CD6-CD166 interaction in the cellular context. Overall, the conducted clinical studies have demonstrated that itolizumab has favorable clinical effects and a safety profile when used as monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. So far, in vitro and in vivo evidences indicate that itolizumab has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Hence, itolizumab represents a new therapeutic option for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.

  14. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils

    PubMed Central

    Laskaris, Paris; Krsek, Martin; Berry, Andrew E.; Newsham, Kevin K.; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Pearce, David A.; Vallin, Carlos; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered. PMID:26398766

  15. Determination of bond lengths from extended X-ray absorption fine structure in cobalt(III)-oxo cubane-like clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitin Nair, N.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Das, Birinchi Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the K-edge of cobalt has been studied in two cobalt complexes having Co(III)-oxo cubane-like clusters of the type Co4O4(O2CR)4L4 where R is CH3 and L is pyridine (py) in one of the complex and ammonia (NH3) in the other complex. The spectra have been recorded at BL-9 scanning EXAFS beamline at the 2.5-GeV INDUS-2 Synchrotron, RRCAT, Indore, India. The positions of EXAFS maxima and minima have been reported. Using this data, the bond length has been determined by simple bond determination methods, viz., Levy's, Lytle's and Lytle, Sayers and Stern's (LSS) methods. The normalized EXAFS spectra have been Fourier transformed and the value of the bond length has also been determined from the position of the first peak in the Fourier transform. This distance is the phase-uncorrected bond length. LSS method also gives such bond length. The results obtained from Fourier transform and LSS methods have been found to be comparable to each other. For the pyridine complex, the value obtained from Levy's method has been found to be in agreement with the available crystallographic value.

  16. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  17. Cubane-type Mo3FeS4(4+,5+) complexes containing outer diphosphane ligands: ligand substitution reactions, spectroscopic studies, and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Sorribes, Ivan; Lloret, Francesc; Waerenborgh, Joao C; Polo, Victor; Llusar, Rosa; Vicent, Cristian

    2012-10-15

    A general protocol to access Mo(3)FeS(4)(4+) clusters selectively modified at the Fe coordination site is presented starting from the all-chlorine Mo(3)(FeCl)S(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3) (1) [dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphane-ethane)] cluster and tetrabutylammonium salts (n-Bu(4)NX) (X = CN(-), N(3)(-), and PhS(-)). Clusters Mo(3)(FeX)S(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3) [X = CN(-) (2), N(3)(-) (3), and PhS(-) (4)] are prepared in high yield, and comparison of geometric and redox features upon modification of the coordination environment at the Fe site at parity of ligands at the Mo sites is also presented. The existence of the cubane-type Mo(3)FeS(4)(4+,5+) redox couple is demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and for compound 1 by cluster synthesis and X-ray structure determinations. Ground states for the 1/1(+) redox couple are evaluated on the basis of magnetic susceptibility measurements, electron paramagnetic resonance, and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy aimed at providing an input of experimental data for electronic structure determination based on density functional theory calculations.

  18. Cuban and Brazilian red propolis: botanical origin and comparative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Lotti, Cinzia; Campone, Luca; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-06-22

    Chemical composition of propolis depends on the specificity of the local flora at the site of collection and thus on the geographic and climatic characteristics of this place. This paper describes a comparative analysis of Cuban red propolis (CRP), Brazilian red propolis (BRP), and Dalbergia ecastophyllum exudates (DEE) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and tandem mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to investigate the overall chemical profile and the botanical origin of red propolis and to suggest similarities and differences between samples collected in different tropical regions. Isoliquiritigenin (1), liquiritigenin and naringenin (2 and 17), isoflavones (3-4 and 16), isoflavans (5-7 and 18), and pterocarpans (8-13) were detected in CRP, BRP, and DEE, whereas polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PPBs) guttiferone E/xanthochymol (14a,b) and oblongifolin A (15) were detected only in BRP. Pigments responsible for the red color of DEE and red propolis were also identified as two C30 isoflavans, the new retusapurpurin B (19) and retusapurpurin A (20). PPBs and pigments were isolated and unambiguously characterized by 1D and 2D NMR analysis. These results show that red propolis samples from different tropical zones have a similar chemical composition. DEE is the main red propolis source, but the presence of PPBs in BRP suggests the contribution of different botanical sources for Brazilian samples. This chemical information is important for quality control of red propolis and its commercial products and for biological study.

  19. In Vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the ground fruits of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on rat microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Roberto; Más, Rosa; Pérez, Yohani; González, R M

    2007-01-01

    D-004 is a lipid extract of the fruits of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) containing a mixture of saturated fatty acids. D-004 inhibits prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, in rodents. Since fatty acids inhibit lipid peroxidation (LP), this study investigated whether D-004 prevents in vitro LP. D-004 (0.9-1000 microg/mL) markedly and dose-dependently inhibited in vitro iron-induced LP in native brain and liver microsomes. D-004 showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, which could explain partially its antioxidant effect on microsomal iron-induced LP, but it was unable to scavenge superoxide and ABTS radicals, indicating a limited radical scavenging activity. Also, D-004 inhibited CCl4-mediated LP in active liver microsomes through a decreased generation of radical species rather than a radical trapping action on CCl(4)-derived radical species. D-004 also inhibited lipooxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, and the generation of protein-associated carbonyl groups after LP. Since increased oxidative stress has been linked to PH, the antioxidant effect of D-004 shown here could contribute to explaining its beneficial effects on T-induced PH in rodents. Nevertheless, this study shows only in vitro results. Further studies should investigate whether D-004 also exhibits antioxidant effects in vivo.

  20. Circulation and deep water export of the subpolar North Atlantic during the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich A.; Brandt, Peter

    Moored array observations and deep float trajectories have allowed an improved quantification of the deep subpolar circulation, in particular regarding the Deep Western Boundary Currents (DWBCs) at the exit of the subpolar gyre and the circulation of Labrador Sea Water (LSW). With the decrease of Labrador Sea deep convection during the mid 1990's, LSW salinity and temperature increased by 0.005/yr and 0.06°C/yr, respectively, over the past decade through eddy exchange with the warmer, saltier boundary current water. At the same time, water masses with upper LSW properties were generated in large quantities by shallow convection compensating the lack of classical LSW formation. Sea-level observations and model simulations have pointed to a decrease of the large-scale near-surface cyclonic subpolar gyre circulation over the past decade and we compare the associated gyre indices. The LSW-level currents at the exit of the Labrador Sea, however, show a strengthening during 1997-2005, while the DWBC east of the Grand Banks showed no significant changes from the period 1993-95 to 2005. The mean Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) at the exit of the subpolar gyre has been estimated by several inverse model studies to be 16±2 Sv and the corresponding heat transport at 0.61±0.07 PW. Inverse analysis for MOC variations among five hydrographic sections taken during 1993-2000 across the North Atlantic at approximately 48°N found no detectable decadal trend nor large changes, with the estimates of the MOC intensity varying among the five realizations only from 13.8 to 16.6 Sv. Two assimilation models, ECCO and SODA-POP, are evaluated for MOC variability at the exit of the subpolar basin. Only small MOC changes are found, with no indication of a decadal "MOC slowdown", in agreement also with the observed deep boundary currents in the western outflow regime.

  1. Electron localization function study on the chemical bonding in a real space for tetrahedrane, cubane, adamantane, and dodecahedrane and their perfluorinated derivatives and radical anions.

    PubMed

    Berski, Slawomir; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Latajka, Zdzislaw

    2014-06-12

    The nature of chemical bonding in caged cycloalkanes CnXn, CnFn(-•), (n = 4, 8, 20; X = H, F), and C10X16, C10F16(-•), (X = H, F) has been investigated using topological analysis of the ELF function, electron density, and the Laplacian of electron density at density functional theory (DFT) level. The bonding analysis performed for the perfluorinated radical anion of dodecahedrane (C20F20(-•)), bestowing an additional electron, shows an unexpected local maximum of the ELF inside the carbon cage. The presence of such an attractor confirms the sigma stellation concept presented by Irikura (J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 983) and essential change of the electron localization inside the cage. The basin belongs to the rare asynaptic type, V(asyn), and its mean electron population is 0.26 (0.36e). The value of the integrated spin density, 0.13e, shows that both spin-up and spin-down electrons reside in the vicinity of the cage center. A similar attractor has been found for perfluorinated radical anion of adamantane (C10F16(-•)). However, the saturation of the basis set suggests that such an attractor may be an artifact. For both caged perfluorinated tetrahedrane and cubane (CnFn (-•), n = 4, 8), no valence attractors are present inside the cage. Unpaired electron density is concentrated mainly on the C-C bonding basins. The results obtained in this study are complementary to those based on the molecular orbital theory presented by Irikura.

  2. The experience of medical training and expectations regarding future medical practice of medical students in the Cuban-supported Medical School in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Valdes, Ana C; Cabral, Jorge

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the professional expectations and profile of medical students at the Cuban-supported School of General Medicine, in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the National University of Timor-Leste. A piloted, standardized questionnaire, with closed- and open-ended questions, was distributed to registered medical students attending classes on the day of the survey. All data were analysed using SPSS. The statistical analysis is mostly descriptive. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population is high. Medical students are in general satisfied with the training received, though demanding improvements in terms of systems to support their studies and training (e.g. libraries, laboratories, access to computers and the Internet). Medical students know that they will be needed in the public sector and that it would represent their opportunity to contribute to the public's welfare. Nonetheless, they report that they expect to combine public sector practice with private work, probably, in order to improve their earnings. This may be explained by their expectations for salaries, which are much higher than the current level of public sector salaries. A significant proportion of students are unsure about their future area of specialization. Of those that have determined their desired specialization, most intend to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. For many, specialization is equated with migration to study abroad. There are important differences between students at the start of their training compared with more advanced students. This paper gives an overview of student expectations for alignment with stated national human resources for health priorities for Timor-Leste.

  3. Multivariate analysis of the factors affecting attitude toward living liver donation among workers in surgical services in Spanish, Mexican, and Cuban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Abdo-Cuza, A; Febrero, B; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Palacios, G; Suárez-López, J; Castellanos, R; Rodríguez, J S; Martínez, M A; Nieto, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2012-01-01

    Current liver donation rates are insufficient to cover transplant needs. Therefore, it is essential to promote living liver donation (LLD) given the ever decreasing morbidity and mortality in the donor and the improving results in the recipient. LLD is becoming increasingly accepted. However, in the health care system, a percentage of the personnel are not in favor. To analyze the attitude of personnel in surgical services in Spain and Latin-America hospitals toward LLD. As part of the "International Collaborative Donor Project," a random sample was taken and stratified according to surgical service and job category in 10 hospitals; three in Spain, five in Mexico, and two in Cuba (n = 496). Attitude was evaluated using a validated survey that was completed anonymously and self-administered. Eighty-six percent (n = 425) of respondents were in favor of related living liver donation, and 30% (n = 147) were in favor if it were not related. According to country, 88% of the Mexican respondents were in favor of living liver donation, 85% of the Cubans, and 82% of the Spanish (P > .05). In the multivariate analysis of the variables with most weight affecting attitude toward LLD, the following significant associations were found: (1) a favourable attitude toward living kidney donation (odds ratio [OR] = 91; P < .001); (2) acceptance of a donated living liver if one were needed (OR = 11; P < .001); and (3) family discussion about donation and transplantation (OR = 2.581; P = .037). Attitude toward related living liver donation was very favorable among hospital personnel in Spanish and Latin American surgical services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Level of acceptance of a clinical solid organ xenotransplantation program among personnel in organ transplant-related services in Spanish, Mexican, and Cuban hospital centers.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Abdo-Cuza, A; López-Navas, A; López-López, A; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Camacho, A; Suárez-López, J; Castellanos, R; Rodríguez, J S; Martínez, M A; Nieto, A; Ramis, G; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2010-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is far from becoming a clinical reality. However, in vital organs it could be used as a bridge until a human organ becomes available, in an emergency situation. We analyzed the attitude toward xenotransplantation among personnel in transplant-related services in several hospitals in Spain and Latin America. A random sample stratified by type of service and job category (n = 738), in transplant-related services (procurement units, transplant units, and transplant patient follow-up units) was examined in eight hospital centers from three different countries: Spain (n = 349), Mexico (n = 269), and Cuba (n = 120). A self-administered validated questionnaire was completed anonymously. Based on the assumption that all the results of xenotransplantation were similar to those achieved with human donors, most respondents [66% (n = 484)] would be in favor. The employees from Cuban centers had the most favorable attitudes (72% in favor), followed by the Spanish (64%) and the Mexicans (61%; P = .013). However, the differences were mainly determined by job category: Physicians showed the most favorable attitudes and auxiliary staff the least (67% vs 40%; P = .010). Attitudes were significantly related to beliefs about different types of human donation [deceased (P < .001) and living (P < .001)], the possibility of needing a transplant for oneself (P < .001), and a favorable attitude toward donating the organs of a deceased family member (P = .004). Currently, a third of health care employees working in transplant-related services are not in favor of xenotransplantation. More information should be provided about the subject, especially in centers with preclinical xenotransplantation programs.

  5. Preventive effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits, on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in intact and castrated rodents.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V; Rodríguez, E; González, V

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma that can cause difficulty urinating. Fruit lipid extracts from saw palmetto, a palm from the Arecaceae family, are used for BPH management. The Cuban royal palm, Roystonea regia, is also a member of the Arecaceae family and therefore it was appropriate to investigate the protective effects of Roystonea regia fruit lipid extracts on prostatic hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, prevented testosterone-induced PH in castrated and intact rodents. Two series of experiments were performed. The first one was conducted in castrated and intact rats, distributed into five groups of 10 rats per group. The negative control group was injected with soy oil and treated orally with vehicle, while the four testosterone-injected groups were treated with vehicle (positive control), D-004 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The other experiment was conducted in castrated and intact mice. These were distributed into four groups of 10 mice per group: a negative control group and three testosterone-injected groups, of which one was a positive control, while two received D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. At study completion, the rodents were sacrificed and prostates removed and weighed. D-004 at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently prevented prostate enlargement in intact and castrated rats and mice. The percentage inhibitions obtained in mice were greater: 77% and 84% for intact and castrated mice, respectively. D-004 therapy did not affect body weight. It is concluded that D-004 administered orally significantly prevented testosterone-induced prostate enlargement in both intact and castrated rodents, indicating that an endogenous supply of testosterone is not necessary to observe such an effect The results of the present investigation support further studies of D

  6. Changes in Test Scores Distribution for Students of the Fourth Grade in Brazil: A Relative Distribution Analysis for the Years 1997-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…

  7. Effect of PM(10) and O(3) on infant mortality among residents in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case-crossover analysis, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Arroyo, L; Miranda-Soberanis, V; Medina-Ramón, M; Rojas-Bracho, L; Tzintzun, G; Solís-Gutiérrez, P; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Hurtado-Díaz, M; Schwartz, J; Romieu, I

    2011-08-01

    Consistent evidence has shown a positive association between air pollution and daily mortality among adults. Less is known about its effect on infant mortality and the modification of this association by socioeconomic status (SES). To assess the association of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10μm (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) on infant mortality and its modification by SES. We evaluated the relationship of 24 h mean PM(10) and 1h daily maximum O(3) levels with 12 079 all-cause deaths (3903 respiratory deaths) among 1- to 11-month-old infants residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area between January 1997 and December 2005 using a case-crossover approach. The data were analysed using conditional logistic regression models, controlling for weather conditions and day of the week. Single-effect models showed, for all-cause mortality, increases of 5.5% (95% CI 1% to 10%) at lag1 and 6.6% (2% to 11.4%) at lag2; cumulative exposure models (0-2 days) showed an increase of 6.3% (0.01% to 32.7%). Respiratory mortality increased marginally at 5.3% (-0.02% to 13.2%) with a 1-day lag and 10% (2.1% to 18%) with a 2-day lag per increase of 38.7 μg/m(3) (IQR) in PM(10) levels. When data were stratified by SES (low, medium, and high), only infants with low and medium SES presented a significant increase in risk of all-cause mortality and respiratory mortality in relation to PM(10). O(3) was only significantly related to respiratory mortality in low SES. Our results suggest that in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, infants with lower SES (low to medium) are at higher risk of mortality when exposed to ambient PM(10) and O(3).

  8. [Haematological malignancies (HM) in Basse-Normandie (BN): incidence and clinical and biological characteristics over the period 1997-2005 in patients less than 25 years old].

    PubMed

    Collignon, A; Duchenet, V; Mouchel, D; Malet, M; Cornet, E; Troussard, X

    2012-10-01

    The study was designed to present the incidence of all the haematological malignancies (HM) in Basse-Normandie (BN) over the period 1997 to 2005 in patients less than 25 years old. BN is an administrative region in the North-West of France, composed of three departments: Calvados, Manche and Orne. We extracted data from the Registre régional des hémopathies malignes de Basse-Normandie, a French registry which belongs to the Association of the French Cancer Registries (Francim). All the HM were coded using the third edition of the International classification for oncologic diseases (ICD-O-3). We compared the clinical and biological descriptive data in patients less than 15 years old to those of young adults (15-24 years old). A total of 305 new cases of HM were recorded over the period 1997 to 2005. HM were more frequent in men (168 cases) than in women (137 cases). Patients less than 25 years old accounted for 4.1% of all HM cases, whereas patients less than 15 years old and young adults (15-24 years old) represented 2.2% and 1.9% of all cases, respectively. In patients less than 25 years old, the overall world-standardized incidence rates (WSR) were 7.67/100,000 (95% CI: 6.31-9.04) in BN (8.08 [6.15-10.02] for men and 7.24 [5.31-9.17] for women). In patients less than 15years, the overall WSR was 7.38/100,000 (6.23-8.52), with no difference between boys (7.57) and girls (7.17). Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was the most frequent HM, WSR=4.02/100,000 (3.16-4.88) (4.30 [3.08-5.53] in men, 3.73 [2.52-4.93] in women), with similar clinical and biological criteria between patients less than 15 years and young adults. In young adults, the overall WSR was 8.21/100,000 (7.47-8.96), similar between men and women (9.02 [7.93-10.12] and 7.37 [6.35-8.38], respectively). Their highest WSR was obtained for Hodgkin lymphomas (HL): 3.37/100,000 (2.89-3.85), similar between men (3.49 [2.8-4.17]) and women (3.25 [2.58-3.93]). The study did not show any significant difference between the Calvados, Manche and Orne departments (except for HL, which seems more frequent in Manche department for 15-24 years old cases). There was no evidence of an increased risk for ALL in the subdistricts Beaumont-Hague and Les Pieux, which respectively have a nuclear waste reprocessing plant and a nuclear power plant on their territory. The subtype of HM was dependent on age whereas clinical and biological data were the same, whatever the age. These results contribute to HM monitoring in an area where the nuclear industry is present and to improve the organization and follow-up of medical care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates of early life stages by modifying flows in the HCR, reducing mortality imposed by the catch and release fishery, augmenting natural production through translocation or hatchery releases, and assessing detrimental effects of contaminants on reproductive potential. These proposed actions were evaluated by assessing their relative potential to affect population growth rate and by determining the feasibility of their execution, including a realistic timeframe (short-term, mid-term, long-term) for their implementation and evaluation. A multi-pronged approach for management was decided upon whereby various actions will be implemented and evaluated under different timeframes. Priority management actions include: Action I- Produce juvenile white sturgeon in a hatchery and release into the management area; Action G- Collect juvenile white sturgeon from other populations in the Snake or Columbia rivers and release them into the management area; and Action D- Restore white sturgeon passage upriver and downriver at Lower Snake and Idaho Power dams. An integral part of this approach is the continual monitoring of performance measures to assess the progressive response of the population to implemented actions, to evaluate the actions efficacy toward achieving objectives, and to refine and redirect strategies if warranted.

  10. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract

  11. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy induced with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in a rat model: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Maria de Lourdes; Rosa, Más; Molina, Vivian; Rodríguez, Eduardo; González, Victor

    2004-11-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostatic epithelial cells and stroma that, left untreated, may lead to difficult urination and other complications. A common treatment of BPH is lipid extract from saw palmetto fruit, and lipid extract from Cuban Royal palm (a palm of the same family) fruit is being studied for this use. One study found that the latter, D-004, at 100 to 400 mg/kg daily prevented prostatic hypertrophy (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in a rat model. This study comprised 2 experiments in a rat model. The first assessed the effects of different doses of D-004 on T-induced PH; the second investigated the effects of D-004 on PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In experiment 1, rats were distributed in 6 groups of 10 rats each. One group received an SC injection of soy oil and oral treatment with Tween 65/water vehicle (negative control). The other 5 groups received an SC injection of T 3 mg/kg daily and oral treatment with vehicle (positive control) or D-004 at 50, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily suspended in vehicle. In experiment 2, rats were distributed in 3 groups of 10 rats each. A negative control group received treatment as in experiment 1. Positive controls received an SC injection of DHT 1.5 mg/kg and vehicle orally. The third group received an SC injection of DHT and oral treatment with D-004 at 800 mg/kg suspended in vehicle. All treatments were given for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and weighed. Mean prostatic weights and prostatic/body weight ratios were calculated. In experiment 1, in the groups receiving D-004 at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic weight was significantly lower compared with the positive control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively); this effect was not seen in the group receiving 50 mg/kg daily. In the groups receiving D-004 at 400 and 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic/body weight ratio was significantly lower compared with positive controls

  12. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy induced with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in a rat model: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Maria de Lourdes; Rosa, Más; Molina, Vivian; Rodríguez, Eduardo; González, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostatic epithelial cells and stroma that, left untreated, may lead to difficult urination and other complications. A common treatment of BPH is lipid extract from saw palmetto fruit, and lipid extract from Cuban Royal palm (a palm of the same family) fruit is being studied for this use. One study found that the latter, D-004, at 100 to 400 mg/kg daily prevented prostatic hypertrophy (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in a rat model. Objectives: This study comprised 2 experiments in a rat model. The first assessed the effects of different doses of D-004 on T-induced PH; the second investigated the effects of D-004 on PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Methods: In experiment 1, rats were distributed in 6 groups of 10 rats each. One group received an SC injection of soy oil and oral treatment with Tween 65/water vehicle (negative control). The other 5 groups received an SC injection of T 3 mg/kg daily and oral treatment with vehicle (positive control) or D-004 at 50, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily suspended in vehicle. In experiment 2, rats were distributed in 3 groups of 10 rats each. A negative control group received treatment as in experiment 1. Positive controls received an SC injection of DHT 1.5 mg/kg and vehicle orally. The third group received an SC injection of DHT and oral treatment with D-004 at 800 mg/kg suspended in vehicle. All treatments were given for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and weighed. Mean prostatic weights and prostatic/body weight ratios were calculated. Results: In experiment 1, in the groups receiving D-004 at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic weight was significantly lower compared with the positive control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively); this effect was not seen in the group receiving 50 mg/kg daily. In the groups receiving D-004 at 400 and 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic/body weight ratio was

  13. Multistage 8.2 kyr event revealed through high-resolution XRF core scanning of Cuban sinkhole sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, Matthew; Collins, Shawn; G'Meiner, Anna Agosta; Reinhardt, Eduard; Pupo, Felipe Matos

    2017-07-01

    We use sediments from a flooded sinkhole (Cenote Jennifer) in northern Cuba to provide new, well-dated, high-resolution evidence for the 8.2 kyr event. From 7600 to 8700 cal yr B.P. the sinkhole contained shallow, low-salinity water, which supported a marsh dominated by cattail and grass. Peaks in Cl and Br—occurring at 8150, 8200, and 8250 cal yr B.P.—are attributable to increased evaporation due to regional drying associated with the 8.2 kyr event. The three peaks in these elements also closely correspond to the greyscale record from the Cariaco Basin, indicative of increased upwelling in the southern Caribbean Sea at this time, supporting the notion of a multistage 8.2 kyr event. Our work provides new data that help to clarify the initiation, behavior, and impacts of the 8.2 kyr event in the northern tropics.

  14. Germination and soil seed bank traits of Podocarpus angustifolius (Podocarpaceae): an endemic tree species from Cuban rain forests.

    PubMed

    Ferrandis, Pablo; Bonilla, Marta; Osorio, Licet del Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Podocarpus angustifolius is an endangered recalcitrant-seeded small tree, endemic to mountain rain forests in the central and Pinar del Río regions in Cuba. In this study, the germination patterns of P. angustifolius seeds were evaluated and the nature of the soil seed bank was determined. Using a weighted two-factor design, we analyzed the combined germination response to seed source (i.e. freshly matured seeds directly collected from trees versus seeds extracted from soil samples) and pretreatment (i.e. seed water-immersion for 48h at room temperature). Germination was delayed for four weeks (= 30 days) in all cases, regardless of both factors analyzed. Moreover, nine additional days were necessary to achieve high germination values (in the case of fresh, pretreated seeds). These results overall may indicate the existence of a non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy in P. angustifolius seeds. The water-immersion significantly enhanced seed germination, probably as a result of the hydration of recalcitrant seeds. Although germination of seeds extracted from soil samples was low, probably due to aging and pathogen effects throughout the time of burial, the study revealed the existence of a persistent soil seed bank (at least short-termed) of approximately 42 viable seeds per m2 in the upper 10cm of soil. Such a record is noteworthy since references to persistent soil seed banks in recalcitrant-seeded species are scarce in the literature. The population consequences derived from the formation of persistent soil seed banks in this endangered species are discussed.

  15. Total energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water method in rural preschool children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Salazar, Gabriela; Díaz, Erik; Sánchez, Vivian; Basabe, Beatriz; González, Soraya; Díaz, Maria Elena

    2002-09-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of the Cuban Nutrition Program for covering the energy requirements of children was carried out in children 5.0 +/- 1.0 years of age in a rural mountain community in Cuba. Five males and six females (19 +/- 3.05 kg average weight) with a mean BMI 15.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were included in the study. Six of the subjects were well-nourished, three were undernourished, and two were overweight. Total energy expenditure was determined by the doubly-labeled water technique. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake, measured by a three-day weighed dietary record, was 1,527 kcal/day (6.39 MJ). The total energy expenditure of the well-nourished children was 11.8% lower than present energy recommendations (1,773 kcal). This implies that well-nourished children who are moderately to heavily physically active require 82.6 kcal/kg per day. The physical activity level of normal Cuban children is nearly 1.8, which is much higher than that reported in studies of children from industrialized countries using the doubly-labeled water technique. The measured daily energy intake was 1.7 times the resting metabolic rate RMR and 1.04 times the total energy expenditure.

  16. Oxygen atom transfer and oxidative water incorporation in cuboidal Mn3MO(n) complexes based on synthetic, isotopic labeling, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jacob S; Mendoza-Cortes, Jose L; Tsui, Emily Y; Nielsen, Robert J; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor

    2013-01-23

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II contains a Mn(4)CaO(n) catalytic site, in which reactivity of bridging oxidos is fundamental to OEC function. We synthesized structurally relevant cuboidal Mn(3)MO(n) complexes (M = Mn, Ca, Sc; n = 3,4) to enable mechanistic studies of reactivity and incorporation of μ(3)-oxido moieties. We found that Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4) and Mn(IV)(3)ScO(4) were unreactive toward trimethylphosphine (PMe(3)). In contrast, our Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4) cubane reacts with this phosphine within minutes to generate a novel Mn(III)(4)O(3) partial cubane plus Me(3)PO. We used quantum mechanics to investigate the reaction paths for oxygen atom transfer to phosphine from Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4) and Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4). We found that the most favorable reaction path leads to partial detachment of the CH(3)COO(-) ligand, which is energetically feasible only when Mn(III) is present. Experimentally, the lability of metal-bound acetates is greatest for Mn(III)(2)Mn(IV)(2)O(4). These results indicate that even with a strong oxygen atom acceptor, such as PMe(3), the oxygen atom transfer chemistry from Mn(3)MO(4) cubanes is controlled by ligand lability, with the Mn(IV)(3)CaO(4) OEC model being unreactive. The oxidative oxide incorporation into the partial cubane, Mn(III)(4)O(3), was observed experimentally upon treatment with water, base, and oxidizing equivalents. (18)O-labeling experiments provided mechanistic insight into the position of incorporation in the partial cubane structure, consistent with mechanisms involving migration of oxide moieties within the cluster but not consistent with selective incorporation at the site available in the starting species. These results support recent proposals for the mechanism of the OEC, involving oxido migration between distinct positions within the cluster.

  17. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  18. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M{sub 4}O{sub 4}, M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu; Rahaman, Badiur

    2015-11-15

    Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M{sub 4}X{sub 4} nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M{sub 4}X{sub 4} clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2). We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M{sub 4}O{sub 4} clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  19. Mechanistic and energetic aspects of the thermal and photochemical redox chemistry of the octanuclear cubane complexes, Fe(III)(8)(mu(4)-O(4))(mu-pyrazolate)(12)X(4) (X = Cl or Br).

    PubMed

    Ferraudi, Guillermo; Piñero, Dalice; Chakraborty, Indranil; Raptis, Raphael G; Lappin, A Graham; Berlin, Nicholas

    2010-05-13

    The mechanisms of the thermal and photochemical redox reactions of clusters [Fe(III)(8)(mu(4)-O(4))(mu-Pz)(12)X(4)] (Pz = pyrazolate anion, X = Cl or Br) were investigated in this work. Reactions of the complexes with e(-)(sol), C(*)H(2)OH, and several powerful reducing transition metal complexes were investigated using the pulse radiolysis technique. Reaction rates of the outer-sphere electron transfer reactions with transition metal complexes had to be rationalized by invoking the formation of a [Fe(III)(7)Fe(II) '(mu(4)-O(4))(mu-Pz)(12)X(4)](-) intermediate or excited state. A transient species observed in the reaction of the e(-)(sol) with the cubanes can be either an excited state or a reaction intermediate mediating the formation of the stable product, [Fe(III)(7)Fe(II)(mu(4)-O(4))(mu-Pz)(12)X(4)](-). Photoredox reactions, characteristic of the ligand X(-) to Fe(III) charge transfer excited sates, were observed in the 350 nm steady state and 351 nm laser flash irradiations of the cubanes. Quantum yields are limited by the rapid recombination of the photofragments. The charge transfer spectroscopy of the products was rationalized on the basis of parameters derived from the thermal electron transfer reactions.

  20. Common variants at the 9q22.33, 14q13.3 and ATM loci, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in the Cuban population.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Celia M; Lesueur, Fabienne; Pertesi, Maroulio; Robinot, Nivonirina; Lence-Anta, Juan J; Turcios, Silvia; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Maillard, Stéphane; Damiola, Francesca; Rubino, Carole; Salazar, Sirced; Rodriguez, Regla; Ortiz, Rosa M; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in Cuba is low and the contribution of host genetic factors to DTC in this population has not been investigated so far. Our goal was to assess the role of known risk polymorphisms in DTC cases living in Havana. We genotyped five polymorphisms located at the DTC susceptibility loci on chromosome 14q13.3 near NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), on chromosome 9q22.33 near Forkhead factor E1 (FOXE1) and within the DNA repair gene Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) in 203 cases and 212 age- and sex- matched controls. Potential interactions between these polymorphisms and other DTC risk factors such as body surface area, body mass index, size, ethnicity, and, for women, the parity were also examined. Significant association with DTC risk was found for rs944289 near NKX2-1 (OR per A allele = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), and three polymorphisms near or within FOXE1, namely rs965513 (OR per A allele = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), rs1867277 in the promoter region of the gene (OR per A allele = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) and the poly-alanine tract expansion polymorphism rs71369530 (OR per Long Allele = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), only the 2 latter remaining significant when correcting for multiple tests. Overall, no association between DTC and the coding SNP D1853N (rs1801516) in ATM (OR per A Allele = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.7-1.7) was seen. Nevertheless women who had 2 or more pregnancies had a 3.5-fold increase in risk of DTC if they carried the A allele (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 3.2-9.8) as compared to 0.8 (OR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.6) in those who had fewer than 2. We confirmed in the Cuban population the role of the loci previously associated with DTC susceptibility in European and Japanese populations through genome-wide association studies. Our results on ATM and the number of pregnancies raise interesting questions on the mechanisms by which oestrogens, or other hormones, alter the DNA damage response and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins

  1. Meet Cuban Ebola fighters: interview with Félix Báez and Jorge Pérez. A MEDICC Review exclusive.

    PubMed

    Báez, Félix; Pérez, Jorge; Reed, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Tramping through the Himalayan snows to treat patients after the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, internist Félix Báez could never have imagined he would be on the front lines of Ebola in Sierra Leone nine years later….much less that he would contract the deadly virus, live to tell the story and also to return to his team in Africa to continue the fight. At his side in the Geneva University Hospital, where he was airlifted, was Dr Jorge Pérez, today director of Cuba's Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK), but best known as "Cuba's AIDS doctor." Times have changed for both physicians, and Ebola is first on their minds as it rages on. At this writing, while there is cautious optimism in Liberia, the epidemic is not yet under control. Ebola has already infected nearly 22,000 people, taken over 8600 lives; Sierra Leone is one of the countries hardest hit. Among the sick and dying have been too many local health workers: 103 of the 138 infected, at last count. The first to sound the global alarm was Doctors Without Borders, which, like Cuba, already had health professionals on the ground in Africa; they were joined by many more, and Cuba was the country that offered the most assistance once WHO called for nations to step up with funds and, most importantly, human resources. Cuba sent 256 volunteers, all with significant international emergency experience: 38 to Guinea, 53 to Liberia and 165 to Sierra Leone. And more wait in the wings, specially-trained disaster medical workers who have already received their first round of Ebola courses at IPK. These Cuban and other international volunteers are bringing patients back from the brink of death, assisting national health workers and community educators. And people like Jorge Pérez are working to get to the bottom of Ebola to help prevent its spread throughout Africa and to other parts of the world. But to keep an epidemic like this from happening again, it will take more, much more. Not only could the global

  2. In vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on prostate steroid 5α-reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Má, Rosa; González, Rosa M

    2006-11-01

    D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), has been found to reduce prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T), but not PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in rodents, suggesting the inhibition of prostate 5α-reductase activity. The aims of this study were to assess whether D-004 inhibits prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro and to examine the effects of D-004 on enzyme kinetics. This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Soluble rat prostate preparations were used as the source of 5α-reductase, and ((3)H)-DHT production was measured to determine prostate 5α-reductase activity. Cell-free rat prostate homogenates were pre-incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose 2% alone (control tubes) or D-004 (0.24-125 μg/mL) suspended in the vehicle (treated tubes) for 10 minutes prior to adding the labeled substrate ((3)H)-T Once the reaction was stopped, sterols were extracted with chloroform and aliquots were applied on silica gel plates developed in benzene-acetone (4:1, v/v). Areas containing DHT were scraped and radioactivity was counted. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined by measuring the conversion of T to DHT The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax values before and after adding D-004 were determined in kinetic studies using labeled T (0.5-25 μmol/L). Compared with controls, D-004 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic reaction at doses of 1.95 to 125.0 μg/mL) (all, P < 0.05). The IC50 of D-004 required to inhibit 5a-reductase activity was 2.25 μg/mL. Enzyme inhibition was noncompetitive, since D-004 lowered the Vmax from 15.3 to 10.0 nmol DHT/min · mg(-1) protein, while the Km (4.54 μmol/L) was almost unaffected. D-004 dose-dependently and noncompetitively inhibited in vitro 5α-reductase activity in soluble fractions of rat prostate

  3. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on histological changes of prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, M; Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma leading to difficulty in urinating. Lipid extracts from Saw palmetto (Arecaceae) fruits are used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is a member of this family and D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, prevents prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, as opposed to dihydrotestosterone, in rodents. This study investigated whether D-004 could prevent the histological features of testosterone-induced PH in rats. Rats were distributed into six groups (10 rats per group): A negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of soy oil and treated with vehicle, and five groups injected subcutaneously with testosterone and treated with the vehicle (positive control), D-004 (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) or Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and processed for light microscopy. The histopathological findings of PH were assessed according to a score-chart protocol. D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, but not 100 mg/kg, significantly and moderately in a dose-dependent manner prevented prostate enlargement and the testosterone-induced histological changes. Compared with positive controls, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited prostate size increases and the histological score up to 56.1% and 60.7%, respectively, while Saw palmetto 400 mg/kg reduced such variables by 45.8% and 49.0%, respectively. The effects of D-004 400 mg/kg on the histological changes, not on prostate size, were greater (p < 0.05) than those of Saw palmetto. D-004 and Saw palmetto did not affect body weight values. In conclusion, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days prevented the increase of prostate size and the testosterone-induced histological changes in rats, its effects being comparable or mildly better than those of Saw palmetto. These results extend previous data showing preventive

  4. In vitro effect of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), on prostate steroid 5α-reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, L. Yohani; Menéndez, Roberto; Má, Rosa; González, Rosa M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia), has been found to reduce prostatic hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone (T), but not PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in rodents, suggesting the inhibition of prostate 5α-reductase activity. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess whether D-004 inhibits prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro and to examine the effects of D-004 on enzyme kinetics. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Center of Natural Products, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana, Cuba. Soluble rat prostate preparations were used as the source of 5α-reductase, and (3H)-DHT production was measured to determine prostate 5α-reductase activity. Cell-free rat prostate homogenates were pre-incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose 2% alone (control tubes) or D-004 (0.24–125 μg/mL) suspended in the vehicle (treated tubes) for 10 minutes prior to adding the labeled substrate (3H)-T Once the reaction was stopped, sterols were extracted with chloroform and aliquots were applied on silica gel plates developed in benzene-acetone (4:1, v/v). Areas containing DHT were scraped and radioactivity was counted. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined by measuring the conversion of T to DHT The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax values before and after adding D-004 were determined in kinetic studies using labeled T (0.5-25 μmol/L). Results: Compared with controls, D-004 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic reaction at doses of 1.95 to 125.0 μg/mL) (all, P < 0.05). The IC50 of D-004 required to inhibit 5a-reductase activity was 2.25 μg/mL. Enzyme inhibition was noncompetitive, since D-004 lowered the Vmax from 15.3 to 10.0 nmol DHT/min · mg−1 protein, while the Km (4.54 μmol/L) was almost unaffected. Conclusions: D-004 dose-dependently and noncompetitively inhibited in vitro 5

  5. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from the Cuban royal palm fruit, on atypical prostate hyperplasia induced by phenylephrine in rats.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Molina, V; Noa, M; Carbajal, D; Mendoza, N

    2006-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), the dwarf American palm (Arecaceae family), is commonly used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) also belongs to the Arecaceae family, and 200-400mg of D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, administered orally for 14 days has been shown to prevent testosterone- but not dihydrotestosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. D-004 (125-250 microg/mL) added to preparations of rat vas deferens caused a marked, dose-dependent and significant inhibition of noradrenaline-induced smooth muscle contraction, a response mediated through alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and was more effective in these respects than Saw palmetto. However, the in vivo effects of D-004 and Saw palmetto on the hypertensive response induced by noradrenaline were modest (albeit significant), and neither treatment affected resting blood pressure or heart rate in rats. The differential effects of D-004 in in vitro and in vivo models could be related to a differential affinity for adrenoceptor subtypes or to different bioavailabilities in vascular and urogenital targets. Phenylephrine injected into rodents induces prostatic hyperplasia with all the characteristic morphological changes of the condition but does not result in enlargement of the prostate. Therefore, this phenylephrine-induced change in rat prostate tissue is called atypical prostatic hyperplasia. It serves as an in vivo model of prostatic hyperplasia induced by stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The objective of this study was to determine whether D-004 can inhibit induction of atypical prostatic hyperplasia by phenylephrine in rats. Rats were randomly distributed into five groups (ten rats/group). One group was a negative control and received oral vehicle only. The other four groups were injected subcutaneously with phenylephrine (2 mg/kg): of these

  6. Cubane Derivatives for Propellant Applicationsxb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-03

    Diels - Alder dimerization reaction to give endo-2,4-dibromodi- 10 cyclopentadiene-1,8-dione bisethylene ketal (bisketal). The yield was 65- 88% when an 80...Application ,_7 PERSONAL AUTHOR S) T.G. Archibald, S.B. Preston, S.A. Harding, N.V. Nguyen, F.O. Bonsu, and K. Baum * a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114...cooling jackets and condensers were required to contain the more volatile methylene chloride. The reaction time for the photochemical closure of a kilogram

  7. Spin State as a Marker for the Structural Evolution of Nature's Water-Splitting Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Cox, Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    In transition-metal complexes, the geometric structure is intimately connected with the spin state arising from magnetic coupling between the paramagnetic ions. The tetramanganese-calcium cofactor that catalyzes biological water oxidation in photosystem II cycles through five catalytic intermediates, each of which adopts a specific geometric and electronic structure and is thus characterized by a specific spin state. Here, we review spin-structure correlations in Nature's water-splitting catalyst. The catalytic cycle of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor can be described in terms of spin-dependent reactivity. The lower "inactive" S states of the catalyst, S0 and S1, are characterized by low-spin ground states, SGS = 1/2 and SGS = 0. This is connected to the "open cubane" topology of the inorganic core in these states. The S2 state exhibits structural and spin heterogeneity in the form of two interconvertible isomers and is identified as the spin-switching point of the catalytic cycle. The first S2 state form is an open cubane structure with a low-spin SGS = 1/2 ground state, whereas the other represents the first appearance of a closed cubane topology in the catalytic cycle that is associated with a higher-spin ground state of SGS = 5/2. It is only this higher-spin form of the S2 state that progresses to the "activated" S3 state of the catalyst. The structure of this final metastable catalytic state was resolved in a recent report, showing that all manganese ions are six-coordinate. The magnetic coupling is dominantly ferromagnetic, leading to a high-spin ground state of SGS = 3. The ability of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor to adopt two distinct structural and spin-state forms in the S2 state is critical for water binding in the S3 state, allowing spin-state crossing from the inactive, low-spin configuration of the catalyst to the activated, high-spin configuration. Here we describe how an understanding of the magnetic properties of the catalyst in all S states has allowed conclusions on

  8. Characterisation of a water-oxidizing Co-film by XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Marcel; Ringleb, Franziska; Khare, Varsha; Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger

    2009-11-01

    A major enterprise for scientists worldwide is the search for alternative fuels and molecular hydrogen (H2) is a promising candidate. Its large-scale technical production needs to involve water-oxidation catalysts from inexpensive and abundant materials. Here, a water-oxidizing Co-based catalyst film (CoCF) is investigated. We review and extend our previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements (at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin/BESSY) by comparison to LiCoO2, a CoIII compound of similar structure and composition. Further evidence is presented that the bulk oxidation state of cobalt in the CoCF is 3+. We propose that the catalyst film is composed of interconnected complete and/or incomplete Co-oxo cubanes possibly forming a disordered network of the basic Co3/4(μ-O)4 units.

  9. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  10. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  11. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from the Cuban royal palm fruit, on in vitro and in vivo effects mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Carbajal, D; Molina, V

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the non-malignant, uncontrolled growth of glandular and stromal elements of the prostate gland. Lipid extracts from Saw palmetto (Arecaceae) fruits are widely used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is a member of the same family. Previous studies have found that D-004, a lipid extract from the R. regia fruit, administered orally at 200-800 mg/day for 14 days, prevented testosterone- but not dihydrotestosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in rats. To determine whether D-004 can inhibit noradrenaline (NA) [norepinephrine]- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced smooth muscle contraction in rat vas deferens and to investigate the in vivo effects of D-004 on NA pressure-elevating effects in rats, an effect mediated by vascular alpha1-adrenoceptors. In vitro effects were investigated by adding D-004 (125-500 microg/mL) to preparations of rat vas deferens suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution, in which in vitro contractions were induced by NA or ACh. Negative and positive controls containing Tyrode's solution alone or with Saw palmetto extracts (125-500 microg/mL), respectively, were included. To assess the in vivo effects of D-004 on arterial blood pressure, rats were randomly distributed to one of five groups (ten rats/group): these consisted of a negative control group receiving the vehicle, two groups treated with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg) and two other groups treated with Saw palmetto (400 and 800 mg/kg). All treatments were orally administered. Rats were anaesthetised with sodium thiopental. Heart rate and blood pressure were registered in baseline conditions. Immediately afterwards, rats were injected intravenously over 5 seconds with successive doses of NA (1, 2 and 4 microg/kg) [0.1mL/100g], with 5 minutes' interval between doses. D-004 and Saw palmetto (125-500 microg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently inhibited contractions induced by NA in rat vas deferens versus control. D

  12. Combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the bonding in the heterobimetallic cubane-type Mo(3)NiS(4) and Mo(3)CuS(4) core clusters.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Juan; Feliz, Marta; Fraxedas, Jordi; Hernandez, Victor; López-Navarrete, Juan T; Llusar, Rosa; Sauthier, Guillaume; Sensato, Fabricio R; Silvi, Bernard; Bo, Carles; Campanera, Josep M

    2007-03-19

    X-ray structural data for the cubane-type clusters [Mo3CuS4(dmpe)3Cl4](+) and Mo3NiS4(dmpe)3Cl4 (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) with 16 metal electrons have been compared with optimized structural parameters calculated using "ab initio" methodologies. Compound Mo3NiS4(dmpe)3Cl4 crystallizes in the cubic noncentrosymmetric space group P213 with a Mo-Ni distance of 2.647 Angstrom, that is 0.2 Angstrom shorter than the Mo-Cu bond length in the isoelectronic copper cluster. The best agreement between theory and experiments has been obtained using the B3P86 method. In order to validate the B3P86 results, accurate infrared and Raman spectra have been acquired and the vibrational modes associated to the cubane-type Mo3M'S4 (M' = Cu or Ni) unit have been assigned theoretically. The electronic changes taking place when incorporating the M' into the Mo3S4 unit have been analyzed from a theoretical and experimental perspective. The bond dissociation energies between M'-Cl and Mo3S4 fragments show that formation of [Mo3CuS4(dmpe)3Cl4](+) is 135 kcal/mol energetically less favorable than the Ni incorporation. The more robust nature of the Mo3NiS4 fragment has been confirmed by mass spectrometry. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the trimetallic and tetrametallic complexes have been measured and the obtained binding energies compared with the computed electronic populations based on topological approaches of the electron localization function (ELF). The energies and shapes of the Cu 2p and Ni 2p lines indicate formal oxidation states of Cu(I) and Ni(II). However, the reductive addition of nickel into [Mo3S4(dmpe)3Cl3](+) causes a small decrease in the Mo 3d binding energies. This fact prevents an unambiguous assignment of an oxidation state in a conventional way, a circumstance that has been analyzed through the covariance of the electronic populations associated to the C(M') core and V(Mo3Ni) and V(S(2)') valence basins where Mo3NiS4 is a

  13. [Fluoride in drinking water in Cuba and its association with geological and geographical variables].

    PubMed

    Luna, Liliam Cuéllar; Melián, Maricel García

    2003-11-01

    To determine the association between different concentrations of the fluoride ion in drinking water and some geological and geographical variables in Cuba, by using a geographic information system. From November 1998 to October 1999 we studied the fluoride concentration in the sources of drinking water for 753 Cuban localities that had at least 1 000 inhabitants. For the information analysis we utilized the MapInfo Professional version 5.5 geographic information system, using the overlaying method. The study variables were the concentration of the fluoride ion in the water sources, the geological characteristics of the area, the alignments (geological characteristics that were found together), the types of water sources, and whether an area was a plain or mountainous. The results were grouped by locality and municipality. In 83.1% of the localities, the water samples were collected from wells and springs, and the remaining 16.9% came from dams and rivers. Of the 753 localities studied, 675 of them (89.6%) had low or medium fluoride concentrations (under 0.7 mg/L). The eastern region of the country was the one most affected by high fluoride concentrations in the waters, followed by the central region of the country. The majority of the localities with high natural fluoride concentrations were in areas located on Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks. The presence of fluoride in the drinking waters was related to the alignments with the earth's crust, in rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin and also in carbonate rocks. However, the highest fluoride concentrations generally coincided with rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin. All the localities with high fluoride concentrations in the water were associated with wells. The fluoride concentration is low or medium in the drinking water sources for 89.6% of the Cuban localities with at least 1 000 inhabitants. Geological and geographical characteristics can help

  14. Theoretical Design by First Principles Molecular Dynamics of a Bioinspired Electrode-Catalyst System for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Acidified Water.

    PubMed

    Zipoli, Federico; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H; Selloni, Annabella

    2010-11-09

    Bacterial di-iron hydrogenases produce hydrogen efficiently from water. Accordingly, we have studied by first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations (FPMD) electrocatalytic hydrogen production from acidified water by their common active site, the [FeFe]H cluster, extracted from the enzyme and linked directly to the (100) surface of a pyrite electrode. We found that the cluster could not be attached stably to the surface via a thiol link analogous to that which attaches it to the rest of the enzyme, despite the similarity of the (100) pyrite surface to the Fe4S4 cubane to which it is linked in the enzyme. We report here a systematic sequence of modifications of the structure and composition of the cluster devised to maintain the structural stability of the pyrite/cluster complex in water throughout its hydrogen production cycle, an example of the molecular design of a complex system by FPMD.

  15. Cubane-type Mo3CoS4 molecular clusters with three different metal electron populations: structure, reactivity and their use in the synthesis of hybrid charge-transfer salts.

    PubMed

    Feliz, Marta; Llusar, Rosa; Uriel, Santiago; Vicent, Cristian; Coronado, Eugenio; Gómez-García, Carlos J

    2004-09-06

    Heterodimetallic cubane-type complexes coordinated to diphosphanes [Mo(3)CoS(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(4)](+) ([1](+)) (dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphanyl)ethane), [Mo(3)CoS(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(4)] (1) and [Mo(3)CoS(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3)(CO)] (2) with 14, 15 and 16 metal electrons, respectively, have been prepared from the [Mo(3)S(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3)](+) trinuclear precursor using [Co(2)(CO)(8)] or CoCl(2) as cobalt source. Cluster complexes [1](+) and 1 are easily interconverted chemically and electrochemically. The Co-Cl distance increases upon electron addition and substitution of the chlorine atom coordinated to cobalt with CO only takes place in presence of a reducing agent to give complex 2. Structural changes in the intermetallic distances agree with the entering electrons occupying an orbital which is basically Mo-Mo non-bonding and slightly Mo-Co bonding. Magnetic susceptibility measurements for [1](+) and 1 are consistent with the presence of two and one unpaired electrons, respectively and therefore with an "e" character for the HOMO orbital. Oxidation of 1 with TCNQ results in the formation of a charge transfer salt formulated as [1](+)[TCNQ](-) with alternate layers of paramagnetic cluster cations and also paramagnetic organic anions. There is no magnetic interaction between layers and the thermal variation of the magnetic susceptibility has been modelled as a S= 1/2 TCNQ antiferromagnetic chain plus a S=1 cluster monomer with zero field splitting.

  16. A Bioinspired Molecular Polyoxometalate Catalyst with Two Cobalt(II) Oxide Cores for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Feng, Yingying; Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Yan; Xu, Jingyin; Xiang, Rui; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Chongchao; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen

    2015-08-24

    To overcome the bottleneck of water splitting, the exploration of efficient, selective, and stable water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is crucial. We report an all-inorganic, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC based on a polyoxometalate [(A-α-SiW9 O34)2Co8(OH)6(H2O)2(CO3)3](16-) (Co8 POM). As a cobalt(II)-based cubane water oxidation catalyst, Co8POM embeds double Co(II)4O3 cores. The self-assembled catalyst is similar to the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). Using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, Co8POM exhibits excellent water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 1436, currently the highest among bioinspired catalysts with a cubical core, and a high initial turnover frequency (TOF). Investigation by several spectroscopy, spectrometry, and other techniques confirm that Co8POM is a stable and efficient catalyst for visible light-driven water oxidation. The results offer a useful insight into the design of water oxidation catalysts.

  17. A tetra­nuclear cubane-like nickel(II) complex with a tridentate salicyl­idene­imine Schiff base ligand: tetra­kis­[μ3-4-methyl-N-(2-oxidophen­yl)salicylideneiminato]tetra­kis­[methano­lnickel(II)] methanol 0.8-solvate

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Gordana; Majer, Mihael; Cindrić, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The tetra­nuclear title complex, [Ni4(C14H11NO2)4(CH3OH)4]·0.8CH3OH, has a distorted cubane topology shaped by four Schiff base ligands. The cubane [Ni4(μ3-O4)] core is formed via the O atoms from the Schiff base ligands. The octa­hedrally coordinated NiII ions occupy alternating vertices of the cube. Each NiII ion is coordinated by one O,N,O′-tridentate dianionic ligand, two O atoms of oxidophenyl groups from adjacent ligands and the O atom of a coordinating methanol mol­ecule. The cubane core is stabilized via an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the hy­droxy group of the coordinating methanol mol­ecules and the phenolate O atom of the aldehyde Schiff base fragment. Additional stabilization is obtained via intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving aromatic C—H groups and the oxygen atoms of adjacent methanol mol­ecules. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to the c axis via weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The partial-occupancy disordered methanol solvent mol­ecule has a site occupancy of 0.8 and is linked to the tetra­nuclear unit via an inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond involving a phenolate O atom. PMID:27980828

  18. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  19. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  20. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  1. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  2. Centenary Celebration for Scottish Missionary Mary Slessor: A Lasting Legacy for Twins/Twin Research: Twins With Kleinfelter's Syndrome; Twin Research on Atopic Diseases; Twin Study of Autism; Psychotherapy with Twins / General Interest: Female Twin Pole-Vaulters; Longest Twin Birth Interval; Pair of Franco-Cuban Vocalists; Croatian Twin Models.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-06-01

    The centenary celebration for Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor, took place on February 14, 2015 in Melle, Belgium. Slessor saved many newborn twins and their mothers from death and disownment by members of their community, including their families, who believed twins harbored evil spirits. The events of this unusual and significant gathering are described. Next, twin research and reports concerning Kleinfelter's disease, atopic diseases, autism and psychotherapy are presented. General interest subjects include identical female twin pole-vaulters, the longest twin birth interval, Franco-Cuban twin vocalists, and Croatian twin models.

  3. Site specific ligand substitution in cubane-type Mo3FeS(4)(4+) clusters: kinetics and mechanism of reaction and isolation of mixed ligand Cl/SPh complexes.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Andrés G; Basallote, Manuel G; Fernandez-Trujillo, M J; Llusar, Rosa; Pino-Chamorro, Jose A; Sorribes, Ivan; Vicent, Cristian

    2010-04-21

    The synthesis, crystal structure and solution characterization of the cubane-type [Mo(3)(FeCl)S(4)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3)] (1) (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphophane-ethane)) cluster are reported and the ligand substitution processes of chloride by thiophenolate investigated. The kinetics and the intimate mechanism of these substitutions reveal that compound 1 undergoes a number of Fe and Mo site specific ligand substitution reactions in acetonitrile solutions. In particular, PhS(-) coordination at the tetrahedral Fe site proceeds in a single resolved kinetic step whereas such substitutions at the Mo sites proceed more slowly. The effect of the presence of acids in the reaction media is also investigated and reveals that an acid excess hinders substitution reactions both at the Fe and Mo sites; however, an acid-promoted solvolysis of the Fe-Cl bonds is observed. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem (ESI-MS/MS) mass spectrometry allow the identification of all the reaction intermediates proposed on the basis of stopped-flow measurements. The distinctive site specific reactivity made it possible to isolate two new clusters of the Mo(3)FeS(4)(4+) family featuring mixed chlorine/thiophenolate ligands, namely Mo(3)S(4)(FeSPh)(dmpe)(3)Cl(3) (2) and [Mo(3)S(4)(FeSPh)(dmpe)(3)(SPh)(3)] (3). A detailed computational study has also been carried out to understand the details of the mechanism of substitution at the M-Cl (M = Mo and Fe) bonds as well as the solvolysis at the Fe-Cl sites, with particular emphasis on the role of acids on the substitution process. The results of the calculations are in agreement with the experimental observations, thus justifying the non-existence of an accelerating effect of acids on the thiophenolate substitution reaction, which differs from previous proposals for the Fe(4)S(4) and MoFe(3)S(4) clusters and some related compounds.

  4. Cubane-type Fe4S4 Clusters with Chiral Thiolate Ligation: Formation by Ligand Substitution, Detection of Intermediates by 1H NMR, and Solid State Structures Including Spontaneous Resolution Upon Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wayne; Huang, Shaw; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Holm, R. H.

    2011-01-01

    Cubane-type clusters [Fe4S4(SR*)4]2− containing chiral thiolate ligands with R* = CH(Me)Ph (1), CH2CH(Me)Et (2), and CH2CH(OH)CH2OH (3) have been prepared by ligand substitution in the reaction systems [Fe4S4(SEt)4]/R*SH (1–3, acetonitrile) and [Fe4S4Cl4]2−/NaSR*(3, Me2SO). Reactions with successive equivalents of thiol or thiolate generate the species [Fe4S4L4-n(SR*)n]2− (L = SEt, Cl) with n = 1–4. Clusters 1 and 2 were prepared with racemic thiols leading to the possible formation of one enantiomeric pair (n = 1) and seven diastereomers and their enantiomers (n = 2–4). Reactions were monitored by isotropically shifted 1H NMR spectra in acetonitrile or Me2SO. In systems affording 1 and 2 as final products, individual mixed-ligand species could not be detected. However, crystallization of (Et4N)2[1] afforded 1-[SS(RS)(RS)] in which two sites are disordered because of occupancy of R and S ligands. Similarly, (Et4N)2[2] led to 2-[SSSS], a consequence of spontaneous resolution upon crystallization. The clusters 3-[RRRR] and 3- [SSSS] were obtained from enantiomerically pure thiols. Successive reactions lead to detection of species with n = 1–4 by appearance of four pairs of diastereotopic SCH2 signals in both acetonitrile and Me2SO reaction systems. Identical spectra were obtained with racemic, R-(−), and S-(+) thiols, indicating that ligand-ligand interactions are too weak to allow detection of diastereomers (e.g., [SSSS] vs. [SSRR]). The stability of 3 in Me2SO/H2O media is described. PMID:21942299

  5. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  6. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  7. Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation by a Molecular Manganese Vanadium Oxide Cluster.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Forster, Johannes; Goetz, McKenna K; Yücel, Duygu; Berger, Claudia; Jacob, Timo; Streb, Carsten

    2016-05-17

    Photosynthetic water oxidation in plants occurs at an inorganic calcium manganese oxo cluster, which is known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), in photosystem II. Herein, we report a synthetic OEC model based on a molecular manganese vanadium oxide cluster, [Mn4 V4 O17 (OAc)3 ](3-) . The compound is based on a [Mn4 O4 ](6+) cubane core, which catalyzes the homogeneous, visible-light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and is stabilized by a tripodal [V4 O13 ](6-) polyoxovanadate and three acetate ligands. When combined with the photosensitizer [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) and the oxidant persulfate, visible-light-driven water oxidation with turnover numbers of approximately 1150 and turnover frequencies of about 1.75 s(-1) is observed. Electrochemical, mass-spectrometric, and spectroscopic studies provide insight into the cluster stability and reactivity. This compound could serve as a model for the molecular structure and reactivity of the OEC and for heterogeneous metal oxide water-oxidation catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Drug use, AIDS knowledge, and HIV risk behaviors of Cuban-, Mexican-, and Puerto-Rican-born drug injectors who are recent entrants into the United States.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R C; Williams, M L; Saunders, L A

    1999-11-01

    To date, relatively little research attention has been devoted to the HIV-risky behaviors of persons who are newly arrived in the United States and who use drugs. Data gathered from street-recruited injection drug users (IDUs) recruited in 10 United States cities who were born in Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico and who are recent entrants into the United States suggest that, in comparison to US-born IDUs, Mexican-born subjects are at elevated risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV as a result of sharing needles with friends and running partners; sharing drug injection implements such as cookers, cotton, and rinse water; frequent injection in HIV-risky settings; use of unsterilized needles; and relatively frequent trading of sex for drugs or money. Puerto-Rican-born IDUs were found to inject drugs relatively frequently, and to do so relatively often in high-risk settings in which sterile injecting equipment and cleaning materials often are scarce. These data also show generally lower levels of AIDS knowledge among the in-migrant IDUs than among US-born IDUs. Respondents from each nationality group most often cited television as the source of their most useful and reliable AIDS information, but also tended to regard community outreach workers as a significant source of reliable AIDS and needle cleaning information. The high levels of involvement in HIV-risky behaviors, deficits in knowledge concerning the means of HIV transmission, and relative ease of mobility of the at-risk (for HIV) individuals examined here indicate a need for a comprehensive public health prevention initiative to limit the future spread of HIV. At a minimum, such an undertaking would do well to incorporate group-specific, culturally appropriate behavioral interventions as well as an information campaign.

  9. 'Photosystem II: the water splitting enzyme of photosynthesis and the origin of oxygen in our atmosphere'.

    PubMed

    Barber, James

    2016-01-01

    About 3 billion years ago an enzyme emerged which would dramatically change the chemical composition of our planet and set in motion an unprecedented explosion in biological activity. This enzyme used solar energy to power the thermodynamically and chemically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing it provided biology with an unlimited supply of reducing equivalents needed to convert carbon dioxide into the organic molecules of life while at the same time produced oxygen to transform our planetary atmosphere from an anaerobic to an aerobic state. The enzyme which facilitates this reaction and therefore underpins virtually all life on our planet is known as Photosystem II (PSII). It is a pigment-binding, multisubunit protein complex embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Today we have detailed understanding of the structure and functioning of this key and unique enzyme. The journey to this level of knowledge can be traced back to the discovery of oxygen itself in the 18th-century. Since then there has been a sequence of mile stone discoveries which makes a fascinating story, stretching over 200 years. But it is the last few years that have provided the level of detail necessary to reveal the chemistry of water oxidation and O-O bond formation. In particular, the crystal structure of the isolated PSII enzyme has been reported with ever increasing improvement in resolution. Thus the organisational and structural details of its many subunits and cofactors are now well understood. The water splitting site was revealed as a cluster of four Mn ions and a Ca ion surrounded by amino-acid side chains, of which seven provide direct ligands to the metals. The metal cluster is organised as a cubane structure composed of three Mn ions and a Ca2+ linked by oxo-bonds with the fourth Mn ion attached to the cubane. This structure has now been synthesised in a non-protein environment suggesting that it is a totally

  10. [Drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

    1991-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones.

  11. Oligo-nuclear silver thiocyanate complexes with monodentate tertiary phosphine ligands, including novel 'cubane' and 'step' tetramer forms of AgSCN : PR3 (1:1)4.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, Graham A; Di Nicola, Corrado; Effendy; Hanna, John V; Healy, Peter C; King, Scott P; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Robinson, Ward T; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; Tăbăcaru, Aurel; White, Allan H

    2013-01-07

    Adducts of a number of tertiary pnicogen ligands ER(3) (triphenyl-phosphine and -arsine (PPh(3),AsPh(3)), diphenyl,2-pyridylphosphine (PPh(2)py), tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine (P(C(6)H(4)-4F)(3)), tris(2-tolyl)phosphine (P(o-tol)(3)), tris(cyclohexyl)phosphine (PCy(3))), with silver(I) thiocyanate, AgSCN are structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The 1:3 AgSCN : ER(3) complexes structurally defined (for PPh(3),AsPh(3) (diversely solvated)) take the form [(R(3)E)(3)AgX], the thiocyanate X = NCS being N-bound, thus [(Ph(3)E)Ag(NCS)]. A 1:2 complex with PPh(2)py, takes the binuclear form [(pyPh(2)P)(2)Ag()Ag(PPh(2)py)(2)] with an eight-membered cyclic core. 1:1 complexes are defined with PPh(2)py, P(o-tol)(3) and PCy(3); binuclear forms [(R(3)P)Ag()Ag(PR(3))] are obtained with P(o-tol)(3) (two polymorphs), while novel isomeric tetranuclear forms, which may be envisaged as dimers of dimers, are obtained with PPh(2)py, and, as further polymorphs, with PCy(3); these latter may be considered as extensions of the 'cubane' and 'step' forms previously described for [(R(3)E)AgX](4) (X = halide) complexes. Solvent-assisted mechanochemical or solvent-assisted solid-state synthesis methods were employed in some cases, where complexes could not be obtained by conventional solution methods, or where such methods yielded a mixture of polymorphs unsuitable for solid-state spectroscopy. The wavenumbers of the ν(CN) bands in the IR spectra are in broad agreement with the empirical rule that distinguishes bridging from terminal bonding, but exceptions occur for compounds that have a double SCN bridged dimeric structure, and replacement of PPh(3) with PPh(2)py apparently causes a significant decrease in ν(CN) to well below the range expected for bridging SCN in these structures. (31)P CP MAS NMR spectra yield additional parameters that allow a correlation between the structures and spectra.

  12. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  13. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  14. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  15. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  16. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  17. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals ...

  18. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, they can spread the parasite into the water and continue the cycle of contamination and infection. Schistosomiasis can be spread when people swim in or have contact with freshwater lakes that are contaminated with ... drinking water or recreational water. Individuals spending time in the ...

  19. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  20. Halogenated earth abundant metalloporphyrins as photostable sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation in a neutral phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Cheng; Reek, Joost N H; Williams, René M; Brouwer, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    Very photostable tetrachloro-metalloporphyrins were developed as sensitizers for visible-light-driven water oxidation coupled to cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts in concentrated (0.1 M) phosphate buffer solution. Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) acts as a sacrificial electron acceptor to oxidize the metalloporphyrin photosensitizers in their excited states. The radical cations thus produced drive the cobalt based water-oxidation catalysts: Co4O4-cubane and Co(NO3)2 as pre-catalyst for cobalt-oxide (CoOx) nanoparticles. Two different metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) both showed very high photostability in the photocatalytic reaction, as compared to non-halogenated analogues. This indicates that photostability primarily depends on the substitution of the porphyrin macrocycle, not on the central metal. Furthermore, our molecular design strategy not only positively increases the electrochemical potential by 120-140 mV but also extends the absorption spectrum up to ∼600 nm. As a result, the solar photon capturing abilities of halogenated metalloporphyrins (Cu(ii) and Ni(ii)) are comparable to that of the natural photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a. We successfully demonstrate long-term (>3 h) visible-light-driven water oxidation using our molecular system based on earth-abundant (first-row transition) metals in concentrated phosphate buffer solution.