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Sample records for cubic gan grown

  1. Doping of MBE grown cubic GaN on 3C-SiC (001) by CBr{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Zado, A.; Tschumak, E.; Lischka, K.; As, D. J.; Gerlach, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    We report on carbon doping of cubic GaN by CBr{sub 4} using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 3C-SiC (001) substrates. The samples consist of a 70 nm thick GaN buffer followed by a 550 nm thick GaN:C layer. Carbon doping is realized with a home-made carbon tetrabromide sublimation source. The CBr{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure was established by a needle valve and was varied between 2x10{sup -9} mbar and 6x10{sup -6} mbar. The growth was controlled by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The incorporated carbon concentration is obtained from secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Capacitance voltage characteristics were measured using metal-insulator-semiconductor structures. Capacitance voltage measurements on nominally undoped cubic GaN showed n-type conductivity with N{sub D}-N{sub A} = 1x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. With increasing CBr{sub 4} flux the conductivity type changes to p-type and for the highest CBr{sub 4} flux N{sub A}-N{sub D} = 4{center_dot}5x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} was obtained.

  2. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  3. Effect of GaAs substrate orientation on the growth kinetic of GaN layer grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laifi, J.; Chaaben, N.; Bouazizi, H.; Fourati, N.; Zerrouki, C.; El Gmili, Y.; Bchetnia, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; El Jani, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the kinetic growth of low temperature GaN nucleation layers (LT-GaN) grown on GaAs substrates with different crystalline orientations. GaN nucleation layers were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a temperature range of 500-600 °C on oriented (001), (113), (112) and (111) GaAs substrates. The growth was in-situ monitored by laser reflectometry (LR). Using an optical model, including time-dependent surface roughness and growth rate profiles, simulations were performed to best approach the experimental reflectivity curves. Results are discussed and correlated with ex-situ analyses, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible reflectance (SR). We show that the GaN nucleation layers growth results the formation of GaN islands whose density and size vary greatly with both growth temperature and substrate orientation. Arrhenius plots of the growth rate for each substrate give values of activation energy varying from 0.20 eV for the (001) orientation to 0.35 eV for the (113) orientation. Using cathodoluminescence (CL), we also show that high temperature (800-900 °C) GaN layers grown on top of the low temperature (550 °C) GaN nucleation layers, grown themselves on the GaAs substrates with different orientations, exhibit cubic or hexagonal phase depending on both growth temperature and substrate orientation.

  4. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, B. S.; Singh, A.; Tanwar, S.; Tyagi, P. K.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  5. Photoluminescence of gallium ion irradiated hexagonal and cubic GaN quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuchs, Charlotte; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Koppe, Tristan; Semond, Fabrice; Blumenthal, Sarah; Becker, Hans-Werner; As, Donat J.; Hofsäss, Hans C.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-09-01

    We report on ion implantation into GaN QDs and investigate their radiation hardness. The experimental study is carried out by photoluminescence (PL) measurements on molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaN quantum dots after ion implantation. Both quantum dots grown in the hexagonal (H) and the cubic (C) crystal structure were subjected to gallium ions with an energy of 400 kV (H) and 75 kV (C) with fluences ranging from 5 ×1010 cm-2 to 1 ×1014 cm-2 (H) and to 1 ×1015 cm-2 (C), respectively. Low-temperature PL measurements reveal a PL quenching for which a quantitative model as a function of the ion fluence is developed. A high degradation resistance is concluded. A non-radiative trap with one main activation energy is found for all QD structures by temperature-dependent PL measurements. Further analysis of fluence-dependent PL energy shifts shows ion-induced intermixing and strain effects. Particular for the hexagonal quantum dots, a strong influence of the quantum confined Stark effect is present.

  6. Magnesium diffusion profile in GaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Bougrioua, Z.; Boufaden, T.; El Jani, B.

    2008-07-01

    The diffusion of magnesium has been studied in GaN layers grown on sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase-epitaxy (MOVPE) in a "home-made" reactor. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to visualise the Mg profiles in two kinds of multi-sublayer GaN structures. One structure was grown with a variable flow of Ga precursor (TMG) and the second one with a variable growth temperature. In both cases, the Mg dopant precursor (Cp 2Mg) flow was kept constant. Using the second Fick's law to fit the experimental SIMS data, we have deduced an increasing then a saturating Mg diffusion coefficient versus the Mg concentration. Mg incorporation was found to get higher for lower growth rate, i.e. when TMG flow is reduced. Furthermore, based on the temperature-related behaviour we have found that the activation energy for Mg diffusion coefficient in GaN was 1.9 eV. It is suggested that Mg diffuses via substitutional sites.

  7. Strain dependent electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.; Buß, J. H.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.; Schupp, T.; Zado, A.; As, D. J.

    2015-03-07

    The electron spin dynamics under variable uniaxial strain is investigated in bulk cubic GaN by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. Spin relaxation is found to be approximately independent of the applied strain, in complete agreement with estimates for Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation. Our findings clearly exclude strain-induced relaxation as an effective mechanism for spin relaxation in cubic GaN.

  8. Strain dependent electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, A.; Buß, J. H.; Schupp, T.; Zado, A.; As, D. J.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2015-03-01

    The electron spin dynamics under variable uniaxial strain is investigated in bulk cubic GaN by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. Spin relaxation is found to be approximately independent of the applied strain, in complete agreement with estimates for Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation. Our findings clearly exclude strain-induced relaxation as an effective mechanism for spin relaxation in cubic GaN.

  9. Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-05-19

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 µ m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

  10. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Weyher, J.L.; Lazar, S.; Macht, L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar,R.J.; Muller, S.; Nowak, G.; Grzegory, I.

    2006-08-10

    Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN in molten eutectic of KOH + NaOH (E etch) and in hot sulfuric and phosphoric acids (HH etch) is discussed in detail. Three size grades of pits are formed by the preferential E etching at the outcrops of threading dislocations on the Ga-polar surface of GaN. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the calibration tool it is shown that the largest pits are formed on screw, intermediate on mixed and the smallest on edge dislocations. This sequence of size does not follow the sequence of the Burgers values (and thus the magnitude of the elastic energy) of corresponding dislocations. This discrepancy is explained taking into account the effect of decoration of dislocations, the degree of which is expected to be different depending on the lattice deformation around the dislocations, i.e. on the edge component of the Burgers vector. It is argued that the large scatter of optimal etching temperatures required for revealing all three types of dislocations in HVPE-grown samples from different sources also depends upon the energetic status of dislocations. The role of kinetics for reliability of etching in both etches is discussed and the way of optimization of the etching parameters is shown.

  12. Properties of GaN grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire substrates using an open-tube growth furnace has been carried out to study the effects of substrate orientation and transfer gas upon the properties of the layers. It has been found that for the (0001) substrates, surface appearance was virtually independent of carrier gas and of doping levels. For the (1(-1)02) substrates surface faceting was greatly reduced when He was used as a transfer gas as opposed to H2. Faceting was also reduced when the GaN was doped with Zn, and the best surfaces for the (1(-1)02) substrates were obtained in a Zn-doped run using He as the transfer gas. The best sample in terms of electrical properties for the (1(-1)02) substrate had a mobility greater than 400 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 17th per cu cm. This sample was undoped and used He as the transfer gas. The best (0001) sample was also grown undoped with He as the transfer gas and had a mobility of 300 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm.

  13. Temperature dependence of the electron Landé g-factor in cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, J. H.; Schupp, T.; As, D. J.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron Landé g-factor in bulk cubic GaN is investigated over an extremely broad temperature range from 15 K up to 500 K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. The g-factor is found to be approximately constant over the full investigated temperature range. Calculations by k .p -theory predict a negligible temperature dependence g(T) in complete agreement with the experiment as a consequence of the large band-gap and small spin orbit splitting in cubic GaN.

  14. Cubic and hexagonal GaN nanoparticles synthesized at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaeed, M. A.; Ibrahim, K.; Saron, K. M. A.; Salhin, A.

    2013-12-01

    This study involves a simple and low cost chemical method for the synthesis of Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanoparticles at low temperature. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using various techniques in order to investigate the properties of the nanoparticles. The Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images showed that the nanoparticles consist of cubic and hexagonal shapes, indicating crystallized structural quality of the GaN nanoparticles. The average size of the nanoparticles was found to be 51 nm. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis further confirmed the hexagonal and cubic phases of GaN nanoparticles. The room temperature photoluminescence deduced h-GaN energy gaps of 2.95, 3.12 and 3.13 eV.

  15. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra of GaN epitaxial layer grown on Si (111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan-Mei; Zhao, De-Gang; Jiang, De-Sheng; Liu, Zong-Shun; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Chen, Ping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Shi, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaN grown on Si (111) substrate are studied. The main emission peaks of GaN films grown on Si (111) are investigated and compared with those grown on sapphire substrates. The positions of free and bound exciton luminescence peaks, i.e., FXA and D0X peaks, of GaN films grown on Si (111) substrates undergo red shifts compared with those grown on sapphire. This is attributed to the fact that the GaN films grown on sapphire are under the action of compressive stress, while those grown on Si (111) substrate are subjected to tensile stress. Furthermore, the positions of these peaks may be additionally shifted due to different stress conditions in the real sample growth. The emission peaks due to stacking faults are found in GaN films grown on Si (111) and an S-shaped temperature dependence of PL spectra can be observed, owing to the influence of the quantum well (QW) emission by the localized states near the conduction band gap edge and the temperature-dependent distribution of the photo-generated carriers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61176126) and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 60925017).

  16. Depth dependence of defect density and stress in GaN grown on SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Faleev, N.; Temkin, H.; Ahmad, I.; Holtz, M.; Melnik, Yu.

    2005-12-15

    We report high resolution x-ray diffraction studies of the relaxation of elastic strain in GaN grown on SiC(0001). The GaN layers were grown with thickness ranging from 0.29 to 30 {mu}m. High level of residual elastic strain was found in thin (0.29 to 0.73 {mu}m thick) GaN layers. This correlates with low density of threading screw dislocations of 1-2x10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, observed in a surface layer formed over a defective nucleation layer. Stress was found to be very close to what is expected from thermal expansion mismatch between the GaN and SiC. A model based on generation and diffusion of point defects accounts for these observations.

  17. Microstructure of GaN Grown on (111) Si by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.G.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Han, J.; Provencio, P.

    1998-12-17

    Gallium nitride was grown on (111) Si by MOCVD by depositing an AIN buffer at 108O"C and then GaN at 1060 {degrees}C. The 2.2pm layer cracked along {1-100} planes upon cooling to room temperature, but remained adherent. We were able to examine the microstructure of material between cracks with TEM. The character and arrangement of dislocation are much like those of GaN grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: -2/3 pure edge and - 1/3 mixed (edge + screw), arranged in boundaries around domains of GaN that are slightly disoriented with respect to neighboring material. The 30 nm AIN buffer is continuous, indicating that AIN wets the Si, in contrast to GaN on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  18. Characterization of bulk grown GaN and AlN single crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghothamachar, Balaji; Bai, Jie; Dudley, Michael; Dalmau, Rafael; Zhuang, Dejin; Herro, Ziad; Schlesser, Raoul; Sitar, Zlatko; Wang, Buguo; Callahan, Michael; Rakes, Kelly; Konkapaka, Phanikumar; Spencer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sublimation method, spontaneously nucleated as well as seeded on SiC substrates, has been employed for growing AlN bulk crystals. For GaN growth, in addition to the sublimation method using sapphire substrates, ammonothermal growth (analogous to the hydrothermal method) on HVPE GaN seeds is also being used. Thick plates/films of AlN and GaN grown by these methods have been characterized by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Results from a recent set of growth experiments are discussed.

  19. Characterization of Bulk Grown GaN and AlN Single Crystal Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raghothamachar,B.; Bai, J.; Dudley, M.; Dalmau, R.; Zhuang, D.; Herro, Z.; Schlesser, R.; Sitar, Z.; Wang, B.; Callahan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sublimation method, spontaneously nucleated as well as seeded on SiC substrates, has been employed for growing AlN bulk crystals. For GaN growth, in addition to the sublimation method using sapphire substrates, ammonothermal growth (analogous to the hydrothermal method) on HVPE GaN seeds is also being used. Thick plates/films of AlN and GaN grown by these methods have been characterized by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Results from a recent set of growth experiments are discussed.

  20. Uniform GaN thin films grown on (100) silicon by remote plasma atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yih; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    The growth of uniform gallium nitride (GaN) thin films was reported on (100) Si substrate by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH3 as the precursors. The self-limiting growth of GaN was manifested by the saturation of the deposition rate with the doses of TEG and NH3. The increase in the growth temperature leads to the rise of nitrogen content and improved crystallinity of GaN thin films, from amorphous at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C to polycrystalline hexagonal structures at a high growth temperature of 500 °C. No melting-back etching was observed at the GaN/Si interface. The excellent uniformity and almost atomic flat surface of the GaN thin films also infer the surface control mode of the GaN thin films grown by the RP-ALD technique. The GaN thin films grown by RP-ALD will be further applied in the light-emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors on (100) Si substrate.

  1. Multi-wavelength emitting InGan/GaN quantum well grown on V-shaped gan(1101) microfacet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Sil; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Ahn, Haeng-Keun; Lee, June Key; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Shin, Dong-Chan; Lee, In-Hwan

    2007-11-01

    InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were successfully grown on the inclined GaN(1101) microfacets. Conventional photolithography and subsequent growth of GaN were employed to generate the V-shaped microfacets along (1120) direction. The well-developed microfacets observed by scanning electron microscopy and the clear transmission electron microscope interfacial images indicated that the MQW was successfully grown on the GaN microfacets. Interestingly, cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra measured on the microfacets showed a continuous change in the luminescence peak positions. The CL peaks were shifted to a longer wavelength from 420 nm to 440 nm as the probing points were changed along upward direction. This could be attributed to the nonuniform distribution of the In composition and/or the wavefunction overlapping between adjacent wells. Present works thus propose a novel route to fabricate a monolithic white light emitting diode without phosphors by growing the InGaN/GaN MQWs on (1101) facet.

  2. Step-Free GaN Hexagons Grown by Selective-Area Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kasu, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN has been investigated using the optimized growth conditions for the layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth and GaN-template substrates with low dislocation density. The surface of a GaN hexagon with 16-µm diameter has a single wide terrace over almost the whole area (step-free surface), when there are no screw-type dislocations in the finite area. Step-free GaN hexagons grew in the two-dimensional nucleus growth mode and had approximately an eight times lower growth rate than that of a GaN film grown in the step-flow mode under the growth conditions used in this study.

  3. Characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Ikai; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Shih, Cheng-Hung; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Chen, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Tzu-Min; Hsu, Gary Z. L.

    2013-06-15

    The characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on LiAlO{sub 2} substrate was studied by cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence measurements. We demonstrated that the cathodoluminescence from oblique semi-polar surfaces of mushroom-shaped GaN was much brighter than that from top polar surface due to the reduction of polarization field on the oblique semi-polar surfaces. It implies that the oblique semi-polar surface is superior for the light-emitting surface of wurtzite nano-devices.

  4. High temperature electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN: Nanosecond spin lifetimes far above room-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, J. H.; Schaefer, A.; Schupp, T.; As, D. J.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2014-11-01

    The electron spin dynamics in n-doped bulk cubic GaN is investigated for very high temperatures from 293 K up to 500 K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. We find extraordinarily long spin lifetimes exceeding 1 ns at 500 K. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time is in qualitative agreement with predictions of Dyakonov-Perel theory, while the absolute experimental times are an order of magnitude shorter than predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of phase mixtures of hexagonal and cubic GaN as well as the impact of localized carriers.

  5. Effect of Capping on Electrical and Optical Properties of GaN Layers Grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Puzyk, M. V.; Papchenko, B. P.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and capped with a thin AlGaN layer, was studied by photoluminescence (PL) methods. The concentration of free electrons in GaN was found from the time-resolved PL data, and the concentrations of point defects were estimated from the steady-state PL measurements. The intensity of PL from GaN decreases moderately after capping it with Si-doped AlGaN, and it decreases dramatically after capping with Mg-doped AlGaN. At the same time, the concentration of free electrons and the concentrations of main radiative defects in GaN are not affected by the AlGaN capping. We demonstrate that PL is a powerful tool for nondestructive characterization of semiconductor layers buried under overlying device structures.

  6. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    SciTech Connect

    Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Maurya, K. K.; Dalai, M. K.; Sharma, Nita D.

    2013-09-15

    Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM) value for (0002) reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002) plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  7. Cathodoluminescence study of luminescence centers in hexagonal and cubic phase GaN hetero-integrated on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Bayram, C.

    2016-07-01

    Hexagonal and cubic GaN—integrated on on-axis Si(100) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition via selective epitaxy and hexagonal-to-cubic-phase transition, respectively—are studied by temperature- and injection-intensity-dependent cathodoluminescence to explore the origins of their respective luminescence centers. In hexagonal (cubic) GaN integrated on Si, we identify at room temperature the near band edge luminescence at 3.43 eV (3.22 eV), and a defect peak at 2.21 eV (2.72 eV). At low temperature, we report additional hexagonal (cubic) GaN bound exciton transition at 3.49 eV (3.28 eV), and a donor-to-acceptor transition at 3.31 eV (3.18 eV and 2.95 eV). In cubic GaN, two defect-related acceptor energies are identified as 110 and 360 meV. For hexagonal (cubic) GaN (using Debye Temperature ( β ) of 600 K), Varshni coefficients of α = 7.37 ± 0.13 × 10 - 4 ( 6.83 ± 0.22 × 10 - 4 ) eV / K and E 0 = 3.51 ± 0.01 ( 3.31 ± 0.01 ) eV are extracted. Hexagonal and cubic GaN integrated on CMOS compatible on-axis Si(100) are shown to be promising materials for next generation devices.

  8. Fabrication of GaN Microporous Structure at a GaN/Sapphire Interface as the Template for Thick-Film GaN Separation Grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianli; Cheng, Hongjuan; Zhang, Song; Lan, Feifei; Qi, Chengjun; Xu, Yongkuan; Wang, Zaien; Li, Jing; Lai, Zhanping

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a microporous structure at the GaN/sapphire interface has been obtained by an electrochemical etching method via a selective etching progress using an as-grown GaN/sapphire wafer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The as-prepared GaN interfacial microporous structure has been used as a template for the following growth of thick-film GaN crystal by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), facilitating the fabrication of a free-standing GaN substrate detached from a sapphire substrate. The evolution of the interfacial microporous structure has been investigated by varying the etching voltages and time, and the formation mechanism of interfacial microporous structure has been discussed in detail as well. Appropriate interfacial microporous structure is beneficial for separating the thick GaN crystal grown by HVPE from sapphire during the cooling down process. The separation that occurred at the place of interfacial microporous can be attributed to the large thermal strain between GaN and sapphire. This work realized the fabrication of a free-standing GaN substrate with high crystal quality and nearly no residual strain.

  9. High electron mobility GaN grown under N-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Koblmueller, G.; Wu, F.; Mates, T.; Speck, J. S.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.

    2007-11-26

    An alternative approach is presented for the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of high-quality GaN. Under N-rich growth conditions, an unexpected layer-by-layer growth mode was found for a wide range of growth temperatures in the GaN thermal decomposition regime (>750 deg. C). Consequently, superior surface morphologies with roughness of less than 1 nm (rms) have been achieved. For lightly Si-doped GaN films, room-temperature electron mobilities exceeding 1100 cm{sup 2}/V s were measured, surpassing the commonly insulating nature of GaN grown under N-rich conditions at low temperature.

  10. Study of GaP single crystal layers grown on GaN by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuti; Liu, Chao; Ye, Guoguang; Xiao, Guowei; Zhou, Yugang; Su, Jun; Fan, Guanghan; Zhang, Yong; Liang, Fubo; Zheng, Shuwen

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigated the growth of GaP layers on GaN by MOCVD. {yields} A single crystal GaP layer could be grown on GaN. {yields} The V/III ratio played an important role to improve GaP layer quality. {yields} The GaP:Mg layer with hole concentration of 4.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} was obtained. -- Abstract: The performance of GaN based devices could possibly be improved by utilizing the good p-type properties of GaP layer and it provides the possibility of the integration of InAlGaN and AlGaInP materials to produce new devices, if high quality GaP compounds can be grown on III-nitride compounds. In this paper, the growth of GaP layers on GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been investigated. The results show that the GaP low temperature buffer layer can provide a high density of nucleation sites for high temperature GaP growth. Using a 40 nm thick GaP buffer layer, a single crystal GaP layer, whose full-width at half-maximum of the (1 1 1) plane measured by double crystal X-ray diffraction is 580'', can be grown on GaN. The V/III ratio plays an important role in the GaP layer growth and an appropriate V/III ratio can improve the quality of GaP layer. The GaP:Mg layer with hole carrier concentration of 4.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} has been obtained.

  11. Microstructural properties and dislocation evolution on a GaN grown on patterned sapphire substrate: A transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Ruh, H.; Noh, Y. K.; Kim, M. D.; Oh, J. E.

    2010-03-01

    The microstructural properties of a GaN layer grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) were studied in detail using transmission electron microscope techniques to determine dislocation and growth behaviors. Regular and uniform recrystallized GaN islands were observed on the protruding pattern. On a flat sapphire surface, the crystallographic orientation relationship of ⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN on FS//⟨11¯00⟩sapphire and {11¯01}GaN on FS//{12¯13}sapphire existed between the GaN and the substrate. On the other hand, the orientation relationship of ⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN layer//⟨1¯21¯0⟩GaN island on IS//⟨11¯00⟩sapphire and {11¯01}GaN layer//{0002}GaN island on IS//{12¯13}sapphire was confirmed among the GaN layer, the recrystallized GaN islands on an inclined sapphire surface and the PSS. The flat surface among the protruding patterns began to fill rapidly with GaN. Then, the GaN gradually overgrew the protruding pattern and coalesced near the summit as the growth time increased. The generation of threading dislocations was observed in the vicinity of the coalescence points near the top of the protruding patterns.

  12. Nonpolar GaN grown on Si by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using anodized Al nanomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Markov, A. V.; Mezhennyi, M. V.; Govorkov, A. V.; Pavlov, V. F.; Smirnov, N. B.; Donskov, A. A.; D'yakonov, L. I.; Kozlova, Y. P.; Malakhov, S. S.; Yugova, T. G.; Osinsky, V. I.; Gorokh, G. G.; Lyahova, N. N.; Mityukhlyaev, V. B.; Pearton, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaN growth by the hydride vapor phase technique on (100) Si substrates masked by porous Al anodic oxide is described. The masks were prepared by vacuum deposition of Al with subsequent anodic oxidation in dilute sorrel acid. The grown GaN layer is nonpolar, with (112¯0) a-orientation and a full width at half maximum of the (112¯0) reflection below 500 arc sec and showing small anisotropy. This result is comparable with the results obtained for a-GaN growth using selective epitaxy or advanced buffer growth routines. Microcathodoluminescence spectra of the grown films confirm a low density of stacking faults. Possible growth mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Influence of Si doping on the infrared reflectance characteristics of GaN grown on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. T.; Feng, Z. C.; Chua, S. J.; Li, M. F.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K.

    1999-11-01

    Si-doped GaN films grown on sapphire are investigated by infrared reflectance. A damping behavior of the interference fringes is observed, and interpreted to be due to the presence of an interface layer between the film and the substrate. A theoretical calculation using a two-layer model to take into account the interface layer resulted in this damping in agreement with the experiment. The damping behavior and an improvement of interface properties by Si incorporation are demonstrated.

  14. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shivesh; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; de Lima, Mauricio M.; Cantarero, Andres; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2015-12-01

    Catalyst free methods have usually been employed to avoid any catalyst induced contamination for the synthesis of GaN nanowires with better transport and optical properties. Here, we have used a catalytic route to grow GaN nanowires, which show good optical quality. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid technique using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst are systematically investigated as a function of various growth parameters such as the growth temperature and III/V ratio. The study reveals that most of the nanowires, which are several tens of microns long, grow along [ 10 1 ¯ 0 ] direction. Interestingly, the average wire diameter has been found to decrease with the increase in III/V ratio. It has also been observed that in these samples, defect related broad luminescence features, which are often present in GaN, are completely suppressed. At all temperatures, photoluminescence spectrum is found to be dominated only by a band edge feature, which comprises of free and bound excitonic transitions. Our study furthermore reveals that the bound excitonic feature is associated with excitons trapped in certain deep level defects, which result from the deficiency of nitrogen during growth. This transition has a strong coupling with the localized vibrational modes of the defects.

  15. Cathodoluminescence of GaN nanorods and nanowires grown by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, G.; Herrera, M.

    2014-02-01

    GaN nanorods and nanowires have been grown by thermal evaporation of GaN on Au/Si (1 0 0) substrates. The nanorods recorded a surface decorated with numerous grains with an average size of about 100 nm. The nanowires grew onto the surface of the nanorods exhibiting multiple bends along them. TEM measurements revealed the formation of irregular porous and a polycrystalline structure in the nanowires with diameter higher than 100 nm, while the nanowires with lower diameter showed a tubular structure with wall thickness of 10 nm. The luminescence of the samples recorded three bands centered at about 2.1, 2.74, and 3.2 eV, attributed to the GaN yellow emission and to the blue and UV emissions of the β-Ga2O3, respectively. Ga-ion irradiation in samples revealed a decrease in the intensity of the β-Ga2O3 blue emission attributed to the elimination of gallium vacancies. A thermal annealing treatment at 800 °C in N2 atmosphere generated a quenching of the GaN yellow emission, due to the elimination of nitrogen vacancies.

  16. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kushvaha, S. S. Pal, P.; Shukla, A. K.; Joshi, Amish G.; Gupta, Govind; Kumar, M.; Singh, S.; Gupta, Bipin K.; Haranath, D.

    2014-02-15

    We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} at 750 °C) than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} at 730 °C). A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of Fe-implanted cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, V. A. N.; Gratens, X.; Chitta, V. A.; de Godoy, M. P. F.; Rodrigues, A. D.; Abramof, E.; Dias, J. F.; Schikora, D.; As, D. J.; Lischka, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we report on structural and magnetic properties of cubic GaN epitaxial layers implanted with Fe ions and subsequently subjected to thermal annealing. The epitaxial quality of the layers was studied by X-ray diffraction rocking curves (ω-scans) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the implantation damages the crystal structure producing an expansion of the lattice parameter in the implanted region. These damages are partially removed by the thermal treatment. Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed for the sample implanted with a dose of 1.2 × 1016 cm-2, while samples implanted with 2.4 × 1016 cm-2 show a coexistence of ferromagnetism and paramagnetism due to disperse Fe3+. Thermal annealing changes these magnetic properties. For the low dose sample, the ferromagnetism is converted into paramagnetism while for the high dose we observed an enhancement of the ferromagnetic contribution characterized by a superparamagnetism behavior attributed to Fe-based particles.

  18. Effect of residual stress on the microstructure of GaN epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Lin, Zhiting; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-04-01

    The stress-free GaN epitaxial films have been directly grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 850 °C, and the effect of different stress on the microstructure of as-grown GaN epitaxial films has been explored in detail. The as-grown stress-free GaN epitaxial films exhibit very smooth surface without any particles and grains, which is confirmed by the smallest surface root-mean-square roughness of 2.3 nm measured by atomic force microscopy. In addition, they also have relatively high crystalline quality, which is proved by the small full-width at half maximum values of GaN(0002) and GaN (10 1 bar 2) X-ray rocking curves as 0.27° and 0.68°, respectively. However, when the growth temperature is lower or higher than 850 °C, internal or thermal stress would be increased in as-grown GaN epitaxial films. To release the larger stress, a great number of dislocations are generated. Many irregular particulates, hexagonal GaN gains and pits are therefore produced on the films surface, and the crystalline quality is greatly reduced consequently. This work has demonstrated the direct growth of stress-free GaN epitaxial films with excellent surface morphology and high crystalline quality by PLD, and presented a comprehensive study on the origins and the effect of stress in GaN layer. It is instructional to achieve high-quality nitride films by PLD, and shows great potential and broad prospect for the further development of high-performance GaN-based devices.

  19. Far-infrared transmission in GaN, AlN, and AlGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, J.; Hernandez, S.; Alarcon-Llado, E.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.; Calleja, E.

    2008-08-01

    We present a far-infrared transmission study on group-III nitride thin films. Cubic GaN and AlN layers and c-oriented wurtzite GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x<0.3) layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs and Si(111) substrates, respectively. The Berreman effect allows us to observe simultaneously the transverse optic and the longitudinal optic phonons of both the cubic and the hexagonal films as transmission minima in the infrared spectra acquired with obliquely incident radiation. We discuss our results in terms of the relevant electromagnetic theory of infrared transmission in cubic and wurtzite thin films. We compare the infrared results with visible Raman-scattering measurements. In the case of films with low scattering volumes and/or low Raman efficiencies and also when the Raman signal of the substrate material obscures the weaker peaks from the nitride films, we find that the Berreman technique is particularly useful to complement Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Structural Defects in Laterally Overgrown GaN Layers Grown onNon-polar Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-02-14

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study defects in lateral epitaxial layers of GaN which were overgrown on a template of a-plane (11{und 2}0) GaN grown on (1{und 1}02) r-plane Al2O3. A high density of basal stacking faults is formed in these layers because the c-planes of wurtzite structure are arranged along the growth direction. Density of these faults is decreasing at least by two orders of magnitude lower in the wings compared to the seed areas. Prismatic stacking faults and threading dislocations are also observed, but their densities drastically decrease in the wings. The wings grow with opposite polarities and the Ga-wing width is at least 6 times larger than N-wing and coalescence is rather difficult. Some tilt and twist was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction.

  1. Crystallographically tilted and partially strain relaxed GaN grown on inclined {111} facets etched on Si(100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansah Antwi, K. K.; Soh, C. B.; Wee, Q.; Tan, Rayson J. N.; Yang, P.; Tan, H. R.; Sun, L. F.; Shen, Z. X.; Chua, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD), Photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscope measurements are reported for GaN deposited on a conventional Si(111) substrate and on the {111} facets etched on a Si(100) substrate. HR-XRD reciprocal space mappings showed that the GaN(0002) plane is tilted by about 0.63° ± 0.02° away from the exposed Si{111} growth surface for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate, while no observable tilt existed between the GaN(0002) and Si(111) planes for GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The ratio of integrated intensities of the yellow to near band edge (NBE) luminescence (IYL/INBE) was determined to be about one order of magnitude lower in the case of GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate compared with GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The Raman E2(high) optical phonon mode at 565.224 ± 0.001 cm-1 with a narrow full width at half maximum of 1.526 ± 0.002 cm-1 was measured, for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) indicating high material quality. GaN deposition within the trench etched on the Si(100) substrate occurred via diffusion and mass-transport limited mechanism. This resulted in a differential GaN layer thickness from the top (i.e., 1.8 μm) of the trench to the bottom (i.e., 0.3 μm) of the trench. Mixed-type dislocation constituted about 80% of the total dislocations in the GaN grown on the inclined Si{111} surface etched on Si(100).

  2. Crystallographically tilted and partially strain relaxed GaN grown on inclined (111) facets etched on Si(100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ansah Antwi, K. K.; Soh, C. B.; Wee, Q.; Tan, Rayson J. N.; Tan, H. R.; Yang, P.; Sun, L. F.; Shen, Z. X.; Chua, S. J.

    2013-12-28

    High resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD), Photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscope measurements are reported for GaN deposited on a conventional Si(111) substrate and on the (111) facets etched on a Si(100) substrate. HR-XRD reciprocal space mappings showed that the GaN(0002) plane is tilted by about 0.63° ± 0.02° away from the exposed Si(111) growth surface for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate, while no observable tilt existed between the GaN(0002) and Si(111) planes for GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The ratio of integrated intensities of the yellow to near band edge (NBE) luminescence (I{sub YL}/I{sub NBE}) was determined to be about one order of magnitude lower in the case of GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) substrate compared with GaN deposited on the conventional Si(111) substrate. The Raman E{sub 2}(high) optical phonon mode at 565.224 ± 0.001 cm{sup −1} with a narrow full width at half maximum of 1.526 ± 0.002 cm{sup −1} was measured, for GaN deposited on the patterned Si(100) indicating high material quality. GaN deposition within the trench etched on the Si(100) substrate occurred via diffusion and mass-transport limited mechanism. This resulted in a differential GaN layer thickness from the top (i.e., 1.8 μm) of the trench to the bottom (i.e., 0.3 μm) of the trench. Mixed-type dislocation constituted about 80% of the total dislocations in the GaN grown on the inclined Si(111) surface etched on Si(100)

  3. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    SciTech Connect

    Szymański, Tomasz Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  4. Semipolar and nonpolar GaN epi-films grown on m-sapphire by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Shruti; Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Roul, Basanta

    2014-11-28

    We hereby report the development of non-polar epi-GaN films of usable quality, on an m-plane sapphire. Generally, it is difficult to obtain high-quality nonpolar material due to the planar anisotropic nature of the growth mode. However, we could achieve good quality epi-GaN films by involving controlled steps of nitridation. GaN epilayers were grown on m-plane (10-10) sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films grown on the nitridated surface resulted in a nonpolar (10-10) orientation while without nitridation caused a semipolar (11-22) orientation. Room temperature photoluminescence study showed that nonpolar GaN films have higher value of compressive strain as compared to semipolar GaN films, which was further confirmed by room temperature Raman spectroscopy. The room temperature UV photodetection of both films was investigated by measuring the I-V characteristics under UV light illumination. UV photodetectors fabricated on nonpolar GaN showed better characteristics, including higher external quantum efficiency, compared to photodetectors fabricated on semipolar GaN. X-ray rocking curves confirmed better crystallinity of semipolar as compared to nonpolar GaN which resulted in faster transit response of the device.

  5. On compensation and impurities in state-of-the-art GaN epilayers grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Wickenden, A.E.; Gaskill, D.K.; Koleske, D.D.; Doverspike, K.; Simons, D.S.; Chi, P.H.

    1996-11-01

    A comparison between 300 K electron transport data for state-of-the-art wurtzite GaN grown on sapphire substrates and corresponding theoretical calculations shows a large difference, with experimental mobility less than the predicted mobility for a given carrier concentration. The comparison seems to imply that GaN films are greatly compensated, but the discrepancy may also be due to the poorly known values of the materials parameters used in the calculations. In this work, recent analysis of transport and SIMS measurements on silicon-doped GaN films are shown to imply that the compensation, N{sub A}/N{sub D}, is less than 0.3. In addition, the determination of an activation energy of 34 meV in a GaN film doped to a level of 6 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} suggests either that a second, native donor exists in the doped films at a level of between 6 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} and 1 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, or that the activation energy of Si in GaN is dependent on the concentration, being influenced by impurity banding or some other physical effect. GaN films grown without silicon doping are highly resistive.

  6. Differences and similarities between structural properties of GaN grown by different growth methods

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Jasinski, J.; Washburn, J.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper defects formed in GaN grown by different methods are reviewed. The crystal growth direction and growth rate play important roles. For bulk crystals grown under high pressure the highest growth rates are for planes perpendicular to the c-axis. Only planar defects formed on c-planes are observed in these crystals. There are no threading dislocations or nanotubes in the c-direction. However, polarity of the growth direction plays a role in the surface roughness and the distribution of planar defects. For growth of homo-epitaxial and hetero-epitaxial layers the growth is forced to take place in the much slower c-direction. As a result defects related to the purity of constituents used for growth are formed such as nanotubes and pinholes. In addition threading dislocations and dislocations that accommodate lattice and thermal expansion mismatch are formed.

  7. X-ray detection with zinc-blende (cubic) GaN Schottky diodes

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, T.; Whale, J.; Lioliou, G.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.; Kent, A. J.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The room temperature X-ray responses as functions of time of two n type cubic GaN Schottky diodes (200 μm and 400 μm diameters) are reported. The current densities as functions of time for both diodes showed fast turn-on transients and increases in current density when illuminated with X-ray photons of energy up to 35 keV. The diodes were also electrically characterized: capacitance, implied depletion width and dark current measurements as functions of applied bias at room temperature are presented. At −5 V reverse bias, the capacitances of the diodes were measured to be (84.05 ± 0.01) pF and (121.67 ± 0.02) pF, respectively. At −5 V reverse bias, the dark current densities of the diodes were measured to be (347.2 ± 0.4) mA cm−2 and (189.0 ± 0.2) mA cm−2, respectively. The Schottky barrier heights of the devices (0.52 ± 0.07) eV and (0.63 ± 0.09) eV, respectively, were extracted from the forward dark current characteristics. PMID:27403806

  8. X-ray detection with zinc-blende (cubic) GaN Schottky diodes.

    PubMed

    Gohil, T; Whale, J; Lioliou, G; Novikov, S V; Foxon, C T; Kent, A J; Barnett, A M

    2016-01-01

    The room temperature X-ray responses as functions of time of two n type cubic GaN Schottky diodes (200 μm and 400 μm diameters) are reported. The current densities as functions of time for both diodes showed fast turn-on transients and increases in current density when illuminated with X-ray photons of energy up to 35 keV. The diodes were also electrically characterized: capacitance, implied depletion width and dark current measurements as functions of applied bias at room temperature are presented. At -5 V reverse bias, the capacitances of the diodes were measured to be (84.05 ± 0.01) pF and (121.67 ± 0.02) pF, respectively. At -5 V reverse bias, the dark current densities of the diodes were measured to be (347.2 ± 0.4) mA cm(-2) and (189.0 ± 0.2) mA cm(-2), respectively. The Schottky barrier heights of the devices (0.52 ± 0.07) eV and (0.63 ± 0.09) eV, respectively, were extracted from the forward dark current characteristics.

  9. X-ray detection with zinc-blende (cubic) GaN Schottky diodes.

    PubMed

    Gohil, T; Whale, J; Lioliou, G; Novikov, S V; Foxon, C T; Kent, A J; Barnett, A M

    2016-01-01

    The room temperature X-ray responses as functions of time of two n type cubic GaN Schottky diodes (200 μm and 400 μm diameters) are reported. The current densities as functions of time for both diodes showed fast turn-on transients and increases in current density when illuminated with X-ray photons of energy up to 35 keV. The diodes were also electrically characterized: capacitance, implied depletion width and dark current measurements as functions of applied bias at room temperature are presented. At -5 V reverse bias, the capacitances of the diodes were measured to be (84.05 ± 0.01) pF and (121.67 ± 0.02) pF, respectively. At -5 V reverse bias, the dark current densities of the diodes were measured to be (347.2 ± 0.4) mA cm(-2) and (189.0 ± 0.2) mA cm(-2), respectively. The Schottky barrier heights of the devices (0.52 ± 0.07) eV and (0.63 ± 0.09) eV, respectively, were extracted from the forward dark current characteristics. PMID:27403806

  10. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polarsubstrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2006-01-05

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the 'seed' area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity are 10 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  11. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-11-13

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices.

  12. Electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to as grown and rapid thermally annealed GaN grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirwal, Varun Singh; Singh, Joginder; Gautam, Khyati; Peta, Koteswara Rao

    2016-05-01

    We studied effect of thermally annealed GaN surface on the electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to Ga-polar GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrate. Current voltage (I-V) measurement was used to study electrical properties while X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to study structural properties. The Schottky barrier height calculated using I-V characteristics was 0.59 eV for (Pd/Au) Schottky contact on as grown GaN, which increased to 0.73 eV for the Schottky contact fabricated on 700 °C annealed GaN film. The reverse bias leakage current at -1 V was also significantly reduced from 6.42×10-5 A to 7.31×10-7 A after annealing. The value of series resistance (Rs) was extracted from Cheung method and the value of Rs decreased from 373 Ω to 172 Ω after annealing. XRD results revealed the formation of gallide phases at the interface of (Pd/Au) and GaN for annealed sample, which could be the reason for improvement in the electrical properties of Schottky contact after annealing.

  13. Structural and Electronic Properties of GaN Films Grown on Sapphire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Botchkarev, A.; Kim, W.; Aktas, O.; Salvador, A.; Sverdlov, B.; Morkoc, H.; Tsen, S.-C. Y.; Smith, D. J.

    1996-03-01

    The structural characteristics of GaN films grown on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, and compared to their electrical and optical properties. We find remarkable correspondence between the in-plane structural order (coherence length and mosaic spread) and the electrical and optical properties. Contrary to common belief, our observations show unequivocally that the out-of-plane structural features, which are considerably better developed than the in-plane counterparts, can not be used for determining the material quality with respect to their optical and electrical activity. In particular, the (00l) mosaic spread is not a good indicator of film quality. The structural correlations of the GaN film, the AlN buffer laryer and the sapphire substrate are also explored and compared to their growth conditions. The issue of in-plane stacking fault (hcp - fcc) is also addressed using x-ray scans along the (10l) direction. Work supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science under contract No. DEAC0276CH00016, by NSF Grant DMR-9314326, by the Office of Naval Research with M. Yoder and Dr. Y. S. Park as monitors, and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. G. L. Witt as the monitor. H. M. was funded by AFOSR under a URRP program.

  14. Comparison of stress states in GaN films grown on different substrates: Langasite, sapphire and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Guon; Saravana Kumar, R.; Moon, Mee-Lim; Kim, Moon-Deock; Kang, Tae-Won; Yang, Woo-Chul; Kim, Song-Gang

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the evolution of GaN films on novel langasite (LGS) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and assessed the quality of grown GaN film by comparing the experimental results obtained using LGS, sapphire and silicon (Si) substrates. To study the substrate effect, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the microstructure and stress states in GaN films. Wet etching of GaN films in KOH solution revealed that the films deposited on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire and AlN/Si substrates possess Ga-polarity, while the film deposited on GaN/sapphire possess N-polarity. XRD, Raman and PL analysis demonstrated that a compressive stress exist in the films grown on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire, and GaN/sapphire substrates, while a tensile stress appears on AlN/Si substrate. Comparative analysis showed the growth of nearly stress-free GaN films on LGS substrate due to the very small lattice mismatch (~3.2%) and thermal expansion coefficient difference (~7.5%). The results presented here will hopefully provide a new framework for the further development of high performance III-nitride-related devices using GaN/LGS heteroepitaxy.

  15. Strain Relief Analysis of InN Quantum Dots Grown on GaN

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We present a study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the strain state of individual InN quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaN substrates. Moiré fringe and high resolution TEM analyses showed that the QDs are almost fully relaxed due to the generation of a 60° misfit dislocation network at the InN/GaN interface. By applying the Geometric Phase Algorithm to plan-view high-resolution micrographs, we show that this network consists of three essentially non-interacting sets of misfit dislocations lying along the directions. Close to the edge of the QD, the dislocations curve to meet the surface and form a network of threading dislocations surrounding the system. PMID:21794190

  16. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  17. Electrical Properties Of GaN Layers Grown By Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Aguilar, Cesia Guarneros; Sánchez-Reséndiz, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The electrical properties of three un-doped GaN samples grown at low pressure by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates are reported. Two different growth temperatures of 900 °C and 950 °C were used, for 90 min. Also, two trimethylgallium flow fluxes were set (5.39 μmole/minute and 8.39 μmole/minute). The temperature dependent Hall (T-Hall) technique was used, between 35 K and 373 K. The resistivity of our samples fluctuated between 3 and 24 mΩ×cm. They were temperature dependent and were explained by two thermally activated processes, with activation energies of 20 and 70 meV. For the two samples grown at 900 °C, the mobilities and the charge carrier densities were temperature independent with values of 10 and 20 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 6×1019 and 5×1019 cm-3, respectively. For the sample grown at 950 °C, the mobility showed temperature dependence to the power of +1/3 and the charge carrier density a thermally activated dependence with an activation energy of 5 meV.

  18. Strong coupling of light with A and B excitons in GaN microcavities grown on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, I. R.; Semond, F.; Leroux, M.; Massies, J.; Disseix, P.; Henneghien, A-L.; Leymarie, J.; Vasson, A.

    2006-01-15

    We present experimental results demonstrating strong-light matter coupling at low and room temperature in bulk GaN microcavities with epitaxial (Al,Ga)N Bragg mirrors grown on silicon (111). At low temperature, the strong coupling of both the A and B excitonic features of GaN with the cavity mode is clearly resolved in the microcavity. At room temperature a Rabi energy of 50 meV is observed and well reproduced using transfer-matrix reflectivity calculations describing the interaction of both the A and B excitonic states with the photonic mode.

  19. Imaging extended non-homogeneities in HVPE grown GaN with Kelvin Probe Microscopy and photo-etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Weyher, J. L.; Khachapuridze, A.; Grzegory, I.

    2012-08-01

    GaN bulk crystals grown by Hydrate Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) contain regions with non-homogenous electrical properties. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) was used for revealing and analysis of these defects in thick GaN layers grown by this method on top of GaN on sapphire templates. Such layers initially grow in the form of separate pyramids, which are later overgrown, creating microscopically flat crystallization front. Cross-sectional KPFM images, made just above the template surface, revealed a series of inverted dome-like features of significantly lower potential, indicating regions of high electron concentration. Inside the thick HVPE-grown layer the changes of surface potential are much smaller and indicate the existence of minor fluctuation in carrier concentration during bulk growth of GaN. Subsequent photo-etching, sensitive to carrier concentration, and measurements of etch depth supported this findings. Both KPFM and photo-etching confirmed the known preferential incorporation of impurities at sides of the overgrown pits (pinholes) during initial phase of HVPE growth. During subsequent HVPE growth the changes of the surface potential and of the etch depth are small and may be related to non-uniform incorporation of impurities due to rotation of the growing sample.

  20. Improving optical performance of GaN nanowires grown by selective area growth homoepitaxy: Influence of substrate and nanowire dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, P.; Gačević, Ž.; Torres-Pardo, A.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Calleja, E.

    2016-06-01

    Series of GaN nanowires (NW) with controlled diameters (160-500 nm) and heights (420-1100 nm) were homoepitaxially grown on three different templates: GaN/Si(111), GaN/AlN/Si(111), and GaN/sapphire(0001). Transmission electron microscopy reveals a strong influence of the NW diameter on dislocation filtering effect, whereas photoluminescence measurements further relate this effect to the GaN NWs near-bandgap emission efficiency. Although the templates' quality has some effects on the GaN NWs optical and structural properties, the NW diameter reduction drives the dislocation filtering effect to the point where a poor GaN template quality becomes negligible. Thus, by a proper optimization of the homoepitaxial GaN NWs growth, the propagation of dislocations into the NWs can be greatly prevented, leading to an exceptional crystal quality and a total dominance of the near-bandgap emission over sub-bandgap, defect-related lines, such as basal stacking faults and so called unknown exciton (UX) emission. In addition, a correlation between the presence of polarity inversion domain boundaries and the UX emission lines around 3.45 eV is established.

  1. Highly Uniform Characteristics of GaN Nanorods Grown on Si(111) by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, Rangaswamy; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Song, Ki-Young; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jun, Baek Byung; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2010-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanorod (NR) arrays were grown on a gold-coated Si(111) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The synthesized single GaN NRs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis. The HR-TEM images and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the GaN NRs were of high quality with a single-crystal wurtzite structure and free from defects. The GaN NRs were observed to have a uniform diameter ranging from 40 to 70 nm, length of up to 1 µm, and a sharp symmetrical pyramid-like tip at the top. The pyramid-like tip was attributed to the dissociation of nitrogen atoms by the cracking of ammonia (NH3) at the elevated growth temperature. Furthermore, there was no sign of any metal or alloy cluster at the end of the NRs. Thus, the growth of the GaN NRs does not occur by the typical vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism.

  2. Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2014-09-08

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E{sub C}–0.24 eV), D3 (E{sub C}–0.60 eV), D4 (E{sub C}–0.69 eV), D5 (E{sub C}–0.96 eV), D7 (E{sub C}–1.19 eV), and D8, were observed. After 2 MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E{sub C}–0.12 eV), D5I (E{sub C}–0.89 eV), and D6 (E{sub C}–1.14 eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  3. Structure and morphology characters of GaN grown by ECR-MBE using hydrogen-nitrogen mixed gas plasma[Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, Tsutomu; Chiba, Yasuo; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2000-07-01

    GaN growth by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy using hydrogen-nitrogen mixed gas plasma were carried out on GaN templates with a different polar-surface. Structure and surface morphology of the GaN layers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The GaN layer grown with hydrogen on N-polar template showed a relatively flat morphology including hillocks. Columnar domain existed in the center of the hillock, which might be attributed to the existence of tiny inversion domain with Ga-polarity. On the other hand, columnar structure was formed in the GaN layer grown with hydrogen on Ga-polar template.

  4. Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. Q.; Sun, H. P.; Pan, X. Q.

    2010-10-11

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on nitrided (0001) sapphire substrates with an intervening GaN layer by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that polarity of the ZnO epilayer could be controlled by modifying the GaN interlayer. ZnO grown on a distorted 3-nm-thick GaN interlayer has Zn-polarity while ZnO on a 20-nm-thick GaN interlayer with a high structural quality has O-polarity. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the polarity of ZnO epilayer is controlled by the atomic structure of the interface between the ZnO buffer layer and the intervening GaN layer.

  5. Synchrotron white beam topography characterization of physical vapor transport grown AlN and ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghothamachar, Balaji; Vetter, William M.; Dudley, Michael; Dalmau, Rafael; Schlesser, Raoul; Sitar, Zlatko; Michaels, Emily; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2002-12-01

    Structural defects in AlN single crystals grown by the sublimation method and GaN single crystals grown by the ammonothermal method are characterized by synchrotron white-beam X-ray topography in conjunction with optical microscopy. AlN platelets are either of (1 1 2¯ 0) or (0 0 0 1) type depending on the growth conditions. Dislocation densities of the order of 10 3 cm -2 or lower are observed in some crystals. X-ray topographs reveal the presence of growth sector boundaries, inclusions, and growth dislocations that indicate slight impurity contamination. The 2H crystal structure of GaN single crystals obtained by the ammonothermal method was verified by Laue X-ray pattern analysis. GaN crystals grown are of the order of 1 mm in size and are either (0 0 0 1) platelets or [0 0 0 1] prismatic needles. Generally, prismatic needles are characterized by lower degree of mosaicity than (0 0 0 1) platelets.

  6. Effect of the duration of the growth process on the properties of GaN grown by the sublimation method

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, A. A.; Mokhov, E. N.

    2009-03-15

    Variation in the structural and morphological features and luminescent characteristics of thick epitaxial GaN layers grown by the sublimation sandwich method with the duration of the crystallization process has been studied. This was, in particular, done by means of scanning electron microscopy in the secondary-electron and color-cathodoluminescence modes. It was found that rather high-quality GaN layers with a thickness of up to 0.5 mm can be grown in a time of about 1.5 h, with their surface hardly exhibiting any luminescence in the visible spectral range. However, making the growth process longer in order to obtain thicker layers impairs the quality of a crystal being grown, which is accompanied by an increase in the intensity of cathodoluminescence from its surface layer in the visible (predominantly yellow) region of the spectrum. Reasons for the poorer quality of GaN layers in this case are discussed. It is suggested that, as the evaporation rate from the source decreases, the amount of active nitrogen near the growth surface becomes lower.

  7. Electrical properties of undoped GaN films grown by maskless epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, In-Hwan; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Yakimov, E. B.

    2013-02-01

    Electrical properties, deep traps spectra, microcathodoluminescence (MCL) spectra measurements, MCL imaging, and electron beam induced current (EBIC) imaging were performed for undoped GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using maskless epitaxial lateral overgrowth on basal plane sapphire. The films showed a low dislocation density of ˜108 cm-2 in the laterally overgrown wings and an order of magnitude higher dislocation density in vertical growth seed regions, as determined by MCL and EBIC imaging. The polarity of EBIC signal measurements and the room temperature capacitance-voltage characteristics suggested that the high-dislocation-density seed regions were high-resistivity p-type, with the Fermi level pinned near Ev + 0.4 eV, as determined by admittance spectroscopy. The wing regions were n-type, with low residual donor concentration of some 1014 cm-3 near the surface. The donor concentration further decreased upon movement towards the sapphire substrate. Some possible explanations of the observed effects are discussed.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Free-Standing GaN Grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, E. R.; Braga Freitas, G. C. B., Jr.; Carlos, W. E.; Morkoc, H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, K. Y.

    2001-03-01

    ODMR and EPR have been performed on thick, free-standing GaN (t ~ 150-200 μm) grown by HVPE which paved the way to probe the character of the residual defects. The samples were characterized by low-temperature PL and selected ones by variable-temperature Hall effect measurements. EPR at 9.5 GHz reveals a single line with g ~1.95 attributed to shallow donors. The concentration of the uncompensated donors (ND - NA ~ 6 × 10^15 cm-3) is in good agreement with that found by Hall effect. The samples exhibit sharp (FWHM < 1 meV) excitonic PL lines and broad emission bands with peak energies at ~ 1.8 and 2.2 eV. Instead of the 2.2 eV PL band, a broad "yellow-green" emission band at 2.4 eV was observed after an RIE treatment to remove polishing damage. ODMR at 24 GHz on these bands reveals distinct spectra. In addition to the same shallow donor resonance as observed in EPR, other ODMR features were found with g-values of 1.956, 1.974, and 2.019. Models for likely recombination mechanisms will be discussed.

  9. Dielectric properties of highly resistive GaN crystals grown by ammonothermal method at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, Jerzy; Zajåc, Marcin; Kucharski, Robert; Gryglewski, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Permittivity, the dielectric loss tangent and conductivity of semi-insulating Gallium Nitride crystals have been measured as functions of frequency from 10 GHz to 50 GHz and temperature from 295 to 560 K employing quasi TE0np mode dielectric resonator technique. Crystals were grown using ammonothermal method. Two kinds of doping were used to obtain high resistivity crystals; one with deep acceptors in form of transition metal ions, and the other with shallow Mg acceptors. The sample compensated with transition metal ions exhibited semi-insulating behavior in the whole temperature range. The sample doped with Mg acceptors remained semi-insulating up to 390 K. At temperatures exceeding 390 K the conductivity term in the total dielectric loss tangent of Mg compensated sample becomes dominant and it increases exponentially with activation energy of 1.14 eV. It has been proved that ammonothermal method with appropriate doping allows growth of high quality, temperature stable semi-insulating GaN crystals.

  10. Optical properties of C-doped bulk GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Khromov, S.; Hemmingsson, C.; Monemar, B.; Hultman, L.; Pozina, G.

    2014-12-14

    Freestanding bulk C-doped GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy are studied by optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Significant changes of the near band gap (NBG) emission as well as an enhancement of yellow luminescence have been found with increasing C doping from 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Cathodoluminescence mapping reveals hexagonal domain structures (pits) with high oxygen concentrations formed during the growth. NBG emission within the pits even at high C concentration is dominated by a rather broad line at ∼3.47 eV typical for n-type GaN. In the area without pits, quenching of the donor bound exciton (DBE) spectrum at moderate C doping levels of 1–2 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} is observed along with the appearance of two acceptor bound exciton lines typical for Mg-doped GaN. The DBE ionization due to local electric fields in compensated GaN may explain the transformation of the NBG emission.

  11. Polarity control of GaN grown on pulsed-laser-deposited AlN/GaN template by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jinyeop; Shojiki, Kanako; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We report on the polarity control of GaN regrown on pulsed-laser-deposition-grown N-polar AlN on a metalorganic-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown Ga-polar GaN template. The polarity of the regrown GaN, which was confirmed using aqueous KOH solutions, can be inverted from that of AlN by inserting a low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) buffer layer. We hypothetically ascribe the Ga-polarity selection of GaN on the LT-GaN buffer layer to the mixed polarity of LT-GaN grains and higher growth rate of the Ga-polar grain, which covers up the N-polar grain during the initial stage of the high-temperature growth. The X-ray rocking curve analysis revealed that the edge-dislocation density in the N-polar regrown GaN is 5 to 8 times smaller than that in the Ga-polar regrown GaN. N-polar GaN grows directly on N-polar AlN at higher temperatures. Therefore, nucleus islands grow larger than those of LT-GaN and the area fraction of coalescence boundaries between islands, where edge dislocations emerge, becomes smaller.

  12. Comparison of AlGaN p-i-n ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes grown on free-standing GaN and sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeomoh; Ji, Mi-Hee; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Sood, Ashok K.; Dhar, Nibir D.; Lewis, Jay

    2015-12-01

    We compare the performance characteristics of Al0.05Ga0.95N UV avalanche photodiodes (APDs) grown on different substrates. UV-APDs grown on a free-standing GaN substrate show lower dark-current densities for all fabricated mesa sizes than similar UV-APDs grown on a GaN/sapphire template. In addition, a stable avalanche gain higher than 5 × 105 and a significant increase in the responsivity of UV-APDs grown on a free-standing GaN substrate are observed. We believe that the high crystalline quality of Al0.05Ga0.95N UV-APDs grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with low dislocation density is responsible for the observed low leakage currents, high performance characteirstics, and reliability of the devices.

  13. Step-induced misorientation of GaN grown on r-plane sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Komninou, Ph.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2008-07-14

    In the growth of nonpolar (1120) a-plane GaN on r-plane (1102) sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, misoriented crystallites are observed close to the substrate. They have average diameter {approx}10 nm and are oriented with the (0001){sub GaN} plane approximately parallel to the (2113){sub sapph.} plane and [0110]{sub GaN} parallel [1101]{sub sapph.}. This semipolar orientation is promoted by a low misfit (2.4%) between (1011){sub GaN} and (1210){sub sapph.} planes. Its introduction, after nitridation treatment, is due to GaN nucleation on (2113){sub sapph.} step facets inclined at 26 deg. relative to the r-plane. Two variants are observed, leading to twinning when they abut inside the epilayer.

  14. Optically active vacancies in GaN grown on Si substrates probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Zhang, Yang; Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Palacios, Tomás; Cao, Yu; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2014-02-24

    Native defects in GaN layers grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for GaN layers showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were formed in the layers. Charge transition of the defects due to electron capture was found to occur when the layers were irradiated by photons with energy above 2.71 eV. The concentration of such defects increased after 600–800 °C annealing, but the defects have not been annealed out even at 1000 °C. They were identified as Ga-vacancy-type defects, such as complexes between Ga vacancies and carbon impurities, and the relationship between their charge transition and optical properties were discussed.

  15. Study of carrier recombination transient characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN dependent on layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubas, E. Čeponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Jelmakas, E.; Juršėnas, S.; Kadys, A.; Malinauskas, T.; Tekorius, A.; Vitta, P.

    2013-11-15

    The MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers of different thickness have been examined in order to clarify a role of surface recombination, to separate an impact of radiative and non-radiative recombination and disorder factors. The microwave probed –photoconductivity (MW-PC) and spectrally resolved photo-luminescence (PL) transients were simultaneously recorded under ultraviolet (UV) light 354 nm pulsed 500 ps excitation. The MW-PC transients exhibited the carrier decay components associated with carrier decay within micro-crystals and the disordered structure on the periphery areas surrounding crystalline columns. Three PL bands were resolved within PL spectrum, namely, the exciton ascribed UV-PL band edge for hν>3.3 eV, blue B-PL band for 2.5 < hν < 3.0 eV and yellow Y-PL band with hν < 2.4 eV. It has been obtained that intensity of UV-PL band increases with excitation density, while intensity of B-PL band is nearly invariant. However, intensity of the Y-PL increases with reduction of the excitation density. The Y-PL can be associated with trapping centers. A reduction of UV excitation density leads to a decrease of the relative amplitude of the asymptotic component within the MW-PC transients and to an increase of the amplitude as well as duration of the yellow spectral band (Y-PL) asymptotic component. Fractional index α with values 0.5 < α < 0.8 was evaluated for the stretched-exponent component which fits the experimental transients determined by the disordered structure ascribed to the periphery areas surrounding the crystalline columns.

  16. White emission from non-planar InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs grown on GaN template with truncated hexagonal pyramids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Lun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Tu, Shang-Ju; Chen, P C; Lai, Wei-Chih; Sheu, Jinn-Kong

    2015-04-01

    Non-planar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures are grown on a GaN template with truncated hexagonal pyramids (THPs) featuring c-plane and r-plane surfaces. The THP array is formed by the regrowth of the GaN layer on a selective-area Si-implanted GaN template. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the InGaN/GaN epitaxial layers regrown on the THPs exhibit different growth rates and indium compositions of the InGaN layer between the c-plane and r-plane surfaces. Consequently, InGaN/GaN MQW light-emitting diodes grown on the GaN THP array emit multiple wavelengths approaching near white light.

  17. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-02-10

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11-22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1-100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting.

  18. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11–22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-01-01

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11–22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11–22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1–100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting. PMID:26861595

  19. Growth, nitrogen vacancy reduction and solid solution formation in cubic GaN thin films and the subsequent fabrication of superlattice structures using AlN and inn. Final report, 1 June 1986-31 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1992-12-01

    An atomic layer epitaxy deposition system configured for the growth of thin films of the III-V nitrides of A1, Ga and In has been designed, constructed and commissioned. The system allows the introduction of up to 16 gases without mixing. Self-terminating growth of crystalline GaN films has been achieved on single crystal wafers of (0001) alpha(6H)-SiC. Results of analyses via Auger spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electron diffraction are described. Deposition of AIN and GaN via gas-source MBE was also continued during this period. The principal emphasis concerned the initial stages of growth of both compounds on the substrates of (00001) alpha(6H)-SiC and (0001) sapphire, as determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An initial layer of silicon nitride formed on the surface of SiC prior to the deposition of either nitride. The deposition of GaN on sapphire followed the Stranski-Krastanov mode of nucleation and growth, while on SiC, characteristics of three-dimensional growth were evident. By contrast, AlN grew initially in a layer-by-layer mode. Deposition of GaN on vicinal (100) Beta-SiC during UV irradiation resulted in the formation of a new 4H polytype of this material. Deposition of BN via gas-source MBE on Cu(110) resulted in nanocrystalline cBN; films grown on (111) Cu resulted in h-BN (graphitic phase). Similar studies using Si(100) substrates also resulted in the occurrence of cBN. The occurrence of the cubic polytype was enhanced while that of h-BN was discouraged with the use of the UV light at 400-500 deg C.

  20. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  1. GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei; Xie, Yiyang; Sun, Jie

    2013-11-25

    Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300 °C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

  2. Laser MBE-grown yttrium iron garnet films on GaN: characterization of the crystal structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveev, A. K.; Bursian, V. E.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Suturin, S. M.; Volkov, M. P.; Sokolov, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films were grown on GaN substrates using the laser molecular beam epitaxy method. X-ray diffraction data showed polycrystalline YIG layers without additional structural modifications. The magnetic properties of the YIG films were studied at room temperature with the aid of a vibration sample magnetometer, the magneto-optical Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance methods. ‘Easy-plane’-type magnetic anisotropy was found in the films. The gyromagnetic ratio and 4 πMS value were calculated.

  3. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semipolar GaN (2021) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, M.; Grzanka, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Krysko, M.; Grzanka, E.; Sochacki, T.; Siekacz, M.; Kucharski, R.

    2013-03-18

    Multi-quantum well (MQW) structures and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The In incorporation efficiency was found to be significantly lower for the semipolar plane as compared to the polar one. The semipolar MQWs exhibit a smooth surface morphology, abrupt interfaces, and a high photoluminescence intensity. The electroluminescence of semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) LEDs fabricated in the same growth run peaks at 387 and 462 nm, respectively. Semipolar LEDs with additional (Al,Ga)N cladding layers exhibit a higher optical output power but simultaneously a higher turn-on voltage.

  4. Structural, electrical, and optical characterization of coalescent p-n GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Korona, K. P.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.

    2015-12-01

    The electrical, structural, and optical properties of coalescent p-n GaN nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrate are investigated. From photoluminescence measurements the full width at half maximum of bound exciton peaks AX and DA is found as 1.3 and 1.2 meV, respectively. These values are lower than those reported previously in the literature. The current-voltage characteristics show the rectification ratio of about 102 and the leakage current of about 10-4 A/cm2 at room temperature. We demonstrate that the thermionic mechanism is not dominant in these samples and spatial inhomogeneties and tunneling processes through a ˜2 nm thick SiNx layer between GaN and Si could be responsible for deviation from the ideal diode behavior. The free carrier concentration in GaN NWs determined by capacitance-voltage measurements is about 4 × 1015 cm-3. Two deep levels (H190 and E250) are found in the structures. We attribute H190 to an extended defect located at the interface between the substrate and the SiNx interlayer or near the sidewalls at the bottom of the NWs, whereas E250 is tentatively assigned to a gallium-vacancy- or nitrogen interstitials-related defect.

  5. Electron Transport in a High Mobility Free-Standing GaN Substrate Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, L.; Kurdak, C.; Yun, F.; Morkoc, H.; Rode, D. L.; Tsen, K. T.; Park, S. S.; Lee, K. Y.

    2001-03-01

    We studied electron transport properties in a high quality free-standing GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN, with a thickness of more than 200 μm, was lifted off the sapphire substrate and mechanically polished. At room temperature the carrier density is 1.3x10^16cm-3 and the Hall mobility is 1200 cm^2/V-s, which is the highest reported electron mobility for GaN with a wurtzite structure. Transport properties are studied using a van der Pauw geometry in a temperature range of 20 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. Electron mobility is found to increase at lower temperatures with a peak mobility of 7400 cm^2/V-s at 48 K. The carrier density decreases exponentially at temperatures below 80 K with an activation energy of 28 meV. The electron transport measurements were used to examine the contributions of different scattering mechanisms. Numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation was carried out, including non-parabolic conduction bands and wavefunction admixture, along with lattice scattering and ionized-impurity scattering. LO and TO phonon energies were determined by Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Structural, electrical, and optical characterization of coalescent p-n GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Korona, K. P.

    2015-12-14

    The electrical, structural, and optical properties of coalescent p-n GaN nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrate are investigated. From photoluminescence measurements the full width at half maximum of bound exciton peaks AX and DA is found as 1.3 and 1.2 meV, respectively. These values are lower than those reported previously in the literature. The current-voltage characteristics show the rectification ratio of about 10{sup 2} and the leakage current of about 10{sup −4} A/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. We demonstrate that the thermionic mechanism is not dominant in these samples and spatial inhomogeneties and tunneling processes through a ∼2 nm thick SiN{sub x} layer between GaN and Si could be responsible for deviation from the ideal diode behavior. The free carrier concentration in GaN NWs determined by capacitance-voltage measurements is about 4 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3}. Two deep levels (H190 and E250) are found in the structures. We attribute H190 to an extended defect located at the interface between the substrate and the SiN{sub x} interlayer or near the sidewalls at the bottom of the NWs, whereas E250 is tentatively assigned to a gallium-vacancy- or nitrogen interstitials-related defect.

  7. Synthesis, microstructure, and cathodoluminescence of [0001]-oriented GaN nanorods grown on conductive graphite substrate.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Zaien; Yang, Bing; Yin, Yao; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Zhang, Guifeng; Jiang, Xin

    2013-11-27

    One-dimensional GaN nanorods with corrugated morphology have been synthesized on graphite substrate without the assistance of any metal catalyst through a feasible thermal evaporation process. The morphologies and microstructures of GaN nanorods were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results from HRTEM analysis indicate that the GaN nanorods are well-crystallized and exhibit a preferential orientation along the [0001] direction with Ga(3+)-terminated (101̅1) and N(3-)-terminated (101̅1̅) as side facets, finally leading to the corrugated morphology surface. The stabilization of the electrostatic surface energy of {101̅1} polar surface in a wurtzite-type hexagonal structure plays a key role in the formation of GaN nanorods with corrugated morphology. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show a near-band-edge emission (NBE) in the ultraviolet range and a broad deep level emission (DLE) in the visible range. The crystallography and the optical emissions of GaN nanorods are discussed. PMID:24164686

  8. Structural and magnetic characterization of Sm-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehara, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuta; Hasegawa, Shigehiko

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated structural, optical and magnetic properties of Sm-doped GaN thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction reveal that Ga1- x Sm x N films with a SmN mole fraction of ˜8% or below are grown on GaN templates without segregation of any secondary phases. With increasing SmN mole fraction, the c-axis lattice parameter of the GaSmN films linearly increases. GaSmN films with low Sm concentrations exhibit inner-4f transitions of Sm3+ in photoluminescence spectra. The present findings show that Sm atoms are substituted for some Ga atoms as trivalent ions (Sm3+). The Ga1- x Sm x N films display hysteresis loops in magnetization versus external magnetic field (M-H) curves even at 300 K. We will discuss the origin of these features together with the corresponding temperature dependences of magnetization.

  9. Transmission electron microscopy study of microstructural properties and dislocation characterization in the GaN film grown on the cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Sik; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Yoo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Chil Seong; Park, Jucheol; He, Yinsheng; Shin, Keesam

    2014-02-01

    Growing a GaN film on a patterned Al2O3 substrate is one of the methods of reducing threading dislocations (TDs), which can significantly deteriorate the performance of GaN-based LEDs. In this study, the microstructural details of the GaN film grown on a cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and weak-beam dark-field techniques. Various defects such as misfit dislocations (MDs), recrystallized GaN (R-GaN) islands and nano-voids were observed on the patterned Al2O3 surfaces, i.e. the flat surface (FS), the inclined surface (IS) and the top surface (TS), respectively. Especially, the crystallographic orientation of R-GaN between the GaN film and the inclined Al2O3 substrate was identified as $[\\overline 1 2\\overline 1 0]_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 101]_{{\\rm R - GaN} \\,{\\rm on}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 100]_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $, $(\\overline 1 012)_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}(1\\overline 1 02)_{{\\rm R - Ga}\\,{\\rm Non}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}(\\overline {11} 26)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $. In addition, a rotation by 9° between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0002)_{{\\rm GaN}} $ and between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0006)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $ was found to reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN film and the Al2O3 substrate. Many TDs in the GaN film were observed on the FS and TS of Al2O3. However, few TDs were observed on the IS. Most of the TDs generated from the FS of Al2O3 were bent to the inclined facet rather than propagating to the GaN surface, resulting in a reduction in the dislocation density. Most of the TDs generated from the TS of Al2O3 were characterized as edge dislocations.

  10. Influence of different aspect ratios on the structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Fang-Wei; Ke, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Hong; Liao, Bo-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2016-07-01

    This study presents GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with different aspect ratios (ARs) using a homemade metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) technique is used to prepare the dry etching mask. The cross-sectional view of the scanning electron microscope image shows that voids exist between the interface of the GaN thin film and the high-AR (i.e. ∼2) NPSS. In contrast, patterns on the low-AR (∼0.7) NPSS are filled full of GaN. The formation of voids on the high-AR NPSS is believed to be due to the enhancement of the lateral growth in the initial growth stage, and the quick-merging GaN thin film blocks the precursors from continuing to supply the bottom of the pattern. The atomic force microscopy images of GaN on bare sapphire show a layer-by-layer surface morphology, which becomes a step-flow surface morphology for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. The edge-type threading dislocation density can be reduced from 7.1 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on bare sapphire to 4.9 × 108 cm-2 for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. In addition, the carrier mobility increases from 85 cm2/Vs for GaN on bare sapphire to 199 cm2/Vs for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. However, the increased screw-type threading dislocation density for GaN on a low-AR NPSS is due to the competition of lateral growth on the flat-top patterns and vertical growth on the bottom of the patterns that causes the material quality of the GaN thin film to degenerate. Thus, the experimental results indicate that the AR of the particular patterning of a NPSS plays a crucial role in achieving GaN thin film with a high crystalline quality.

  11. n{sup +}-GaN grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy: Application to regrown contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Lugani, L.; Malinverni, M.; Giraud, E.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Tirelli, S.; Marti, D.; Bolognesi, C. R.

    2014-11-17

    We report on the low-temperature growth of heavily Si-doped (>10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}) n{sup +}-type GaN by N-rich ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with very low bulk resistivity (<4 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm). This is applied to the realization of regrown ohmic contacts on InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. A low n{sup +}-GaN/2 dimensional electron gas contact resistivity of 0.11 Ω·mm is measured, provided an optimized surface preparation procedure, which is shown to be critical. This proves the great potentials of ammonia MBE for the realization of high performance electronic devices.

  12. Low defect large area semi-polar (112) GaN grown on patterned (113) silicon

    PubMed Central

    Pristovsek, Markus; Han, Yisong; Zhu, Tongtong; Frentrup, Martin; Kappers, Menno J; Humphreys, Colin J; Kozlowski, Grzegorz; Maaskant, Pleun; Corbett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We report on the growth of semi-polar GaN (112) templates on patterned Si (113) substrates. Trenches were etched in Si (113) using KOH to expose Si {111} sidewalls. Subsequently an AlN layer to prevent meltback etching, an AlGaN layer for stress management, and finally two GaN layers were deposited. Total thicknesses up to 5 m were realised without cracks in the layer. Transmission electron microscopy showed that most dislocations propagate along [0001] direction and hence can be covered by overgrowth from the next trench. The defect densities were below and stacking fault densities less than 100 cm . These numbers are similar to reports on patterned r-plane sapphire. Typical X-ray full width at half maximum (FHWM) were 500” for the asymmetric (00.6) and 450” for the (11.2) reflection. These FHWMs were 50 % broader than reported for patterned r-plane sapphire which is attributed to different defect structures and total thicknesses. The surface roughness shows strong variation on templates. For the final surface roughness the roughness of the sidewalls of the GaN ridges at the time of coalescence are critical. PMID:26212392

  13. Enhanced performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown on nanoporous GaN layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Sang-Jo; Kim, Jae-Joon; Hwang, Kyungwook; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Seong-Ju

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate the high efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diode (LED) grown on the electrochemically etched nanoporous (NP) GaN. The photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra show that the LEDs with NP GaN have a strong carrier localization effect resulting from the relaxed strain and reduced defect density in MQWs. Also, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows that the light extraction efficiency (LEE) is increased by light scattering effect by nanopores. The output power of LED with NP GaN is increased up to 123.1% at 20 mA, compared to that of LED without NP GaN. The outstanding performance of LEDs with NP GaN is attributed to the increased internal quantum efficiency (IQE) by the carrier localization in the indium-rich clusters, low defect density in MQWs, and increased LEE owing to the light scattering in NP GaN.

  14. Numerical analysis on the origin of thickness unevenness and formation of pits at GaN thin film grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xue-Feng; Lee, Jae-Hak; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Song, Jae-Ho; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we propose a 3D model for analyzing the fluid flow, mass fractions of reacting gases, GaN deposition thickness distribution and V/III ratio distribution at the GaN deposition surface in the multi-susceptor HVPE equipment. The GaN thin film is grown in the multi-susceptor HVPE equipment at 1213 K and 1 bar. The deposition thickness distribution from the calculation has been compared with the experimental results. Moreover, the standard deviations of deposition thickness of the films achieved from calculations and experiments have been compared. Besides, in the calculation results, we found that the V/III ratio at the GaN deposition surface increased from the center to the periphery and from low susceptor to high susceptor. Our calculation results have also been verified by 3D measuring laser microscope observation of the surface morphology of the GaN thin film. In according with the calculation results, the density of the pits also decreases from the center to the periphery as well as from low susceptor to high susceptor, demonstrating that the pit density at the surface of the GaN thin films could be reduced when the V/III ratio is increased.

  15. Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2012-06-01

    In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

  16. Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2012-06-20

    In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

  17. Germanium doping of self-assembled GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Schörmann, Jörg; Hille, Pascal; Schäfer, Markus; Müßener, Jan; Becker, Pascal; Klar, Peter J.; Hofmann, Detlev M.; Teubert, Jörg; Eickhoff, Martin; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Rohnke, Marcus; Mata, Maria de la; Arbiol, Jordi

    2013-09-14

    Germanium doping of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates is studied. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements reveal a constant Ge-concentration along the growth axis. A linear relationship between the applied Ge-flux and the resulting ensemble Ge-concentration with a maximum content of 3.3×10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} is extracted from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements and confirmed by a systematic increase of the conductivity with Ge-concentration in single nanowire measurements. Photoluminescence analysis of nanowire ensembles and single nanowires reveals an exciton localization energy of 9.5 meV at the neutral Ge-donor. A Ge-related emission band at energies above 3.475 eV is found that is assigned to a Burstein-Moss shift of the excitonic emission.

  18. High quality InAlN single layers lattice-matched to GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.; Estrade, S.

    2011-07-18

    We report on properties of high quality {approx}60 nm thick InAlN layers nearly in-plane lattice-matched to GaN, grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent crystalline quality and low surface roughness are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. High annular dark field observations reveal a periodic in-plane indium content variation (8 nm period), whereas optical measurements evidence certain residual absorption below the band-gap. The indium fluctuation is estimated to be {+-} 1.2% around the nominal 17% indium content via plasmon energy oscillations assessed by electron energy loss spectroscopy with sub-nanometric spatial resolution.

  19. GaN Schottky diodes with single-crystal aluminum barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H. Y.; Yang, W. C.; Lee, P. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, K. C.; Cheng, K. Y.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2016-08-01

    GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with single-crystal Al barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are fabricated. Examined using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffractions, ex-situ high-resolution x-ray diffractions, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, it is determined that epitaxial Al grows with its [111] axis coincident with the [0001] axis of the GaN substrate without rotation. In fabricated SBDs, a 0.2 V barrier height enhancement and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current are observed in single crystal Al/GaN SBDs compared to conventional thermal deposited Al/GaN SBDs. The strain induced piezoelectric field is determined to be the major source of the observed device performance enhancements.

  20. Effects of growth temperature on Mg-doped GaN grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurni, Christophe A.; Lang, Jordan R.; Burke, Peter G.; Speck, James S.

    2012-09-03

    The hole concentration p in Mg-doped GaN films grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy depends strongly on the growth temperature T{sub GR}. At T{sub GR}=760 Degree-Sign C, GaN:Mg films showed a hole concentration of p=1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for [Mg]=4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, while at T{sub GR}=840 Degree-Sign C, p=4.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for [Mg]=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Post-growth annealing did not increase p. The sample grown at 760 Degree-Sign C exhibited a low resistivity of 0.7 {Omega}cm. The mobility for all the samples was around 3-7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements and secondary ion mass spectroscopy suggest that the samples grown at T{sub GR}>760 Degree-Sign C are compensated by an intrinsic donor rather than hydrogen.

  1. The impact of RF-plasma power in carrier relaxation dynamics of unintentional doped GaN epitaxial layers grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Nisha; Anand, Kritika; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Singh, Dilip K.; Jewariya, Mukesh; Ragam, Srinivasa; Adhikari, Sonachand; Maurya, Kamlesh K.; Khanna, Suraj P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, unintentionally doped GaN samples were prepared on GaN template by radio frequency (RF)-plasma MBE technique using two different RF-plasma powers. Photoluminescence (PL), steady state photoconductivity (PC) and ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to characterize the samples. The effect of RF-plasma power towards unintentional doping and giving rise to yellow luminescence (YL) is discussed. Our PC measurements show relatively faster decay for sample grown with higher RF-plasma power. In addition, the ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy results show the presence of various defect levels with different relaxation times. A faster ultrafast relaxation time from the conduction band to the closest defect level and conduction band to the next defect level was observed for the sample grown with higher plasma power. A comparatively low defect density and faster carrier relaxation observed in higher RF-plasma power grown samples is caused by lower impurities and gallium vacancies. The results imply that RF-plasma power is very important parameter for the growth of epitaxial GaN films and undesirable impurities and gallium vacancies might get incorporated in the epitaxial GaN films.

  2. Nanostructure and strain in InGaN/GaN superlattices grown in GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kehagias, Th; Dimitrakopulos, G P; Becker, P; Kioseoglou, J; Furtmayr, F; Koukoula, T; Häusler, I; Chernikov, A; Chatterjee, S; Karakostas, Th; Solowan, H-M; Schwarz, U T; Eickhoff, M; Komninou, Ph

    2013-11-01

    The structural properties and the strain state of InGaN/GaN superlattices embedded in GaN nanowires were analyzed as a function of superlattice growth temperature, using complementary transmission electron microscopy techniques supplemented by optical analysis using photoluminescence and spatially resolved microphotoluminescence spectroscopy. A truncated pyramidal shape was observed for the 4 nm thick InGaN inclusions, where their (0001¯) central facet was delimited by six-fold {101¯l} facets towards the m-plane sidewalls of the nanowires. The defect content of the nanowires comprised multiple basal stacking faults localized at the GaN base/superlattice interface, causing the formation of zinc-blende cubic regions, and often single stacking faults at the GaN/InGaN bilayer interfaces. No misfit dislocations or cracks were detected in the heterostructure, implying a fully strained configuration. Geometrical phase analysis showed a rather uniform radial distribution of elastic strain in the (0001¯) facet of the InGaN inclusions. Depending on the superlattice growth temperature, the elastic strain energy is partitioned among the successive InGaN/GaN layers in the case of low-temperature growth, while at higher superlattice growth temperature the in-plane tensile misfit strain of the GaN barriers is accommodated through restrained diffusion of indium from the preceding InGaN layers. The corresponding In contents of the central facet were estimated at 0.42 and 0.25, respectively. However, in the latter case, successful reproduction of the experimental electron microscopy images by image simulations was only feasible, allowing for a much higher occupancy of indium adatoms at lattice sites of the semipolar facets, compared to the invariable 25% assigned to the polar facet. Thus, a high complexity in indium incorporation and strain allocation between the different crystallographic facets of the InGaN inclusions is anticipated and supported by the results of

  3. Characterization of dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari; Watanabe, Arata; Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Dislocations in a GaN layer grown on 4-in. Si(111) with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattices using a horizontal metal–organic chemical vapor deposition system were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Pure screw dislocations were not found in the observed area but mixed and edge dislocations were found. The dislocation density in the GaN layer decreased from the bottom (∼2 × 1010 cm‑2) to the top (∼6 × 109 cm‑2). Some dislocations were inclined from the c-axis, and half-loop dislocations were observed in the GaN layer. Plan-view weak-beam dark-field analysis indicated that the dislocation inclination was caused by climb and glide motions.

  4. Characterization of M-plane GaN thin films grown on misoriented γ-LiAlO2 (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chiao; Lo, Ikai; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Yang, Chen-Chi; Hu, Chia-Hsuan; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    M-plane GaN thin films were grown on 11° misoriented γ-LiAlO2 substrates without peeling off or cracking by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Because of anisotropic growth kinetics, which leads to an anisotropic compressive in-plane strain in the M-plane GaN films, the surface presents a rough morphology with worse crystal quality. The crystal quality of sample was optimally improved, XRD rocking curve FWHM of which is about 900 arcsec, by raising growth temperature to 800 °C with proper Ga/N flux ratio. As the crystal quality was improved, the polarization ratio decreased from the unity (less than 0.8) which could be attributed to the effect of exciton localization due to the partial increased in-plane strain.

  5. Growth condition dependence of Mg-doped GaN film grown by horizontal atmospheric MOCVD system with three layered laminar flow gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, H.; Waki, I.; Yamaguchi, A.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K.

    1998-06-01

    We developed a novel atmospheric pressure horizontal MOCVD system (SR2000) for the growth of III-nitride film. This system was designed for high-speed gas flow in order to suppress thermal convection and undesirable reactant gas reaction. We have grown Mg-doped GaN films using SR2000. We studied the bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium (Cp 2Mg) flow rate dependence and growth temperature ( Tg) dependence of Mg-doped GaN. As a result, we have obtained p-type GaN film with hole carrier density of 8×10 17 cm -3 with a mobility of 7.5 cm 2/(V s) at the growth condition with Cp 2Mg flow rate of 0.1 μmol/min at Tg of 1025°C.

  6. Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Liu, Wenjun; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A. M.; Davis, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

  7. Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A.M.; Davis, R.F.

    2010-06-25

    Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

  8. Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties between GaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Geok Ng, Serene Lay; Ji, Rong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2014-10-13

    Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties related to the formation/annihilation of interfacial GaO{sub x} layer of ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN is studied. ZrO{sub 2} films were annealed in N{sub 2} atmospheres in temperature range of 300 °C to 700 °C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio decreases in the samples annealed at temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to the thinning of GaO{sub x} layer associated with low surface defect states due to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on GaN. However, further increase in annealing temperature results in deterioration of interface quality, which is evidenced by increase in Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio and the reduction of Ga-N binding energy.

  9. Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties between GaN and ZrO2 grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Gang; Wang, Hong; Geok Ng, Serene Lay; Ji, Rong; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Liu, Zhi Hong; Ang, Kian Siong

    2014-10-01

    Influence of post-deposition annealing on interfacial properties related to the formation/annihilation of interfacial GaOx layer of ZrO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN is studied. ZrO2 films were annealed in N2 atmospheres in temperature range of 300 °C to 700 °C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio decreases in the samples annealed at temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to the thinning of GaOx layer associated with low surface defect states due to "clean up" effect of ALD-ZrO2 on GaN. However, further increase in annealing temperature results in deterioration of interface quality, which is evidenced by increase in Ga-O bond to Ga-N bond area ratio and the reduction of Ga-N binding energy.

  10. Efficient reduction of defects in (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaN grown on nanorod templates

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.; Gong, Y.; Xing, K.; Yu, X.; Wang, T.

    2013-03-11

    (1120) non-polar and (1122) semi-polar GaNs with a low defect density have been achieved by means of an overgrowth on nanorod templates, where a quick coalescence with a thickness even below 1 {mu}m occurs. On-axis and off-axis X-ray rocking curve measurements have shown a massive reduction in the linewidth for our overgrown GaN in comparison with standard GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. Transmission electron microscope observation demonstrates that the overgrowth on the nanorod templates takes advantage of an omni-directional growth around the sidewalls of the nanostructures. The dislocations redirect in basal planes during the overgrowth, leading to their annihilation and termination at voids formed due to a large lateral growth rate. In the non-polar GaN, the priority <0001> lateral growth from vertical sidewalls of nanorods allows basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) to be blocked in the nanorod gaps; while for semi-polar GaN, the propagation of BSFs starts to be impeded when the growth front is changed to be along inclined <0001> direction above the nanorods.

  11. Deep traps in n-type GaN epilayers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamyczek, P.; Placzek-Popko, E.; Zielony, E.; Gumienny, Z.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.

    2014-01-14

    In this study, we present the results of investigations on Schottky Au-GaN diodes by means of conventional DLTS and Laplace DLTS methods within the temperature range of 77 K–350 K. Undoped GaN layers were grown using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique on commercial GaN/sapphire templates. The quality of the epilayers was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) which proved the hexagonal phase and good crystallinity of GaN epilayers as well as a slight strain. The photoluminescence spectrum confirmed a high crystal quality by intense excitonic emission but it also exhibited a blue emission band of low intensity. DLTS signal spectra revealed the presence of four majority traps: two high-temperature and two low-temperature peaks. Using the Laplace DLTS method and Arrhenius plots, the apparent activation energy and capture cross sections were obtained. For two high-temperature majority traps, they were equal to E{sub 1} = 0.65 eV, σ{sub 1} = 8.2 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} and E{sub 2} = 0.58 eV, σ{sub 2} = 2.6 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} whereas for the two low-temperature majority traps they were equal to E{sub 3} = 0.18 eV, σ{sub 3} = 9.7 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2} and E{sub 4} = 0.13 eV, σ{sub 4} = 9.2 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2}. The possible origin of the traps is discussed and the results are compared with data reported elsewhere.

  12. Improvements in Optical Properties of Semipolar r-Plane GaN Films Grown Using Atomically Flat ZnO Substrates and Room-Temperature Epitaxial Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kawano, Satoshi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the structural and optical properties of semipolar r-plane GaN{1102} films grown on nearly-lattice-matched ZnO substrates with room-temperature (RT) epitaxial GaN buffer layers, putting special emphasis on the effect of surface treatment of the ZnO substrates. The full-width at half-maximum values of X-ray rocking curves for 1-µm-thick r-plane GaN layers grown at 700 °C on these RT-buffer layers, as measured using various X-ray incidence geometries, are in a range from 313 to 598 arcsec. Photoluminescence peaks attributable to structural defects in the r-plane GaN films have been shown to be reduced, and the near-band-edge emission has been enhanced by approximately 5 times by the use of atomically-flat r-plane ZnO substrates prepared by high-temperature annealing in air inside a box made of ZnO.

  13. The effect of nucleation layer thickness on the structural evolution and crystal quality of bulk GaN grown by a two-step process on cone-patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Lin; Zhai, Guangmei; Mei, Fuhong; Jia, Wei; Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-05-01

    The role of nucleation layer thickness on the GaN crystal quality grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was explored. The morphologies of epitaxial GaN at different growth stages were investigated by a series of growth interruption in detail. After 10- and 15-min three-dimensional growth, the nucleation sites are very important for the bulk GaN crystal quality. They have a close relationship with the nucleation layer thickness, as confirmed through the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Nucleation sites formed mainly on patterns are bad for bulk GaN crystal quality and nucleation sites formed mainly in the trenches of PSS mounds are good for bulk GaN crystal quality, as proved by X-ray diffraction analysis. Nucleation layer thickness can effectively control the nucleation sites and thus determine the crystal quality of bulk GaN.

  14. Correlating exciton localization with compositional fluctuations in InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN planar surfaces and facets of GaN triangular prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Khatsevich, S.; Rich, D. H.; Zhang, X.; Dapkus, P. D.

    2007-11-01

    We have used spatially and temporally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) to study the carrier recombination dynamics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) grown on (0001)-oriented planar GaN and (1101)-oriented facets of GaN triangular prisms prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The effects of In migration during growth on the resulting QW thickness and composition were examined. We employed a variable temperature time-resolved CL imaging approach that enables a spatial correlation between regions of enhanced exciton localization, luminescence efficiency, and radiative lifetime with the aim of distinguishing between excitons localized in In-rich quantum dots and those in the surrounding Ga-rich QW regions.

  15. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-02-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis.

  16. High optical and structural quality of GaN epilayers grown on (2{sup ¯}01) β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammed, M. M.; Roqan, I. S.; Peres, M.; Franco, N.; Lorenz, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Morishima, Y.; Sato, S.; Kuramata, A.

    2014-07-28

    Producing highly efficient GaN-based optoelectronic devices has been a challenge for a long time due to the large lattice mismatch between III-nitride materials and the most common substrates, which causes a high density of threading dislocations. Therefore, it is essential to obtain alternative substrates with small lattice mismatches, appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties, and a competitive price. Our results show that (2{sup ¯}01) oriented β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. Photoluminescence spectra of thick GaN layers grown on (2{sup ¯}01) oriented β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} are found to be dominated by intense bandedge emission. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ∼10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction studies show the high quality of the single-phase wurtzite GaN thin film on (2{sup ¯}01) β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} with in-plane epitaxial orientation relationships between the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the GaN thin film defined by (010) β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} || (112{sup ¯}0) GaN and (2{sup ¯}01) β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} || (0001) GaN leading to a lattice mismatch of ∼4.7%. Complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the quality of the GaN epilayer is high.

  17. Crystallographic Wet Chemical Etching of Semipolar GaN (11-22) Grown on m-Plane Sapphire Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Sung Nam; Song, Keun-Man; Yoon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the etch rates and etched surface morphology of semipolar GaN using a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. Semipolar (11-22) GaN could be etched easily using a KOH solution and the etch rate was higher than that of Ga-polar c-plane GaN (0001). The etch rate was anisotropic and the highest etch rate was measured to be approximately 116 nm/min for the (1011) plane and 62 nm/min for the (11-20) plane GaN using a 4 M KOH solution at 100 °C, resulting in specific surface features, such as inclined trigonal cells.

  18. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-23

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  19. Improvement of crystallinity of GaN layers grown using Ga2O vapor synthesized from liquid Ga and H2O vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yohei; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Isemura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    Growth methods using Ga2O vapor allow long-term growth of bulk GaN crystals. Ga2O vapor is generated by the reduction of Ga2O3 powder with H2 gas (Ga2O3-H2 process) or by the oxidation of liquid Ga with H2O vapor (Ga-H2O process). We investigated the dependence of the properties of grown GaN layers on the synthesis of Ga2O. In the Ga-H2O process, the polycrystal density and full width at half maximum (FWHM) GaN(0002) X-ray rocking curves (XRC) at a high growth rate were lower than those in the Ga2O3-H2 process, and a GaN layer with FWHM of 99 arcsec and growth rate of 216 µm/h was obtained. A low H2O partial pressure in the growth zone improved crystallinity in the Ga-H2O process, realized by the high efficiency of conversion from liquid Ga to Ga2O vapor. We concluded that using Ga2O vapor in the Ga-H2O process has the potential for obtaining higher crystallinity with high growth rate.

  20. Phosphor-Free Apple-White LEDs with Embedded Indium-Rich Nanostructures Grown on Strain Relaxed Nano-epitaxy GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, C. B.; Liu, W.; Yong, A. M.; Chua, S. J.; Chow, S. Y.; Tripathy, S.; Tan, R. J. N.

    2010-11-01

    Phosphor-free apple-white light emitting diodes have been fabricated using a dual stacked InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells comprising of a lower set of long wavelength emitting indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells with an upper set of cyan-green emitting multiple quantum wells. The light-emitting diodes were grown on nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template formed by regrowth of GaN over SiO2 film patterned with an anodic aluminum oxide mask with holes of 125 nm diameter and a period of 250 nm. The growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on these stress relaxed low defect density templates improves the internal quantum efficiency by 15% for the cyan-green multiple quantum wells. Higher emission intensity with redshift in the PL peak emission wavelength is obtained for the indium-rich nanostructures incorporated in multiple quantum wells. The quantum wells grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN has a weaker piezoelectric field and hence shows a minimal peak shift with application of higher injection current. An enhancement of external quantum efficiency is achieved for the apple-white light emitting diodes grown on the nano-epitaxially lateral overgrown GaN template based on the light -output power measurement. The improvement in light extraction efficiency, ηextraction, was found to be 34% for the cyan-green emission peak and 15% from the broad long wavelength emission with optimized lattice period.

  1. Impact of extended defects on optical properties of (1-101)GaN grown on patterned Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okur, S.; Izyumskaya, N.; Zhang, F.; Avrutin, V.; Metzner, S.; Karbaum, C.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Morkoç, H.; Özgür, Ü.

    2014-03-01

    The optical quality of semipolar (1 101)GaN layers was explored by time- and polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. High intensity bandedge emission was observed in +c-wing regions of the stripes as a result of better structural quality, while -c-wing regions were found to be of poorer optical quality due to basal plane and prismatic stacking faults (BSFs and PSFs) in addition to a high density of TDs. The high optical quality region formed on the +cwings was evidenced also from the much slower biexponential PL decays (0.22 ns and 1.70 ns) and an order of magnitude smaller amplitude ratio of the fast decay (nonradiative origin) to the slow decay component (radiative origin) compared to the -c-wing regions. In regard to defect-related emission, decay times for the BSF and PSF emission lines at 25 K (~ 0.80 ns and ~ 3.5 ns, respectively) were independent of the excitation density within the range employed (5 - 420 W/cm2), and much longer than that for the donor bound excitons (0.13 ns at 5 W/cm2 and 0.22 ns at 420 W/cm2). It was also found that the emission from BSFs had lower polarization degree (0.22) than that from donor bound excitons (0.35). The diminution of the polarization degree when photogenerated carriers recombine within the BSFs is another indication of the negative effects of stacking faults on the optical quality of the semipolar (1101)GaN. In addition, spatial distribution of defects in semipolar (1101)-oriented InGaN active region layers grown on stripe patterned Si substrates was investigated using near-field scanning optical microscopy. The optical quality of -c- wing regions was found to be worse compared to +c-wing regions due to the presence of higher density of stacking faults and threading dislocations. The emission from the +c-wings was very bright and relatively uniform across the sample, which is indicative of a homogeneous In distribution.

  2. Electronic and optical characteristics of an m-plane GaN single crystal grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a GaN seed synthesized by the ammonothermal method using an acidic mineralizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Kazunobu; Tsukada, Yusuke; Furukawa, Erika; Saito, Makoto; Mikawa, Yutaka; Kubo, Shuichi; Ikeda, Hirotaka; Fujito, Kenji; Uedono, Akira; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2016-05-01

    Fundamental electronic and optical properties of a low-resistivity m-plane GaN single crystal, which was grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk GaN seed crystal synthesized by the ammonothermal method in supercritical ammonia using an acidic mineralizer, were investigated. The threading dislocation and basal-plane staking-fault densities of the crystal were around 104 cm-2 and less than 100 cm-1, respectively. Oxygen doping achieved a high electron concentration of 4 × 1018 cm-3 at room temperature. Accordingly, a photoluminescence (PL) band originating from the recombination of hot carriers was observed at low temperatures, even under weak excitation conditions. The simultaneous realization of low-level incorporation of Ga vacancies (VGa) less than 1016 cm-3 was confirmed by using the positron annihilation technique. Consistent with our long-standing claim that VGa complexes are the major nonradiative recombination centers in GaN, the fast-component PL lifetime of the near-band-edge emission at room temperature longer than 2 ns was achieved.

  3. Correlation between mobility collapse and carbon impurities in Si-doped GaN grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaess, Felix; Mita, Seiji; Xie, Jingqiao; Reddy, Pramod; Klump, Andrew; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Washiyama, Shun; Franke, Alexander; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Axel; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2016-09-01

    In the low doping range below 1 × 1017 cm-3, carbon was identified as the main defect attributing to the sudden reduction of the electron mobility, the electron mobility collapse, in n-type GaN grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been performed in conjunction with C concentration and the thermodynamic Ga supersaturation model. By controlling the ammonia flow rate, the input partial pressure of Ga precursor, and the diluent gas within the Ga supersaturation model, the C concentration in Si-doped GaN was controllable from 6 × 1019 cm-3 to values as low as 2 × 1015 cm-3. It was found that the electron mobility collapsed as a function of free carrier concentration, once the Si concentration closely approached the C concentration. Lowering the C concentration to the order of 1015 cm-3 by optimizing Ga supersaturation achieved controllable free carrier concentrations down to 5 × 1015 cm-3 with a peak electron mobility of 820 cm2/V s without observing the mobility collapse. The highest electron mobility of 1170 cm2/V s was obtained even in metalorganic vapor deposition-grown GaN on sapphire substrates by optimizing growth parameters in terms of Ga supersaturation to reduce the C concentration.

  4. Polarization and temperature dependence of photoluminescence of m-plane GaN grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} (100) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Kong, J. Y.; Zhang, R.; Xie, Z. L.; Fu, D. Y.; Xiu, X. Q.; Chen, P.; Lu, H.; Han, P.; Zheng, Y. D.; Zhou, S. M.

    2009-08-10

    We investigated the polarization and temperature dependence of photoluminescence (PL) of m-plane GaN grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} (100) substrate. The calculated electronic band structure with kp Hamiltonian points out the energy splitting as well as polarization selection originate from the m-plane GaN epilayer under anisotropic strain. The polarization-angle dependence PL spectra are found to be selected from in-plane x- and z-polarized emission, corresponding to T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} transition. And the intensity distribution of the fitting peaks satisfies the Malus' law. An S-shape energy evolution of near band edge peak on temperatures is observed, which originates from the transition between the localized holes and electrons in triangular potentials induced by basal stacking faults.

  5. Local Strain, Defects and Crystallographic Tilt in GaN(0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-epitaxy from X-ray Microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Roskovski, A.M.; Davis, R.F.

    2010-07-13

    Polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction, high-resolution monochromatic x-ray diffraction, and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, defects, and crystallographic tilt in uncoalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important materials parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which occurred the lateral growth of the wings. Tilt boundaries formed at the column/wing interface for samples with a large ratio. Formation of the tilt boundary can be avoided by using smaller ratios. The strain and tilt across the stripe increased with the width-to-height ratio. The wings were tilted upward at room temperature.

  6. Preparation of Ag Schottky contacts on n-type GaN bulk crystals grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Stübner, R. Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J.; Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank

    2014-10-14

    Electrical properties of Schottky contacts on n-type GaN grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere with different N/Ga ratios by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were investigated. We show that tunneling of electrons from the conduction band of GaN to the metal is dominant in our samples. The quality of Schottky contacts does not only depend on surface preparation but also on the growth conditions of the crystals. Schottky contacts on these crystals show an increasing deterioration when higher N/Ga growth ratios are used. We correlate our results with the presence of negatively charged gallium vacancies in the samples. These charges compensate the positively charged donors and lead to a significant increase in series resistance.

  7. Structural properties of free-standing 50 mm diameter GaN waferswith (101_0) orientation grown on LiAlO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, Jacek; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maruska, Herbert-Paul; Chai, Bruce H.; Hill, David W.; Chou, Mitch M.C.; Gallagher, John J.; Brown, Stephen

    2005-09-27

    (10{und 1}0) GaN wafers grown on (100) face of {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Despite good lattice matching in this heteroepitaxial system, high densities of planar structural defects in the form of stacking faults on the basal plane and networks of boundaries located on prism planes inclined to the layer/substrate interface were present in these GaN layers. In addition, significant numbers of threading dislocations were observed. High-resolution electron microscopy indicates that stacking faults present on the basal plane in these layers are of low-energy intrinsic I1type. This is consistent with diffraction contrast experiments.

  8. Dielectric function and optical properties of Al-rich AlInN alloys pseudomorphically grown on GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalauskas, E.; Behmenburg, H.; Hums, C.; Schley, P.; Rossbach, G.; Giesen, C.; Heuken, M.; Kalisch, H.; Jansen, R. H.; Bläsing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A.; Goldhahn, R.

    2010-09-01

    A detailed discussion of the optical properties of Al-rich Al1-xInxN alloy films is presented. The (0 0 0 1)-oriented layers with In contents between x = 0.143 and x = 0.242 were grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy on thick GaN buffers. Sapphire or Si(1 1 1) served as the substrate. High-resolution x-ray diffraction revealed pseudomorphic growth of the nearly lattice-matched alloys; the data analysis yielded the composition as well as the in-plain strain. The complex dielectric function (DF) between 1 and 10 eV was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The sharp onset of the imaginary part of the DF defines the direct absorption edge, while clearly visible features in the high-photon energy range of the DF, attributed to critical points (CPs) of the band structure, indicate promising crystalline quality of the AlInN layers. It is demonstrated that the experimental data can be well reproduced by an analytical DF model. The extracted characteristic transition energies are used to determine the bowing parameters for all CPs of the band structure. In particular, strain and the high exciton binding energies for the Al-rich alloys are taken into account in order to assess the splitting between the valence band with \\Gamma^v_9 symmetry and the \\Gamma^c_7 conduction band at the centre of the Brillouin zone. Finally, the compositional dependence of the high-frequency dielectric constants is reported.

  9. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhata, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.; Rong, X.; Chen, G.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.

  10. Crystallographic Wet Chemical Etching of Semipolar GaN (11-22) Grown on m-Plane Sapphire Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Sung Nam; Song, Keun-Man; Yoon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the etch rates and etched surface morphology of semipolar GaN using a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. Semipolar (11-22) GaN could be etched easily using a KOH solution and the etch rate was higher than that of Ga-polar c-plane GaN (0001). The etch rate was anisotropic and the highest etch rate was measured to be approximately 116 nm/min for the (1011) plane and 62 nm/min for the (11-20) plane GaN using a 4 M KOH solution at 100 °C, resulting in specific surface features, such as inclined trigonal cells. PMID:26373117

  11. Comparative study of single InGaN layers grown on Si(111) and GaN(0001) templates: The role of surface wetting and epitaxial constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, V. J.; Gačević, Ž.; Soto-Rodríguez, P. E. D.; Aseev, P.; Nötzel, R.; Calleja, E.; Sánchez-García, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comparative study, based mainly on X-ray diffraction analysis, of compact (~100 nm thick) and uniform single crystal InGaN layers (In content <35%) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. InGaN layers have been grown directly on Si(111) substrates and on commercially available GaN(0001)-on-sapphire templates.. A high reactivity of atomic N with Si leads to a formation of amorphous SiN on Si substrate, i.e. an indirect crystal-to-crystal InGaN/SiN/Si contact; the weak InGaN interaction with the underlying substrate (weak epitaxial constraint) further leads to poor surface "wetting" and consequent 3D nucleation. The InGaN growth on GaN is, on the other hand, characterized by a direct crystal-to-crystal InGaN/GaN contact; the strong InGaN interaction with the underlying substrate (strong epitaxial constraint) leads to good surface "wetting" and consequent 2D nucleation. All studied InGaN layers show single epitaxial relationship to both Si(111) and GaN(0001)-on-sapphire substrates as well as a relatively good compositional uniformity (no trace of InGaN phase separation). However, layers grown on Si show significantly lower strain and inferior crystallographic uniformity i.e. higher disorder in crystallographic tilt and twist. The surface "wetting" (poor vs. good) and epitaxial constraint (weak vs. strong) are suggested as the main origins of these discrepancies.

  12. Low dislocation density InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown on GaN substrates and the effects on gate leakage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Junji; Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Norikazu

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the electrical characterization of Ni/Au Schottky diodes fabricated on InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown on low dislocation density free-standing GaN substrates. InAlN HEMT structures were grown on sapphire and GaN substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, and the effects of threading dislocation density on the leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were investigated. Threading dislocation densities were determined to be 1.8 × 104 cm-2 and 1.2 × 109 cm-2 by the cathodoluminescence measurement for the HEMT structures grown on GaN and sapphire substrates, respectively. Leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were compared between the two samples, and a reduction of the leakage current of about three to four orders of magnitude was observed in the forward bias region. For the high reverse bias region, however, no significant improvement was confirmed. We believe that the leakage current in the low bias region is governed by a dislocation-related Frenkel-Poole emission, and the leakage current in the high reverse bias region originates from field emission due to the large internal electric field in the InAlN barrier layer. Our results demonstrated that the reduction of dislocation density is effective in reducing leakage current in the low bias region. At the same time, it was also revealed that another approach will be needed, for instance, band modulation by impurity doping and insertion of insulating layers beneath the gate electrodes for a substantial reduction of the gate leakage current.

  13. Evidence for rhombohedral boron nitride in cubic boron nitride films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, D.L.; Friedmann, T.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Mills, M.J.; McCarty, K.F. )

    1994-09-15

    We present high-resolution transmission electron-microscopic observations of the [ital sp][sup 2]-bonded material that remains with the [ital sp][sup 3]-bonded cubic boron nitride (cBN) in films grown by ion-assisted deposition. These observations show regions of [ital sp][sup 2]-bonded material that are in a three-layer stacking configuration rather than the two-layer configuration of hexagonal boron nitride. Measurement of the lattice fringe angles shows that the observed three-layer stacking is consistent with the metastable, rhombohedral structure (rBN). Significantly, rBN allows for a diffusionless pathway for cBN synthesis under high pressure, unlike the high-activation-energy route that is required to directly convert the hexagonal phase to cBN. This low-energy pathway is considered in relation to recent work in the literature indicating that ion-induced compressive stress plays a critical role in the synthesis of thin-film cBN.

  14. Strain in epitaxial Bi2Se3 grown on GaN and graphene substrates: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin; Xie, Maohai

    2015-08-01

    Topological insulator (TI) has been one of the focus research themes in condensed matter physics in recent years. Due to the relatively large energy bandgap, Bi2Se3 has been identified as one of the most promising three-dimensional TIs with application potentials. Epitaxial Bi2Se3 by molecular-beam epitaxy has been reported by many groups using different substrates. A common feature is that Bi2Se3 grows readily along the c-axis direction irrespective of the type and condition of the substrate. Because of the weak van deer Waals interaction between Bi2Se3 quintuple layers, the grown films are reported to be strain-free, taking the lattice constant of the bulk crystal. At the very initial stage of Bi2Se3 deposition, however, strain may still exist depending on the substrate. Strain may bring some drastic effects to the properties of the TIs and so achieving strained TIs can be of great fundamental interests as well as practical relevance. In this work, we employ reflection high-energy electron diffraction to follow the lattice constant evolution of Bi2Se3 during initial stage depositions on GaN and graphene, two very different substrates. We reveal that epitaxial Bi2Se3 is tensile strained on GaN but strain-free on graphene. Strain relaxation on GaN is gradual.

  15. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Ves, S.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.; Christofilos, D.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults, and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.

  16. Dynamics of thermalization in GaInN/GaN quantum wells grown on ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, J.; Korona, K. P.; Wysmołek, A.; Kamińska, M.; Köhler, K.; Kirste, L.; Ambacher, O.; Zając, M.; Dwiliński, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present measurements of the dynamics of photoexcited carriers in GaInN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) grown on ammonothermal GaN, especially thermalization and recombination rates. Emission properties were measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence spectroscopy. Due to the use of high quality homoepitaxial material, we were able to obtain very valuable data on carrier thermalization. The temperature dependence of the QW energy observed in PL shows characteristic S-shape with a step of about 10 meV. Such a behavior (related to thermalization and localization at potential fluctuations) is often reported for QWs; but in our samples, the effect is smaller than in heteroepitaxial InGaN/GaN QWs due to lower potential fluctuation in our material. Absorption properties were studied by photocurrent spectroscopy measurements. A comparison of emission and absorption spectra revealed a shift in energy of about 60 meV. Contrary to PL, the QW energy observed in absorption decreases monotonically with temperature, which can be described by a Bose-like dependence E(T) = E(0) - λ/(exp(θ/T) - 1), with parameters λ = (0.11 ± 0.01) eV, θ = (355 ± 20) K, or by a Varshni dependence with coefficients α = (10 ± 3) × 10-4 eV/K and β = (1500 ± 500) K. Taking into account absorption and emission, the fluctuation amplitude (according to Eliseev theory) was σ = 14 meV. The time resolved PL revealed that in a short period (<1 ns) after excitation, the PL peaks were broadened because of the thermal distribution of carriers. We interpreted this distribution in terms of quasi-temperature (Tq) of the carriers. The initial Tq was of the order of 500 K. The thermalization led to a fast decrease of Tq. The obtained cooling time in the QW was τC = 0.3 ns, which was faster than the observed recombination time τR = 2.2 ns (at 4 K).

  17. Electron tomography of (In,Ga)N insertions in GaN nanocolumns grown on semi-polar (112{sup -}2) GaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Niehle, M. Trampert, A.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Calleja, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present results of scanning transmission electron tomography on GaN/(In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns (NCs) that grew uniformly inclined towards the patterned, semi-polar GaN(112{sup -}2) substrate surface by molecular beam epitaxy. For the practical realization of the tomographic experiment, the nanocolumn axis has been aligned parallel to the rotation axis of the electron microscope goniometer. The tomographic reconstruction allows for the determination of the three-dimensional indium distribution inside the nanocolumns. This distribution is strongly interrelated with the nanocolumn morphology and faceting. The (In,Ga)N layer thickness and the indium concentration differ between crystallographically equivalent and non-equivalent facets. The largest thickness and the highest indium concentration are found at the nanocolumn apex parallel to the basal planes.

  18. The dependence of Raman scattering on Mg concentration in Mg-doped GaN grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Chris; Lee, William

    2014-04-01

    Magnesium-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) films having Mg concentrations in the range 5 × 1018-5 × 1020 cm-3 were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the effects of Mg incorporation on the positions of the E2 and A1(LO) lines identifiable in the Raman spectra. For Mg concentrations in excess of 2 × 1019 cm-3, increases in the Mg concentration shift both lines to higher wave numbers. The shifts of the Raman lines reveal a trend towards compressive stress induced by incorporation of Mg into the GaN films. The observed correlation between the Mg concentration and the Raman line positions establish Raman spectroscopy as a useful tool for optimizing growth of Mg-doped GaN.

  19. Strong light-matter coupling at room temperature in simple geometry GaN microcavities grown on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Semond, F.; Sellers, I.R.; Natali, F.; Byrne, D.; Leroux, M.; Massies, J.; Ollier, N.; Leymarie, J.; Disseix, P.; Vasson, A.

    2005-07-11

    The reflectance spectra of simple design GaN-based microcavities have been studied in the 5 K-300 K range. The epitaxial structure consists of the silicon substrate and the stack of buffer layers as the back mirror, a GaN active layer, and a 100 A thick aluminium layer as the top mirror. Active layer thicknesses of {lambda}/2, {lambda}, or 3{lambda}/2 were investigated. The samples with GaN thicknesses {lambda}/2 and {lambda} display an anticrossing behavior between the cavity and exciton modes, with measured Rabi splittings of 47 and 60 meV, respectively, both at 5 K and room temperature.

  20. Enhancement in the quality of GaN crystal grown on a thermal-treated silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. F.; Kato, T.; Sawaki, N.

    2002-04-01

    By using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, GaN layers are deposited on nominal Si(2 1 1) substrates that undergo different types of thermal treatment before the epitaxial growth. X-ray diffraction rocking curves and photoluminescence experimental results indicate that the crystal quality is improved significantly if the thermal treatment is composed of a high-temperature heating followed by a speedy cool-down process. It is observed that a high-temperature heat treatment alone on the substrates does not provide with measurable improvements in the GaN layers. In addition, atomic force microscopic images indicate that the easy glide system of Si{1 1 1} plane can be also a source of residual stresses built up in the GaN film. Consequently, a suitable pre-thermal treatment for use on a silicon substrate is suggested to prevent the GaN film from suffering any extra stress arising from the substrate during the post-growth cooling process.

  1. Strain in epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} grown on GaN and graphene substrates: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin; Xie, Maohai

    2015-08-24

    Topological insulator (TI) has been one of the focus research themes in condensed matter physics in recent years. Due to the relatively large energy bandgap, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been identified as one of the most promising three-dimensional TIs with application potentials. Epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by molecular-beam epitaxy has been reported by many groups using different substrates. A common feature is that Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} grows readily along the c-axis direction irrespective of the type and condition of the substrate. Because of the weak van der Waals interaction between Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} quintuple layers, the grown films are reported to be strain-free, taking the lattice constant of the bulk crystal. At the very initial stage of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} deposition, however, strain may still exist depending on the substrate. Strain may bring some drastic effects to the properties of the TIs and so achieving strained TIs can be of great fundamental interests as well as practical relevance. In this work, we employ reflection high-energy electron diffraction to follow the lattice constant evolution of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} during initial stage depositions on GaN and graphene, two very different substrates. We reveal that epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is tensile strained on GaN but strain-free on graphene. Strain relaxation on GaN is gradual.

  2. Regularly patterned multi-section GaN nanorod arrays grown with a pulsed growth technique.

    PubMed

    Tu, Charng-Gan; Su, Chia-Ying; Liao, Che-Hao; Hsieh, Chieh; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Han; Weng, Chi-Ming; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2016-01-15

    The growth of regularly patterned multi-section GaN nanorod (NR) arrays based on a pulsed growth technique with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Such an NR with multiple sections of different cross-sectional sizes is formed by tapering a uniform cross section to another through stepwise decreasing of the Ga supply duration to reduce the size of the catalytic Ga droplet. Contrast line structures are observed in either a scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy image of an NR. Such a contrast line-marker corresponds to a thin Ga-rich layer formed at the beginning of GaN precipitation of a pulsed growth cycle and illustrates the boundary between two successive growth cycles in pulsed growth. By analyzing the geometry variation of the contrast line-markers, the morphology evolution in the growth of a multi-section NR, including a tapering process, can be traced. Such a morphology variation is controlled by the size of the catalytic Ga droplet and its coverage range on the slant facets at the top of an NR. The comparison of emission spectra between single-, two-, and three-section GaN NRs with sidewall InGaN/GaN quantum wells indicates that a multi-section NR can lead to a significantly broader sidewall emission spectrum.

  3. Strain management of AlGaN-based distributed Bragg reflectors with GaN interlayer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuh-Shiuan; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Mehta, Karan; Jia, Xiao Jia; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Yoder, P. Douglas; Ponce, Fernando A.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the crack-free growth of a 45-pair Al0.30Ga0.70N/Al0.04Ga0.96N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on 2 in. diameter AlN/sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. To mitigate the cracking issue originating from the tensile strain of Al0.30Ga0.70N on GaN, an AlN template was employed in this work. On the other hand, strong compressive strain experienced by Al0.04Ga0.96N favors 3D island growth, which is undesired. We found that inserting an 11 nm thick GaN interlayer upon the completion of AlN template layer properly managed the strain such that the Al0.30Ga0.70N/Al0.04Ga0.96N DBR was able to be grown with an atomically smooth surface morphology. Smooth surfaces and sharp interfaces were observed throughout the structure using high-angle annular dark-field imaging in the STEM. The 45-pair AlGaN-based DBR provided a peak reflectivity of 95.4% at λ = 368 nm with a bandwidth of 15 nm.

  4. Synthesis and characterizations of nanoscale single crystal GaN grown by ion assisted gas source MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bentao; Cohen, P. I.

    2004-03-01

    Nanoscale patterns could be induced by ion bombardment [1, 2]. In this study, an in-situ real time light scattering technique, combined with Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), were used to study the surface morphology evolution during the ion beam assisted growth of GaN in a gas source MBE system. Ga was provided by a thermal effusion cell. Ammonia was used as the nitrogen source. A hot-filament Kaufman ion source was used to supply sub-KeV ion beams. Sapphire and MOCVD GaN templates were used as the substrates. A custom-designed Desorption Mass Spectrometer (DMS) was used to calibrate the growth temperature and determine the growth rate. Before growing GaN, the sapphire substrates were pretreated in an ion flux and then annealed for cleaning. The sapphire surface was then nitrided in ammonia at 1100K for about 10 min. After nitridation, a thin GaN buffer layer was prepared by a sequence of adsorption and annealing steps. During the growth, the short-range surface morphology and film quality were monitored in situ by RHEED. In a real-time way, the long-range surface morphology was monitored in-situ by light scattering technique. Photodiode array detector and CCD camera were used to record the reflected light scattering intensity and spectra profile respectively. Periodical patterns, such as ripple, have been observed during ion bombardment on GaN with or without growth. A linear theory (from Bradley and Harper 1988 [3]) has been modified to explain the dependence of ripple wavelength on ion species and ion energy. Partially supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. [1]. J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2330 (1998); J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5800 (2000). [2]. S. Facsko, T. Dekorsy, C. Koerdt, C. Trappe, H. Kurz, A. Vogt et al.. Science 285, 1551 (1999). [3]. R. M. Bradley

  5. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Very little information is available in the literature concerning the experimental heavy-atom phasing of membrane-protein structures where the crystals have been grown using the lipid cubic phase (in meso) method. In this paper, pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine labelling as applied to an integral membrane kinase crystallized in meso are described. An assay to assess cysteine accessibility for mercury labelling of membrane proteins is introduced. Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method.

  6. Single-crystal cubic boron nitride thin films grown by ion-beam-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirama, Kazuyuki; Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Karimoto, Shin-ichi; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the formation of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films on diamond (001) and (111) substrates by ion-beam-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The metastable c-BN (sp3-bonded BN) phase can be epitaxially grown as a result of the interplay between competitive phase formation and selective etching. We show that a proper adjustment of acceleration voltage for N2+ and Ar+ ions is a key to selectively discriminate non-sp3 BN phases. At low acceleration voltage values, the sp2-bonded BN is dominantly formed, while at high acceleration voltages, etching dominates irrespective of the bonding characteristics of BN.

  7. Impact of barrier thickness on transistor performance in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, David A. Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Bass, Robert; Binari, Steven C.; Gougousi, Theodosia; Evans, Keith R.

    2014-09-01

    A series of six ultrathin AlN/GaN heterostructures with varied AlN thicknesses from 1.5–6 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated from the set in order to assess the impact of barrier thickness and homo-epitaxial growth on transistor performance. Room temperature Hall characteristics revealed mobility of 1700 cm{sup 2}/V s and sheet resistance of 130 Ω/□ for a 3 nm thick barrier, ranking amongst the lowest room-temperature sheet resistance values reported for a polarization-doped single heterostructure in the III-Nitride family. DC and small signal HEMT electrical characteristics from submicron gate length HEMTs further elucidated the effect of the AlN barrier thickness on device performance.

  8. Dual-polarity GaN micropillars grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy: Cross-correlation between structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Coulon, P. M.; Mexis, M.; Teisseire, M.; Vennéguès, P.; Leroux, M.; Zuniga-Perez, J.; Jublot, M.

    2014-04-21

    Self-assembled catalyst-free GaN micropillars grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy are investigated. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as KOH etching, shows the systematic presence of two domains of opposite polarity within each single micropillar. The analysis of the initial growth stages indicates that such double polarity originates at the micropillar/substrate interface, i.e., during the micropillar nucleation, and it propagates along the micropillar. Furthermore, dislocations are also generated at the wire/substrate interface, but bend after several hundreds of nanometers. This leads to micropillars several tens of micrometers in length that are dislocation-free. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence and microphotoluminescence show large differences in the optical properties of each polarity domain, suggesting unequal impurity/dopant/vacancy incorporation depending on the polarity.

  9. Composition and optical properties of dilute-Sb GaN1-xSbx highly mismatched alloys grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Yu, K. M.; Ting, M.; Powell, R. E. L.; Sarney, W. L.; Svensson, S. P.; Kent, A. J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Martin, R. W.

    2014-11-01

    In this work the compositional and optical characterization of three series of dilute-Sb GaN1 - xSbx alloys grown with various Sb flux, under N and Ga-rich conditions, are presented. Using wavelength dispersive x-ray microanalysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy it is found that the N-rich samples (Ga flux < 2.3 × 10-7 Torr) incorporate a higher magnitude of GaSb than the Ga-rich samples (Ga flux > 2.3 × 10-7 Torr) under the same growth conditions. The optical properties of the Ga-rich samples are measured using room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements. A broad luminescence peak is observed around 2.2 eV. The nature and properties of this peak are considered, as is the suitability of these dilute-Sb alloys for use in solar energy conversion devices.

  10. Intrinsic degradation mechanism of nearly lattice-matched InAlN layers grown on GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillat-Merceroz, Guillaume; Cosendey, Gatien; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    Thanks to its high refractive index contrast, band gap, and polarization mismatch compared to GaN, In0.17Al0.83N layers lattice-matched to GaN are an attractive solution for applications such as distributed Bragg reflectors, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes, or high electron mobility transistors. In order to study the structural degradation mechanism of InAlN layers with increasing thickness, we performed metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of InAlN layers of thicknesses ranging from 2 to 500 nm, on free-standing (0001) GaN substrates with a low density of threading dislocations, for In compositions of 13.5% (layers under tensile strain), and 19.7% (layers under compressive strain). In both cases, a surface morphology with hillocks is initially observed, followed by the appearance of V-defects. We propose that those hillocks arise due to kinetic roughening, and that V-defects subsequently appear beyond a critical hillock size. It is seen that the critical thickness for the appearance of V-defects increases together with the surface diffusion length either by increasing the temperature or the In flux because of a surfactant effect. In thick InAlN layers, a better (worse) In incorporation occurring on the concave (convex) shape surfaces of the V-defects is observed leading to a top phase-separated InAlN layer lying on the initial homogeneous InAlN layer after V-defects coalescence. It is suggested that similar mechanisms could be responsible for the degradation of thick InGaN layers.

  11. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method.

    PubMed

    Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method.

  12. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method. PMID:25615865

  13. Understanding of surface pit formation mechanism of GaN grown in MOCVD based on local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Yuan, Gao; Xiao-Wei, Xue; Jiang-Jiang, Li; Xun, Wang; Yan-Hui, Xing; Bi-Feng, Cui; De-Shu, Zou

    2016-06-01

    Frank’s theory describes that a screw dislocation will produce a pit on the surface, and has been evidenced in many material systems including GaN. However, the size of the pit calculated from the theory deviates significantly from experimental result. Through a careful observation of the variations of surface pits and local surface morphology with growing temperature and V/III ratio for c-plane GaN, we believe that Frank’s model is valid only in a small local surface area where thermodynamic equilibrium state can be assumed to stay the same. If the kinetic process is too vigorous or too slow to reach a balance, the local equilibrium range will be too small for the center and edge of the screw dislocation spiral to be kept in the same equilibrium state. When the curvature at the center of the dislocation core reaches the critical value 1/r 0, at the edge of the spiral, the accelerating rate of the curvature may not fall to zero, so the pit cannot reach a stationary shape and will keep enlarging under the control of minimization of surface energy to result in a large-sized surface pit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204009 and 61204011) and the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 4142005).

  14. Strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer and their effect on GaN buffer layer grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Agrawal, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Munawar Basha, S.

    2013-09-28

    The effect of strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer (SML) on buried crack density and its subsequent influence on the residual stresses in GaN buffer layers grown using ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111) substrate has been investigated. Different stages involved in the formation of buried cracks, which are crack initialization, growth of relaxed AlN layer, and subsequent lateral over growth, are identified using in-situ curvature measurements. While the increase of GaN thickness in AlN/GaN-SML enhanced its compressive strain relaxation and resulted in reduced buried crack spacing, the variation of AlN thickness did not show any effect on the crack spacing. Moreover, the decrease in the crack spacing (or increase in the buried crack density) was found to reduce the residual compression in 1st and 2nd GaN layers of AlN/GaN-SML structure. The higher buried crack density relaxed the compressive strain in 1st GaN layer, which further reduced its ability to compensate the tensile stress generated during substrate cool down, and hence resulted in lower residual compressive stress in 2nd GaN layer.

  15. Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Reuters, Benjamin; Finken, M.; Wille, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.; Hollaender, B.; Heuken, M.

    2012-11-01

    Quaternary AlInGaN layers were grown on conventional GaN buffer layers on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy at different surface temperatures and different reactor pressures with constant precursor flow conditions. A wide range in compositions within 30-62% Al, 5-29% In, and 23-53% Ga was covered, which leads to different strain states from high tensile to high compressive. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we determined the compositions, strain states, and crystal quality of the AlInGaN layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed to characterize the surface morphology. A critical strain value for maximum In incorporation near the AlInGaN/GaN interface is presented. For compressively strained layers, In incorporation is limited at the interface as residual strain cannot exceed an empirical critical value of about 1.1%. Relaxation occurs at about 15 nm thickness accompanied by strong In pulling. Tensile strained layers can be grown pseudomorphically up to 70 nm at a strain state of 0.96%. A model for relaxation in compressively strained AlInGaN with virtual discrete sub-layers, which illustrates the gradually changing lattice constant during stress reduction is presented.

  16. Effects of the group V/III ratio and a gan inter-layer on the crystal quality of InN grown by using the hydride vapor-phase epitaxy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Ju-Hyung; Wang, Juan; Lee, Won-Jae; Choi, Young-Jun; Lee, Hae-Yong; Kim, Jung-Gon; Harima, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) method was used to deposit high-quality InN layers on GaN inter-layer/sapphire (0001) structures that had been fabricated by using either the HVPE method or the metal-organic chemical-phase deposition (MOCVD) method. The effects of the group V/III ratio and different GaN inter-layers on the crystal quality of the InN layers were systemically investigated. The InN layer grown at a low Group V/III ratio revealed a high crystal quality with a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. Also, the 110.7-nm-thick InN layer grown by using HVPE on a GaN inter-layer/sapphire (0001) substrate structure that had been fabricated by using MOCVD had a high crystal quality, with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak being about 844 arcsec, and a smooth surface with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) roughness of about 0.07 nm. On the other hand, the 145.7-nm-thick InN layer grown by using HVPE on a GaN inter-layer/sapphire (0001) substrate structure that had been fabricated by using the HVPE method had a lower crystal quality, a FWHM value for the InN (0002) peak of about 2772 arcsec, and a surface roughness of about 3.73 nm. In addition, the peak of the E2 (high) phonon mode for the 110.7-nm-thick InN layer grown by using HVPE on a GaN inter-layer/sapphire (0001) structure that had been fabricated by using MOCVD was detected at 491 cm -1 and had a FWHM of 9.9 cm-1. As a result, InN layers grown by using HVPE on GaN inter-layer/sapphire (0001) substrate structures fabricated by using MOCVD have a high crystal quality and a reduced Raman value, which agrees well with the results of the XRD analysis.

  17. Single-crystal cubic boron nitride thin films grown by ion-beam-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hirama, Kazuyuki Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Karimoto, Shin-ichi; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2014-03-03

    We investigated the formation of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films on diamond (001) and (111) substrates by ion-beam-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The metastable c-BN (sp{sup 3}-bonded BN) phase can be epitaxially grown as a result of the interplay between competitive phase formation and selective etching. We show that a proper adjustment of acceleration voltage for N{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions is a key to selectively discriminate non-sp{sup 3} BN phases. At low acceleration voltage values, the sp{sup 2}-bonded BN is dominantly formed, while at high acceleration voltages, etching dominates irrespective of the bonding characteristics of BN.

  18. GaN MOS-HEMT Using Ultra-Thin Al2O3 Dielectric Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuan-Zheng; Hao, Yue; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Ni, Jin-Yu

    2007-08-01

    We report a GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) with atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 gate dielectric. Based on the previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 063501] of Ye et al. by decreasing the thickness of the gate oxide to 3.5 nm and optimizing the device fabrication process, the device with maximum transconductance of 150 mS/mm is produced and discussed in comparison with the result of 100 mS/mm of Ye et al. The corresponding drain current density in the 0.8-μm-gate-length MOS-HEMT is 800 mA/mm at the gate bias of 3.0 V. The gate leakage is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMT. The excellent characteristics of this novel MOS-HEMT device structure with ALD Al2O3 gate dielectric are presented.

  19. Kinetics of self-induced nucleation and optical properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on amorphous Al{sub x}O{sub y}

    SciTech Connect

    Sobanska, M. Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Klosek, K.; Tchutchulashvili, G.

    2015-11-14

    Nucleation kinetics of GaN nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy on amorphous Al{sub x}O{sub y} buffers deposited at low temperature by atomic layer deposition is analyzed. We found that the growth processes on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are very similar to those observed on standard Si(111) substrates, although the presence of the buffer significantly enhances nucleation rate of GaN NWs, which we attribute to a microstructure of the buffer. The nucleation rate was studied vs. the growth temperature in the range of 720–790 °C, which allowed determination of nucleation energy of the NWs on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} equal to 6 eV. This value is smaller than 10.2 eV we found under the same conditions on nitridized Si(111) substrates. Optical properties of GaN NWs on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are analyzed as a function of the growth temperature and compared with those on Si(111) substrates. A significant increase of photoluminescence intensity and much longer PL decay times, close to those on silicon substrates, are found for NWs grown at the highest temperature proving their high quality. The samples grown at high temperature have very narrow PL lines. This allowed observation that positions of donor-bound exciton PL line in the NWs grown on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} are regularly lower than in samples grown directly on silicon suggesting that oxygen, instead of silicon, is the dominant donor. Moreover, PL spectra suggest that total concentration of donors in GaN NWs grown on a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} is lower than in those grown under similar conditions on bare Si. This shows that the a-Al{sub x}O{sub y} buffer efficiently acts as a barrier preventing uptake of silicon from the substrate to GaN.

  20. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue; Su, Xujun; Shi, Xuefang

    2014-08-25

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  1. Proton irradiation effects on deep level states in Mg-doped p-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of proton irradiation on the deep level states throughout the Mg-doped p-type GaN bandgap is investigated using deep level transient and optical spectroscopies. Exposure to 1.8 MeV protons of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 3 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} fluences not only introduces a trap with an E{sub V} + 1.02 eV activation energy but also brings monotonic increases in concentration for as-grown deep states at E{sub V} + 0.48 eV, E{sub V} + 2.42 eV, E{sub V} + 3.00 eV, and E{sub V} + 3.28 eV. The non-uniform sensitivities for individual states suggest different physical sources and/or defect generation mechanisms. Comparing with prior theoretical calculations reveals that several traps are consistent with associations to nitrogen vacancy, nitrogen interstitial, and gallium vacancy origins, and thus are likely generated through displacing nitrogen and gallium atoms from the crystal lattice in proton irradiation environment.

  2. Microstructural dependency of optical properties of m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on 2° misoriented bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fengzai; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Kappers, Menno J.; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2015-08-24

    A non-polar m-plane structure consisting of five InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) was grown on ammonothermal bulk GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Surface step bunches propagating through the QW stack were found to accommodate the 2° substrate miscut towards the -c direction. Both large steps with heights of a few tens of nanometres and small steps between one and a few atomic layers in height are observed, the former of which exhibit cathodoluminescence at longer wavelengths than the adjacent m-plane terraces. This is attributed to the formation of semi-polar facets at the steps on which the QWs are shown to be thicker and have higher Indium contents than those in the adjacent m-plane regions. Discrete basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) were occasionally initiated from the QWs on the main m-plane terraces, but groups of BSFs were frequently observed to initiate from those on the large steps, probably related to the increased strain associated with the locally higher indium content and thickness.

  3. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2014-02-21

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.

  4. Phase transformation of molecular beam epitaxy-grown nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ on GaN.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shao-Yun; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Lai, Te-Yang; Lee, Yi-Jun; Chang, Pen; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Huang, Tsung-Shiew; Kwo, J Raynien; Hong, Minghwei

    2013-02-01

    High quality nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ (rare-earth oxide, R₂O₃) films have been epitaxially grown on GaN (0001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The R₂O₃ epi-layers exhibit remarkable thermal stability at 1100 °C, uniformity, and highly structural perfection. Structural investigation was carried out by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. In the initial stage of epitaxial growth, the R₂O₃ layers have a hexagonal phase with the epitaxial relationship of R₂O₃ (0001)(H)<1120>(H)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H). With the increase in R₂O₃ film thickness, the structure of the R₂O₃ films changes from single domain hexagonal phase to monoclinic phase with six different rotational domains, following the R₂O₃ (201)(M)[020](M)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H) orientational relationship. The structural details and fingerprints of hexagonal and monoclinic phase Gd₂O₃ films have also been examined by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Approximate 3-4 nm is the critical thickness for the structural phase transition depending on the composing rare earth element.

  5. Influences of group-III source preflow on the polarity, optical, and structural properties of GaN grown on nitridated sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chengguo; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin

    2015-03-28

    We report the influences of group-III source preflow, which were introduced prior to the growth of the low temperature GaN on the polarity, photoluminescence (PL), and crystallographic properties of GaN epilayers grown on nitridated c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. By studying the surface morphology evolutions under chemical etching in KOH, we found that with increasing the trimethyl-gallium (TMGa) preflow duration (t), the polarity of the GaN film can be changed from a complete N-polarity to a mixture of N- and Ga-polarity and further to a complete Ga-polarity. PL and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the impurity incorporation and the edge- and screw-type threading dislocations are strongly polarity dependent. A further study at the optimized t (i.e., 30 s for TMGa) shows that the polarity inversion of GaN can be realized not only by TMGa preflow but also by trimethyl-aluminium preflow and by trimethyl-indium preflow. A two-monolayer model was employed to explain the polarity inversion mechanism.

  6. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  7. An aberration-corrected STEM study of structural defects in epitaxial GaN thin films grown by ion beam assisted MBE.

    PubMed

    Poppitz, David; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Ion-beam assisted molecular-beam epitaxy was used for direct growth of epitaxial GaN thin films on super-polished 6H-SiC(0001) substrates. The GaN films with different film thicknesses were studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence and primarily aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. Special attention was devoted to the microstructural characterization of GaN thin films and the GaN-SiC interface on the atomic scale. The results show a variety of defect types in the GaN thin films and at the GaN-SiC interface. A high crystalline quality of the produced hexagonal GaN thin films was demonstrated. The gained results are discussed.

  8. Wafer-Size and Single-Crystal MoSe2 Atomically Thin Films Grown on GaN Substrate for Light Emission and Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuxin; Liu, Huiqiang; Chen, Xuechen; Chu, Guang; Chu, Sheng; Zhang, Hang

    2016-08-10

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layered semiconductors are important for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we designed the growth of an MoSe2 atomic layer on a lattice-matched GaN semiconductor substrate. The results demonstrated that the MoSe2 films were less than three atomic layers thick and were single crystalline of MoSe2 over the entire GaN substrate. The ultrathin MoSe2/GaN heterojunction diode demonstrated ∼850 nm light emission and could also be used in photovoltaic applications. PMID:27409977

  9. Wafer-Size and Single-Crystal MoSe2 Atomically Thin Films Grown on GaN Substrate for Light Emission and Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuxin; Liu, Huiqiang; Chen, Xuechen; Chu, Guang; Chu, Sheng; Zhang, Hang

    2016-08-10

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layered semiconductors are important for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we designed the growth of an MoSe2 atomic layer on a lattice-matched GaN semiconductor substrate. The results demonstrated that the MoSe2 films were less than three atomic layers thick and were single crystalline of MoSe2 over the entire GaN substrate. The ultrathin MoSe2/GaN heterojunction diode demonstrated ∼850 nm light emission and could also be used in photovoltaic applications.

  10. In-situ wafer bowing measurements of GaN grown on Si (111) substrate by reflectivity mapping in metal organic chemical vapor deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Bin; Liu, Ming-Gang; Chen, Wei-Jie; Han, Xiao-Biao; Chen, Jie; Lin, Xiu-Qi; Lin, Jia-Li; Luo, Hui; Liao, Qiang; Zang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Yin-Song; Qiu, Yun-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Bai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the wafer bowing during growth can be in-situ measured by a reflectivity mapping method in the 3×2″ Thomas Swan close coupled showerhead metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The reflectivity mapping method is usually used to measure the film thickness and growth rate. The wafer bowing caused by stresses (tensile and compressive) during the epitaxial growth leads to a temperature variation at different positions on the wafer, and the lower growth temperature leads to a faster growth rate and vice versa. Therefore, the wafer bowing can be measured by analyzing the discrepancy of growth rates at different positions on the wafer. Furthermore, the wafer bowings were confirmed by the ex-situ wafer bowing measurement. High-resistivity and low-resistivity Si substrates were used for epitaxial growth. In comparison with low-resistivity Si substrate, GaN grown on high-resistivity substrate shows a larger wafer bowing caused by the highly compressive stress introduced by compositionally graded AlGaN buffer layer. This transition of wafer bowing can be clearly in-situ measured by using the reflectivity mapping method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274039 and 51177175), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB301903), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20110171110021), the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260), the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B051000041), the Science and Technology Plan of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B010401013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032606), and the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, China (Grant No. IOSKL2014KF17).

  11. Improved crystalline properties of laser molecular beam epitaxy grown SrTiO{sub 3} by rutile TiO{sub 2} layer on hexagonal GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W. B.; Zhu, J.; Chen, H.; Wang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y. R.

    2009-11-15

    Epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films were fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy on bare and TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN(0002), respectively. The whole deposition processes were in situ monitored by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out to study the growth orientation and crystalline quality of STO films. The interfacial characters and epitaxial relationships were also investigated by high revolution transition electron microscope and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). According to the RHEED observation, the lowest epitaxy temperature of STO on TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN was decreased compared with the direct deposited one. The epitaxial relationship was (111)[110]STO//(0002)[1120]GaN in both cases as confirmed by RHEED, XRD, and SAED. The full width at half maximum of omega-scan and PHI-scan of STO on TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN was reduced compared with that deposited on bare GaN, indicating that epitaxial quality of STO film is improved by inserting TiO{sub 2} layer. In summary, the lattice mismatch was reduced by inserting rutile TiO{sub 2}. As a result, the crystalline temperature was reduced and enhanced epitaxial quality of STO thin film was obtained.

  12. Growth kinetics of AlN and GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on R-plane sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, R.; Moustakas, T. D.; Ozcan, A. S.; Ludwig, K. F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, David J.

    2010-08-15

    This paper reports the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of AlN and GaN thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates. Contrary to previous findings that GaN grows with its (1120) A-plane parallel to the (1102) R-plane of sapphire, our results indicate that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films is strongly dependent on the kinetic conditions of growth for the GaN or AlN buffer layers. Thus, group III-rich conditions for growth of either GaN or AlN buffers result in nitride films having (1120) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, and basal-plane stacking faults parallel to the growth direction. The growth of these buffers under N-rich conditions instead leads to nitride films with (1126) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, with inclined c-plane stacking faults that often terminate threading dislocations. Moreover, electron microscope observations indicate that slight miscut ({approx}0.5 deg. ) of the R-plane sapphire substrate almost completely suppresses the formation of twinning defects in the (1126) GaN films.

  13. Facet analysis of truncated pyramid semi-polar GaN grown on Si(100) with rare-earth oxide interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinys, Tomas; Dargis, Rytis; Frentrup, Martin; JucevičienÄ--, AgnÄ--KalpakovaitÄ--; Badokas, Kazimieras; StanionytÄ--, Sandra; Clark, Andrew; Malinauskas, Tadas

    2016-09-01

    After epitaxial growth of GaN on Si(100) substrates using an Er2O3 interlayer, two dominant growth orientations can be observed: semi-polar (10 1 ¯ 3 ) as well as non-polar (11 2 ¯ 0 ) . Epilayers with the (10 1 ¯ 3 ) orientation lead to the formation of truncated pyramids, which were studied in detail by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depending on the GaN growth orientation and in-plane relation to the Er2O3 interlayer, lattice mismatches in the growth plane were calculated. In order to understand the formation of truncated pyramids, a method for facet identification from SEM images under different tilt angles was developed. This method was used to reconstruct truncated pyramids from our experiments. These were then compared with calculations of the corresponding kinetic Wulff construction, to explain the preferential growth of (10 1 ¯ 3 ) GaN.

  14. Investigation of AlN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si(111) as templates for GaN quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Benaissa, M.; Vennegues, P.; Tottereau, O.; Nguyen, L.; Semond, F.

    2006-12-04

    The use of AlN epitaxial films deposited on vicinal Si(111) as templates for the growth of GaN quantum dots is investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the substrate vicinality induces both a slight tilt of the AlN (0001) direction with respect to the [111] direction and a step bunching mechanism. As a consequence, a dislocation dragging behavior is observed giving rise to dislocation-free areas well suited for the nucleation of GaN quantum dots.

  15. High-quality, 2-inch-diameter m-plane GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on acidic ammonothermal seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yusuke; Enatsu, Yuuki; Kubo, Shuichi; Ikeda, Hirotaka; Kurihara, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hajime; Nagao, Satoru; Mikawa, Yutaka; Fujito, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discusse the origin of basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) generated in the homoepitaxial hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of m-plane gallium nitride (GaN). We investigated the effects of seed quality, especially dislocation density, on BSF generation during homoepitaxy. The results clearly identify basal-plane dislocation in the seed as a cause of BSF generation. We realized high-quality m-plane GaN substrates with a 2-in. diameter using HVPE on low-dislocation-density m-plane seeds.

  16. Structural properties of Al-rich AlInN grown on c-plane GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The attractive prospect for AlInN/GaN-based devices for high electron mobility transistors with advanced structure relies on high-quality AlInN epilayer. In this work, we demonstrate the growth of high-quality Al-rich AlInN films deposited on c-plane GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy show that the films lattice-matched with GaN can have a very smooth surface with good crystallinity and uniform distribution of Al and In in AlInN. PMID:25489282

  17. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in GaN nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi-Yuan; Chia, Chih-Ta; Chen, Hung-Ying; Gwo, Shangjr; Lin, Kung-Hsuan

    2014-11-24

    We present ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy on GaN nanorods at room temperature. The studied GaN nanorods, with diameters of ∼50 nm and lengths of ∼400 nm, were grown on the silicon substrate. After femtosecond optical pulses excited carriers in the GaN nanorods, the carriers thermalized within a few picoseconds. Subsequently, the electrons are trapped by the surface states on the order of 20 ps. After the surface electric field was reformed in the GaN nanorods, we found the lifetime of the residue carriers in GaN nanorods is longer than 1.7 ns at room temperature, while the lifetime of carriers in GaN thin film is typically a few hundred picoseconds. Our findings indicate that GaN nanorods have higher electrical quality compared with GaN thin film.

  18. Morphology evolution and emission properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN microfacets using crossover stripe patterns by selective area epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenlong; Chen, Peng; Yang, Guofeng; Xu, Zhou; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Fulong; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the morphological evolution of selective area epitaxy (SAE) GaN microfacets structures on crossover stripe patterns as a function of temperature, and the emission properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on these microstructures with semipolar facets are also studied. The shapes of inner rings gradually change from nearly rectangular to hexagonal when the GaN growth temperature elevates, as a result of growth rates and surface stability varies with elevated temperatures. Three types of semipolar facets ({1 1 -2 2}, {2 1 -3 3} and {1 -1 0 1} facets) can be identified on the inner rings of these structures, which are verified by the emission properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN MQWs. The emission wavelengths of MQWs on these semipolar facets are ordered as {1 -1 0 1} > {2 1 -3 3} > {1 1 -2 2}, which is attributed to variations of growth rate and indium incorporation on different planes during InGaN growth. Furthermore, the indium composition of MQWs changes with the morphological evolution.

  19. GaN hexagonal pyramids formed by a photo-assisted chemical etching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Ying; Xiu, Xiang-Qian; Hua, Xue-Mei; Xie, Zi-Li; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Han, Ping; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2014-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to systematically study the effects of etching conditions on GaN by a convenient photo-assisted chemical (PAC) etching method. The solution concentration has an evident influence on the surface morphology of GaN and the optimal solution concentrations for GaN hexagonal pyramids have been identified. GaN with hexagonal pyramids have higher crystal quality and tensile strain relaxation compared with as-grown GaN. A detailed analysis about evolution of the size, density and optical property of GaN hexagonal pyramids is described as a function of light intensity. The intensity of photoluminescence spectra of GaN etched with hexagonal pyramids significantly increases compared to that of as-grown GaN due to multiple scattering events, high quality GaN with pyramids and the Bragg effect.

  20. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-10-21

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N{sub 2} while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N{sub 2} and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10{sup 16} to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be

  1. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N2 while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N2 and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 1016 to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1-2 × 1015 cm-3. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be addressed. Nonetheless, the dramatically enhanced growth rates demonstrate

  2. Electron mobility of self-assembled and dislocation free InN nanorods grown on GaN nano wall network template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; De, Arpan; Ghatak, Jay; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    A kinetically controlled two-step growth process for the formation of an array of dislocation free high mobility InN nanorods (NRs) on GaN nanowall network (NWN) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy is demonstrated here. The epitaxial GaN NWN is formed on c-sapphire under nitrogen rich conditions, and then changing the source from Ga to In at appropriate substrate temperature yields the nucleation of a self assembled spontaneous m-plane side faceted-InN NR. By HRTEM, the NRs are shown to be dislocation-free and have a low band gap value of 0.65 eV. Hall measurements are carried out on a single InN NR along with J-V measurements that yield mobility values as high as ≈4453 cm2/V s and the carrier concentration of ≈1.1 × 1017 cm-3, which are unprecedented in the literature for comparable InN NR diameters.

  3. X-ray diffraction study of stress relaxation in cubic boron nitride films grown with simultaneous medium-energy ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Abendroth, B.; Gago, R.; Eichhorn, F.; Moeller, W.

    2004-12-13

    Relaxation of the intrinsic stress of cubic boron nitride (cBN) thin films has been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) using synchrotron light. The stress relaxation has been attained by simultaneous medium-energy ion bombardment (2-10 keV) during magnetron sputter deposition, and was confirmed macroscopically by substrate curvature measurements. In order to investigate the stress-release mechanisms, XRD measurements were performed in in-plane and out-of-plane geometry. The analysis shows a pronounced biaxial state of compressive stress in the cBN films grown without medium-energy ion bombardment. This stress is partially released during the medium-energy ion bombardment. It is suggested that the main path for stress relaxation is the elimination of strain within the cBN grains due to annealing of interstitials.

  4. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchuk, Andrian V.; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M.; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Ware, Morgan E.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Safryuk, Nadiia V.; Stanchu, Hryhorii V.; Belyaev, Alexander E.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2016-05-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  5. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Safryuk, Nadiia V; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of cubic boron nitride single crystals grown under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lixin; Chen, Zhanguo; Liu, Xiuhuan; Gao, Yanjun; Jia, Gang

    2012-02-01

    The defects, impurities and their bonding states of unintentionally doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that nitrogen vacancy (VN) is the main native defect of the cBN crystals since the atomic ratio of B:N is always larger than 1 before Ar ion sputtering. After sputter cleaning, around 6 at% carbon, which probably comes from the growth chamber, remains in the samples as the main impurity. Carbon can substitute nitrogen lattice site and form the bonding states of Csbnd Bsbnd N or Csbnd B, which can be verified by the XPS spectra of C1s, B1s and N1s. The C impurity (acceptor) and N vacancy (donor) can compose the donor-acceptor complex to affect the electrical and optical properties of cBN crystals.

  7. Temperature dependent growth of GaN nanowires using CVD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    Growth of GaN nanowires have been carried out on sapphire substrates with Au as a catalyst using chemical vapour deposition technique. GaN nanowires growth have been studied with the experimental parameter as growth temperature. Diameter of grown GaN nanowires are in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm while the nanowire length depends on growth temperature. Morphology of the GaN nanowires have been studied by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline nature has been observed by XRD patterns. Optical properties of grown GaN nanowires have been investigated by photoluminescence spectra.

  8. Self-catalyzed anisotropic growth of GaN spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsha, Avinash; Sahoo, Prasana; Dhara, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2012-06-01

    GaN spirals with homogeneous size are grown using chemical-vapor-deposition technique in a self catalytic process. Raman and photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal wurtzite GaN phase. Nucleation of GaN sphere takes place with the agglomeration Ga clusters and simultaneous reaction with NH3. A growth mechanism involving diffusion limited aggregation process initiating supersaturation and subsequent neck formation along with possible role of thermodynamic fluctuation in different crystalline facets of GaN, is described for the anisotropic spiral structures. Temperature dependent PL spectra show strong excitonic emissions along with the presence of free-to-bound transition.

  9. Cubic nitride templates

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Mueller, Alexander H; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-04-30

    A polymer-assisted deposition process for deposition of epitaxial cubic metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be used as templates for the development of high quality cubic GaN based electronic devices.

  10. Distinguishing cubic and hexagonal phases within InGaN/GaN microstructures using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, I J; Cherns, D; Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Angel Sanchez, M; Calleja, E; Schimpke, T; Strassburg, M

    2016-05-01

    3D InGaN/GaN microstructures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been extensively studied using a range of electron microscopy techniques. The growth of material by MBE has led to the growth of cubic GaN material. The changes in these crystal phases has been investigated by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, where the variations in the fine structure of the N K-edge shows a clear difference allowing the mapping of the phases to take place. GaN layers grown for light emitting devices sometimes have cubic inclusions in the normally hexagonal wurtzite structures, which can influence the device electronic properties. Differences in the fine structure of the N K-edge between cubic and hexagonal material in electron energy loss spectra are used to map cubic and hexagonal regions in a GaN/InGaN microcolumnar device. The method of mapping is explained, and the factors limiting spatial resolution are discussed.

  11. Distinguishing cubic and hexagonal phases within InGaN/GaN microstructures using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    CHERNS, D; ALBERT, S.; BENGOECHEA‐ENCABO, A.; ANGEL SANCHEZ, M.; CALLEJA, E.; SCHIMPKE, T.; STRASSBURG, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary 3D InGaN/GaN microstructures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been extensively studied using a range of electron microscopy techniques. The growth of material by MBE has led to the growth of cubic GaN material. The changes in these crystal phases has been investigated by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, where the variations in the fine structure of the N K‐edge shows a clear difference allowing the mapping of the phases to take place. GaN layers grown for light emitting devices sometimes have cubic inclusions in the normally hexagonal wurtzite structures, which can influence the device electronic properties. Differences in the fine structure of the N K‐edge between cubic and hexagonal material in electron energy loss spectra are used to map cubic and hexagonal regions in a GaN/InGaN microcolumnar device. The method of mapping is explained, and the factors limiting spatial resolution are discussed. PMID:26366483

  12. Oxygen in GaN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, Chris G.; Neugebauer, Jörg

    1997-03-01

    Oxygen is commonly present during epitaxial growth of GaN. We have proposed that unintentional incorporation of O, as well as Si, is responsible for the frequently observed n-type conductivity in as-grown GaN. Here we present results from comprehensive density-functional-pseudopotential studies of GaN:O under pressure, and of O interactions with native defects and dopant impurities. We find that the O donor undergoes a DX-like transition under pressure: a large outward relaxation introduces a deep level in the band gap. This behavior explains the carrier freezeout in GaN under pressure.^1 Si donors do not exhibit the transition, consistent with experiment. Results for these impurities in AlGaN will also be discussed. We have also investigated the interaction between O and native defects. Most notably we find a large binding energy between O and the gallium vacancy (V_Ga), which we have proposed to be the source of the yellow luminescence. Finally, we have studied the interaction between O and Mg acceptors. The incorporation of the O donor is significantly enhanced in Mg-doped material. In addition, we calculate a binding energy of 0.6 eV for Mg-O complexes. The presence of O during growth can thus be detrimental to p-type GaN. ^1 C. Wetzel et al., Proc. ICPS-23 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 2929.

  13. Defects and stresses in MBE-grown GaN and Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layers doped by silicon using silane

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikov, V. V. Kyutt, R. N.; Smirnov, A. N.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Shcheglov, M. P.; Malin, T. V.; Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2013-12-15

    The electric and structural characteristics of silicon-doped GaN and Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using silane have been analyzed by the Hall effect, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. It is established that the electron concentration linearly increases up to n = 4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} with an increase in the silane flow rate for GaN:Si, whereas the corresponding dependence for Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N:Si is sublinear and the maximum electron concentration is found to be n = 4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. X-ray measurements of sample macrobending indicate a decrease in biaxial compressive stress with an increase in the electron concentration in both GaN:Si and Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N:Si layers. The parameters of the dislocation structure, estimated from the measured broadenings of X-ray reflections, are analyzed.

  14. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-09-08

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  15. Enhancing the electromagnetic performance of Co through the phase-controlled synthesis of hexagonal and cubic Co nanocrystals grown on graphene.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guohua; Zhu, Jia; Ma, Shulan; Sun, Genban; Yang, Xiaojing

    2013-12-11

    Cobalt is a promising soft metallic magnetic material used for important applications in the field of absorbing stealth technology, especially for absorbing centimeter waves. However, it frequently presents a weak dielectric property because of its instability, aggregation, and crystallographic form. A method for enhancing the electromagnetic property of metal Co via phase-controlled synthesis of Co nanostructures grown on graphene (GN) networks has been developed. Hexagonal close-packed cobalt (α-Co) nanocrystals and face-centered cubic cobalt (β-Co) nanospheres with uniform size and high dispersion have been successfully assembled on GN nanosheets via a facile one-step solution-phase strategy under different reaction conditions in which the exfoliated graphite oxide (graphene oxide, GO) nanosheets were reduced along with the formation of Co nanocrystals. The as-synthesized Co/GN nanocomposites showed excellent microwave absorbability in comparison with the corresponding Co nanocrystals or GN, especially for the nanocomposites of GN and α-Co nanocrystals (the reflection loss is -47.5 dB at 11.9 GHz), which was probably because of the special electrical properties of the cross-linked GN nanosheets and the perfect electromagnetic match in their microstructure as well as the small particle size of Co nanocrystals. The approach is convenient and effective. Some magnetic metal or alloy materials can also be prepared via this route because of its versatility. PMID:24266516

  16. Vacancy-type defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N grown on GaN templates probed using monoenergetic positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira; Watanabe, Tomohito; Kimura, Shogo; Zhang, Yang; Lozac'h, Mickael; Sang, Liwen; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Oshima, Nagayasu; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2013-11-14

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons for a 200-nm-thick In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced by InN alloying, and the major species of such defects was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and nitrogen vacancies. The presence of the defects correlated with lattice relaxation of the In{sub 0.13}Ga{sub 0.87}N layer and the increase in photon emissions from donor-acceptor-pair recombination. The species of native defects in In{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N layers was the same but its concentration was decreased by decreasing the InN composition. With the layer thickness increased from 120 nm to 360 nm, a defect-rich region was introduced in the subsurface region (<160 nm), which can be associated with layer growth with the relaxation of compressive stress.

  17. High nitrogen pressure solution growth of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockowski, Michal

    2014-10-01

    Results of GaN growth from gallium solution under high nitrogen pressure are presented. Basic of the high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) growth method is described. A new approach of seeded growth, multi-feed seed (MFS) configuration, is demonstrated. The use of two kinds of seeds: free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN (HVPE-GaN) obtained from metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing HVPE-GaN obtained from the ammonothermally grown GaN crystals, is shown. Depending on the seeds’ structural quality, the differences in the structural properties of pressure grown material are demonstrated and analyzed. The role and influence of impurities, like oxygen and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from gallium solution in the MFS configuration is presented. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are discussed. An application of the pressure grown GaN crystals as substrates for electronic and optoelectronic devices is reported.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: The effect of single AlGaN interlayer on the structural properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si (111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang; Liu, Zong-Shun; Jiang, De-Sheng; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Wang, Yu-Tian; Wang, Hui; Chen, Gui-Feng; Yang, Hui

    2009-10-01

    High-quality and nearly crack-free GaN epitaxial layer was obtained by inserting a single AlGaN interlayer between GaN epilayer and high-temperature AlN buffer layer on Si (111) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. This paper investigates the effect of AlGaN interlayer on the structural properties of the resulting GaN epilayer. It confirms from the optical microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy that the AlGaN interlayer has a remarkable effect on introducing relative compressive strain to the top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that a significant reduction in both screw and edge threading dislocations is achieved in GaN epilayer by the insertion of AlGaN interlayer. The process of threading dislocation reduction in both AlGaN interlayer and GaN epilayer is demonstrated.

  19. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K. Ng, G. I.; Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S.

    2015-06-28

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10{sup −7} mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics.

  20. Green cubic GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on microstructured silicon (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christoph J. M.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Wetzel, Christian; Lee, S. C.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Jiang, Y.-B.

    2013-12-02

    GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes free of piezoelectric polarization were prepared on standard electronic-grade Si(100) substrates. Micro-stripes of GaN and GaInN/GaN quantum wells in the cubic crystal structure were grown on intersecting (111) planes of microscale V-grooved Si in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, covering over 50% of the wafer surface area. Crystal phases were identified in electron back-scattering diffraction. A cross-sectional analysis reveals a cubic structure virtually free of line defects. Electroluminescence over 20 to 100 μA is found fixed at 487 nm (peak), 516 nm (dominant). Such structures therefore should allow higher efficiency, wavelength-stable light emitters throughout the visible spectrum.

  1. Wurtzite ZnO (001) films grown on cubic MgO (001) with bulk-like opto-electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hua; Wang Huiqiong; Chen Xiaohang; Zhan Huahan; Kang Junyong; Wu Lijun; Zhu Yimei; Zhang Lihua; Kisslinger, Kim

    2011-10-03

    We report the growth of ZnO (001) wurtzite thin films with bulk-like opto-electronic properties on MgO (001) cubic substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns and ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the structure transition from the cubic MgO substrates to the hexagonal films involves 6 ZnO variants that have the same structure but different orientations. This work demonstrates the possibility of integrating wurtzite ZnO films and functional cubic substrates while maintaining their bulk-like properties.

  2. Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-off Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Tschumak, E.

    2010-11-01

    The growth of cubic group III-nitrides is a direct way to eliminate polarization effects, which inherently limit the fabrication of normally-off hetero-junction field-effect transistors (HFETs) in GaN technology. HFET structures were fabricated of non-polar cubic AlGaN/GaN hetero layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on free standing 3C-SiC (001). The electrical insulation of 3C-SiC was realized by Ar{sup +} implantation before c-AlGaN/GaN growth. HFETs with normally-off and normally-on characteristics were fabricated of cubic AlGaN/GaN. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of the gate contact were performed to detect the electron channel at the c-AlGaN/GaN hetero-interface.

  3. Growth behavior of hexagonal GaN on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Kai; Jiang, Ming-Chien

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the microstructure and optical properties of hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) films grown by high-temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates. The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of h-GaN deposition on both Si(100) and Si(111) substrates were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. Our results indicated that the h-GaN grown on Si(111) has better crystalline structure and optical properties than that on Si(100) owing to the smaller mismatch of the orientations of the Si(111) substrate and h-GaN film. On the Si(100) substrate, the growth principles of PLD and N2 plasma nitridation are the main contributions to the conversion of the cubic GaN into h-GaN. Moreover, no significant Ga–Si meltback etching was observed on the GaN/Si surface with the PLD operation temperature of 1000 °C. The TEM images also revealed that an abrupt GaN/Si interface can be obtained because of the suppression of substrate–film interfacial reactions in PLD.

  4. Growth behavior of hexagonal GaN on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Kai; Jiang, Ming-Chien

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the microstructure and optical properties of hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) films grown by high-temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates. The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of h-GaN deposition on both Si(100) and Si(111) substrates were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. Our results indicated that the h-GaN grown on Si(111) has better crystalline structure and optical properties than that on Si(100) owing to the smaller mismatch of the orientations of the Si(111) substrate and h-GaN film. On the Si(100) substrate, the growth principles of PLD and N2 plasma nitridation are the main contributions to the conversion of the cubic GaN into h-GaN. Moreover, no significant Ga-Si meltback etching was observed on the GaN/Si surface with the PLD operation temperature of 1000 °C. The TEM images also revealed that an abrupt GaN/Si interface can be obtained because of the suppression of substrate-film interfacial reactions in PLD.

  5. A growth diagram for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN nanocolumns on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Lopez-Romero, D.

    2009-12-15

    The morphology of GaN samples grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) was systematically studied as a function of impinging Ga/N flux ratio and growth temperature (730-850 deg. C). Two different growth regimes were identified: compact and nanocolumnar. A growth diagram was established as a function of growth parameters, exhibiting the transition between growth regimes, and showing under which growth conditions GaN cannot be grown due to thermal decomposition and Ga desorption. Present results indicate that adatoms diffusion length and the actual Ga/N ratio on the growing surface are key factors to achieve nanocolumnar growth.

  6. GaN quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudin, B.; Adelmann, C.; Gogneau, N.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Monroy, E.; Fossard, F.; Rouvière, J. L.

    2004-03-01

    The conditions to grow GaN quantum dots (QDs) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy will be examined. It will be shown that, depending on the Ga/N ratio value, the growth mode of GaN deposited on AlN can be either of the Stranski-Krastanow (SK) or of the Frank-Van der Merwe type. Accordingly, quantum wells or QDs can be grown, depending on the desired application. In the particular case of modified SK growth mode, it will be shown that both plastic and elastic strain relaxation can coexist. Growth of GaN QDs with N-polarity will also be discussed and compared to their counterpart with Ga polarity.

  7. Epitaxy of GaN Nanowires on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Vishnuvarthan; Largeau, Ludovic; Madouri, Ali; Glas, Frank; Zhang, Hezhi; Oehler, Fabrice; Cavanna, Antonella; Babichev, Andrey; Travers, Laurent; Gogneau, Noelle; Tchernycheva, Maria; Harmand, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-10

    Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy without any catalyst or intermediate layer. Growth is highly selective with respect to silica on which the graphene flakes, grown by chemical vapor deposition, are transferred. The nanowires grow vertically along their c-axis and we observe a unique epitaxial relationship with the ⟨21̅1̅0⟩ directions of the wurtzite GaN lattice parallel to the directions of the carbon zigzag chains. Remarkably, the nanowire density and height decrease with increasing number of graphene layers underneath. We attribute this effect to strain and we propose a model for the nanowire density variation. The GaN nanowires are defect-free and they present good optical properties. This demonstrates that graphene layers transferred on amorphous carrier substrates is a promising alternative to bulk crystalline substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality GaN nanostructures.

  8. Epitaxy of GaN Nanowires on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Vishnuvarthan; Largeau, Ludovic; Madouri, Ali; Glas, Frank; Zhang, Hezhi; Oehler, Fabrice; Cavanna, Antonella; Babichev, Andrey; Travers, Laurent; Gogneau, Noelle; Tchernycheva, Maria; Harmand, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-10

    Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy without any catalyst or intermediate layer. Growth is highly selective with respect to silica on which the graphene flakes, grown by chemical vapor deposition, are transferred. The nanowires grow vertically along their c-axis and we observe a unique epitaxial relationship with the ⟨21̅1̅0⟩ directions of the wurtzite GaN lattice parallel to the directions of the carbon zigzag chains. Remarkably, the nanowire density and height decrease with increasing number of graphene layers underneath. We attribute this effect to strain and we propose a model for the nanowire density variation. The GaN nanowires are defect-free and they present good optical properties. This demonstrates that graphene layers transferred on amorphous carrier substrates is a promising alternative to bulk crystalline substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality GaN nanostructures. PMID:27414518

  9. Epitaxy growth kinetics of GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bei; Ma, Ronghui; Zhang, Hui

    2003-03-01

    Group III nitrides, such as GaN, AlN and InGaN, have attracted a lot of attention due to the development of blue-green and ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. A GaN crystal can be grown from the vapor phase by either evaporation of Gallium (Ga) metal or sublimation of GaN powder in ammonia (NH 3) atmosphere at a temperature-controlled growth furnace. In this paper, an integrated GaN growth model using a sublimation growth model has been developed based on the conservation of momentum, mass, chemical species and energy together with necessary boundary conditions that account for heterogeneous chemical reactions both at the source and seed surfaces. For the growth rate, the effects of the gas-flow rate, source temperature, temperature difference, and the gap width of the growth cell on the growth process have been studied.

  10. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. PMID:26034939

  11. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-06-02

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  12. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-01

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry–Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ∼1 μm and a length of ∼15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry–Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm‑2. The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  13. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-01

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ∼1 μm and a length of ∼15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm(-2). The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  14. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-01

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ˜1 μm and a length of ˜15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm-2. The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  15. GaN Epitaxial Layer Grown with Conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N Buffer Layer on SiC Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    So, Byeongchan; Lee, Kyungbae; Lee, Kyungjae; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Ko, Kwangse; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated GaN epitaxial layer growth with a conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer on n-type 4H-SiC by high-temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD). The Al composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer was varied from 0% to 100%. In terms of the crystal quality of the GaN layer, 79% Al was the optimal composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer in our experiment. A vertical conductive structure was fabricated to measure the current voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of Al composition, and the I-V curves showed that the resistance increased with increasing Al concentration of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer. PMID:27483845

  16. One-step graphene coating of heteroepitaxial GaN films.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Kyung; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Dae; Moon, Daeyoung; Yoon, Duhee; Joo, Kisu; Kwak, Jinsung; Chu, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Park, Kibog; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoon, Euijoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Today, state-of-the-art III-Ns technology has been focused on the growth of c-plane nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a conventional two-step growth process. Here we show that the use of graphene as a coating layer allows the one-step growth of heteroepitaxial GaN films on sapphire in a MOCVD reactor, simplifying the GaN growth process. It is found that the graphene coating improves the wetting between GaN and sapphire, and, with as little as ~0.6 nm of graphene coating, the overgrown GaN layer on sapphire becomes continuous and flat. With increasing thickness of the graphene coating, the structural and optical properties of one-step grown GaN films gradually transition towards those of GaN films grown by a conventional two-step growth method. The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on a GaN/graphene/sapphire heterosystem shows a high internal quantum efficiency, allowing the use of one-step grown GaN films as 'pseudo-substrates' in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of graphene as a coating layer provides an atomic playground for metal adatoms and simplifies the III-Ns growth process, making it potentially very useful as a means to grow other heteroepitaxial films on arbitrary substrates with lattice and thermal mismatch.

  17. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of excited states of an asymmetric cubic GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N double quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecker, Tobias; Callsen, Gordon; Hoffmann, Axel; Reuter, Dirk; As, Donat J.

    2016-05-01

    Optical transitions involving higher energy levels of cubic AlGaN quantum wells are investigated by means of photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. An asymmetric cubic GaN/Al x Ga1- x N double quantum well (QW) structure with an Al content of x = 0.25 ± 0.03 was grown on a 3C-SiC(001) substrate exploiting radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence excitation data reveals two emission bands, which are assigned to the first electron and the third heavy hole (e1-hh3) and the second electron and the second heavy hole (e2-hh2) energy level of the wide QW. Besides in the narrow QW no higher energy levels can be observed. The experimental data is in good agreement with theoretical calculations using a Schrödinger-Poisson solver based on an effective mass model (nextnano3). The exciton binding energy was calculated considering the confinement of the QWs and also the energy dependency of the effective mass for excited energy levels.

  18. Investigation of structural and optical properties of GaN on flat and porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Saleh H.; Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) layers were successfully grown on Flat-Si and porous silicon (PSi) using a radio frequency-magnetron sputtering system. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images showed that the grown film on Flat-Si had smoother surface, even though there were some cracks on it. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the peak intensity of all the grown layers on PSi was higher than that of the grown layer on Flat-Si. Our detailed observation showed that PSi is a promising substrate to obtain GaN films.

  19. Synthesis of p-type GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Ilsoo; Park, Tae-Eon; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-09-21

    GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo-junction structure (consisting of annealed Cu:GaN NW/n-type GaN thin film) exhibited p-n junction characteristics. A hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) employing the annealed Cu:GaN NWs as a hole injection layer (HIL) also demonstrated current injected luminescence. These results suggest that Cu can be used as a p-type dopant for GaN NWs.

  20. Biosensing operations based on whispering-gallery-mode optical cavities in single 1.0-µm diameter hexagonal GaN microdisks grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Sakai, Masaru; Kishino, Katsumi; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensing operations based on a whispering-gallery-mode optical cavity in a single hexagonal GaN microdisk of approximately 1.0 µm diameter were demonstrated here. The sharp resonant peak in the photoluminescence spectrum obtained from the microdisk in aqueous sucrose solution redshifts with a change in sucrose concentration. The results indicate that an extremely small microdisk could be used as an optical transducer for sensing sugar, namely, as a biosensor. Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the diameter of the microdisk and the sensitivity of the biosensor.

  1. Fabrication of high-quality \\{11\\bar{2}2\\} GaN substrates using the Na flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Mihoko; Nakamura, Koshi; Che, Songbek; Murakami, Kosuke; Takazawa, Hideo; Imanishi, Masayuki; Imade, Mamoru; Morita, Yukihiro; Mori, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) substrates fabricated along the nonpolar and semipolar directions are the most promising materials for realizing optical and electronic devices with low power consumption. In this study, we carry out the Na flux growth on \\{ 11\\bar{2}2\\} -plane GaN templates grown heteroepitaxially on sapphires. The GaN crystals are grown at low supersaturation using the Na flux method with the dipping technique. The crystallinity of the grown GaN crystals is improved compared to that of the seed substrates. Then it improves further by lowering the supersaturation. Finally, we succeed in fabricating a 2-in. \\{ 11\\bar{2}2\\} -plane GaN single crystal with high transparency and crystallinity.

  2. GaN: From three- to two-dimensional single-layer crystal and its multilayer van der Waals solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onen, A.; Kecik, D.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) GaN is a III-V compound semiconductor with potential optoelectronic applications. In this paper, starting from 3D GaN in wurtzite and zinc-blende structures, we investigated the mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of the 2D single-layer honeycomb structure of GaN (g -GaN ) and its bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer van der Waals solids using density-functional theory. Based on high-temperature ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations, we first showed that g -GaN can remain stable at high temperature. Then we performed a comparative study to reveal how the physical properties vary with dimensionality. While 3D GaN is a direct-band-gap semiconductor, g -GaN in two dimensions has a relatively wider indirect band gap. Moreover, 2D g -GaN displays a higher Poisson ratio and slightly less charge transfer from cation to anion. In two dimensions, the optical-absorption spectra of 3D crystalline phases are modified dramatically, and their absorption onset energy is blueshifted. We also showed that the physical properties predicted for freestanding g -GaN are preserved when g -GaN is grown on metallic as well as semiconducting substrates. In particular, 3D layered blue phosphorus, being nearly lattice-matched to g -GaN , is found to be an excellent substrate for growing g -GaN . Bilayer, trilayer, and van der Waals crystals can be constructed by a special stacking sequence of g -GaN , and they can display electronic and optical properties that can be controlled by the number of g -GaN layers. In particular, their fundamental band gap decreases and changes from indirect to direct with an increasing number of g -GaN layers.

  3. Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kawano, Satoshi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Amanai, Hidetaka; Nagao, Satoru; Horie, Hideyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Nonpolar a-plane GaN films were grown on nearly lattice-matched a-plane ZnO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Growth of GaN on a-plane ZnO at conventional growth temperatures (around 700°C) resulted in the formation of polycrystalline materials, probably due to the interface reactions between GaN and ZnO. However, single crystalline a-plane GaN with an atomically flat surface can be grown on ZnO at room temperature in the layer-by-layer mode. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements revealed that high-quality a-plane GaN films can also be grown at elevated substrate temperatures (up to 700°C) by using a RT a-plane GaN film as a buffer layer.

  4. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhen; Li, Enling; Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  5. Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization by one- and two-step growth in nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shih-Wei Chen, Yu-Yu; Lai, Chih-Ming; Tu, Li-Wei; Han, Jung

    2013-12-21

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of the electronic transition in nonpolar a-plane GaN using one- and two-step growth are studied. By using two-step growth, a slower coalescence and a longer roughening-recovery process lead to larger anisotropic strain relaxation, a less striated surface, and lower densities of basal stacking fault (BSF) and prismatic stacking fault (PSF). It is suggested that anisotropic in-plane strains, surface striation, and BSF and PSF densities in nonpolar a-GaN are consequences of the rate of coalescence, the period of roughening-recovery process, and the degree of anisotropic strain relaxation. In addition, the two-step growth mode can enhance the degree of polarization of the electronic transition. The simulation results of the k⋅p perturbation approach show that the oscillator strength and degree of polarization of the electronic transition strongly depend on the in-plane strains upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. The research results provide important information for optimized growth of nonpolar III-nitrides. By using two-step growth and by fabricating the devices on the high-quality nonpolar free-standing GaN substrates, high-efficiency nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs can be realized. Nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs can exhibit a strongly polarized light to improve the contrast, glare, eye discomfort and eye strain, and efficiency in display application.

  6. Nucleation and Growth of GaN on GaAs (001) Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Hafich, Michael J.; Heller, Edwin J.; Lee, Stephen R.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Ruvimov, Sergei; Sullivan, John P.

    1999-05-03

    The nucleation of GaN thin films on GaAs is investigated for growth at 620 "C. An rf plasma cell is used to generate chemically active nitrogen from N2. An arsenic flux is used in the first eight monolayer of nitride growth to enhance nucleation of the cubic phase. Subsequent growth does not require an As flux to preserve the cubic phase. The nucleation of smooth interfaces and GaN films with low stacking fault densities is dependent upon relative concentrations of active nitrogen species in the plasma and on the nitrogen to gallium flux ratio.

  7. Hydride VPE: the unexpected process for the fast growth of GaAs and GaN nanowires with record aspect ratio and polytypism-free crystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Yamina; Trassoudaine, Agnès.; Avit, Geoffrey; Lekhal, Kaddour; Ramdani, Mohammed R.; Leroux, Christine; Monier, Guillaume; Varenne, Christelle; Hoggan, Philip; Castelluci, Dominique; Bougerol, Catherine; Réveret, François; Leymarie, Joël.; Petit, Elodie; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Gil, Evelyne

    2013-12-01

    Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) makes use of chloride III-Cl and hydride V-H3 gaseous growth precursors. It is known as a near-equilibrium process, providing the widest range of growth rates from 1 to more than 100 μm/h. When it comes to metal catalyst-assisted VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) growth, the physics of HVPE growth is maintained: high dechlorination frequency, high axial growth rate of nanowires (NWs) up to 170 μm/h. The remarkable features of NWs grown by HVPE are the untapered morphology with constant diameter and the stacking fault-free crystalline phase. Record pure zinc blende cubic phase for 20 μm long GaAs NWs with radii of 10 and 5 nm is shown. The absence of wurtzite phase in GaAs NWs grown by HVPE whatever the diameter is discussed with respect to surface energetic grounds and kinetics. Ni assisted, Ni-Au assisted and catalyst-free HVPE growth of wurtzite GaN NWs is also addressed. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis revealed GaN nanowires of great optical quality, with a FWHM of 1 meV at 10 K for the neutral donor bound exciton transition.

  8. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV. PMID:23046910

  9. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates. PMID:27101930

  10. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-04-22

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates.

  11. Novel high frequency devices with graphene and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei

    effective mass (NEM) region. The designed NEMO structures are grown by MBE on bulk GaN substrates. NDRs are observed in four NEMO samples under DC and pulsed measurements. The influence of traps and defects on NDRs is also discussed.

  12. Ferromagnetism in undoped One-dimensional GaN Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Jeganathan, K. E-mail: jagan@physics.bdu.ac.in; Purushothaman, V.; Debnath, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2014-05-15

    We report an intrinsic ferromagnetism in vertical aligned GaN nanowires (NW) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy without any external catalyst. The magnetization saturates at ∼0.75 × emu/gm with the applied field of 3000 Oe for the NWs grown under the low-Gallium flux of 2.4 × 10{sup −8} mbar. Despite a drop in saturation magnetization, narrow hysteresis loop remains intact regardless of Gallium flux. Magnetization in vertical standing GaN NWs is consistent with the spectral analysis of low-temperature photoluminescence pertaining to Ga-vacancies associated structural defects at the nanoscale.

  13. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  14. Nitridation- and Buffer-Layer-Free Growth of [1100]-Oriented GaN Domains on m-Plane Sapphire Substrates by Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yeonwoo; Lee, Sanghwa; Jue, Miyeon; Yoon, Hansub; Kim, Chinkyo

    2012-12-01

    Over a wide range of growth conditions, GaN domains were grown on bare m-plane sapphire substrates by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), and the relation between these growth conditions and three possible preferred crystallographic orientations ([1100], [1103], [1122]) of GaN domains was investigated. In contrast with the previous reports by other groups, our results revealed that preferentially [1100]-oriented GaN domains were grown without low-temperature nitridation or a buffer layer, and that the growth condition of preferentially [1100]-oriented GaN was insensitive to V/III ratio.

  15. Development of patterned sapphire substrate and the application to the growth of non-polar and semi-polar GaN for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadatomo, Kazuyuki; Okada, Narihito

    2011-03-01

    The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high external quantum efficiency (EQE) are usually fabricated on the patterned sapphire substrate (PSS). The PSS reduces the dislocation density in the GaN layer and enhances the light extraction efficiency (LEE) from the LED chip by scattering the light confined in GaN layer attributed to the critical angle between GaN (n=2.4) and sapphire substrate (n=1.7) (or air (n=1.0)). On the other hand, non-polar GaN and semipolar GaN are attracted much attention to eliminate the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). Recently, we have developed novel technology to grow non-polar or semi-polar GaN on the PSS with high quality and large diameter by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). For example, m-plane GaN grown on a-plane PSS and {112 (see manuscript)} plane GaN grown on r-plane PSS. The growth of c-plane GaN from the c-plane-like sidewall of the r-plane PSS results in {112 (see manuscript)} GaN on the r-plane PSS. The full widths at half maximum of X-ray rocking curves (FWHM-XRC) of the {112(see manuscript)} GaN along the azimuths parallel and perpendicular to the c-direction were 533 and 260 arcsec, respectively. Dislocation density of the GaN was approximately 2×108 cm-2. These non-polar and semi-polar GaN are expected to be suitable for novel GaN substrate or GaN template for LEDs.

  16. Growth of high quality GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene network structure as intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Taeo Hoon; Park, Ah Hyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-03-01

    In general, high-quality GaN layers are synthesized on low-temperature (LT) GaN buffer layer on a single crystal sapphire substrate. However, large differences in fundamental properties such as lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN layer and sapphire substrate generate high density of threading dislocation (TD) that leads to deterioration of optical and structural properties. Graphene has been attracting much attention due to its excellent physical properties However, direct epitaxial growth of GaN film onto graphene layer on substrates is not easily accessible due to the lack of chemical reactivity on graphene which consisted of C-C bond of sp2 hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with no dangling bonds. In this work, an intermediate layer for the GaN growth on sapphire substrate was constructed by inserting carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid structure (CGH) Optical and structural properties of GaN layer grown on CGH were compared with those of GaN layer directly grown on sapphire CNTs act as nucleation sites and play a crucial role in the growth of single crystal high-quality GaN on graphene layer. Also, graphene film acts as a mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN layer, which can effectively reduce TD density. A grant from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) institutional program.

  17. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Romanov, Alexey E.; Young, Erin C.; Roberston, Christian A.; Beltz, Glenn E.; Speck, James S.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.

  18. Desorption Induced Formation of Negative Nanowires in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Stach, E.A.; Kim, B.-J.

    2011-06-01

    We report in-situ transmission electron microscopy studies of the formation of negative nanowires created by thermal decomposition of single crystal GaN. During annealing, vertical negative nanowires are formed in [0 0 0 1] by preferential dissociation of GaN along the 1 0 {bar 1} 0 prism planes, while lateral negative nanowires grow in close-packed 1 0 {bar 1} 0 by the self-catalytic solid-liquid-vapor (SLV) mechanism. Our quantitative measurements show that the growth rates of the laterally grown negative nanowires are independent of the wire diameter, indicating that the rate-limiting step is the decomposition of GaN on the surface of the Ga droplets that catalyze their creation. These nanoscale features offer controllable templates for the creation and integration of a broad range of nanoscale materials systems, with potential applications in nanoscale fluidics.

  19. Strong atomic ordering in Gd-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, Manabu; Higashi, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Shigehiko; Asahi, Hajime; Sato, Kazuhisa; Konno, Toyohiko J.

    2012-09-03

    Gd-doped GaN (Ga{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}N) thin films were grown on a GaN(001) template by radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three samples with a different Gd composition were prepared in this study: x = 0.02, 0.05, and 0.08. XRD and TEM results revealed that the low Gd concentration GaN possesses the wurtzite structure. On the other hand, it was found that an ordered phase with a quadruple-periodicity along the [001] direction in the wurtzite structure is formed throughout the film with x = 0.08. We proposed the atomistic model for the superlattice structure observed here.

  20. Surface morphology of GaN: Flat versus vicinal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, M.H.; Seutter, S.M.; Zheng, L.X.; Cheung, S.H.; Ng, Y.F.; Wu, H.; Tong, S.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The surface morphology of GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A comparison is made between flat and vicinal surfaces. The wurtzite structure of GaN leads to special morphological features such as step pairing and triangularly shaped islands. Spiral mounds due to growth at screw threading dislocations are dominant on flat surfaces, whereas for vicinal GaN, the surfaces show no spiral mound but evenly spaced steps. This observation suggests an effective suppression of screw threading dislocations in the vicinal films. This finding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Continued growth of the vicinal surface leads to step bunching that is attributed to the effect of electromigration.

  1. Pulsed laser annealing of Be-implanted GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.T.; Tan, L.S.; Chor, E.F.

    2005-11-01

    Postimplantation thermal processing of Be in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown GaN by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and pulsed laser annealing (PLA) was investigated. It has been found that the activation of Be dopants and the repair of implantation-induced defects in GaN films cannot be achieved efficiently by conventional RTA alone. On the other hand, good dopant activation and surface morphology and quality were obtained when the Be-implanted GaN film was annealed by PLA with a 248 nm KrF excimer laser. However, observations of off-resonant micro-Raman and high-resolution x-ray-diffraction spectra indicated that crystal defects and strain resulting from Be implantation were still existent after PLA, which probably degraded the carrier mobility and limited the activation efficiency to some extent. This can be attributed to the shallow penetration depth of the 248 nm laser in GaN, which only repaired the crystal defects in a thin near-surface layer, while the deeper defects were not annealed out well. This situation was significantly improved when the Be-implanted GaN was subjected to a combined process of PLA followed by RTA, which produced good activation of the dopants, good surface morphology, and repaired bulk and surface defects well.

  2. Structural effects of field emission from GaN nanofilms on SiC substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ru-Zhi Zhu, Man-Kang; Yan, Hui; Liu, Peng; Wang, Bi-Ben

    2014-04-21

    GaN nanofilms (NFs) with different structures are grown on SiC substrates by pulsed laser deposition under different conditions. The synthesized GaN NFs are studied by X-ray diffraction, field-emission (FE) scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The GaN NFs are composed of diversified GaN nanoparticles with a diameter of 9–38 nm, thickness of 10–50 nm, and roughness of 0.22–13.03 nm. FE from the GaN NFs is structure dependent, which is explained by stress changing the band gap of the NFs. By structure modulation, the turn-on field of GaN NFs can be as low as 0.66 V/μm at a current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2}, with a current density of up to 1.1 mA/cm{sup 2} at a field of 4.18 V/μm. Fowler-Nordheim curves of some samples contain multiple straight lines, which originate from the structural change and diversification of GaN nanoparticles under an applied field. Overall, our results suggest that GaN NFs with excellent FE properties can be prepared on SiC substrates, which provides a new route to fabricate high-efficiency FE nanodevices.

  3. Opportunities and challenges in GaN metal organic chemical vapor deposition for electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koh; Yamaoka, Yuya; Ubukata, Akinori; Arimura, Tadanobu; Piao, Guanxi; Yano, Yoshiki; Tokunaga, Hiroki; Tabuchi, Toshiya

    2016-05-01

    The current situation and next challenge in GaN metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for electron devices of both GaN on Si and GaN on GaN are presented. We have examined the possibility of increasing the growth rate of GaN on 200-mm-diameter Si by using a multiwafer production MOCVD machine, in which the vapor phase parasitic reaction is well controlled. The impact of a high-growth-rate strained-layer-superlattice (SLS) buffer layer is presented in terms of material properties. An SLS growth rate of as high as 3.46 µm/h, which was 73% higher than the current optimum, was demonstrated. As a result, comparable material properties were obtained. Next, a typical result of GaN doped with Si of 1 × 1016 cm-3 grown at the growth rate of 3.7 µm/h is shown. For high-voltage application, we need a thick high-purity GaN drift layer with a low carbon concentration, of less than 1016 cm-3. It is shown that achieving a high growth rate by precise control of the vapor phase reaction is still challenge in GaN MOCVD.

  4. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-05-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH{sub 3}:Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH{sub 3}:Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of {approx}1.0 nm over 2x2 {mu}m{sup 2} atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 {mu}m/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz.

  5. Features of molecular beam epitaxy of the GaN (0001) and GaN (0001-bar) layers with the use of different methods of activation of nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Mizerov, A. M. Jmerik, V. N.; Kaibyshev, V. K.; Komissarova, T. A.; Masalov, S. A.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2009-08-15

    The results of comparative studies of the growth kinetics of the GaN layers of different polarity during ammonia molecular beam epitaxy and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA MBE) of nitrogen with the use of sapphire substrates and GaN(0001-bar)/c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates grown by gas-phase epitaxy from metalorganic compounds are presented. The possibility is shown of obtaining the GaN layers with an atomically smooth surface during molecular beam epitaxy with plasma activation of nitrogen. For this purpose, it is suggested to carry out the growth in conditions enriched with metal near the mode of formation of the Ga drops at a temperature close to the decomposition temperature of GaN (TS {approx} 760 deg. C). The conclusion is made that an increase in the growth temperature positively affects the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the GaN (0001-bar) layers. A high quality of the GaN (0001) films grown by the PA MBE method at a low temperature of {approx}700 deg. C on the GaN/c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates is shown.

  6. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-04-01

    High-quality (1 1 2bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (1 1bar 0 2) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (3 0 3bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Growth behavior of GaN nanowires on c-plane sapphire substrate by applying various catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppulingam, B.; Bhalerao, G. M.; Singh, Shubra; Baskar, K.

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reaction has been used to control the vapor-liquid-solid growth of gallium nitride nanowires (NWs) using different catalysts. GaN NWs were grown using Cu, Au, Pd/Au alloy catalysts on c-plane sapphire substrate. XRD and Raman analysis revealed the crystalline wurtzite phase of GaN synthesized at 900 °C. High density GaN NWs were studied using SEM and HRTEM. Elemental composition and impurities were analyzed by EDX. Diameter of individual NW, grown using Au catalyst is found to be ~50 nm. The diameter of NWs grown with the help of Cu catalyst was found to be ˜65 nm, whereas with Pd/Au catalyst, the diameter was about 100-200 nm. NBE emission observed from PL spectra for Cu catalyst (377 nm), Au catalyst (372 nm) as well as Pd/Au catalyst (385 nm) growth of GaN NWs respectively has been presented and discussed.

  8. High internal quantum efficiency ultraviolet to green luminescence peaks from pseudomorphic m-plane Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers grown on a low defect density m-plane freestanding GaN substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chichibu, S. F. Hazu, K.; Furusawa, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Onuma, T.; Ohtomo, T.; Ikeda, H.; Fujito, K.

    2014-12-07

    Structural and optical qualities of half-a-μm-thick m-plane Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were remarkably improved via coherent growth on a low defect density m-plane freestanding GaN substrate prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. All the epilayers unexceptionally suffer from uniaxial or biaxial anisotropic in-plane stress. However, full-width at half-maximum values of the x-ray ω-rocking curves were nearly unchanged as the underlayer values being 80 ∼ 150 arc sec for (101{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}2) diffractions with both 〈0001〉 and 〈112{sup ¯}0〉 azimuths, as long as pseudomorphic structure was maintained. Such Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers commonly exhibited a broad but predominant luminescence peak in ultraviolet (x ≤ 0.14) to green (x = 0.30) wavelengths. Its equivalent value of the internal quantum efficiency at room temperature was as high as 67% for x = 0.14 and 44% for x = 0.30. Because its high-energy cutoff commonly converged with the bandgap energy, the emission peak is assigned to originate from the extended near-band-edge states with strong carrier localization.

  9. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  10. Growth of GaN nanowall network on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    GaN nanowall network was epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN nanowalls overlap and interlace with one another, together with large numbers of holes, forming a continuous porous GaN nanowall network. The width of the GaN nanowall can be controlled, ranging from 30 to 200 nm by adjusting the N/Ga ratio. Characterization results of a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction show that the GaN nanowall is well oriented along the C axis. Strong band edge emission centered at 363 nm is observed in the spectrum of room temperature photoluminescence, indicating that the GaN nanowall network is of high quality. The sheet resistance of the Si-doped GaN nanowall network along the lateral direction was 58 Ω/. The conductive porous nanowall network can be useful for integrated gas sensors due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity along the lateral direction by combining with Si micromachining. PMID:23270331

  11. Growth of GaN nanowall network on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aihua; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    GaN nanowall network was epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. GaN nanowalls overlap and interlace with one another, together with large numbers of holes, forming a continuous porous GaN nanowall network. The width of the GaN nanowall can be controlled, ranging from 30 to 200 nm by adjusting the N/Ga ratio. Characterization results of a transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction show that the GaN nanowall is well oriented along the C axis. Strong band edge emission centered at 363 nm is observed in the spectrum of room temperature photoluminescence, indicating that the GaN nanowall network is of high quality. The sheet resistance of the Si-doped GaN nanowall network along the lateral direction was 58 Ω/. The conductive porous nanowall network can be useful for integrated gas sensors due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity along the lateral direction by combining with Si micromachining. PMID:23270331

  12. Pendeo-epitaxial growth and characterization of GaN and related materials on 6H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.; Gehrke, T.; Linthicum, K.J.; Zheleva, T.S.; Rajagopal, P.; Zorman, C.A.; Mehregany, M.

    2000-07-01

    Discrete and coalesced monocrystalline GaN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N layers grown via Pendeo-epitaxy (PE) [1] originated from side walls of GaN seed structures containing SiN{sub x} top masks have been grown via organometallic vapor phase deposition on GaN/AlN/6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001)/AlN(0001)/3C-SiC(111)/Si(111) substrates. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were used to evaluate the external microstructures and the distribution of dislocations, respectively. The dislocation densities in the PE grown films was reduced by at least five orders of magnitude relative to the initial GaN seed layers. Tilting in the coalesced GaN epilayers was observed via X-ray diffraction. A tilt of 0.2{degree} was confined to areas of mask overgrowth; however, no tilting was observed in the material suspended above the SiC substrate. The strong, low-temperature PL band-edge peak at 3.45 eV with a FWHM of 17 meV was comparable to that observed in PE GaN films grown on 6H-SiC(0001). The band-edge in the GaN grown on AlN(0001)/SiC(111)Si(111) substrates was shifted to a lower energy by 10 meV, indicative of a greater tensile stress.

  13. Synthesis of p-type GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Ilsoo; Park, Tae-Eon; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-08-01

    GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo-junction structure (consisting of annealed Cu:GaN NW/n-type GaN thin film) exhibited p-n junction characteristics. A hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) employing the annealed Cu:GaN NWs as a hole injection layer (HIL) also demonstrated current injected luminescence. These results suggest that Cu can be used as a p-type dopant for GaN NWs.GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo

  14. Controlled morphology of regular GaN microrod arrays by selective area growth with HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekhal, Kaddour; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Ho-Jun; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Tamura, Akira; Deki, Manato; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The selective area growth (SAG) of GaN was implemented on patterned GaN/sapphire templates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) to fabricate regular arrays of Ga-polar GaN microrods. The control of growth parameters such as H2/N2 carrier gas ratio, growth temperature, and absolute NH3/HCl gas flow resulted in changes in the growth morphology. In particular, for an optimized mixed-carrier gas ratio of H2 to N2, we achieved vertically well-aligned microrods. The topmost regions of the GaN microrods were terminated with pyramidal facets, indicating typical Ga polarity. The optical properties of the grown microrods were characterized by cathodoluminescence (CL) at a low temperature. This revealed that the GaN microrods had high crystal quality since they exhibited suppressed yellow luminescence as well as strong band edge emission.

  15. Radiative defects in GaN nanocolumns: Correlation with growth conditions and sample morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, P.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Grandal, J.; Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.-A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-02-21

    Low-temperature photoluminescence is studied in detail in GaN nanocolumns (NCs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under various conditions (substrate temperature and impinging Ga/N flux ratio). The relative intensities of the different emission lines, in particular those related to structural defects, appear to be correlated with the growth conditions, and clearly linked to the NC sample morphology. We demonstrate, in particular, that all lines comprised between 3.10 and 3.42 eV rapidly lose intensity when the growth conditions are such that the NC coalescence is reduced. The well-known line around 3.45 eV, characteristic of GaN NC samples, shows, however, a behavior that is exactly the opposite of the other lines, namely, for growth conditions leading to reduced NC coalescence, this line tends to become more prominent, thus proving to be intrinsic to individual GaN NCs.

  16. Surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN studied by contactless electroreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Lukasz; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) is used to study the surface potential barrier in m-plane GaN UN+ [GaN (d = 20,30,50,70 nm)/GaN:Si] structures grown by using molecular beam epitaxy. Clear bandgap-related transitions followed by Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKO) have been observed in the CER spectra of all samples at room temperature. The built-in electric fields in the undoped cap layers have been determined from the FKO period. From the built-in electric field and the undoped GaN layer thickness, the Fermi level location at the air-exposed m-plane GaN surface has been estimated as 0.42 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band.

  17. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Meng; Zhao, Yuning; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Fay, Patrick; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bader, Samuel

    2015-12-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm{sup 2} is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to −20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm{sup 2} is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ∼3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  18. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Meng; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Zhao, Yuning; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Bader, Samuel; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-12-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current <3 nA/cm2 is obtained with reverse bias voltage up to -20 V. With a 400 nm thick n-drift region, an on-resistance of 0.23 mΩ cm2 is achieved, with a breakdown voltage corresponding to a peak electric field of ˜3.1 MV/cm in GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  19. Above room-temperature ferromagnetism of Mn delta-doped GaN nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y. T.; Wadekar, P. V.; Kao, H. S.; Chen, T. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Tu, L. W.; Huang, H. C.; Ho, N. J.

    2014-02-10

    One-dimensional nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductors were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Delta-doping technique was adopted to dope GaN nanorods with Mn. The structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The GaMnN nanorods with a single crystalline structure and with Ga sites substituted by Mn atoms were verified by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering, respectively. Secondary phases were not observed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the magnetic hysteresis curves show that the Mn delta-doped GaN nanorods are ferromagnetic above room temperature. The magnetization with magnetic field perpendicular to GaN c-axis saturates easier than the one with field parallel to GaN c-axis.

  20. Properties of H, O and C in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted into GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.

  1. Effect of double superlattice interlayers on growth of thick GaN epilayers on Si(110) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xu-Qiang; Takahashi, Tokio; Ide, Toshihide; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2016-05-01

    The effect of double thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayers (SL ILs) on the growth of thick GaN epilayers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Si(110) substrates is investigated. It is found that the GaN middle layer (GaN layer between the two SL ILs) can affect the strain state of the GaN epilayer. By comparison with the case of a single SL IL, it is shown that the double SL ILs can have a stronger compressive effect on the GaN epilayer grown on it, which results in lower residual tensile strain in the GaN film after the growth. By optimizing the GaN middle layer thickness, a 4-µm-thick crack-free GaN epilayer is successfully achieved. By this simple technique, it is expected that high-quality crack-free thick GaN can be grown on Si substrates for optical and electronic device applications.

  2. Cubic Polynomials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Presents a classification of factorable cubics and shows how the associated factor graphs determine domains of disconnected branches and furnish a skeletal framework for the number and shape of the branches. Illustrates three dimensional visualization and examines level curves and spikes of surfaces. (KHR)

  3. Annealing effects on polycrystalline GaN using nitrogen and ammonia ambients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, A.; Zainal, N.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes effects of using post-annealing treatment in different conditions on the properties of polycrystalline GaN layer grown on m-plane sapphire substrate by electron beam (e-beam) evaporator. Without annealing, GaN surface was found to have a low RMS roughness with agglomeration of GaN grains in a specific direction and the sample consisted of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) material. When the post-annealing treatment was carried out in N2 ambient at 650 °C, initial re-crystallization of the GaN grains was observed while the evidence of Ga2O3 almost disappeared. As the NH3 annealing was conducted at 950 °C, more effect of re-crystallization occurred but with less grains coalescence. Three dominant XRD peaks of GaN in (10 1 bar 0) , (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations were evident. Near band edge (NBE) related emission in GaN was also observed. The significant improvement was attributed to simultaneous recrystallization and effective reduction of N deficiency density. The post-annealing in a mixture of N2 and NH3 ambient at 950 °C was also conducted, but has limited the effectiveness of the N atoms to incorporate on the GaN layer due to 'clouding' effect by the inert N2 gas. Further increase in the annealing temperature at 980 °C and 1100 °C, respectively caused severe deteriorations of the structural and optical properties of the GaN layer. Overall, this work demonstrated initial potential in improving polycrystalline GaN material in simple and inexpensive manner.

  4. GaN resistive hydrogen gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Feng; Chevtchenko, Serguei; Moon, Yong-Tae; Morkoç, Hadis; Fawcett, Timothy J.; Wolan, John T.

    2005-08-01

    GaN epilayers grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy have been used to fabricate resistive gas sensors with a pair of planar ohmic contacts. Detectible sensitivity to H2 gas for a wide range of gas mixtures in an Ar ambient has been realized; the lowest concentration tested is ˜0.1% H2 (in Ar), well below the lower combustion limit in air. No saturation of the signal is observed up to 100% H2 flow. Real-time response to H2 shows a clear and sharp response with no memory effects during the ramping cycles of H2 concentration. The change in current at a fixed voltage to hydrogen was found to change with sensor geometry. This appears to be consistent with a surface-adsorption-induced change of conductivity; a detailed picture of the gas sensing mechanism requires further systematic studies.

  5. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures on GaN templates and native GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jr-Tai Hsu, Chih-Wei; Forsberg, Urban; Janzén, Erik

    2015-02-28

    Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H{sub 2} atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon and oxygen concentrations were found up to ∼1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.

  6. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures on GaN templates and native GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Tai, Jr.; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Forsberg, Urban; Janzén, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H2 atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ˜2000 cm2/V.s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon and oxygen concentrations were found up to ˜1 × 1020 cm-3 at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm2 SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.

  7. Tri-halide vapor-phase epitaxy of GaN using GaCl3 on polar, semipolar, and nonpolar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Kenji; Takekawa, Nao; Matsuda, Karen; Hikida, Kazuhiro; Hayashida, Naoto; Murakami, Hisashi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2016-10-01

    Homoepitaxial tri-halide vapor-phase epitaxy (THVPE) growth on polar, semipolar, and nonpolar bulk GaN substrates was demonstrated using GaCl3 as the precursor. The influence of the surface orientation of the substrate on GaN growth by THVPE was compared with that observed for GaN grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy. The dependence of the GaN growth on the surface orientation of the substrate was confirmed; GaN could be grown on (10\\bar{1}0), (30\\bar{3}\\bar{1}), (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}), (10\\bar{1}\\bar{1}), and (000\\bar{1}) but not on (0001), (10\\bar{1}1), (20\\bar{2}1), or (30\\bar{3}1). This behavior was explained to be due to the changes in adsorption energy, the magnitudes of which were estimated by theoretical calculations.

  8. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on vertical Si{110} sidewalls formed on trench-etched Si(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Jarod C.; Shen, Haoting; Yuwen, Yu; Wang, Ke; Mayer, Theresa S.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-07-01

    A maskless Si trench structure was developed to integrate crystallographically non-polar GaN microstructures with semi-polar facets on Si(001). GaN "fins" were preferentially grown by MOCVD on Si{110} trench sidewalls formed by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of Si(001) such that GaN(0001)//Si{110} and GaN(10-10)//Si(001), resulting in a non-polar crystal structure with respect to the Si(001) substrate surface. No masking layer was required to prevent GaN growth on the Si(001) top surface of the trenches, instead, it was found that GaN nucleated preferentially on the Si{110} trench sidewalls. GaN was also observed to nucleate at the top corner of the trenches due to Si etching and exposure of high-index Si facets during the pre-growth H2 anneal. This undesired GaN nucleation was successfully suppressed by reducing the H2 anneal time and/or increasing the growth temperature and decreasing the precursor V/III to enhance Ga-adatom diffusion. Cross-sectional TEM studies confirmed that the GaN fins were crystallographically non-polar with respect to the Si(001) substrate surface and were bounded by semi-polar and non-polar facets. The reported Si fabrication and GaN growth process shows promise for the integration of non-polar and semi-polar GaN microstructures on industry standard Si(001) substrates.

  9. Growth optimization and characterization of GaN epilayers on multifaceted (111) surfaces etched on Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ansah-Antwi, KwaDwo Konadu Chua, Soo Jin; Soh, Chew Beng; Liu, Hongfei

    2015-11-15

    The four nearest Si(111) multifaceted sidewalls were exposed inside an array of 3 μm-wide square holes patterned on an Si(100) substrate, and this patterned Si(100) substrate was used as a substrate for the deposition of a gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer. Subsequently the effect that the growth pressure, the etched-hole profiles, and the etched-hole arrangement had upon the quality of the as-grown GaN was investigated. The coalescence of the as-grown GaN epilayer on the exposed Si(111) facets was observed to be enhanced with reduced growth pressure from 120 to 90 Torr. A larger Si(001) plane area at the bottom of the etched holes resulted in bidirectional GaN domains, which resulted in poor material quality. The bidirectional GaN domains were observed as two sets of six peaks via a high-resolution x-ray diffraction phi scan of the GaN(10-11) reflection. It was also shown that a triangular array of etched holes was more desirable than square arrays of etched holes for the growth high-quality and continuous GaN films.

  10. Utilisation of GaN and InGaN/GaN with nanoporous structures for water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    We report a cost-effective approach to the fabrication of GaN based nanoporous structure for applications in renewable hydrogen production. Photoelectrochemical etching in a KOH solution has been employed to fabricate both GaN and InGaN/GaN nanoporous structures with pore sizes ranging from 25 to 60 nm, obtained by controlling both etchant concentration and applied voltage. Compared to as-grown planar devices the nanoporous structures have exhibited a significant increase of photocurrent with a factor of up to four times. An incident photon conversion efficiency of up to 46% around the band edge of GaN has been achieved.

  11. Lattice-matched HfN buffer layers for epitaxy of GaN on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Robert; Yang, Qing; Feick, Henning; Gebauer, Joerg; Weber, Eicke R.; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka

    2002-05-08

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using sputter-deposited hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 (mu)m. Initial results for GaN grown on the (111) surface show a photoluminescence peak width of 17 meV at 11 K, and an asymmetric x-ray rocking curve width of 20 arcmin. Wurtzite GaN on HfN/Si(001) shows reduced structural quality and peculiar low-temperature luminescence features. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  12. Self-induced growth of vertical GaN nanowires on silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresan, V.; Largeau, L.; Oehler, F.; Zhang, H.; Mauguin, O.; Glas, F.; Gogneau, N.; Tchernycheva, M.; Harmand, J.-C.

    2016-04-01

    We study the self-induced growth of GaN nanowires on silica. Although the amorphous structure of this substrate offers no possibility of an epitaxial relationship, the nanowires are remarkably aligned with the substrate normal whereas, as expected, their in-plane orientation is random. Their structural and optical characteristics are compared to those of GaN nanowires grown on standard crystalline Si (111) substrates. The polarity inversion domains are much less frequent, if not totally absent, in the nanowires grown on silica, which we find to be N-polar. This work demonstrates that high-quality vertical GaN nanowires can be elaborated without resorting to bulk crystalline substrates.

  13. Effect of buffer layer growth temperature on epitaxial GaN films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, P.; Singh, D.; Kumar, R.; Ganguli, T.; Srinivasa, R. S.; Major, S. S.

    2012-06-05

    Epitaxial GaN films were deposited by reactive sputtering of a GaAs target in 100 % nitrogen at 700 deg. C on ZnO buffer layers grown at different substrate temperatures over sapphire substrates. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and the corresponding analysis show that the growth temperature of buffer layers significantly affects the micro-structural parameters of GaN epilayer, such as lateral coherence length, tilt and twist, while the vertical coherence length remains unaffected. The optimum substrate temperature for buffer layer growth has been found to be 300 deg. C. High epitaxial quality GaN film grown on such a buffer layer exhibited micro strain of 1.8x10{sup -4} along with screw and edge type dislocation densities of 7.87x10{sup 9} and 1.16x10{sup 11}, respectively.

  14. Substitutional and interstitial carbon in wurtzite GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.

    2002-09-01

    First-principles theoretical results are presented for substitutional and interstitial carbon in wurtzite GaN. Carbon is found to be a shallow acceptor when substituted for nitrogen (CN) and a shallow donor when substituted for gallium (CGa). Interstitial carbon (CI) is found to assume different configurations depending on the Fermi level: A site at the center of the c-axis channel is favored when the Fermi level is below 0.9 eV (relative to the valence band maximum) and a split-interstitial configuration is favored otherwise. Both configurations produce partly filled energy levels near the middle of the gap, and CI should therefore exhibit deep donor behavior in p-type GaN and deep acceptor behavior in n-type GaN. Formation energies for CN, CGa, and CI are similar, making it likely that CN acceptors will be compensated by other carbon species. CGa is predicted to be the primary compensating species when growth occurs under N-rich conditions while channel CI is predicted to be the primary compensating species under Ga-rich growth conditions. Self-compensation is predicted to be more significant under Ga-rich growth conditions than under N-rich conditions. Experimental evidence for self-compensation is discussed. Four carbon complexes are discussed. CN-VGa is found to be unstable when the Fermi level is above the middle of the gap due to the high stability of gallium vacancies (VGa). The CN-VGa complex was previously suggested as a source of the broad 2.2 eV luminescence peak often observed in n-type GaN. The present results indicate that this is unlikely. The CI-CN complex is capable of forming in carbon doped GaN grown under Ga-rich conditions if the mobility of the constituents is high enough. Experimental evidence for its existence is discussed.

  15. Surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2014-12-29

    GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles (Linear, Cubic, and Quintic functions) were numerically studied as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures for concentrator photovoltaics by using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. Effective medium theory was used to design the surface structures corresponding to different refractive index profiles. Surface antireflection properties were calculated and analyzed for incident light with wavelength, polarization and angle dependences. The surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures based on six-sided pyramid with both uniform and non-uniform patterns were also investigated. Results indicate a significant dependence of the surface antireflection on the refractive index profiles of surface nanostructures as well as their pattern uniformity. The GaN nanostructures with linear refractive index profile show the best performance to be used as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures.

  16. ITON Schottky contacts for GaN based UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhove, N.; John, J.; Lorenz, A.; Cheng, K.; Borghs, G.; Haverkort, J. E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Lateral Schottky ultraviolet detectors were fabricated in GaN using indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) as a contact metal. The GaN semiconductor material was grown on 2 in. sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The Schottky contact has been realized using ITON that has been deposited using sputter techniques. I- V characteristics have been measured with and without UV illumination. The device shows photo-to-dark current ratios of 10 3 at -1 V bias. The spectral responsivity of the UV detectors has been determined. The high spectral responsivity of more than 30 A/W at 240 nm is explained by a high internal gain caused by generation-recombination centers at the ITON/GaN interface. Persistent photocurrent effect has been observed in UV light (on-off) switching operation, time constant and electron capture coefficient of the transition has been determined.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of GaN thin films deposited on different substrates using a low-cost electrochemical deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R.

    2012-09-06

    Gallium nitride GaN thin films were deposited on three different substrates; Si (111), Si (100) and ITO coated glass using electrochemical deposition technique at 20 Degree-Sign C. A mixture of gallium nitrate, ammonium nitrate was used as electrolyte. The deposited films were investigated at room temperature by a series of material characterization techniques, namely; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images and EDX results indicated that the growth of GaN films varies according to the substrates. XRD analyses showed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases with the crystallite size around 18-29 nm.

  18. Diffusion of oxygen in bulk GaN crystals at high temperature and at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovyi, B.; Nikolenko, A.; Weyher, J. L.; Grzegory, I.; Dziecielewski, I.; Sarzynski, M.; Strelchuk, V.; Tsykaniuk, B.; Belyaev, O.; Petrusha, I.; Turkevich, V.; Kapustianyk, V.; Albrecht, M.; Porowski, S.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies of diffusion of oxygen in bulk wurtzite-type GaN crystals grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) are reported. Oxygen concentration profiles were studied in as-grown GaN crystals and also after annealing of crystals at temperatures up to 3400 K and pressures up to 9 GPa. Investigated crystals contained large conical defects i.e. pinholes of significantly higher oxygen concentration (NO=(2-4)×1019 cm-3) than that in the bulk matrix (NO<1×1017 cm-3). The pinholes were revealed by a photo-etching method in as-grown and annealed GaN samples. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied to measure the profiles of free electron concentration, which directly corresponds to the concentration of oxygen impurity. Lateral scanning across the interfaces between pinholes and matrix in the as-grown HVPE GaN crystals showed sharp step-like carrier concentration profiles. Annealing at high temperature and high pressure resulted in the diffusion blurring of the profiles. Analysis of obtained data allowed for the first time for estimation of oxygen diffusion coefficients DO(T, P). The obtained values of DO(T, P) are anomalously small similarly to the values obtained by Harafuji et al. by molecular dynamic calculations for self-diffusion of nitrogen. Whereas oxygen and nitrogen are on the same sublattice it could explain the similarity of their diffusion coefficients.

  19. Roma Gans: Still Writing at 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joanna

    1991-01-01

    Recounts discussions with reading educator Roma Gans over a 25-year period. Presents Gans' views about reading, teachers, her family, and her years at Teachers College, Columbia. Notes that Gans has seen the teaching of reading come full circle since her first teaching assignment in 1919. (RS)

  20. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A. A.; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth.

  1. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A A; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-03-30

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth.

  2. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A. A.; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth. PMID:27025461

  3. Using the kinetic Wulff plot to design and control nonpolar and semipolar GaN heteroepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Benjamin; Sun, Qian; Yerino, Christopher D.; Han, Jung; Coltrin, Michael E.

    2012-02-01

    For nonpolar and semipolar orientations of GaN heteroepitaxially grown on sapphire substrates, the development of growth procedures to improve surface morphology and microstructure has been driven in a largely empirical way. This work attempts to comprehensively link the intrinsic properties of GaN faceted growth, across orientations, in order to understand, design and control growth methods for nonpolar (1 1 2 0) GaN and semipolar (1 1 2 2) GaN on foreign substrates. This is done by constructing a comprehensive series of kinetic Wulff plots (or v-plots) by monitoring the advances of convex and concave facets in selective area growth. A methodology is developed to apply the experimentally determined v-plots to the interpretation and design of evolution dynamics in nucleation and island coalescence. This methodology offers a cohesive and rational model for GaN heteroepitaxy along polar, nonpolar and semipolar orientations, and is broadly extensible to the heteroepitaxy of other materials. We demonstrate furthermore that the control of morphological evolution, based on invoking a detailed knowledge of the v-plots, holds a key to the reduction of microstructural defects through effective bending of dislocations and blocking of stacking faults. The status and outlook of semipolar and nonpolar GaN growth on sapphire substrates will be presented.

  4. Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, A T M Golam; May, Brelon J; Chisholm, Matthew F; Duscher, Gerd J; Myers, Roberto C

    2016-04-21

    By quantum confining GaN at monolayer thickness with AlN barriers inside of a nanowire, deep ultraviolet LEDs are demonstrated. Full three-dimensional strain dependent energy band simulations are carried out within multiple quantum disk (MQD) GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice heterostructures. It is found that, even within the same nanowire MQD, the emission energy of the ultrathin GaN QDs varies from disk to disk due to the changing strain distribution and polarization charge induced energy band bending along the axial nanowire direction. MQD heterostructures are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form self-assembled catalyst-free nanowires with 1 to 2 monolayer thick GaN insertions within an AlN matrix. Photoluminescence peaks are observed at 295 nm and 283 nm from the 2 ML and 1 ML thick MQD samples, respectively. Polarization-doped nanowire LEDs are grown incorporating 1 ML thick GaN MQD active regions from which we observe deep ultraviolet electroluminescence. The shortest LED wavelength peak observed is 240 nm and attributed to electron hole recombination within 1 ML thick GaN QDs.

  5. The effect of substrate on high-temperature annealing of GaN epilayers: Si versus sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Iborra, E.; Jimenez, J.; Peiro, F.; Calleja, E.

    2006-08-15

    We have studied the effects of rapid thermal annealing at 1300 deg.C on GaN epilayers grown on AlN buffered Si(111) and on sapphire substrates. After annealing, the epilayers grown on Si display visible alterations with craterlike morphology scattered over the surface. The annealed GaN/Si layers were characterized by a range of experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, optical confocal imaging, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence. A substantial Si migration to the GaN epilayer was observed in the crater regions, where decomposition of GaN and formation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystallites as well as metallic Ga droplets and Si nanocrystals have occurred. The average diameter of the Si nanocrystals was estimated from Raman scattering to be around 3 nm. Such annealing effects, which are not observed in GaN grown on sapphire, are a significant issue for applications of GaN grown on Si(111) substrates when subsequent high-temperature processing is required.

  6. Characterization and density control of GaN nanodots on Si (111) by droplet epitaxy using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this report, self-organized GaN nanodots have been grown on Si (111) by droplet epitaxy method, and their density can be controlled from 1.1 × 1010 to 1.1 × 1011 cm-2 by various growth parameters, such as substrate temperatures for Ga droplet formation, the pre-nitridation treatment of Si substrate, the nitridation duration for GaN crystallization, and in situ annealing after GaN formation. Based on the characterization of in situ RHEED, we can observe the surface condition of Si and the formation of GaN nanodots on Si. The surface nitridaiton treatment at 600°C provides a-SiNx layer which makes higher density of GaN nanodots. Crystal GaN nanodots can be observed by the HRTEM. The surface composition of GaN nanodots can be analyzed by SPEM and μ-XPS with a synchrotron x-ray source. We can find GaN nanodots form by droplet epitaxy and then in situ annealing make higher-degree nitridation of GaN nanodots. PMID:25593560

  7. Characterization and density control of GaN nanodots on Si (111) by droplet epitaxy using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ing-Song; Chang, Chun-Pu; Yang, Chung-Pei; Lin, Chun-Ting; Ma, Yuan-Ron; Chen, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    In this report, self-organized GaN nanodots have been grown on Si (111) by droplet epitaxy method, and their density can be controlled from 1.1 × 10(10) to 1.1 × 10(11) cm(-2) by various growth parameters, such as substrate temperatures for Ga droplet formation, the pre-nitridation treatment of Si substrate, the nitridation duration for GaN crystallization, and in situ annealing after GaN formation. Based on the characterization of in situ RHEED, we can observe the surface condition of Si and the formation of GaN nanodots on Si. The surface nitridaiton treatment at 600°C provides a-SiNx layer which makes higher density of GaN nanodots. Crystal GaN nanodots can be observed by the HRTEM. The surface composition of GaN nanodots can be analyzed by SPEM and μ-XPS with a synchrotron x-ray source. We can find GaN nanodots form by droplet epitaxy and then in situ annealing make higher-degree nitridation of GaN nanodots.

  8. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  9. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101¯3), (101¯1) and (202¯1), as well as Type I stacking faults (…ABABCBCB…), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (<1 at%) induces the formation of screw dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (…ABABACBA…) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.

  10. Structural defects in bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Mancuso, M.; Song, C. Y.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bockowski, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies of undoped and Mg doped GaN layers grown on the HVPE substrates by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution (HNPS) with the multi-feed-seed (MFS) configuration are shown. The propagation of dislocations from the HVPE substrate to the layer is observed. Due to the interaction between these dislocations in the thick layers much lower density of these defects is observed in the upper part of the HNPS layers. Amorphous Ga precipitates with attached voids pointing toward the growth direction are observed in the undoped layer. This is similar to the presence of Ga precipitates in high-pressure platelets, however the shape of these precipitates is different. The Mg doped layers do not show Ga precipitates, but MgO rectangular precipitates are formed, decorating the dislocations. Results of TEM studies of HVPE layers grown on Ammonothermal substrates are also presented. These layers have superior crystal quality in comparison to the HNPS layers, as far as density of dislocation is concern. Occasionally some small inclusions can be found, but their chemical composition was not yet determined. It is expected that growth of the HNPS layers on these substrate will lead to large layer thickness obtained in a short time and with high crystal perfection needed in devices.

  11. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  12. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  13. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This “compliant” buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 105 cm−2. In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6” wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors. PMID:26329829

  14. A study of mixed group-V nitrides grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a nitrogen radical beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, W.G.; Tu, C.W.; Mathes, D.; Hull, R.

    1997-12-31

    The authors report a study of N incorporation in GaAs and InP by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a N radical beam source. For GaNAs grown at high temperatures, phase separation was observed, as evidenced from the formation of cubic GaN aside from GaNAs. By lowering the growth temperature, however, GaNAs alloys with N as high as 14.8% have been obtained without showing any phase separation. For InNP, no phase separation was observed in the temperature range studied (310--420 C). Contrary to GaNAs, incorporating N in InP is very difficult, with only less than 1% N being achieved. Optical absorption measurement reveals strong red shift of bandgap energy with direct-bandgap absorption. However, no semimetallic region seems to exist for GaNAs and a composition, dependent bowing parameter has been observed.

  15. High Quality, Low Cost Ammonothermal Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrentraut, D; Pakalapati, RT; Kamber, DS; Jiang, WK; Pocius, DW; Downey, BC; McLaurin, M; D'Evelyn, MP

    2013-12-18

    Ammonothermal GaN growth using a novel apparatus has been performed on c-plane, m-plane, and semipolar seed crystals with diameters between 5 mm and 2 in. to thicknesses of 0.5-3 mm. The highest growth rates are greater than 40 mu m/h and rates in the 10-30 mu m/h range are routinely observed for all orientations. These values are 5-100x larger than those achieved by conventional ammonothermal GaN growth. The crystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), optical spectroscopy, and capacitance-voltage measurements. The crystallinity of the grown crystals is similar to or better than that of the seed crystals, with FWHM values of about 20-100 arcsec and dislocation densities of 1 x 10(5)-5 x 10(6) cm(-2). Dislocation densities below 10(4) cm(-2) are observed in laterally-grown crystals. Epitaxial InGaN quantum well structures have been successfully grown on ammonothermal wafers. (C) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  16. Lattice location of deuterium in plasma and gas charged Mg doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, W.R.; Barbour, J.C.; Seager, C.H.; Myers, S.M. Jr.; Wright, A.F.; Han, J.

    1999-12-02

    The authors have used ion channeling to examine the lattice configuration of deuterium in Mg doped GaN grown by MOCVD. The deuterium is introduced both by exposure to deuterium gas and to ECR plasmas. A density functional approach including lattice relaxation, was used to calculate total energies for various locations and charge states of hydrogen in the wurtzite Mg doped GaN lattice. Computer simulations of channeling yields were used to compare results of channeling measurements with calculated yields for various predicted deuterium lattice configurations.

  17. Surface-Effect-Induced Optical Bandgap Shrinkage in GaN Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Young S; Lee, Geunsik; Holmes, Mark J; Chan, Christopher C S; Reid, Benjamin P L; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Nicholas, Robin J; Taylor, Robert A; Kim, Kwang S; Han, Sang W; Yang, Woochul; Jo, Y; Kim, J; Im, Hyunsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate nontrivial surface effects on the optical properties of self-assembled crystalline GaN nanotubes grown on Si substrates. The excitonic emission is observed to redshift by ∼100 meV with respect to that of bulk GaN. We find that the conduction band edge is mainly dominated by surface atoms, and that a larger number of surface atoms for the tube is likely to increase the bandwidth, thus reducing the optical bandgap. The experimental findings can have important impacts in the understanding of the role of surfaces in nanostructured semiconductors with an enhanced surface/volume ratio.

  18. Eliminating stacking faults in semi-polar GaN by AlN interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Dadgar, A.; Ravash, R.; Veit, P.; Schmidt, G.; Mueller, M.; Dempewolf, A.; Bertram, F.; Wieneke, M.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.

    2011-07-11

    We report on the elimination of stacking faults by the insertion of low-temperature AlN interlayers in nearly (1016) and (1104) oriented semi-polar GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on Si(112) and Si(113), respectively. The elimination of these defects is visualized by cathodoluminescence (CL) as well as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and STEM-CL. A possible annihilation mechanism is discussed which leads to the conclusion that the elimination mechanism is most likely valid for all layers with (1101) surfaces, enabling heteroepitaxial semi- and non-polar GaN free from stacking faults.

  19. Determination of satellite valley position in GaN emitter from photoexcited field emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, M.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Argon plasma etched GaN field-emitter rods with nanometer-scale diameter were fabricated on GaN grown on an n+-GaN substrate. Their electron field emission properties were investigated both without and under illumination by using light sources with various wavelengths. The Fowler-Nordheim current-voltage characteristics of the cathodes show a change in slope for illuminated cathodes. The electron affinity difference ΔE between the different valleys in the conduction band has been ascertained and is in the range from 1.18 up to 1.21 eV.

  20. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250 °C. GaN thin films are grown at 200 °C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3 nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3 V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250 °C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  1. HVPE homoepitaxial growth of high quality bulk GaN using acid wet etching method and its mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nanliu; Cheng, Yutian; Wu, Jiejun; Li, Xingbin; Yu, Tongjun; Xiong, Huan; Li, Wenhui; Chen, Jiao; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, crack-free 2-inch bulk GaN wafer with the thickness up to 3 mm was obtained by HVPE homoepitaxy. A new method of acid wet etching was used to pre-treat GaN substrate before re-growth. The formation of the mesh-like subsurface crack and interface layer were found to be suppressed between the re-growth layer and as-grown GaN substrate. EDS and time varied contact angle measurement proved that chemical etching would decrease the oxygen related surface adsorption and increase atoms diffusion length during HVPE homoepitaxial growth. Moreover, Morphology, Low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicated a reduction in stress of wet etching treated as-grown GaN substrate due to etching effect on its N face. High quality bulk GaN with the dislocation density of 1×106 cm-2 was achieved by using wet etching and HVPE multiple re-growth. It would offer a simple method to obtain bulk GaN with thicker layer and high quality.

  2. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  3. Surface studies of gallium nitride quantum dots grown using droplet epitaxy on bulk, native substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christina; Jeon, Sunyeol; Goldman, Rachel; Yacoby, Yizhak; Clarke, Roy

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its applications in light-emitting diodes play an integral part in efficient, solid-state lighting, as evidenced by its recognition in the 2014 Nobel prize in physics. In order to push this technology towards higher efficiency and reliability and lower cost, we must understand device growth on bulk GaN substrates, which have lower defect densities and strain than template GaN substrates grown on sapphire. In this work, we present our findings on the surface properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on commercial bulk GaN. QDs are grown using the droplet epitaxy method and analyzed using a surface X-ray diffraction technique called Coherent Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), which uses phase retrieval to reconstruct atomic positions near the substrate surface. While several QD growth conditions in our study produce dense QDs, COBRA reveals that only low nitridation temperatures result in GaN QDs that are coherent with the bulk GaN substrate. Results are supported with atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Spectroscopic study of semipolar ( 11 2 ¯ 2 ) -HVPE GaN exhibiting high oxygen incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schustek, Philipp; Hocker, Matthias; Klein, Martin; Simon, Ulrich; Scholz, Ferdinand; Thonke, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Spatially resolved luminescence and Raman spectroscopy investigations are applied to a series of ( 11 2 ¯ 2 ) -GaN samples grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown over an initial layer deposited by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned sapphire substrates. Whereas these two differently grown GaN layers are crystallographically homogeneous, they differ largely in their doping level due to high unintentional oxygen uptake in the HVPE layer. This high doping shows up in luminescence spectra, which can be explained by a free-electron recombination band for which an analytical model considering the Burstein-Moss shift, conduction band tailing, and the bandgap renormalization is included. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements concordantly determine the electron density to be above 1019 cm-3. In addition, the strain state is assessed by Raman spectroscopy and compared to a finite element analysis.

  5. Spectroscopic study of semipolar (112{sup ¯}2)-HVPE GaN exhibiting high oxygen incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schustek, Philipp; Hocker, Matthias; Thonke, Klaus; Klein, Martin; Scholz, Ferdinand; Simon, Ulrich

    2014-10-28

    Spatially resolved luminescence and Raman spectroscopy investigations are applied to a series of (112{sup ¯}2)-GaN samples grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown over an initial layer deposited by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned sapphire substrates. Whereas these two differently grown GaN layers are crystallographically homogeneous, they differ largely in their doping level due to high unintentional oxygen uptake in the HVPE layer. This high doping shows up in luminescence spectra, which can be explained by a free-electron recombination band for which an analytical model considering the Burstein-Moss shift, conduction band tailing, and the bandgap renormalization is included. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements concordantly determine the electron density to be above 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. In addition, the strain state is assessed by Raman spectroscopy and compared to a finite element analysis.

  6. Optical properties of Yb ions in GaN epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadwisienczak, W. M.; Lozykowski, H. J.

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, an important effort in semiconductor materials research has been devoted to III-nitrides semiconductors doped with rare earth ions due to the high potential of these materials in light-emitting device applications. Ytterbium (Yb 3+) is one of a few lanthanide ions which have not been investigated as an optically active center in these materials yet. In this paper we report the observation of luminescence from GaN films grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and doped by implantation with Yb 3+ ions. The high resolution photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra of GaN:Yb 3+ were studied at different excitation conditions in temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K and revealed weak thermal quenching. The luminescence emission lines are assigned to transitions between the spin-orbit levels 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 of Yb 3+ (4f 13). The analysis of the Yb luminescence spectra allowed us to suggest the energy level diagram of the crystal-field-split 4f 13 levels for the Yb ion center. The most probable lattice location of Yb in GaN is the substitutional Ga site. Furthermore, the luminescence kinetics of internal transitions of Yb 3+ incorporated in GaN was investigated by means of decay and time-resolved luminescence measurements. It was found that the ytterbium decay is non-exponential with dominant exponential term of ˜100 μs with little dependence on the ambient temperature. The results indicate that Yb-doped GaN epilayer may be suitable as a material for near infrared optoelectronic devices.

  7. Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kunook; Beak, Hyeonjun; Tchoe, Youngbin; Oh, Hongseok; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Yoo, Hyobin; Kim, Miyoung

    2014-09-01

    We report the growth of GaN micro-rods and coaxial quantum-well heterostructures on graphene films, together with structural and optical characterization, for applications in flexible optical devices. Graphene films were grown on Cu foil by means of chemical vapor deposition, and used as the substrates for the growth of the GaN micro-rods, which were subsequently transferred onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Highly Si-doped, n-type GaN micro-rods were grown on the graphene films using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth and vertical alignment of the GaN micro-rods, which is a critical factor for the fabrication of high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs), were characterized using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The GaN micro-rods exhibited promising photoluminescence characteristics for optoelectronic device applications, including room-temperature stimulated emission. To fabricate flexible LEDs, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N/GaN multiple quantum wells and a p-type GaN layer were deposited coaxially on the GaN micro-rods, and transferred onto Ag-coated polymer substrates using lift-off. Ti/Au and Ni/Au metal layers were formed to provide electrical contacts to the n-type and p-type GaN regions, respectively. The micro-rod LEDs exhibited intense emission of visible light, even after transfer onto the flexible polymer substrate, and reliable operation was achieved following numerous cycles of mechanical deformation.

  8. Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Wu, Tong; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-15

    We propose, fabricate and characterize the freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructures. The GaN nanocolumns are epitaxially grown on freestanding nanostructured silicon substrate that is achieved by a combination of self-assemble technique and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Optical reflection is greatly suppressed in the visible range due to the graded refractive index effect of subwavelength nanostructures. The freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane is realized by removing silicon substrate from the backside, eliminating the silicon absorption of the emitted light and leading to a strong blue emission from the bottom side. The obtained structures also demonstrate the potential application for anti-reflective (AR) coating and GaN-Si hybrid microelectromechanical system (MEMS).

  9. Microstructure of GaN epitaxy on SiC using AlN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, F.A.; Krusor, B.S.; Major, J.S. Jr.; Plano, W.E.; Welch, D.F.

    1995-07-17

    The crystalline structure of GaN epilayers on (0001) SiC substrates has been studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission microscopy. The films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, using AlN buffer layers. X-ray diffraction measurements show negligible strain in the epilayer, and a long-range variation in orientation. Transmission electron lattice images show that the AlN buffer layer consists of small crystallites. The nature of the buffer layer and its interfaces with the substrate and the GaN film is discussed. The defect structure of the GaN film away from the substrate consists mostly of threading dislocations with a density of {similar_to}10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pave the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.

  11. Room-Temperature Transport of Indirect Excitons in (Al ,Ga )N /GaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedichkin, F.; Guillet, T.; Valvin, P.; Jouault, B.; Brimont, C.; Bretagnon, T.; Lahourcade, L.; Grandjean, N.; Lefebvre, P.; Vladimirova, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the exciton propagation in polar (Al ,Ga )N /GaN quantum wells over several micrometers and up to room temperature. The key ingredient to achieve this result is the crystalline quality of GaN quantum wells grown on GaN substrate that limits nonradiative recombination. From the comparison of the spatial and temporal dynamics of photoluminescence, we conclude that the propagation of excitons under continuous-wave excitation is assisted by efficient screening of the in-plane disorder. Modeling within drift-diffusion formalism corroborates this conclusion and suggests that exciton propagation is still limited by the exciton scattering on defects rather than by exciton-exciton scattering so that improving interface quality can boost exciton transport further. Our results pave the way towards room-temperature excitonic devices based on gate-controlled exciton transport in wide-band-gap polar heterostructures.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of epitaxial ZnO on GaN and YSZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Ke, Dong-Jie; Chao, Yen-Cheng; Chang, Li; Liang, Mei-Hui; Ho, Yen-Teng

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were epitaxially grown by atomic layer deposition on both of GaN/c-sapphire and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates for comparison. X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that epitaxial ZnO films have better structural qualities and optical properties on GaN than on YSZ, whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the surface of ZnO films on YSZ is smoother than on GaN. From the ZnO thickness measured by TEM, the growth rate of ZnO on GaN is about one (0 0 0 2) monolayer per cycle, which is roughly four times of that on YSZ.

  13. Growth and analysis of GaN nanowire on PZnO by different-gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekari, L.; Hassan, H. Abu; Thahab, S. M.; Ghazai, A. J.; Hassan, Z.

    2012-06-01

    In this research we have used an inexpensive method to fabricate highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs) on porous zinc oxide (PZnO) on Si (1 1 1) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder, either in argon (Ar) gas atmosphere or a combination of Ar and nitrogen (N2) gas atmosphere without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements reveal the role of different gas flowing, in the nucleation and alignment of the GaN NWs. The GaN NWs different diameters ranging between 50 and 200 nm for the NWs grown under flow of mix gases, but the NWs which were grown under Ar gas only, have uniform diameter of around 50-60 nm, also their lengths are almost the same (around 10 μm). Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the NWs are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN with [0 0 0 1] and [1 0 1¯ 1] growth directions for NWs grown under Ar and mixed gas flow.

  14. Epitaxial Growth of GaN Nanowires with High Structural Perfection on a Metallic TiN Film.

    PubMed

    Wölz, M; Hauswald, C; Flissikowski, T; Gotschke, T; Fernández-Garrido, S; Brandt, O; Grahn, H T; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H

    2015-06-10

    Vertical GaN nanowires are grown in a self-induced way on a sputtered Ti film by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Both in situ electron diffraction and ex situ ellipsometry show that Ti is converted to TiN upon exposure of the surface to the N plasma. In addition, the ellipsometric data demonstrate this TiN film to be metallic. The diffraction data evidence that the GaN nanowires have a strict epitaxial relationship to this film. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the GaN nanowires shows excitonic transitions virtually identical in spectral position, line width, and decay time to those of state-of-the-art GaN nanowires grown on Si. Therefore, the crystalline quality of the GaN nanowires grown on metallic TiN and on Si is equivalent. The freedom to employ metallic substrates for the epitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires in high structural quality may enable novel applications that benefit from the associated high thermal and electrical conductivity as well as optical reflectivity.

  15. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ˜12.7 mW cm-3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  16. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters. PMID:27363777

  17. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm‑3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  18. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  19. GaN detector development for particle and X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Barnes, A.; Farley, R. A.; Germain, M.; Sellin, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on preliminary alpha particle and X-ray measurements on a number of prototype GaN PIN diodes. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential use of GAN based radiation detectors for radiation hard, high temperature, solar blind space applications. The devices have a planar structure consisting of a 2 μm epitaxial GaN layer grown on a highly doped n-type AlxGa1-xN nucleation layer, which in turn is deposited on a p-type 4H-SiC substrate. Au ohmic contacts were applied to the top of the GaN layer and the bottom of the substrate. A number of different sized devices were tested with contact diameters ranging from 0.4 mm to 0.7 mm. All devices showed good diode behaviour with reverse leakage currents in the tens to hundreds of micro-amp range. C-V measurements showed that the GaN layers were fully depleted for biases >20 V. When exposed to a 5.5 MeV alpha particle source, the devices showed a spectroscopic response with energy resolutions of ∼25% FWHM at room temperature (RT) and 10 V bias and 20% FWHM at -50 °C. These values are consistent with the previous measurements. No response to 60 keV photons could be measured.

  20. Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    2016-04-01

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, self-assembled AlGaN nanowires are grown directly on Ta and Ti foils. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the nanowires are locally textured with the underlying metallic grains. Photoluminescence spectra of GaN nanowires grown on metal foils are comparable to GaN nanowires grown on single crystal Si wafers. Similarly, photoluminescence lifetimes do not vary significantly between these samples. Operational AlGaN light emitting diodes are grown directly on flexible Ta foil with an electroluminescence peak emission of ˜350 nm and a turn-on voltage of ˜5 V. These results pave the way for roll-to-roll manufacturing of solid state optoelectronics.

  1. Highly ordered catalyst-free and mask-free GaN nanorods on r-plane sapphire.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Kunert, G; Figge, S; Sebald, K; Kalden, J; Voss, T; Gutowski, J; Hommel, D

    2009-02-18

    Self-organized and highly ordered GaN nanorods were grown without catalyst on r-plane sapphire using a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. AlN nucleation centers for the nanorods were prepared by nitridation of the sapphire in a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy reactor, while the nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A coalesced two-dimensional GaN layer was observed between the nanorods. The nanorods are inclined by 62 degrees towards the [Formula: see text]-directions of the a-plane GaN layer. The high degree of ordering and the structural perfection were confirmed by micro-photoluminescence measurements. PMID:19417425

  2. Highly ordered catalyst-free and mask-free GaN nanorods on r-plane sapphire.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Kunert, G; Figge, S; Sebald, K; Kalden, J; Voss, T; Gutowski, J; Hommel, D

    2009-02-18

    Self-organized and highly ordered GaN nanorods were grown without catalyst on r-plane sapphire using a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. AlN nucleation centers for the nanorods were prepared by nitridation of the sapphire in a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy reactor, while the nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A coalesced two-dimensional GaN layer was observed between the nanorods. The nanorods are inclined by 62 degrees towards the [Formula: see text]-directions of the a-plane GaN layer. The high degree of ordering and the structural perfection were confirmed by micro-photoluminescence measurements.

  3. Hierarchical growth of GaN nanowires for light emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Rishabh; Ra, Yong-Ho; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Obheroi, Sonika; Navamathavan, R.

    2016-02-01

    Gallium nitride nanostructures have been receiving considerable attention as building blocks for nanophotonic technologies due to their unique high aspect ratios, promising the realization of photonic and biological nanodevices such as blue light emitting diodes (LEDs), short-wavelength ultraviolet nanolasers and nanofluidic biochemical sensors. In this study, we report on the hierarchical growth of GaN nanowires (NWs) by dynamically adjusting the growth parameters using pulsed flow metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. We carried out two step growth processes to grow hierarchical GaN NWs. At the first step the GaN NWs were grown at 950°C and in the second stage, we suitably decreased the growth temperature to 710°C to grow the hierarchical structures. The surface morphology, structural and optical characterization of the grown hierarchical GaN NWs were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, respectively. These kind of hierarchical NWs are promising to allow flat band quantum structures that are shown to improve the efficiency of light-emitting diodes.

  4. Fine structure of the red luminescence band in undoped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.

    2014-01-20

    Many point defects in GaN responsible for broad photoluminescence (PL) bands remain unidentified. Their presence in thick GaN layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) detrimentally affects the material quality and may hinder the use of GaN in high-power electronic devices. One of the main PL bands in HVPE-grown GaN is the red luminescence (RL) band with a maximum at 1.8 eV. We observed the fine structure of this band with a zero-phonon line (ZPL) at 2.36 eV, which may help to identify the related defect. The shift of the ZPL with excitation intensity and the temperature-related transformation of the RL band fine structure indicate that the RL band is caused by transitions from a shallow donor (at low temperature) or from the conduction band (above 50 K) to an unknown deep acceptor having an energy level 1.130 eV above the valence band.

  5. Ultrathin GaN quantum disk nanowire LEDs with sub-250 nm electroluminescence

    DOE PAGES

    Chisholm, Matthew F.; Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Myers, Roberto C.; Mays, Brelon J.; Duscher, Gerd J.

    2016-03-18

    By quantum confining GaN at monolayer thickness with AlN barriers inside of a nanowire, deep ultraviolet LEDs are demonstrated. Full three-dimensional strain dependent energy band simulations are carried out within multiple quantum disk (MQD) GaN/AlN nanowire superlattice heterostructures. It is found that, even within the same nanowire MQD, the emission energy of the ultrathin GaN QDs varies from disk to disk due to the changing strain distribution and polarization charge induced energy band bending along the axial nanowire direction. MQD heterostructures are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form self-assembled catalyst-free nanowires with 1 to 2 monolayer thick GaNmore » insertions within an AlN matrix. Photoluminescence peaks are observed at 295 nm and 283 nm from the 2 ML and 1 ML thick MQD samples, respectively. Polarization-doped nanowire LEDs are grown incorporating 1 ML thick GaN MQD active regions from which we observe deep ultraviolet electroluminescence. As a result, the shortest LED wavelength peak observed is 240 nm and attributed to electron hole recombination within 1 ML thick GaN QDs.« less

  6. Optical and structural properties of microcrystalline GaN on an amorphous substrate prepared by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  7. Optical and structural properties of microcrystalline GaN on an amorphous substrate prepared by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  8. Anelasticity of GaN Epitaxial Layer in GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, C. C.; Yang, C. T.; Liu, C. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the anelasticity of the GaN layer in the GaN light-emitting-diode device was studied. The present results show that the forward-voltage of GaN LED increases with time, as the GaN light-emitting-diode was maintained at a constant temperature of 100 °C. We found that the increase of the forward-voltage with time attributes to the delay-response of the piezoelectric fields (internal electrical fields in GaN LED device). And, the delay-response of the internal electrical fields with time is caused by the anelasticity (time-dependent strain) of the GaN layer. Therefore, using the correlation of strain-piezoelectric-forward voltage, a plot of thermal strain of the GaN layer against time can be obtained by measuring the forward-voltage of the studied GaN LED against time. With the curves of the thermal strain of GaN epi-layers versus time, the anelasticity of the GaN compound can be studied. The key anelasticity parameter, characteristic relaxation time, of the GaN is defined to be 2623.76 min in this work.

  9. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Patsha, Avinash E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-09-21

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires.

  10. GaN High Power Devices

    SciTech Connect

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-07-17

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  11. The growth of heteroepitaxial CuInSe{sub 2} on free-standing N-polar GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Cheng-Hung; Lo, Ikai You, Shuo-Ting; Tsai, Cheng-Da; Tseng, Bae-Heng; Chen, Yun-Feng; Chen, Chiao-Hsin; Lee, Chuo-Han; Lee, Wei-I; Hsu, Gary Z. L.

    2014-12-15

    We report that chalcopyrite CuInSe{sub 2} thin films were grown on free-standing N-polar GaN (0001{sup -}) by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction showed that the CuInSe{sub 2} thin film was grown in (112) orientation, and its peak of rocking curve with full width at half maximum of about 897.8 arc-sec indicated the epitaxial growth of CuInSe{sub 2} (112) film on N-polar GaN. Microstructure analysis of the CuInSe{sub 2 } showed that the large lattice mismatch (28.5%) between CuInSe{sub 2 } and GaN is accommodated by domain matching, and no interface reaction occurs between CuInSe{sub 2} and GaN. Our experimental results show that GaN is stable for the epitaxial growth of CuInSe{sub 2} thin film, which exhibits a promising potential for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Low dislocation GaN via defect-filtering, self-assembled SiO2-sphere layers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2009-09-01

    The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white solid-state lighting, the adoption of which could significantly reduce U.S. energy needs. While the growth of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates, the heteroepitaxial layers possess a high density of dislocations due to poor lattice and thermal expansion match. These high dislocation densities have been correlated with reduced internal quantum efficiency and lifetimes for GaN-based LEDs. Here, we demonstrate an inexpensive method for dislocation reduction in GaN grown on sapphire and silicon substrates. This technique, which requires no lithographic patterning, GaN is selectively grown through self-assembled layers of silica microspheres which act to filter out dislocations. Using this method, the threading dislocation density for GaN on sapphire was reduced from 3.3 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, and from the 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} range to {approx}6.0 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2} for GaN on Si(111). This large reduction in dislocation density is attributed to a dislocation blocking and bending by the unique interface between GaN and silica microspheres.

  13. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100 °C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200 °C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200 °C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150 °C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  14. Epitaxial MoS2/GaN structures to enable vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmetov, D.; Zhang, K.; Stan, G.; Kalanyan, B.; Eichfeld, S.; Burke, R.; Shah, P.; O'Regan, T.; Crowne, F.; Birdwell, A. G.; Robinson, J.; Davydov, A.; Ivanov, T.

    MoS2/GaN structures are investigated as a building block for vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure devices that utilize a 3D substrate (GaN) as an active component of the semiconductor device without the need of mechanical transfer of the 2D layer. Our CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 has been shown to be epitaxially aligned to the GaN lattice which is a pre-requisite for high quality 2D/3D interfaces desired for efficient vertical transport and large area growth. The MoS2 coverage is nearly 50 % including isolated triangles and monolayer islands. The GaN template is a double-layer grown by MOCVD on sapphire and allows for measurement of transport perpendicular to the 2D layer. Photoluminescence, Raman, XPS, Kelvin force probe microscopy, and SEM analysis identified high quality monolayer MoS2. The MoS2/GaN structures electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction and across the van der Waals gap, as measured with conducting AFM (CAFM). The CAFM current maps and I-V characteristics are analyzed to estimate the MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω-cm2 and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer to be approx. 1 μm in diameter. Epitaxial MoS2/GaN heterostructures present a promising platform for the design of energy-efficient, high-speed vertical devices incorporating 2D layered materials with 3D semiconductors.

  15. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, S. Asazu, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Sakai, A.; Imanishi, M.; Imade, M.; Mori, Y.

    2015-12-28

    We have demonstrated a GaN growth technique in the Na flux method to confine c-, (a+c)-, and a-type dislocations around the interface between a Na flux GaN crystal and a GaN layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a (0001) sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly revealed detailed interface structures and dislocation behaviors that reduced the density of vertically aligned dislocations threading to the Na flux GaN surface. Submicron-scale voids were formed at the interface above the dislocations with a c component in MOCVD-GaN, while no such voids were formed above the a-type dislocations. The penetration of the dislocations with a c component into Na flux GaN was, in most cases, effectively blocked by the presence of the voids. Although some dislocations with a c component in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN, their propagation direction changed laterally through the voids. On the other hand, the a-type dislocations propagated laterally and collectively near the interface, when these dislocations in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN. These results indicated that the dislocation propagation behavior was highly sensitive to the type of dislocation, but all types of dislocations were confined to within several micrometers region of the Na flux GaN from the interface. The cause of void formation, the role of voids in controlling the dislocation behavior, and the mechanism of lateral and collective dislocation propagation are discussed on the basis of TEM results.

  16. Correlation between structural and optical properties of GaN epi-layers by the cathodoluminescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Nasr, F.; Guermazi, H.; Guermazi, S.

    2016-06-01

    Structural and optical properties of GaN epi-layers were investigated. The X-ray diffraction and the SEM observations show a predominant hexagonal structure with minor cubic GaN microcristallites. Experimental results of cathodoluminescence (CL) were reported at room temperature (RT) and low nitrogen temperature (LNT). CL signals show ultraviolet (UV) light emission arising from a large band gap (3 to 3.5eV), a yellow band (YB) around 2.2eV and a peak at 1.73eV due to porous silicon. Simulation CL profiles show good agreement with experimental results when we take into account the minor cubic phase contribution. Our attention was also focused on the study of the effects of temperature, electron beam energy, and residual strain on the individual CL signal from both h-GaN and c-GaN phases.

  17. Pole figure measurement of the initial growth of GaN nanoneedles on GaN/Si(111) by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Injun; Lee, Ha Young; Noh, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yi, Sam Nyung; Jeon, Hunsoo; Shin, Min Jeong; Yu, Young Moon; Ha, Dong Han

    2016-09-01

    We report on crystallographic analyses of one-dimensional GaN nanoneedles grown on a n-GaN epilayer by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The nanoneedles were grown with a HCl:NH3 gas flow ratio of 1:38 at 600 °C. The growth time of the GaN nanoneedles affected their morphologies. As time progressed, GaN dots nucleated and then evolved as nanoneedles. The vertical growth rate of GaN nanoneedles was higher than the lateral growth rate under optimized growth conditions. X-ray pole figure measurements were carried out using a four-axis diffractometer. For the sample grown for 20 min, we obtained discrete patterns with six strong dots and weak dough-nut and cotton swab patterns, indicating that most of the nanoneedles were grown ideally, but partially, in the x- y plane with an azimuthal rotation angle ϕ = 15 ~ 45° rotated to the substrate, and a few GaN nanoneedles were tilted by ±4° or by more than 32° from the vertical c-axis.

  18. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  19. Nanostructural engineering of nitride nucleation layers for GaN substrate dislocation reduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Lemp, Thomas Kerr; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    With no lattice matched substrate available, sapphire continues as the substrate of choice for GaN growth, because of its reasonable cost and the extensive prior experience using it as a substrate for GaN. Surprisingly, the high dislocation density does not appear to limit UV and blue LED light intensity. However, dislocations may limit green LED light intensity and LED lifetime, especially as LEDs are pushed to higher current density for high end solid state lighting sources. To improve the performance for these higher current density LEDs, simple growth-enabled reductions in dislocation density would be highly prized. GaN nucleation layers (NLs) are not commonly thought of as an application of nano-structural engineering; yet, these layers evolve during the growth process to produce self-assembled, nanometer-scale structures. Continued growth on these nuclei ultimately leads to a fully coalesced film, and we show in this research program that their initial density is correlated to the GaN dislocation density. In this 18 month program, we developed MOCVD growth methods to reduce GaN dislocation densities on sapphire from 5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using our standard delay recovery growth technique to 1 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} using an ultra-low nucleation density technique. For this research, we firmly established a correlation between the GaN nucleation thickness, the resulting nucleation density after annealing, and dislocation density of full GaN films grown on these nucleation layers. We developed methods to reduce the nuclei density while still maintaining the ability to fully coalesce the GaN films. Ways were sought to improve the GaN nuclei orientation by improving the sapphire surface smoothness by annealing prior to the NL growth. Methods to eliminate the formation of additional nuclei once the majority of GaN nuclei were developed using a silicon nitride treatment prior to the deposition of the nucleation layer. Nucleation layer thickness was determined

  20. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.; Speck, James S.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5–6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration was 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.

  1. Precession electron diffraction-assisted crystal phase mapping of metastable c-GaN films grown on (001) GaAs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny L; Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Alducin, Diego; Santiago, Ulises; José-Yacaman, Miguel; López-López, Máximo; Ponce, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    The control growth of the cubic meta-stable nitride phase is a challenge because of the crystalline nature of the nitrides to grow in the hexagonal phase, and accurately identifying the phases and crystal orientations in local areas of the nitride semiconductor films is important for device applications. In this study, we obtained phase and orientation maps of a metastable cubic GaN thin film using precession electron diffraction (PED) under scanning mode with a point-to-point 1 nm probe size beam. The phase maps revealed a cubic GaN thin film with hexagonal GaN inclusions of columnar shape. The orientation maps showed that the inclusions have nucleation sites at the cubic GaN {111} facets. Different growth orientations of the inclusions were observed due to the possibility of the hexagonal {0001} plane to grow on any different {111} cubic facet. However, the generation of the hexagonal GaN inclusions is not always due to a 60° rotation of a {111} plane. These findings show the advantage of using PED along with phase and orientation mapping, and the analysis can be extended to differently composed semiconductor thin films.

  2. Influence of the microstructure geometry of patterned sapphire substrates on the light extraction efficiency of GaN LEDs.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Ting; Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Huang, Bo-Hsin; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Chien-Chung; Cheng, Yuh-Jen

    2016-09-10

    The influence of the microstructure geometry of patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) on the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is numerically analyzed. Cone structures of various dimensions are studied, along with dome and mixed microstructures. LEE is found to mainly depend on the microstructure surface slope. LEE rises quickly with slope and flattens out when the slope exceeds 0.6. Scaling down the microstructure has little effect on LEE. Light rays are found to travel longer distances in PSS LEDs, as compared with LEDs grown on a flat substrate. Keeping GaN absorption loss low is important for LEE optimization. PMID:27661378

  3. Current mapping of nonpolar a-plane and polar c-plane GaN films by conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shengrui; Jiang, Teng; Lin, Zhiyu; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Linan; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Peixian; Hao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN and polar (0001) c-plane GaN films have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane (1-102) and c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to investigate the local conductivity of the films. C-AFM shows enhanced current conduction within the etch pits of c-plane GaN and triangular pits of a-plane GaN. The results indicate that the off-axis planes are more electrically active than c-plane and a-plane. Surprisingly, the C-AFM values in triangular pit of the a-plane GaN are much smaller than that in etch pits of the c-plane GaN. The dislocations type related current leakage mechanism is revealed for polar c-plane and nonpolar a-plane GaN films.

  4. Epitaxial growth of GaN films on nearly lattice-matched hafnium substrates using a low-temperature growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. R.; Ohta, J.; Inoue, S.; Ueno, K.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrated epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) films on nearly lattice-matched Hf (0001) substrates by using a low-temperature (LT) epitaxial growth technique. High-temperature growth of GaN films results in the formation of polycrystalline films due to significant reaction at GaN/Hf heterointerfaces, while LT-growth allowed us to suppress the interfacial reactions and to obtain epitaxial GaN films on Hf substrates with a GaN [" separators=" 11 2 ¯ 0 ] / / Hf [" separators=" 11 2 ¯ 0 ] in-plane orientation. LT-grown GaN films can act as buffer layers for GaN growth at high temperatures. The interfacial layer thickness at the LT-GaN/Hf heterointerface was as small as 1 nm, and the sharpness of the contact remained unchanged even after annealing up to approximately 700 °C, which likely accounts for the dramatic improvement in GaN crystalline quality on Hf substrates.

  5. Lateral growth of GaN by liquid phase electroepitaxy using mesa-shaped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambayashi, Daisuke; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masafumi; Iwakawa, Muneki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2016-10-01

    GaN microchannel epitaxy (MCE) was performed using a mesa-shaped substrate and liquid phase electroepitaxy. A flat and wide MCE layer was successfully obtained with a rectangular shape, which is formed by ±c-planes on both the top and bottom surfaces. MCE growth proceeded mainly in the lateral direction by the formation of these planes. Cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the laterally grown layers were almost free of dislocations, and that the dislocations in the mesa areas were confined by the vertical sides of the mesas. In the case of inclined sides, the dislocations would be expected to bend and spread into the laterally grown areas.

  6. Tellurium n-type doping of highly mismatched amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Novikov, S. V.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Martin, R. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we report our study on n-type Te doping of amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We have used a low temperature PbTe source as a source of tellurium. Reproducible and uniform tellurium incorporation in amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been successfully achieved with a maximum Te concentration of 9×10²⁰ cm⁻³. Tellurium incorporation resulted in n-doping of GaN1-xAsx layers with Hall carrier concentrations up to 3×10¹⁹ cm⁻³ and mobilities of ~1 cm²/V s. The optimal growth temperature window for efficient Te doping of the amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers has been determined.

  7. Si Donor Incorporation in GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhihua; Robin, Eric; Rozas-Jiménez, Elena; Cros, Ana; Donatini, Fabrice; Mollard, Nicolas; Pernot, Julien; Daudin, Bruno

    2015-10-14

    With increasing interest in GaN based devices, the control and evaluation of doping are becoming more and more important. We have studied the structural and electrical properties of a series of Si-doped GaN nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with a typical dimension of 2-3 μm in length and 20-200 nm in radius. In particular, high resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) has illustrated a higher Si incorporation in NWs than that in two-dimensional (2D) layers and Si segregation at the edge of the NW with the highest doping. Moreover, direct transport measurements on single NWs have shown a controlled doping with resistivity from 10(2) to 10(-3) Ω·cm, and a carrier concentration from 10(17) to 10(20) cm(-3). Field effect transistor (FET) measurements combined with finite element simulation by NextNano(3) software have put in evidence the high mobility of carriers in the nonintentionally doped (NID) NWs. PMID:26426262

  8. Metallic impurities in gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McHugo, S.A.; Krueger, J.; Kisielowski, C.

    1997-04-01

    Transition metals are often encountered in trace amounts in semiconductors. They have been extensively studied in most elemental and compound systems, since they form deep donor and/or acceptor levels which usually degrade the electronic and optical material properties. Only very little is known about transition metals in recent III-V semiconducting materials, such as GaN, AlN and InN. These few studies have been done exclusively on Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) or Hybrid Vapor Phase Epitaxy HVPE-grown GaN. Preliminary x-ray fluorescence studies at the Advanced Light Source, beamline 10.3.1, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that GaN materials grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have Fe, Ni and Cr as the dominant transition metal contaminants. This finding is commensurate with the extremely high concentrations of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen (up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}) measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Preliminary work using the mapping capabilities of the x-ray fluorescence microprobe revealed the metal impurities were inhomogeneously distributed over the film. Future work of this collaboration will be to find a correlation between the existence of transition metals in MBE films, as revealed by x-ray fluorescence, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra taken in the infrared region. Also, the authors will make use of the 1 {mu}m spatial resolution of x-ray microprobe to locate the contaminants in relation to structural defects in the GaN films. Because of the large strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the GaN films and the substrates, the films grow in a columnar order with high densities of grain boundaries and dislocations. These structural defects offer preferential sites for metal precipitation or agglomeration which could degrade the optical properties of this material more so than if the impurities were left dissolved in the GaN.

  9. MOCVD growth of N-polar GaN on on-axis sapphire substrate: Impact of AlN nucleation layer on GaN surface hillock density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Jonathan; Leathersich, Jeffrey; Mahaboob, Isra; Bulmer, John; Newman, Neil; (Shadi) Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the impact of growth conditions on surface hillock density of N-polar GaN grown on nominally on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Large reduction in hillock density was achieved by implementation of an optimized high temperature AlN nucleation layer and use of indium surfactant in GaN overgrowth. A reduction by more than a factor of five in hillock density from 1000 to 170 hillocks/cm-2 was achieved as a result. Crystal quality and surface morphology of the resultant GaN films were characterized by high resolution x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy and found to be relatively unaffected by the buffer conditions. It is also shown that the density of smaller surface features is unaffected by AlN buffer conditions.

  10. High-breakdown-voltage pn-junction diodes on GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Shin; Tanabe, Tatsuya; Kiyama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    GaN pn-junction diodes have been grown on GaN and sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and their electrical characteristics have been studied. For the diode on the GaN substrate, the reverse leakage current is lower and the breakdown voltage VB is higher than those on the sapphire substrate owing to the lower dislocation density. The breakdown voltage is further improved with decreasing Mg concentration in p-GaN layers. Analysis of the depletion-layer capacitance of pn diodes has revealed that the Mg acceptors are fully ionized in the depletion layer. By optimizing the growth conditions, the diodes on GaN substrates show extremely low leakage current and the ideal hard breakdown at -925 V. The breakdown field is estimated to be 3.27 MV/cm. The specific on-resistance RON of 6.3 mΩ cm 2 is obtained, leading to the figure of merit, VB2/R, of 136 MW/cm 2.

  11. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  12. GaN nano-pyramid arrays as an efficient photoelectrode for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y.; Yu, X.; Syed, Z. Ahmed; Shen, S.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2016-11-01

    A prototype photoelectrode has been fabricated using a GaN nano-pyramid array structure grown on a cost-effective Si (111) substrate, demonstrating a significant improvement in performance of solar-powered water splitting compared with any planar GaN photoelectrode. Such a nano-pyramid structure leads to enhanced optical absorption as a result of a multi-scattering process which can effectively produce a reduction in reflectance. A simulation based on a finite-difference time-domain approach indicates that the nano-pyramid architecture enables incident light to be concentrated within the nano-pyramids as a result of micro-cavity effects, further enhancing optical absorption. Furthermore, the shape of the nano-pyramid further facilitates the photo-generated carrier transportation by enhancing a hole-transfer efficiency. All these features as a result of the nano-pyramid configuration lead to a large photocurrent of 1 mA cm‑2 under an illumination density of 200 mW cm‑2, with a peak incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 46.5% at ∼365 nm, around the band edge emission wavelength of GaN. The results presented are expected to pave the way for the fabrication of GaN based photoelectrodes with a high energy conversion efficiency of solar powered water splitting.

  13. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  14. Organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaN on ZrN /AlN/Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Mark H.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Ewoldt, David A.; Wildeson, Isaac H.; Rawat, Vijay; Colby, Robert; Cantwell, Patrick R.; Stach, Eric A.; Sands, Timothy D.

    2008-07-01

    An intermediate ZrN /AlN layer stack that enables the epitaxial growth of GaN on (111) silicon substrates using conventional organometallic vapor phase epitaxy at substrate temperatures of ˜1000°C is reported. The epitaxial (111) ZrN layer provides an integral back reflector and Ohmic contact to n-type GaN, whereas the (0001) AlN layer serves as a reaction barrier, as a thermally conductive interface layer, and as an electrical isolation layer. Smooth (0001) GaN films less than 1μm thick grown on ZrN /AlN/Si yield 0002 x-ray rocking curve full width at half maximum values as low as 1230arcsec.

  15. Significant improvement of GaN crystal quality with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Yang, Young; Wen, Wei-Chih; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer has been demonstrated effective to significantly improve crystal quality and electrical properties of GaN epitaxy layers for GaN based Light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this report, we have successfully reduced X-ray (102) FWHM from 240 to 110 arcsec, and (002) FWHM from 230 to 101 arcsec. In addition, reverse-bias voltage (Vr) increased around 20% with the sputtered AlN nucleation layer. Furthermore, output power of LEDs grown on sputtered AlN nucleation layer can be improved around 4.0% compared with LEDs which is with conventional GaN nucleation layer on pattern sapphire substrate (PSS).

  16. Effect of defects in oxide templates on Non-catalytic growth of GaN nanowires for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Won; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Two kinds of oxide templates, one with and one without undercuts, are employed to study the effect of defects in oxide templates on non-catalytic growth of GaN nanowires (NWs). GaN NWs abnormally grown from the templates containing undercuts exhibit two types of patterns: earlystage growth of premature NWs and abnormally-overgrown (~2 μm) NWs. GaN NWs grown on perfectly-symmetric template patterns are highly crystalline and have high aspect ratios (2 ~ 5), and their tops are shaped as pyramids with semipolar facets, clearly indicating hexagonal symmetry. The internal quantum efficiency of the well-grown NWs is 10% larger than that of the deformed NWs, as estimated by using photoluminescence. These results suggest that our technique is an effective approach for growing large-area-patterned, vertically-aligned, hexagonal GaN NWs without catalysts, in strong contrast to catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth, and that good formation of the oxide templates is crucial for the growth of high-quality GaN NWs.

  17. Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shanjin; Zhang, Yu; Leung, Benjamin; Yuan, Ge; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao; Fan, Yingmin; Sun, Qian; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke; Han, Jung

    2013-11-13

    Nanoporous (NP) gallium nitride (GaN) as a new class of GaN material has many interesting properties that the conventional GaN material does not have. In this paper, we focus on the mechanical properties of NP GaN, and the detailed physical mechanism of porous GaN in the application of liftoff. A decrease in elastic modulus and hardness was identified in NP GaN compared to the conventional GaN film. The promising application of NP GaN as release layers in the mechanical liftoff of GaN thin films and devices was systematically studied. A phase diagram was generated to correlate the initial NP GaN profiles with the as-overgrown morphologies of the NP structures. The fracture toughness of the NP GaN release layer was studied in terms of the voided-space-ratio. It is shown that the transformed morphologies and fracture toughness of the NP GaN layer after overgrowth strongly depends on the initial porosity of NP GaN templates. The mechanical separation and transfer of a GaN film over a 2 in. wafer was demonstrated, which proves that this technique is useful in practical applications.

  18. Ge doping of GaN beyond the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay, A.; Schörmann, J.; Jiménez-Rodriguez, M.; Lim, C. B.; Walther, F.; Rohnke, M.; Mouton, I.; Amichi, L.; Bougerol, C.; Den Hertog, M. I.; Eickhoff, M.; Monroy, E.

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of germanium as n-type dopant in wurtzite GaN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy, reaching carrier concentrations of up to 6.7  ×  1020 cm‑3 at 300 K, well beyond the Mott density. The Ge concentration and free carrier density were found to scale linearly with the Ge flux in the studied range. All the GaN:Ge layers present smooth surface morphology with atomic terraces, without trace of pits or cracks, and the mosaicity of the samples has no noticeable dependence on the Ge concentration. The variation of the GaN:Ge band gap with the carrier concentration is consistent with theoretical calculations of the band gap renormalization due to electron–electron and electron–ion interaction, and Burstein–Moss effect.

  19. Heteroepitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou You; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010){sub vo{sub 2}} parallel (0001){sub GaN} parallel (0001){sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [100]{sub vo{sub 2}} parallel [1210]{sub GaN} parallel [0110]{sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} from x-ray diffraction. VO{sub 2} heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO{sub 2}. Electrical characterization of VO{sub 2} films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO{sub 2} films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  20. Growth and characteristics of self-assembly defect-free GaN surface islands by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuang-Yuan; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2011-04-01

    GaN surface nano-islands of high crystal quality, without any dislocations or other extended defects, are grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Nano-island growth requires special conditions in terms of V/III ratio and substrate temperature, distinct from either film or nanocolumn growth. The insertion of a nitrided Ga layer can effectively improve the uniformity of the nano-islands in both shape and size. The islands are well faced truncated pyramids with island size ranged from 30 to 110 nm, and height ranged from 30 to 55 nm. On, the other hand, the density and facet of the GaN surface islands would be affected by the growth conditions. An increase of the V/III ratio from 30 to 40 led to an increase in density from 1.4 x 10(9) to 4.3 x 10(9) cm(-2) and an evolution from {1-21-1} facets to {1-21-2} facets. The GaN layers containing the surface islands can moderate the compressive strain due to the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and c-sapphire. Conductive atomic force microscopy shows that the off-axis sidewall facets are more electrically active than those at the island center. The formation of the GaN surface islands is strongly induced by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier effect of preexisting islands grown in the early growth stage. GaN surface islands are ideal templates for growing nano-devices.

  1. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x)more » is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.« less

  2. Topical Review: Development of overgrown semi-polar GaN for high efficiency green/yellow emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.

    2016-09-01

    The most successful example of large lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth of semiconductors is the growth of III-nitrides on sapphire, leading to the award of the Nobel Prize in 2014 and great success in developing InGaN-based blue emitters. However, the majority of achievements in the field of III-nitride optoelectronics are mainly limited to polar GaN grown on c-plane (0001) sapphire. This polar orientation poses a number of fundamental issues, such as reduced quantum efficiency, efficiency droop, green and yellow gap in wavelength coverage, etc. To date, it is still a great challenge to develop longer wavelength devices such as green and yellow emitters. One clear way forward would be to grow III-nitride device structures along a semi-/non-polar direction, in particular, a semi-polar orientation, which potentially leads to both enhanced indium incorporation into GaN and reduced quantum confined Stark effects. This review presents recent progress on developing semi-polar GaN overgrowth technologies on sapphire or Si substrates, the two kinds of major substrates which are cost-effective and thus industry-compatible, and also demonstrates the latest achievements on electrically injected InGaN emitters with long emission wavelengths up to and including amber on overgrown semi-polar GaN. Finally, this review presents a summary and outlook on further developments for semi-polar GaN based optoelectronics.

  3. Growth of p-type and n-type m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McLaurin, M.; Mates, T. E.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2006-09-15

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of Mg-doped, p-type and Si-doped, n-type m-plane GaN on 6H m-plane SiC is demonstrated. Phase-pure, m-plane GaN films exhibiting a large anisotropy in film mosaic ({approx}0.2 deg. full width at half maximum, x-ray rocking curve scan taken parallel to [1120] versus {approx}2 deg. parallel to [0001]) were grown on m-plane SiC substrates. Maximum hole concentrations of {approx}7x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were achieved with p-type conductivities as high as {approx}5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} without the presence of Mg-rich inclusions or inversion domains as viewed by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements indicate that the Mg-related acceptor state in m-plane GaN is the same as that exhibited in c-plane GaN. Free electron concentrations as high as {approx}4x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were measured in the Si-doped m-plane GaN with corresponding mobilities of {approx}500 cm{sup 2}/V s measured parallel to the [1120] direction.

  4. Optical properties of ultra-thin (< 30 nm) GaN layers on c-sapphire substrates with different initial growth conditions measured by surface-plasmon enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Jong; Kim, Tae-Soo; Lee, Jin-Gyu; Song, Jung Hoon

    2014-11-01

    We have carried out surface-plasmon enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on 30 nm-thick GaN samples grown at various temperatures, in order to investigate the properties of ultra thin GaN films on sapphire. We found that the properties, such as the strain and the free-carrier density of the thin layers, were sensitively affected by the growth temperatures. Our results show that SERS, by selectively enhancing the Raman signal near the surface, can be a very useful technique to investigate the optical properties of ultra-thin GaN films and their initial growth mode.

  5. Large lattice relaxation deep levels in neutron-irradiated GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Zhang, J.D.; Beling, C.D.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.X.; Gong, M.; Sarkar, C.K.

    2005-11-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) measurements have been carried out in neutron-irradiated n-type hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown GaN. A defect center characterized by a DLTS line, labeled as N1, is observed at E{sub C}-E{sub T}=0.17 eV. Another line, labeled as N2, at E{sub C}-E{sub T}=0.23 eV, seems to be induced at the same rate as N1 under irradiation and may be identified with E1. Other defects native to wurtzite GaN such as the C and E2 lines appear to enhance under neutron irradiation. The DLOS results show that the defects N1 and N2 have large Frank-Condon shifts of 0.64 and 0.67 eV, respectively, and hence large lattice relaxations. The as-grown and neutron-irradiated samples all exhibit the persistent photoconductivity effect commonly seen in GaN that may be attributed to DX centers. The concentration of the DX centers increases significantly with neutron dosage and is helpful in sustaining sample conductivity at low temperatures, thus making possible DLTS measurements on N1 an N2 in the radiation-induced deep-donor defect compensated material which otherwise are prevented by carrier freeze-out.

  6. Deep states in GaN studied by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.C.; Chen, J.C.; Mott, D.B.

    1996-11-01

    Deep levels in insulating GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using thermally stimulated current (TSC) and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopies. Five main traps were observed by TSC measurement in the as-grown undoped GaN in the range of 0--0.75 eV below the conduction band edge or above the valence band edge. Their activation energies were 0.11, 0.24, 0.36, 0.53 and 0.62 eV, respectively. PC measurements showed three deep levels located within the bandgap at 1.32, 1.70 and 2.36 eV, respectively. Furnace annealing was carried out on GaN for identifying all the observed deep levels.The authors have found that the 0.24, 0.36 and 0.53 eV traps were eliminated by annealing at 1,000 C under N{sub 2} for six hours, whereas the 0.62 eV trap density increased after annealing. The three deep levels detected by the PC measurement were not affected by annealing. The 1.70 eV trap, which is located at the midgap, does not seem to compensate with narrow donors. The authors attribute the 0.11 eV trap to surface states, and the 0.62 eV trap to nitrogen vacancies.

  7. High uniform growth of 4-inch GaN wafer via flow field optimization by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yutian; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jiejun; Xiang, Yong; Chen, Xinjuan; Ji, Cheng; Yu, Tongjun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2016-07-01

    The uniformity of flow field inner the reactor plays a crucial role for hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) crystal growth and its more important for large scale substrate. A new nozzle structure was designed by adding a push and dilution (PD) gas pipe in the center of gas channels for a 4-inch HVPE (PD-HVPE) system. Experimental results showed that the thickness inhomogeneity of 46 μm 4-inch GaN layer could reach ±1.8% by optimizing PD gas, greatly improved from ±14% grown with conventional nozzle. The simulations of the internal flow field were consistent with our experiment, and the enhancement in uniformity should be attributed to the redistribution of GaCl and NH3 upon the wafer induced by PD pipe. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction rocking curves for the 4-inch GaN film were about 224 and 200 arcsec for (002) and (102) reflection. The dislocation density of as-grown GaN was about 6.4×107 cm-2.

  8. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of GaN and InGaN Using Triethylamine with Ammonia as a Nitrogen Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Gako; Uchida, Masahiro; Hodohara, Tatsuya; Yokohama, Hideo

    2008-05-01

    Metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN and InGaN was investigated using a combination of triethylamine (TEA) and ammonia (NH3) as the nitrogen source. The reaction of TEA and NH3 in the gas phase was verified by quadrupole mass spectrometry. By using this nitrogen source, a GaN epitaxial layer was grown at 600 °C with a peak photoluminescence at 375 nm. An InxGa1-xN (x=0.6) eptaxial layer was also grown at 600 °C. The indium to gallium concentration ratio was verified by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray diffraction. It is confirmed that this is an effective nitride source for the efficient growth of GaN and InGaN.

  9. Growth behavior of nonpolar GaN on the nearly lattice-matched (1 0 0) γ-LiAlO 2 substrate by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Mitch M. C.; Chang, Liuwen; Chen, Chenlong; Yang, Wen-Fu; Li, Chu-An; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Nonpolar gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial film was grown on a nearly lattice-matched (1 0 0) γ-LiAlO 2 substrate by a versatile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. LiAlO 2 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. Epi-ready LiAlO 2 single-crystal substrate with RMS roughness of 0.24-0.32 nm were used for all experiments. The dependence of growth characteristics on the growth temperatures and deposition time was investigated. The orientation of GaN film was identified as (1 0 1¯ 0) m-plane by X-ray diffraction pattern. The characterization of detailed structure of the nonpolar GaN epilayer was done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties examined by photoluminescence spectra exhibit a strong near-band-edge emission peak at 3.37 eV and a weak yellow band emission.

  10. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  11. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm-3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT) without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm-3) deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  12. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, E. A.; Shelton, T. C.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D.; Mita, S.

    2012-08-27

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface by stabilizing the {l_brace}111{r_brace} rocksalt facet. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100 Multiplication-Sign reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. These data verify numerous predictions regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of rocksalt crystals.

  13. Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eunsoon; Woo Lee, Byoung; Shim, So-Jeong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Hee Son, Byoung; Hwan Ahn, Yeong; Dang, Le Si

    2012-04-01

    Single crystalline GaN nanowires, with 100 nm typical diameters, were grown by chemical vapor deposition method, using Pt catalyst, and characterized by cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements at 5 K. The near band edge emission was found to be asymmetric and broad, with full width half maximum of around 150 meV, peaking at 3.55 eV, well above the GaN bulk band gap. This blueshift was ascribed to band filling effect resulting from unintentional n-type doping in the range 1019-1020 cm-3. Despite of this heavy doping, EBIC experiments showed that minority carriers can diffuse over 0.2 μm.

  14. Growth regimes during homoepitaxial growth of GaN by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Corrion, A. L.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    c-plane GaN films were grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition templates for a wide range of NH{sub 3}:Ga flux ratios and growth temperatures, and the resulting films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct nitrogen-rich growth regimes - unstable layer-by-layer, quasi-stable step flow, and dislocation-mediated pitting - were identified based on the growth mode and film properties. In addition, step flow growth was observed under conditions of gallium droplet accumulation. The results indicate the existence of two regimes for step-flow growth of GaN by ammonia MBE - both gallium-rich and nitrogen-rich. Growth mode instabilities and mound formation were observed and are discussed in the context of a step-edge energy barrier to adatom diffusion over a terrace.

  15. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop

  16. Controlling the stress of growing GaN on 150-mm Si (111) in an AlN/GaN strained layer superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Jung; Huang, Shih-Yung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Chen, Che-Lin; Chung, Bu-Chin; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2016-01-01

    For growing a thicker GaN epilayer on a Si substrate, generally, a larger wafer bowing with tensile stress caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between GaN and Si easily generates a cracked surface during cool down. In this work, wafer bowing was investigated to control stress by changing the thickness of a GaN layer from 18.6 to 27.8 nm in a 80-paired AlN/GaN strained layer superlattice (SLS) grown on a 150-mm Si (111) substrate. The results indicated that wafer bowing was inversely proportional to the total thickness of epilayer and the thickness of the GaN layer in the AlN/GaN SLS, since higher compressive stress caused by a thicker GaN layer during SLS growth could compensate for the tensile stress generated during cool down. After returning to room temperature, the stress of the AlN/GaN SLS was still compressive and strained in the a-axis. This is due to an unintended AlGaN grading layer was formed in the AlN/GaN SLS. This AlGaN layer reduced the lattice mismatch between AlN and GaN and efficiently accumulated stress without causing relaxation.

  17. Improved Strain-Free GaN Growth with a Nearly Lattice-Matched AlInN Interlayer by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Jeong, Hyun; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yong Seok; Park, Ah Hyun; Kim, Hun; Jea Lee, Kang; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2010-11-01

    Using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, a strain-free GaN layer has been successfully grown by employing a 40-nm-thick nearly lattice-matched (NLM) Al1-xInxN as an interlayer. The Al1-xInxN interlayers having an InN molar fraction of x˜0.11 and 0.13 led to crack-networking at the GaN surface due to excessive tensile strain by lattice-mismatching. In the case of the GaN layer with a NLM Al1-xInxN interlayer (x˜0.18), however, strain-free GaN structure with improved structural and optical properties was demonstrated from the results of atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the origin on strain-free state and improved properties of the GaN layer with the NLM AlInN interlayer was investigated. Based on TEM observations, we suggest that the faulted zone-like growth mechanism on roughed AlInN surface and partial compensation of tensile thermal stress are major factors on the improved strain-free GaN film.

  18. Self-assembled growth and structural analysis of inclined GaN nanorods on nanoimprinted m-sapphire using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, self-assembled inclined (1-10-3)-oriented GaN nanorods (NRs) were grown on nanoimprinted (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. According to X-ray phi-scans, the inclined GaN NRs were tilted at an angle of ˜57.5° to the [10-10]sapp direction. Specifically, the GaN NRs grew in a single inclined direction to the [11-20]sapp. Uni-directionally inclined NRs were formed through the one-sided (10-11)-faceted growth of the interfacial a-GaN plane layer. It was confirmed that a thin layer of a-GaN was formed on r-facet nanogrooves of the m-sapphire substrate by nitridation. The interfacial a-GaN nucleation affected both the inclined angle and the growth direction of the inclined GaN NRs. Using X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (1-10-3) GaN NRs and interfacial a-GaN layer on m-sapphire substrates was systematically investigated. Moreover, the inclined GaN NRs were observed to be mostly free of stacking fault-related defects using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Improved crystal quality of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on Si(001) substrates using AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Bae, Si-Young; Lekhal, Kaddour; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Tamura, Akira; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The planar epitaxial growth of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on a Si(001) substrate was performed on a directionally sputtered AlN buffer layer. Three types of interlayers, i.e., single AlN, double AlN, and a stack of AlN/GaN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to achieve high quality GaN films. The results for the stack of AlN/GaN layers provide highest crystal quality and optical properties for GaN. Comparing the top (Ga face) and bottom (N face) surfaces of grown semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN confirms the defect density reduction that is due to the application of interlayers. Moreover, reduced inversion domain density on the bottom surface is attributed with the insertion of interlayers. Improving the quality of semipolar GaN on Si(001) substrates is expected to be useful for GaN/Si(001) integrated optoelectronics.

  20. Inclined angle-controlled growth of GaN nanorods on m-sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition without a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Eom, Daeyong; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-08-21

    In this study, we have intentionally grown novel types of (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented(3) and self-assembled inclined GaN nanorods (NRs) on (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition without catalysts and ex situ patterning. Nitridation of the m-sapphire surface was observed to be crucial to the inclined angle as well as the growth direction of the GaN NRs. Polarity-selective KOH etching confirmed that both (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs are nitrogen-polar. Using pole figure measurements and selective area electron diffraction patterns, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (11-22) and (1-10-3) GaN NRs and m-sapphire substrates was systematically demonstrated. Furthermore, it was verified that the GaN NRs were single-crystalline wurtzite structures. We observed that stacking fault-related defects were generated during the initial growth stage using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The blue-shift of the near band edge (NBE) peak in the inclined angle-controlled GaN NRs can be explained by a band filling effect through carrier saturation of the conduction band, resulting from a high Si-doping concentration; in addition, the decay time of NBE emission in (11-22)- and (1-10-3)-oriented NRs was much shorter than that of stacking fault-related emission. These results suggest that defect-free inclined GaN NRs can be grown on m-sapphire without ex situ treatment.

  1. Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Araki, Tsutomu; Palisaitis, Justinas; Persson, Per O. Å.; Olof Holtz, Per; Birch, Jens; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2013-11-11

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (<35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a “narrow-pass” approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

  2. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  3. Cubic topological Kondo insulators.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Victor; Dzero, Maxim; Coleman, Piers

    2013-11-27

    Current theories of Kondo insulators employ the interaction of conduction electrons with localized Kramers doublets originating from a tetragonal crystalline environment, yet all Kondo insulators are cubic. Here we develop a theory of cubic topological Kondo insulators involving the interaction of Γ(8) spin quartets with a conduction sea. The spin quartets greatly increase the potential for strong topological insulators, entirely eliminating the weak topological phases from the diagram. We show that the relevant topological behavior in cubic Kondo insulators can only reside at the lower symmetry X or M points in the Brillouin zone, leading to three Dirac cones with heavy quasiparticles.

  4. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction.

  5. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p-n junction diode on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong; Ram, S. D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon; Kang, Tae Won; Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Shin, Sunhye; Woo, Yongdeuk

    2015-08-01

    Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p-n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p-n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well.

  6. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  7. Self-organization of dislocation-free, high-density, vertically aligned GaN nanocolumns involving InGaN quantum wells on graphene/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Konno, Yuta; Kishino, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO2/Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities of the self-organized GaN nanocolumns were 2.0-2.6 times higher than those of a GaN substrate grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Moreover, no yellow luminescence or ZB-phase GaN emission was observed from the nanocolumns. An InGaN/GaN MQW and p-type GaN were integrated into GaN nanocolumns grown on MLG, displaying a single-peak PL emission at a wavelength of 533 nm. Thus, high-density nitride p-i-n nanocolumns were fabricated on SiO2/Si using the transferred MLG interlayer, indicating the possibility of developing visible nanocolumn LEDs on graphene/SiO2.

  8. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Patriarche, Gilles; Jordan, Matthew B.; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5-8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  9. Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Alexander W.; Xiong, Chi; Leung, Benjamin; Poot, Menno; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss optical waveguiding in single crystalline GaN grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire wafers through a buffered metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition process. High Q optical microring resonators are realized in near infrared, infrared, and near visible regimes with intrinsic quality factors exceeding 50 000 at all the wavelengths we studied. TEM analysis of etched waveguide reveals growth and etch-induced defects. Reduction of these defects through improved material and device processing could lead to even lower optical losses and enable a wideband photonic platform based on GaN-on-sapphire material system.

  10. Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, Alexander W.; Xiong, Chi; Leung, Benjamin; Poot, Menno; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X.

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss optical waveguiding in single crystalline GaN grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire wafers through a buffered metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition process. High Q optical microring resonators are realized in near infrared, infrared, and near visible regimes with intrinsic quality factors exceeding 50 000 at all the wavelengths we studied. TEM analysis of etched waveguide reveals growth and etch-induced defects. Reduction of these defects through improved material and device processing could lead to even lower optical losses and enable a wideband photonic platform based on GaN-on-sapphire material system.

  11. The structural and optical properties of metal ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Veselý, M.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    The practical development of novel optoelectronic materials with appropriate optical properties is strongly connected to the structural properties of the prepared doped structures. We present GaN layers oriented along the (0 0 0 1) crystallographic direction that have been grown by low-pressure metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates implanted with 200 keV Co+, Fe+ and Ni+ ions. The structural properties of the ion-implanted layers have been characterised by RBS-channelling and Raman spectroscopy to obtain a comprehensive insight into the structural modification of implanted GaN layers and to study the subsequent influence of annealing on crystalline-matrix recovery. Photoluminescence was measured to control the desired optical properties. The post-implantation annealing induced the structural recovery of the modified GaN layer depending on the introduced disorder level, e.g. depending on the ion implantation fluence, which was followed by structural characterisation and by the study of the surface morphology by AFM.

  12. Radaitive decay engineering in GaN Quantum Dots for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Arup; Basu Neogi, Purnima; Morkoc, Hadis

    2003-03-01

    Thin metallic films containing nanoscale surface features result in giant enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical responses. These enhancements are associated with excitation of surface plasmon (SP), collective electromagnetic modes whose characteristics are strongly dependent on the geometric structure of the metallic component of the medium and can be further enhanced via the directional emission from a semiconductor microcavity. The SP energy of Ag (3 eV) is modified ( 2.92 eV) by the GaN dielectric constant with bandgap at 3.4 eV [1] and is the ideal candidate for the resonantly modifying optical responses at metal-semiconductor interface. The spontaneous emission rate in strained GaN quantum dots grown using molecular beam epitaxy can be enhanced and the photoluminescence (PL) is reduced by nearly five times in the presence of a continuous Ag film due to resonant silver-surface plasmon interaction. The PL can also be enhanced using directional coupling through silver nano-shells fabricated by spin coating a silver halide solution over the GaN QDs having a 2 nm AlN cap layer. We also propose the use of radaitive decay engineering effects in wide-bandgap Ag-GaN semiconductor QD system for biomedical application. [1] A. Neogi, et al.; Phys. Rev., 66, 153305 (2002).

  13. Infrared absorption of hydrogen-related defects in ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suihkonen, Sami; Pimputkar, Siddha; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Polarization controlled Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption measurements were performed on a high quality m-plane ammonothermal GaN crystal grown using basic chemistry. The polarization dependence of characteristic absorption peaks of hydrogen-related defects at 3000-3500 cm-1 was used to identify and determine the bond orientation of hydrogenated defect complexes in the GaN lattice. Majority of hydrogen was found to be bonded in gallium vacancy complexes decorated with one to three hydrogen atoms (VGa-H1,2,3) but also hydrogenated oxygen defect complexes, hydrogen in bond-center sites, and lattice direction independent absorption were observed. Absorption peak intensity was used to determine a total hydrogenated VGa density of approximately 4 × 1018 cm-3, with main contribution from VGa-H1,2. Also, a significant concentration of electrically passive VGa-H3 was detected. The high density of hydrogenated defects is expected to have a strong effect on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ammonothermal GaN crystals.

  14. Exciton Emission from Bare and Alq3/Gold Coated GaN Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kuhnert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    We study the excitonic and impurity related emission in bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature-dependent time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Alq3 as well as Alq3/gold covered nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. In the near-band edge region a donor-bound-exciton (D0X) emission is observed at 3.473 eV. Another emission band at 3.275 eV reveals LO-phonon replica and is attributed to a donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) luminescence. TR PL traces at 20 K show a nearly biexponential decay for the D0X with lifetimes of approximately 180 and 800 ps for both bare and Alq3 coated nanorods. In GaN nanorods which were coated with an Alq3 film and subsequently with a 10 nm thick gold layer we observe a PL quenching of D0X and DAP band and the lifetimes of the D0X transition shorten. The quenching behaviour is partially attributed to the energy-transfer from free excitons and donor-bound-excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold layer.

  15. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  16. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN and InGaN on ZnO substrate using Al2O3 as a transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nola; Wang, Shen-Jie; Huang, Chung-Lung; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Valencia, Adriana; Nause, Jeff; Summers, Christopher; Ferguson, Ian

    2008-08-01

    Al2O3 films were deposited on the Zn face of ZnO (0001) substrates as a transition layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The as-deposited 20 and 50nm Al2O3 films were transformed to polycrystalline α-Al2O3 phase after optimal annealing at 1100°C after 10 and 20 minutes, respectively, as identified by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Furthermore, GaN and InGaN layers were grown on annealed 20 and 50nm Al2O3 deposited ZnO substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using NH3 as a nitrogen source at high growth temperature. Wurtzite GaN was only seen on the 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) shows the near band-edge emission of GaN red-shifted, which might be from oxygen incorporation forming a shallow donor-related level in GaN. Raman scattering also indicated the presence of a wellcrystallized GaN layer on the 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrate. InGaN was grown on bare ZnO as well as Al2O3 deposited ZnO substrates. HRXRD measurements revealed that the thin Al2O3 layer after annealing was an effective transition layer for the InGaN films grown epitaxially on ZnO substrates. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) atomic depth profile shows a decrease in Zn in the InGaN layer. Moreover, (0002) InGaN layers were successfully grown on 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates after 10min annealing in a high temperature furnace.

  17. Thermodynamic theory of epitaxial alloys: first-principles mixed-basis cluster expansion of (In, Ga)N alloy film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Zunger, Alex

    2009-07-22

    Epitaxial growth of semiconductor alloys onto a fixed substrate has become the method of choice to make high quality crystals. In the coherent epitaxial growth, the lattice mismatch between the alloy film and the substrate induces a particular form of strain, adding a strain energy term into the free energy of the alloy system. Such epitaxial strain energy can alter the thermodynamics of the alloy, leading to a different phase diagram and different atomic microstructures. In this paper, we present a general-purpose mixed-basis cluster expansion method to describe the thermodynamics of an epitaxial alloy, where the formation energy of a structure is expressed in terms of pair and many-body interactions. With a finite number of first-principles calculation inputs, our method can predict the energies of various atomic structures with an accuracy comparable to that of first-principles calculations themselves. Epitaxial (In, Ga)N zinc-blende alloy grown on GaN(001) substrate is taken as an example to demonstrate the details of the method. Two (210) superlattice structures, (InN)(2)/(GaN)(2) (at x = 0.50) and (InN)(4)/(GaN)(1) (at x = 0.80), are identified as the ground state structures, in contrast to the phase-separation behavior of the bulk alloy. PMID:21828531

  18. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts.

  19. Investigation of the electronic transport in GaN nanowires containing GaN/AlN quantum discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigutti, Lorenzo; Jacopin, Gwénolé; De Luna Bugallo, Andres; Tchernycheva, Maria; Warde, Elias; Julien, François H.; Songmuang, Rudeesun; Galopin, Elisabeth; Largeau, Ludovic; Harmand, Jean-Christophe

    2010-10-01

    We report the investigation of electronic transport in GaN nanowires containing GaN/AlN quantum discs (QDiscs). The nanowires were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and contacted by electron-beam lithography. Three nanowire samples containing QDiscs are analyzed and compared to a reference binary n-i-n GaN nanowire sample. The current-voltage measurements on single nanowires show that if the QDiscs are covered with a lateral GaN shell, the current mainly flows through the shell close to the lateral surface and the wire conductivity is extremely sensitive to the environmental conditions. On the contrary, if no GaN shell is present, the current flows through the QDisc region and a reproducible negative differential resistance related to electron tunneling through the QDiscs can be observed for temperatures up to 250 K. The demonstration of the resonant tunneling in GaN/AlN superlattices is of major importance for the development of nitride-based far-infrared quantum cascade lasers operating at high temperature.

  20. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts. PMID:27124605

  1. GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Tetsuzo; Ishida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, recent advances of GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications are reviewed. Novel epitaxial structures including superlattice interlayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) relieve the strain and eliminate the cracks in the GaN over large-diameter Si substrates up to 8 in. As a new device structure for high-power switching application, Gate Injection Transistors (GITs) with a p-AlGaN gate over an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure successfully achieve normally-off operations maintaining high drain currents and low on-state resistances. Note that the GITs on Si are free from current collapse up to 600 V, by which the drain current would be markedly reduced after the application of high drain voltages. Highly efficient operations of an inverter and DC-DC converters are presented as promising applications of GITs for power switching. The high efficiencies in an inverter, a resonant LLC converter, and a point-of-load (POL) converter demonstrate the superior potential of the GaN transistors on Si. As for high-frequency transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojuction field-effect transistors (HFETs) on Si designed specifically for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies demonstrate a sufficiently high output power at these frequencies. Output powers of 203 W at 2.5 GHz and 10.7 W at 26.5 GHz are achieved by the fabricated GaN transistors. These devices for switching and high-frequency applications are very promising as future energy-efficient electronics because of their inherent low fabrication cost and superior device performance.

  2. Highly mismatched GaN1-x Sb x alloys: synthesis, structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Novikov, S. V.; Segercrantz, N.; Ting, M.; Shaw, M.; Svensson, S. P.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Highly mismatched alloys (HMAs) is a class of semiconductor alloys whose constituents are distinctly different in terms of size, ionicity and/or electronegativity. Electronic properties of the alloys deviate significantly from an interpolation scheme based on small deviations from the virtual crystal approximation. Most of the HMAs were only studied in a dilute composition limit. Recent advances in understanding of the semiconductor synthesis processes allowed growth of thin films of HMAs under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus reducing the growth temperature allowed synthesis of group III-N-V HMAs over almost the entire composition range. This paper focuses on the GaN x Sb1-x HMA which has been suggested as a potential material for solar water dissociation devices. Here we review our recent work on the synthesis, structural and optical characterization of GaN1-x Sb x HMA. Theoretical modeling studies on its electronic structure based on the band anticrossing (BAC) model are also reviewed. In particular we discuss the effects of growth temperature, Ga flux and Sb flux on the incorporation of Sb, film microstructure and optical properties of the alloys. Results obtained from two separate MBE growths are directly compared. Our work demonstrates that a large range of direct bandgap energies from 3.4 eV to below 1.0 eV can be achieved for this alloy grown at low temperature. We show that the electronic band structure of GaN1-x Sb x HMA over the entire composition range is well described by a modified BAC model which includes the dependence of the host matrix band edges as well as the BAC model coupling parameters on composition. We emphasize that the modified BAC model of the electronic band structure developed for the full composition of GaN x Sb1-x is general and is applicable to any HMA.

  3. Deep level study of Mg-doped GaN using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Amano, Hiroshi; Monemar, Bo; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Deep levels in Mg-doped GaN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), undoped GaN grown by MOCVD, and halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE)-grown GaN have been studied using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority charge carrier transient spectroscopy on Schottky diodes. One hole trap, labeled HT1, was detected in the Mg-doped sample. It is observed that the hole emission rate of the trap is enhanced by increasing electric field. By fitting four different theoretical models for field-assisted carrier emission processes, the three-dimensional Coulombic Poole-Frenkel (PF) effect, three-dimensional square well PF effect, phonon-assisted tunneling, and one-dimensional Coulombic PF effect including phonon-assisted tunneling, it is found that the one-dimensional Coulombic PF model, including phonon-assisted tunneling, is consistent with the experimental data. Since the trap exhibits the PF effect, we suggest it is acceptorlike. From the theoretical model, the zero field ionization energy of the trap and an estimate of the hole capture cross section have been determined. Depending on whether the charge state is -1 or -2 after hole emission, the zero field activation energy Ei 0 is 0.57 eV or 0.60 eV, respectively, and the hole capture cross section σp is 1.3 ×10-15c m2 or 1.6 ×10-16c m2 , respectively. Since the level was not observed in undoped GaN, it is suggested that the trap is associated with an Mg related defect.

  4. Performance enhancement of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors by insertion of ultrathin interfacial HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, Burak; Okyay, Ali Kemal E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-03-15

    The authors demonstrate improved device performance of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) by ultrathin HfO{sub 2} (UT-HfO{sub 2}) layer on GaN. The UT-HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer is grown by atomic layer deposition. The dark current of the PDs with UT-HfO{sub 2} is significantly reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to those without HfO{sub 2} insertion. The photoresponsivity at 360 nm is as high as 1.42 A/W biased at 5 V. An excellent improvement in the performance of the devices is ascribed to allowed electron injection through UT-HfO{sub 2} on GaN interface under UV illumination, resulting in the photocurrent gain with fast response time.

  5. A 350-nm-band GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode on bulk GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Yuta Kuwabara, Masakazu; Yamashita, Yoji; Takagi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2015-10-12

    We have demonstrated the pulsed operation of a 350-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode with a vertical current path. The laser structure was grown on a (0001)-face bulk GaN substrate. The lasing wavelength was 356.6 nm and the peak output power reached to 10 mW from the one side of uncoated facets under pulsed current operation with a pulse duration of 10 ns and a repetition frequency of 5 kHz at room temperature. The GaN substrate is expected to provide a cleaved facet configuration leading to an excellent far-field pattern as well as an advantageous thermal management solution of the devices relative to sapphire substrates. The far-field pattern of actual device on GaN substrate has been improved dramatically compared with distorted one on that of sapphire substrates.

  6. Optical and structural characteristics of high indium content InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells with varying GaN cap layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Zhao, D. G. Jiang, D. S.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Le, L. C.; Li, X. J.; He, X. G.; Liu, J. P.; Yang, H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2015-02-07

    The optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) with different thicknesses of low temperature grown GaN cap layers are investigated. It is found that the MQW emission energy red-shifts and the peak intensity decreases with increasing GaN cap layer thickness, which may be partly caused by increased floating indium atoms accumulated at quantum well (QW) surface. They will result in the increased interface roughness, higher defect density, and even lead to a thermal degradation of QW layers. An extra growth interruption introduced before the growth of GaN cap layer can help with evaporating the floating indium atoms, and therefore is an effective method to improve the optical properties of high indium content InGaN/GaN MQWs.

  7. Extraordinary N atom tunneling in formation of InN shell layer on GaN nanorod m-plane sidewall.

    PubMed

    Cai, Duanjun; Lin, Na; Xu, Hongmei; Liao, Che-Hao; Yang, C C

    2014-12-12

    We report the extraordinary tunneling process that finds the lower cohesive energy route for stablizing InN shell layer on m-plane sidewall of GaN nanorod. The [0001] orientated GaN nanorod array is grown on sapphire substrate patterned with Ga nanoparticle by metal-organic vapor deposition method, based on which the simulation structures of c-plane top surface and m-plane sidewall surface is constructed for the first-principles calculations. The results show that the introduction of In wetting monolayer could effectively lower the cohesive energy of adalayers on non-polar GaN surfaces. Most importantly, it is revealed that there exists an extraordinary tunneling process in which the N atoms will drag out the In wetting atoms and tunnel through to form stable InN shell layer on the nanorod sidewall. PMID:25412649

  8. Study of the structural quality of GaN epitaxial layers obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using a low-temperature buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogorohov, I. A.; Donskov, A. A.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Pavlov, V. F.; Yugova, T. G.

    2015-11-01

    The structural quality and surface morphology of low-temperature (LT) buffer layers after deposition and high-temperature (HT) annealing and HT GaN layers grown on LT buffer layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy have been investigated. The HCl flow rate through the Ga source varied from 0.3 to 2 L/h, and the carrier gas N2 flow rate was either 18 or 60 L/h. It is established that the structural quality of LT GaN buffer is determined to a great extent by the HCl and N2 flow rates; the best results are obtained at HCl and N2 flow rates of 0.3 and 18 L/h, respectively. These GaN layers are characterized by a mirror surface and a rocking curve half-width of 360". It is suggested that the layer structure is improved due to the increase in the lateral growth rate.

  9. Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Piedra, Daniel; Palacios, Tomás; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne

    2014-08-04

    Vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for Ti-deposited GaN showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were introduced below the Ti/GaN interface after annealing at 800 °C. Charge transition of those defects due to electron capture was observed and was found to correlate with a yellow band in the photoluminescence spectrum. The major defect species was identified as vacancy clusters such as three to five Ga-vacancies coupled with multiple nitrogen-vacancies. The annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in Ti-, Ni-, and Pt-deposited GaN were also examined.

  10. Growth of GaN on Si(111): Surfaces and crystallinity of the epifilms and the transport behavior of GaN/Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhongjie; Xie Maohai; Zhang Lixia; He Hongtao; Wang Jiannong

    2011-11-01

    Growths of GaN on Si(111) - (7 x 7) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) have been studied. Optimal conditions of MBE and the effect of a low-temperature (LT) buffer are followed. It is found that irrespective of the growth conditions and the growth strategies (direct versus two-step growth), a thin amorphous-like interface layer always forms. For smooth surfaces and better crystallinity of the epifilms, a LT-buffer preceding the high-temperature deposition is helpful, and the grown GaN films are of nitrogen-polar. Transport measurements of the heterojunctions of GaN on heavily p- and n-doped Si reveal ohmic behavior, whereas that of n-GaN on lightly doped n{sup -}-Si substrate shows rectifying characteristics.

  11. Nanoscale anisotropic plastic deformation in single crystal GaN.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Xu, Ke; Fan, Ying Min; Niu, Mu Tong; Zeng, Xiong Hui; Wang, Jian Feng; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Elasto-plastic mechanical deformation behaviors of c-plane (0001) and nonpolar GaN single crystals are studied using nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoindentation tests show that c-plane GaN is less susceptible to plastic deformation and has higher hardness and Young's modulus than the nonpolar GaN. Cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy characterizations of indent-induced plastic deformation reveal that there are two primary slip systems for the c-plane GaN, while there is only one most favorable slip system for the nonplane GaN. We suggest that the anisotropic elasto-plastic mechanical properties of GaN are relative to its anisotropic plastic deformation behavior.PACS: 62.20.fq; 81.05.Ea; 61.72.Lk.

  12. Single crystalline Sc2O3/Y2O3 heterostructures as novel engineered buffer approach for GaN integration on Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnawska, L.; Giussani, A.; Zaumseil, P.; Schubert, M. A.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Brandt, O.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2010-09-01

    The preparation of GaN virtual substrates on Si wafers via buffer layers is intensively pursued for high power/high frequency electronics as well as optoelectronics applications. Here, GaN is integrated on the Si platform by a novel engineered bilayer oxide buffer, namely, Sc2O3/Y2O3, which gradually reduces the lattice misfit of ˜-17% between GaN and Si. Single crystalline GaN(0001)/Sc2O3(111)/Y2O3(111)/Si(111) heterostructures were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized ex situ by various techniques. Laboratory-based x-ray diffraction shows that the epitaxial Sc2O3 grows fully relaxed on the Y2O3/Si(111) support, creating a high quality template for subsequent GaN overgrowth. The high structural quality of the Sc2O3 film is demonstrated by the fact that the concentration of extended planar defects in the preferred {111} slip planes is below the detection limit of synchrotron based diffuse x-ray scattering studies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveal that the full relaxation of the -7% lattice misfit between the isomorphic oxides is achieved by a network of misfit dislocations at the Sc2O3/Y2O3 interface. X-ray reflectivity and TEM prove that closed epitaxial GaN layers as thin as 30 nm can be grown on these templates. Finally, the GaN thin film quality is studied using a detailed Williamson-Hall analysis.

  13. Sensitivity of Fermi level position at Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN surfaces to vacuum and air ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Łukasz; Ramírez-López, Manolo; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Boćkowski, Michał; Muzioł, Grzegorz; Chèze, Caroline; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN UN+ structures have been examined in air and vacuum ambient by contactless electroreflectance (CER). This technique is very sensitive to the surface electric field that varies with the Fermi level position at the surface. For UN+ GaN structures [i.e., GaN (undoped)/GaN (n-type)/substrate], a homogeneous built-in electric field is expected in the undoped GaN layer that is manifested by Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) in CER spectra. A clear change in FKO has been observed in CER spectra for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane structures when changing from air to vacuum ambient. This means that those surfaces are very sensitive to ambient atmosphere. In contrast to that, only a small change in FKO can be seen in the Ga-polar structure. This clearly shows that the ambient sensitivity of the Fermi level position at the GaN surface varies with the crystallographic orientation and is very high for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces. This feature of the N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be very important for GaN-based devices grown on these crystallographic orientations and can be utilized in some of the devices, e.g., sensors.

  14. Influence of substrate quality on structural properties of AlGaN/GaN superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.; Merkel, U.; Schmult, S.; Mikolajick, T.

    2014-02-28

    Short-period AlGaN/GaN superlattices were established as versatile test structures to investigate the structural properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown GaN and AlGaN layers and their dependence on the GaN substrate quality. X-ray diffractometry data of the investigated superlattices allow access to relevant structural parameters such as aluminum mole fraction and layer thicknesses. The occurrence of theoretically predicted intense high-order satellite peaks and pronounced interface fringes in the diffraction pattern reflects abrupt interfaces and perfect 2-dimensional growth resulting in smooth surfaces. The data unambiguously demonstrate that the structural quality of the MBE grown layers is limited by the structural properties of the GaN substrate.

  15. Later Leaders in Education: Roma Gans--Teacher of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    1990-01-01

    Retired teacher Roma Gans is described in terms of her early life and education, early teaching experience, teaching experience at Teachers College, publishing experience, citizenship, and retirement. (DG)

  16. GaN nanowires with pentagon shape cross-section by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yong; Leung, Benjamin; Li, Qiming; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-07-14

    In this study, ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) was used to grow catalyst-assisted GaN nanowires on (11¯02) r-plane sapphire substrates. Dislocation free [112¯0] oriented nanowires are formed with pentagon shape cross-section, instead of the usual triangular shape facet configuration. Specifically, the cross-section is the result of the additional two nonpolar {101¯0} side facets, which appear due to a decrease in relative growth rate of the {101¯0} facets to the {101¯1} and {101¯1} facets under the growth regime in NH3-MBE. Compared to GaN nanowires grown by Ni-catalyzed metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the NH3-MBE grown GaN nanowires show more than an ordermore » of magnitude increase in band-edge to yellow luminescence intensity ratio, as measured by cathodoluminescence, indicating improved microstructural and optical properties.« less

  17. GaN nanowires with pentagon shape cross-section by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yong; Leung, Benjamin; Li, Qiming; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-07-14

    In this study, ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) was used to grow catalyst-assisted GaN nanowires on (11¯02) r-plane sapphire substrates. Dislocation free [112¯0] oriented nanowires are formed with pentagon shape cross-section, instead of the usual triangular shape facet configuration. Specifically, the cross-section is the result of the additional two nonpolar {101¯0} side facets, which appear due to a decrease in relative growth rate of the {101¯0} facets to the {101¯1} and {101¯1} facets under the growth regime in NH3-MBE. Compared to GaN nanowires grown by Ni-catalyzed metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the NH3-MBE grown GaN nanowires show more than an order of magnitude increase in band-edge to yellow luminescence intensity ratio, as measured by cathodoluminescence, indicating improved microstructural and optical properties.

  18. Coherent growth of GaGdN layers with high Gd concentration on GaN(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Abe, D.; Mitsuno, Y.; Komori, S.; Ishimaru, M.; Asahi, H.; Ishikawa, F.

    2012-11-26

    We report on the coherent growth of GaGdN with high Gd concentration on a GaN template using radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under elevated growth conditions. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that at a growth temperature of 700 {sup Degree-Sign }C or below, GaGdN layers are coherently grown on the GaN templates without segregation of the secondary phases. As the GdN mole fraction x was increased to 0.08, the c-axis lattice parameter in Ga{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}N increased linearly. Increasing the growth temperature to 750 {sup Degree-Sign }C causes lattice relaxation in GaGdN. All GaGdN samples exhibited photoluminescence emissions near the band-edge, a blue luminescence band emission, and a green luminescence band emission. The origin of the green luminescence band emission is discussed in relation to the compressive strain existing in the GaGdN layers coherently grown on GaN.

  19. Localized vibrational modes of carbon-hydrogen complexes in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Manasreh, M.O.; Baranowski, J.M.; Pakula, K.; Jiang, H.X.; Lin, J.

    1999-08-01

    Localized vibrational modes of carbon-hydrogen complexes in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN on sapphire were studied using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique. Three distinctive localized vibrational modes were observed around 2850, 2922, and 2959 cm{sup {minus}1} for undoped, Si-, and Mg-doped samples. These peaks are related to CH, CH{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3} defect complexes, respectively. However, the localized vibrational modes were not observed in some undoped samples, which is indicative of high quality grown epitaxial layers. It is also observed that the frequencies and intensities of the localized vibrational modes are sample dependent. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Growth of bulk AlN and GaN single crystals by sublimation

    SciTech Connect

    Balkas, C.M.; Sitar, Z.; Zheleva, T.; Bergman, L.; Shmagin, I.K.; Muth, J.F.; Kolbas, R.; Nemanich, R.; Davis, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    Single crystals of AlN to 1 mm thickness were grown in the range 1,950--2,250 C on 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} {alpha}(6H)-SiC(0001) substrates via sublimation-recondensation method. Hot pressed polycrystalline AlN was used as the source material. The color varied from transparent to dark green/blue. The crystal morphology varied with growth conditions. Most crystals were 0.3 mm--1 mm thick transparent layers which completely covered the substrates. Raman, optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results are presented. Single crystals of gallium nitride (GaN) were also grown by subliming powders of this material under an ammonia (NH{sub 3}) flow. Optical microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence results are shown.

  1. Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Colby, Robert; Liang, Zhiwen; Wildeson, Isaac H; Ewoldt, David A; Sands, Timothy D; García, R Edwin; Stach, Eric A

    2010-05-12

    Dislocation filtering in GaN by selective area growth through a nanoporous template is examined both by transmission electron microscopy and numerical modeling. These nanorods grow epitaxially from the (0001)-oriented GaN underlayer through the approximately 100 nm thick template and naturally terminate with hexagonal pyramid-shaped caps. It is demonstrated that for a certain window of geometric parameters a threading dislocation growing within a GaN nanorod is likely to be excluded by the strong image forces of the nearby free surfaces. Approximately 3000 nanorods were examined in cross-section, including growth through 50 and 80 nm diameter pores. The very few threading dislocations not filtered by the template turn toward a free surface within the nanorod, exiting less than 50 nm past the base of the template. The potential active region for light-emitting diode devices based on these nanorods would have been entirely free of threading dislocations for all samples examined. A greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction in threading dislocation density can be surmised from a data set of this size. A finite element-based implementation of the eigenstrain model was employed to corroborate the experimentally observed data and examine a larger range of potential nanorod geometries, providing a simple map of the different regimes of dislocation filtering for this class of GaN nanorods. These results indicate that nanostructured semiconductor materials are effective at eliminating deleterious extended defects, as necessary to enhance the optoelectronic performance and device lifetimes compared to conventional planar heterostructures. PMID:20397703

  2. Layer-transferred MoS{sub 2}/GaN PN diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edwin W.; Lee, Choong Hee; Paul, Pran K.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Arehart, Aaron R.; Ma, Lu; McCulloch, William D.; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-09-07

    Electrical and optical characterization of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) p-molybdenum disulfide/n-gallium nitride (p-MoS{sub 2}/n-GaN) heterojunction diodes are reported. Devices were fabricated on high-quality, large-area p-MoS{sub 2} grown by chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates. The processed devices were transferred onto GaN/sapphire substrates, and the transferred films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On-axis XRD spectra and surface topology obtained from AFM scans were consistent with previously grown high-quality, continuous MoS{sub 2} films. Current-voltage measurements of these diodes exhibited excellent rectification, and capacitance-voltage measurements were used to extract a conduction band offset of 0.23 eV for the transferred MoS{sub 2}/GaN heterojunction. This conduction band offset was confirmed by internal photoemission measurements. The energy band lineup of the MoS{sub 2}/GaN heterojunction is proposed here. This work demonstrates the potential of 2D/3D heterojunctions for novel device applications.

  3. Enhanced UV detection by non-polar epitaxial GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Roul, Basanta; Shetty, Arjun

    2015-12-15

    Nonpolar a-GaN (11-20) epilayers were grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution x-ray diffractometer confirmed the orientation of the grown film. Effect of the Ga/N ratio on the morphology and strain of a-GaN epilayers was compared and the best condition was obtained for the nitrogen flow of 1 sccm. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology while the strain in the film was quantitatively measured using Raman spectroscopy and qualitatively analyzed by reciprocal space mapping technique. UV photo response of a-GaN film was measured after fabricating a metal-semiconductor-metal structure over the film with gold metal. The external quantum efficiency of the photodetectors fabricated in the (0002) polar and (11-20) nonpolar growth directions were compared in terms of responsivity and nonpolar GaN showed the best sensitivity at the cost of comparatively slow response time.

  4. Time- and locally resolved photoluminescence of semipolar GaInN /GaN facet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderer, Thomas; Brückner, Peter; Hertkorn, Joachim; Scholz, Ferdinand; Beirne, Gareth J.; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Feneberg, Martin; Thonke, Klaus

    2007-04-01

    The authors investigate the carrier lifetime and photoluminescence (PL) intensity of a semipolar GaInN /GaN sample which was realized by growing five GaInN /GaN quantum wells on the {11¯01} side facets of selectively grown n-GaN stripes that have a triangular shape running along the ⟨112¯0⟩ direction. Time- and locally resolved PL measurements show drastically reduced lifetimes for the semipolar sample of only 650ps at 4K whereas lifetimes exceeding 50ns were found for a polar reference sample. Furthermore, more than a doubling of the luminescence intensity and a significantly reduced blueshift of the PL peak wavelength with increasing excitation power density provide further evidence for the presence of reduced piezoelectric fields in the semipolar sample.

  5. The anti-surfactant effect of silane on the facets-controlled growth of GaN nanorods by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. Z.; Chen, Z. Z.; Li, S. F.; Jiao, Q. Q.; Feng, Y. L.; Jiang, S. X.; Chen, Y. F.; Yu, T. J.; Shen, B.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2016-08-01

    N-polar GaN nanorods were selective area grown by continuous mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a Ga-rich and high silane flow condition. The interruption comparing with continuous supply of silane flow was performed to study the role of silane flux. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were performed. The enhanced vertical growth rate was achieved as 42 μm/h and sharp smooth m-plane, r-plane and c-plane facets were obtained for the nanorods with high silane flux. Sisbnd N bonds were clarified to be formed on the surface of the nanorod by XPS spectra. The silane acting as anti-surfactant was suggested to explain the diffusion and incorporation of the species on the facets of GaN nanorods.

  6. Study of GaN doping with carbon from propane in a wide range of MOVPE conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Ber, B. Ya.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Brunkov, P. N.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Complex studies of intentional GaN carbon doping from propane during MOVPE were performed in a wide range of growth conditions. A strong dependence of carbon doping efficiency on growth rate and ammonia flow is revealed, while dependence of carbon doping efficiency on reactor pressure is small. Atomic force microscopy confirms the good quality of the GaN:C layers for doping levels as high as 2*1019 cm-3 grown with growth rate up to 45 μm/h. The dependence of carbon incorporation into GaN is proportional to the propane concentration to the power 3/2 in most growth regimes, but for very high growth rate a linear or sub-linear component of the dependence becomes prominent.

  7. High-resolution emission spectroscopy of random lasing in GaN films pumped by UV-pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachoncinlle, C.; Millon, E.; Petit, A.

    2016-06-01

    We report on room temperature photoluminescence on GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A NdYAG pulsed-laser at 266 nm illuminates the films. Two components, at 363 nm and 370 nm, are identified in the near band edge structure on the spectra. A laser threshold of 700±150 kW cm-2 is evidenced and corresponds to random lasing in the GaN film. A drastic narrowing of the spectral bandwidth from 5.2 to 1.8 nm is observed at 370 nm. High-resolution spectroscopy measurements show laser mode widths thinner than 50 pm leading to a high quality factor Q=7750. Low-resolution measurements show redshift from 370.0 to 373.1 nm for one component and from 363.1 nm to 363.9 nm for the other. Interpretation of this redshift is discussed.

  8. Double Gaussian distribution of barrier height observed in densely packed GaN nanorods over Si (111) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma; Mukundan, Shruthi; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Roul, Basanta

    2014-12-21

    GaN nanorods were grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on intrinsic Si (111) substrates which were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The current–voltage characteristics of the GaN nanorods on Si (111) heterojunction were obtained from 138 to 493 K which showed the inverted rectification behavior. The I-V characteristics were analyzed in terms of thermionic emission model. The temperature variation of the apparent barrier height and ideality factor along with the non-linearity of the activation energy plot indicated the presence of lateral inhomogeneities in the barrier height. The observed two temperature regimes in Richardson's plot could be well explained by assuming two separate Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights.

  9. Semipolar (202̅3) nitrides grown on 3C-SiC/(001) Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Presa, S.; Akhter, M.; Maaskant, P. P.; Corbett, B.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN buffer layers on 3C-SiC/(001) Si templates (4°-offcut towards [110]) by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy has been investigated. High-temperature grown Al0.5Ga0.5N/AlN interlayers were employed to produce a single (202̅3) GaN surface orientation. Specular crack-free GaN layers showed undulations along [11̅0]{}3{{C}-{SiC}/{Si}} with a root mean square roughness of about 13.5 nm (50 × 50 μm2). The orientation relationship determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be [1̅21̅0]GaN ∥[11̅0]{}3{{C}-{SiC}/{Si}} and [3̅034]GaN ∥[110]3C - SiC/Si . Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and XRD measurements showed the presence of basal-plane stacking faults in the layers. PL measurements of (202̅3) multiple-quantum-well and light-emitting diode structures showed uniform luminescence at about 500 nm emission wavelength. A small peak shift of about 3 nm was observed in the electroluminescence when the current was increased from 5 to 50 mA (25-250 A cm-2).

  10. P-type doping of GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.K.

    2000-04-10

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C. The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover.

  11. GaN Electronics For High Power, High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-06-12

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers. GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  12. Digitally Alloyed Modulated Precursor Flow Epitaxial Growth of Ternary AlGaN with Binary AlN and GaN Sub-Layers and Observation of Compositional Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Suk; Yoo, Dongwon; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Hawkridge, Michael E.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2010-05-01

    We report the growth of ternary aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) layers on AlN/sapphire template/substrates by digitally alloyed modulated precursor flow epitaxial growth (DA-MPEG), which combined an MPEG AlN sub-layer with a conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN sub-layer. The overall composition in DA-MPEG Al x Ga1- x N was controlled by adjustment of the growth time (i.e., the thickness) of the GaN sub-layer. As the GaN sub-layer growth time increased, the Al composition in AlGaN decreased to 50%, but the surface morphology of the AlGaN layer became rough, and a three-dimensional structure with islands appeared for the DA-MPEG AlGaN with relatively thick GaN sub-layers, possibly resulting from the Ga adatom surface migration behavior and/or the strain built up from lattice mismatch between AlN and GaN sub-layers with increasing GaN sub-layer growth time. Through strain analysis by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, it was found that there was compositional inhomogeneity in the DA-MPEG AlGaN with AlN and GaN binary sub-layers for the case of the layer with relatively thick GaN sub-layers.

  13. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  14. Metalorganic chemical vapour deposition of GaN layers on ZnO substrates using α-Al2O3 as a transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen-Jie; Li, Nola; Yu, Hong Bo; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Summers, Christopher; Ferguson, Ian

    2009-12-01

    This work addresses the instability of a ZnO substrate during metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) growth of GaN by using Al2O3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a stabilizing transition layer on the Zn face of ZnO (0 0 0 1) substrates. A systematic study of Al2O3 films of different thicknesses (2-90 nm) under different ALDs and post-annealing conditions was carried out. However, this paper focuses on as-deposited 20 and 50 nm Al2O3 films that were transformed to polycrystalline α-Al2O3 phases after optimal annealing at 1100 °C for 10 min and 20 min, respectively. GaN layers were grown on ZnO substrates with these α-Al2O3 transition layers by MOCVD using NH3 as a nitrogen source. Wurtzite GaN was observed by high resolution x-ray diffraction only on 20 nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed a mirror-like surface, no etch pits and no film peeling in these samples. Room temperature photoluminescence showed a red-shift in the near band-edge emission of GaN, which may be related to oxygen incorporation forming a shallow donor-related level in GaN. Raman scattering also indicated the presence of a well-crystallized GaN layer on the 20 nm Al2O3/ZnO substrate.

  15. Atom probe tomography studies of Al₂O₃ gate dielectrics on GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Baishakhi Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.; Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2014-10-07

    Atom probe tomography was used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of in situ Al₂O₃/GaN structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Al₂O₃ dielectrics grown at three different temperatures of 700, 900, and 1000 °C were analyzed and compared. A low temperature GaN cap layer grown atop Al₂O₃ enabled a high success rate in the atom probe experiments. The Al₂O₃/GaN interfaces were found to be intermixed with Ga, N, and O over the distance of a few nm. Impurity measurements data showed that the 1000 °C sample contains higher amounts of C (4 × 10¹⁹/cm³) and lower amounts of H (7 × 10¹⁹/cm³), whereas the 700 °C sample exhibits lower C impurities (<10¹⁷/cm³) and higher H incorporation (2.2 × 10²⁰/cm³). On comparing with Al₂O₃ grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), it was found that the MOCVD Al₂O₃/GaN interface is comparatively abrupt. Scanning transmission electron microscopy data showed that the 900 °C and 1000 °C MOCVD films exhibit polycrystalline nature, while the ALD films were found to be amorphous.

  16. Preparation of cubic boron nitride films by RF bias sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Osamu; Yamada, Yukiko; Tatebayashi, Yoshinao

    1995-07-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) films were successfully prepared by the phase-regulated rf bias sputtering with the aid of magnetic field. The effects of the substrate bias voltage (V{sub s}), the working gas pressure (p) and the deposition time were investigated systematically. Cubic phase was formed in the filmed deposited with V{sub s} above the threshold which depended on p. Even at p = 0.4 mTorr, cBN films were grown with V{sub s} above 100 V. The prepared cBN films had a double-layered structure which consists of an initially deposited layer of sp{sup 2} phase and a layer of cubic phase subsequently grown. The maximum growth rate of the cubic layer was estimated to be approximately 1 nm/s. Stress measurements of the cBN films were also carried out, revealing that the cBN films had compressive stress of a few GPa.

  17. High-density, uniform gallium nitride nanorods grown on Au-coated silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chuanbao; Xiang, Xu; Zhu, Hesun

    2005-01-01

    High-density GaN nanorods with uniform diameters and lengths were successfully grown on Au-coated silicon substrate. The diameters were in the range of 50-80 nm, and the lengths ranged from 1 to 2 μm. A significant feature is that each nanorod was attached with nanoparticle at its very end, which is consistent with the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. It was also found that the as-grown final product is strongly dependent on the thickness of the Au thin film coated on the silicon substrate. According to the experimental results, we proposed that the catalytic activity of gold is determined by the size of Au particles, and just very small Au clusters exhibit effective reactivity in the growth of GaN one-dimensional nanostructures.

  18. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Creange, Nicole C.; Sun, Kai; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.; Constantin, Costel; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 films of different thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these β-Ga2O3 films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the β-Ga2O3 grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m-1 K-1) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the β-Ga2O3 film resulting from phonon scattering at the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface and thermal transport across the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown β-Ga2O3 and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.

  19. GaN for LED applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve the synthesis of GaN the effect of various growth and doping parameters has been studied. Although Be, Li, Mg, and Dy can be used to overcompensate native donors, the most interesting acceptor element is Zn. The emission spectrum and the luminescence efficiency depend on the growth temperature (below 800 C), on the partial pressure of the doping impurity, and on the duration of growth. Blue-green electroluminescence with a power efficiency of 0.1 percent and a brightness of 850 fL (at 0.6 mA and 22.5 V) was obtained. Some diodes allow the color of the emitted light to change by reversing the polarity of the bias. Continuous operation of a diode over a period of 5 months showed no evidence of degradation. The luminescence properties of ion-implanted GaN were studied. Delay effects were found in the electroluminescence of diodes, although, with a dc bias, a 70-MHz modulation was possible.

  20. Epitaxial Growth of Cubic Crystalline Semiconductor Alloys on Basal Plane of Trigonal or Hexagonal Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Hetero-epitaxial semiconductor materials comprising cubic crystalline semiconductor alloys grown on the basal plane of trigonal and hexagonal substrates, in which misfit dislocations are reduced by approximate lattice matching of the cubic crystal structure to underlying trigonal or hexagonal substrate structure, enabling the development of alloyed semiconductor layers of greater thickness, resulting in a new class of semiconductor materials and corresponding devices, including improved hetero-bipolar and high-electron mobility transistors, and high-mobility thermoelectric devices.

  1. White x-ray microdiffraction analysis of defects, strain and tilts in a free standing GaN film.

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R. I.; Ice, G. E.; Haskell, B. A.; Nakamura, S.; Speck, J. S.; Liu, W.; X-Ray Science Division; ORNL; Univ. of California

    2008-01-01

    A novel white-beam microdiffraction analysis of defects, strains and tilts in a free standing m-plane GaN film grown via hydride vapor phase epitaxy is presented. It is shown that misfit dislocations are grouped within cell boundaries creating local lattice rotations (tilts) between the growing cells. Distribution of lattice rotations in the film is not homogeneous. Regions of large rotations are separated by low rotations regions. The dominating rotation axis is parallel [11{bar 2}0] direction. High in plane shear stress component is observed along [0001].

  2. Enhanced damage buildup in C{sup +}-implanted GaN film studied by a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. F.; Chen, Z. Q. Liu, C.; Zhang, H. J.; Kawasuso, A.

    2015-02-28

    Wurtzite GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were implanted with 280 keV C{sup +} ions to a dose of 6 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. Vacancy-type defects in C{sup +}-implanted GaN were probed using a slow positron beam. The increase of Doppler broadening S parameter to a high value of 1.08–1.09 after implantation indicates introduction of very large vacancy clusters. Post-implantation annealing at temperatures up to 800 °C makes these vacancy clusters to agglomerate into microvoids. The vacancy clusters or microvoids show high thermal stability, and they are only partially removed after annealing up to 1000 °C. The other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and Photoluminescence all indicate severe damage and even disordered structure induced by C{sup +}-implantation. The disordered lattice shows a partial recovery after annealing above 800 °C. Amorphous regions are observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement, which directly confirms that amorphization is induced by C{sup +}-implantation. The disordered GaN lattice is possibly due to special feature of carbon impurities, which enhance the damage buildup during implantation.

  3. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  4. Elimination of surface band bending on N-polar InN with thin GaN capping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmík, J. Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Dobročka, E.; Adikimenakis, A.; Mičušík, M.; Gregor, M.; Plecenik, A.; Georgakilas, A.

    2015-11-09

    0.5–1 μm thick InN (0001) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with N- or In-polarity are investigated for the presence of native oxide, surface energy band bending, and effects introduced by 2 to 4 monolayers of GaN capping. Ex situ angle-resolved x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy is used to construct near-surface (GaN)/InN energy profiles, which is combined with deconvolution of In3d signal to trace the presence of InN native oxide for different types of polarity and capping. Downwards surface energy band bending was observed on bare samples with native oxide, regardless of the polarity. It was found that the In-polar InN surface is most readily oxidized, however, with only slightly less band bending if compared with the N-polar sample. On the other hand, InN surface oxidation was effectively mitigated by GaN capping. Still, as confirmed by ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy and by energy band diagram calculations, thin GaN cap layer may provide negative piezoelectric polarization charge at the GaN/InN hetero-interface of the N-polar sample, in addition to the passivation effect. These effects raised the band diagram up by about 0.65 eV, reaching a flat-band profile.

  5. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; McLaren, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.

    2015-10-26

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er{sup 3+} ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  6. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elisibeth A.; Shelton, T C; Mita, S; Gaddy, Brian E.; Irving, D L; Christen, Hans M; Sitar, Z; Biegalski, Michael D; Maria, Jon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface due to stabilizing the {111} rocksalt facet. MBE growth of MgO in water terminates after several monolayers, and is attributed to saturation of surface active sites needed to facilitate the Mg oxidation reaction. MgO films prepared by PLD grow continuously, this occurs due to the presence of excited oxidizing species in the laser plasma eliminate the need for catalytic surface sites. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly two order of magnitude reduction in leakage current density for the smoother surfactant-assisted samples. Collectively, these data verify numerous predictions and calculations regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of MgO crystals.

  7. Sputter-deposited metal contacts for n-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, H. P.; Awaah, M. A.; Das, K.

    2004-02-01

    Sputter-deposited Au, Pt, Cr, Ni and Cu contacts for n-type GaN films were studied using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. These films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), heteroepitaxially on the basal plane of sapphire. The contacts were non-ideally rectifying in nature. Assuming that the non-ideality was due to effects of series resistance and recombination current, a computer curve fitting procedure was employed that enabled the separation of these effects from the thermionic emission current, thereby permitting the calculation of the barrier height. An analysis of the results indicates that the barrier heights for metal contacts on GaN are determined by the difference between the metal and the semiconductor electronegativities and substantially influenced by metal induced gap states (MIGS)/sputtering damage induced surface states (SDISS). The concentration of metal induced gap states/sputtering induced damage states was determined to be approximately 2.7 × 1013 states cm-2 eV-1.

  8. Doped GaN nanowires on diamond: Structural properties and charge carrier distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Fabian; Winnerl, Andrea; Weiszer, Saskia; Hetzl, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study on GaN nanowire doping, which is vital for device fabrication. The nanowires (NWs) are grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy on diamond (111) substrates. Dopant atoms are found to facilitate nucleation, thus an increasing NW density is observed for increasing dopant fluxes. While maintaining nanowire morphology, we demonstrate the incorporation of Si and Mg up to concentrations of 9 × 1020cm-3 and 1 × 1020cm-3 , respectively. The dopant concentration in the nanowire cores is determined by the thermodynamic solubility limit, whereas excess dopants are found to segregate to the nanowire surface. The strain state of the NWs is investigated by X-ray diffraction, which confirms a negligible strain compared to planar thin films. Doping-related emissions are identified in low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy and the temperature quenching yields ionization energies of Si donors and Mg acceptors of 17 meV and 167 meV, respectively. At room temperature, luminescence and absorption spectra are found to coincide and the sub-band gap absorption is suppressed in n-type NWs. The charge carrier distribution in doped GaN nanowires is simulated under consideration of surface states at the non-polar side facets. For doping concentrations below 1017cm-3 , the nanowires are depleted of charge carriers, whereas they become highly conductive above 1019cm-3 .

  9. GaN photovoltaic leakage current and correlation to grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K. D.; Chen, X.; Hao, D.; Schaff, W. J.; Eastman, L. F.

    2010-10-15

    GaN p-i-n solar PV structures grown by rf plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) produce high performance IV characteristics with a leakage current density of less than 1x10{sup -4} mA cm{sup -2} at 0.1 V forward bias and an on-resistance of 0.039 {Omega} cm{sup 2}. Leakage current measurements taken for different size diodes processed on the same sample containing the solar cells reveal that current density increases with diode area, indicating that leakage is not a large function of surface leakage along the mesa. Nonannealed Pt/Au Ohmic p-contacts produce a contact resistivity of 4.91x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm{sup -2} for thin Mg doped contact layers with sheet resistivity of 62196 {Omega}/{open_square}. Under concentrated sunlight the cells produce an open-circuit voltage of 2.5 V and short circuit currents as high as 30 mA cm{sup -2}. Multiple growths comprised the study and on each wafer the IV curves representing several diodes showed considerable variation in parasitic leakage current density at low voltages on some wafers and practically no variation on others. It appears that a smaller grain size within the GaN thin film accounts for higher levels of dark current.

  10. Nonpolar a-plane p-type GaN and p-n Junction Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; Xing, H.; Craven, M.D.; Keller, S.; Mates, T.; Speck, J.S.; Baars, S.P. den; Mishra, U.K.

    2004-10-15

    Growth and electrical characteristics of Mg-doped p-type nonpolar (1120) a-plane GaN films, grown on (1102) r-plane sapphire substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, were investigated as a function of growth rate, the ammonia to trimethylgallium flow ratio (V/III ratio), and the growth temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films exhibited a strong dependence on the growth parameters. Secondary-ion-mass-spectroscopy measurements indicated that more Mg was incorporated at higher growth rate and at lower growth temperatures. The Mg concentration in the films increased linearly with the Mg flow. A maximum hole concentration of 6.8x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} was achieved at room temperature for a Mg concentration of 7.6x10{sup 19}cm{sup -3}, corresponding to 0.9% ionization. Further increase in the Mg concentration resulted in increased surface roughness as well as a significant decrease in the hole concentration. p-n junction diodes were fabricated using nonpolar a-plane GaN, and the current-voltage characteristics of these diodes showed a sharp turn-on at {approx}3 V.

  11. Polarity inversion of N-face GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Wu Feng; Mates, Thomas E.; Speck, James S.

    2008-11-01

    The polarity of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was inverted from N-face to Ga-face by simultaneously exposing the surface to Mg and activated N fluxes during a growth interruption at a reduced substrate temperature. Growth studies suggested that a Mg{sub x}N{sub y} compound was responsible for inverting the crystal. The change in polarity was verified in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction via GaN surface reconstructions, and ex situ by convergent beam electron diffraction and KOH etch studies. The surface of the inverted material showed smooth step flow features. Ga-face high electron mobility transistors with good dc and small signal performance were fabricated on the inverted epilayers. A drain-source current of 0.84 A/mm was measured at a gate-source voltage of +1 V. Current-gain cutoff and maximum oscillation frequencies of 22 and 53 GHz, respectively, were measured in these devices. The device performance is similar to that of Ga-face transistors with comparable dimensions.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of GaN junction field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Lester, L.F.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.; Chang, P.C.; Willison, C.L.; Mishra, U.K.; Denbaars, S.P.; Zolper, J.C.

    2000-01-11

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) were fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The DC and microwave characteristics, as well as the high temperature performance of the devices were studied. These devices exhibited excellent pinch-off and a breakdown voltage that agreed with theoretical predictions. An extrinsic transconductance (g{sub m}) of 48 mS/mm was obtained with a maximum drain current (I{sub D}) of 270 mA/mm. The microwave measurement showed an f{sub T} of 6 GHz and an f{sub max} of 12 GHz. Both the I{sub D} and the g{sub m} were found to decrease with increasing temperature, possibly due to lower electron mobility at elevated temperatures. These JFETs exhibited a significant current reduction after a high drain bias was applied, which was attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer.

  13. Analysis of leakage current mechanisms in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN by Frenkel-Poole emission and deep level studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Peta Koteswara; Park, Byungguon; Lee, Sang-Tae; Noh, Young-Kyun; Kim, Moon-Deock; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2011-07-01

    We report the Frenkel-Poole emission in Pt/Au Schottky contact on Ga-polarity GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy using current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics in the temperature ranging from 200 K to 375 K. Using thermionic emission model, the estimated Schottky barrier height is 0.49 eV at 200 K and 0.83 eV at 375 K, respectively, and it is observed that the barrier height increases with increase in temperature. The extracted emission barrier height ({phi}{sub t}) for Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode by Frenkel-Poole theory is about 0.15 eV. Deep level transient spectroscopy study shows a deep level with activation energy of 0.44 eV, having capture cross-section 6.09 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}, which is located between the metal and semiconductor interface, and trap nature is most probably associated with dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN. The analysis of I-V-T characteristics represents that the leakage current is due to effects of electrical field and temperature on the emission of electron from a trap state near the metal-semiconductor interface into continuum states associated with conductive dislocations in Ga-polarity GaN Schottky diode.

  14. Direct growth of GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid structure and its application for light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Hoon; Park, Ah Hyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Gun Hee; Kim, Myung Jong; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Young Hee; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality GaN layer on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene hybrid structure (CGH) as intermediate layer between GaN and sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) using them. The SWCNTs on graphene act as nucleation seeds, resulting in the formation of kink bonds along SWCNTs with the basal plane of the substrate. In the x-ray diffraction, Raman and photoluminescence spectra, high crystalline quality of GaN layer grown on CGH/sapphire was observed due to the reduced threading dislocation and efficient relaxation of residual compressive strain caused by lateral overgrowth process. When applied to the LED structure, the current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) performance exhibit that blue LEDs fabricated on CGH/sapphire well-operate at high injection currents and uniformly emit over the whole emission area. We expect that CGH can be applied for the epitaxial growth of GaN on various substrates such as Si and MgO, which can be a great advantage in electrical and thermal properties of optical devices fabricated on them. PMID:25597492

  15. Highly mismatched GaN1‑x Sb x alloys: synthesis, structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. M.; Sarney, W. L.; Novikov, S. V.; Segercrantz, N.; Ting, M.; Shaw, M.; Svensson, S. P.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Highly mismatched alloys (HMAs) is a class of semiconductor alloys whose constituents are distinctly different in terms of size, ionicity and/or electronegativity. Electronic properties of the alloys deviate significantly from an interpolation scheme based on small deviations from the virtual crystal approximation. Most of the HMAs were only studied in a dilute composition limit. Recent advances in understanding of the semiconductor synthesis processes allowed growth of thin films of HMAs under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus reducing the growth temperature allowed synthesis of group III-N–V HMAs over almost the entire composition range. This paper focuses on the GaN x Sb1‑x HMA which has been suggested as a potential material for solar water dissociation devices. Here we review our recent work on the synthesis, structural and optical characterization of GaN1‑x Sb x HMA. Theoretical modeling studies on its electronic structure based on the band anticrossing (BAC) model are also reviewed. In particular we discuss the effects of growth temperature, Ga flux and Sb flux on the incorporation of Sb, film microstructure and optical properties of the alloys. Results obtained from two separate MBE growths are directly compared. Our work demonstrates that a large range of direct bandgap energies from 3.4 eV to below 1.0 eV can be achieved for this alloy grown at low temperature. We show that the electronic band structure of GaN1‑x Sb x HMA over the entire composition range is well described by a modified BAC model which includes the dependence of the host matrix band edges as well as the BAC model coupling parameters on composition. We emphasize that the modified BAC model of the electronic band structure developed for the full composition of GaN x Sb1‑x is general and is applicable to any HMA.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of GaN and AlGaN nanowires: from ensemble to single nanowire study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Bayon, C.; Demangeot, F.; Pechou, R.; Mlayah, A.; Cros, A.; Daudin, B.

    2013-03-01

    Self-assembled GaN nanowires (NWs) currently are a subject of sustained interest in the scientific community motivated by both their potential applications for new LEDs, which should take benefit of the improved crystalline quality of those nano-objects, due to a strongly reduced defects density. In addition, interest of the scientific community for these 1D nano-systems is also related to the new fundamental questions opened by their strongly anisotropic geometry, and to their potential as possible building blocks for future nano-electronic devices. In this context, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used to study nitride NWs and several new phenomena have been reported to date with respect to these one-dimensional structures. In this work, both GaN and AlGaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have been experimentally investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Experimental results are analyzed and compared to theoretical ones obtained by dielectric models and Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) method. Evidence is given for original surface effects in the optical phonon physics related to both structural anisotropy of the material and 1D geometry of the GaN NWs. By using UV resonant excitation for AlGaN NWs in the whole range of composition, we demonstrate the selective excitation of AlGaN with the Al composition matching the energy of the exciting photons. Finally, we analyzed Raman data from single GaN NW after deposition on a flat substrate and we discuss the nature of strongly polarized A1(TO) phonon as a function of the NWs aspect ratio.

  17. Growing GaN LEDs on amorphous SiC buffer with variable C/Si compositions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tzou, An-Jye; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxy of high-power gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode (LED) on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC(1-x)) buffer is demonstrated. The a-SixC(1-x) buffers with different nonstoichiometric C/Si composition ratios are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by using a low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaN LEDs on different SixC(1-x) buffers exhibit different EL and C-V characteristics because of the extended strain induced interfacial defects. The EL power decays when increasing the Si content of SixC(1-x) buffer. The C-rich SixC(1-x) favors the GaN epitaxy and enables the strain relaxation to suppress the probability of Auger recombination. When the SixC(1-x) buffer changes from Si-rich to C-rich condition, the EL peak wavelengh shifts from 446 nm to 450 nm. Moreover, the uniform distribution contour of EL intensity spreads between the anode and the cathode because the traping density of the interfacial defect gradually reduces. In comparison with the GaN LED grown on Si-rich SixC(1-x) buffer, the device deposited on C-rich SixC(1-x) buffer shows a lower turn-on voltage, a higher output power, an external quantum efficiency, and an efficiency droop of 2.48 V, 106 mW, 42.3%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:26794268

  18. Growing GaN LEDs on amorphous SiC buffer with variable C/Si compositions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tzou, An-Jye; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxy of high-power gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode (LED) on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC(1-x)) buffer is demonstrated. The a-SixC(1-x) buffers with different nonstoichiometric C/Si composition ratios are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by using a low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaN LEDs on different SixC(1-x) buffers exhibit different EL and C-V characteristics because of the extended strain induced interfacial defects. The EL power decays when increasing the Si content of SixC(1-x) buffer. The C-rich SixC(1-x) favors the GaN epitaxy and enables the strain relaxation to suppress the probability of Auger recombination. When the SixC(1-x) buffer changes from Si-rich to C-rich condition, the EL peak wavelengh shifts from 446 nm to 450 nm. Moreover, the uniform distribution contour of EL intensity spreads between the anode and the cathode because the traping density of the interfacial defect gradually reduces. In comparison with the GaN LED grown on Si-rich SixC(1-x) buffer, the device deposited on C-rich SixC(1-x) buffer shows a lower turn-on voltage, a higher output power, an external quantum efficiency, and an efficiency droop of 2.48 V, 106 mW, 42.3%, and 7%, respectively.

  19. Growing GaN LEDs on amorphous SiC buffer with variable C/Si compositions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tzou, An-Jye; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxy of high-power gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode (LED) on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC1−x) buffer is demonstrated. The a-SixC1−x buffers with different nonstoichiometric C/Si composition ratios are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by using a low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaN LEDs on different SixC1−x buffers exhibit different EL and C-V characteristics because of the extended strain induced interfacial defects. The EL power decays when increasing the Si content of SixC1−x buffer. The C-rich SixC1−x favors the GaN epitaxy and enables the strain relaxation to suppress the probability of Auger recombination. When the SixC1−x buffer changes from Si-rich to C-rich condition, the EL peak wavelengh shifts from 446 nm to 450 nm. Moreover, the uniform distribution contour of EL intensity spreads between the anode and the cathode because the traping density of the interfacial defect gradually reduces. In comparison with the GaN LED grown on Si-rich SixC1−x buffer, the device deposited on C-rich SixC1−x buffer shows a lower turn-on voltage, a higher output power, an external quantum efficiency, and an efficiency droop of 2.48 V, 106 mW, 42.3%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:26794268

  20. Growing GaN LEDs on amorphous SiC buffer with variable C/Si compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tzou, An-Jye; Chang, Jung-Hung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Wu, Chih-I.; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxy of high-power gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode (LED) on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SixC1-x) buffer is demonstrated. The a-SixC1-x buffers with different nonstoichiometric C/Si composition ratios are synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by using a low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaN LEDs on different SixC1-x buffers exhibit different EL and C-V characteristics because of the extended strain induced interfacial defects. The EL power decays when increasing the Si content of SixC1-x buffer. The C-rich SixC1-x favors the GaN epitaxy and enables the strain relaxation to suppress the probability of Auger recombination. When the SixC1-x buffer changes from Si-rich to C-rich condition, the EL peak wavelengh shifts from 446 nm to 450 nm. Moreover, the uniform distribution contour of EL intensity spreads between the anode and the cathode because the traping density of the interfacial defect gradually reduces. In comparison with the GaN LED grown on Si-rich SixC1-x buffer, the device deposited on C-rich SixC1-x buffer shows a lower turn-on voltage, a higher output power, an external quantum efficiency, and an efficiency droop of 2.48 V, 106 mW, 42.3%, and 7%, respectively.

  1. Carrier decay and luminescence characteristics in hadron irradiated MOCVD GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Jasiunas, A.; Jonkus, V.; Meskauskaite, D.; Tekorius, A.

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline GaN is a promising material for producing of the radiation hard particle detectors of different types capable to operate in harsh areas of particle accelerators. Moreover, GaN crystals show rather efficient luminescence properties in several spectral bands under excitation by high energy radiation. Thereby, GaN material can be employed for fabrication of a combined device which is able to operate both as scintillating and charge collecting detector. However, the efficiency of such detectors and their functionality has insufficiently been investigated. This work is addressed to study the evolution of the efficiency of photon and hadron induced luminescence. To evaluate the density of excess carriers induced by the high energy protons, a correlation between the microwave probed photoconductivity transients and the proton induced luminescence intensity has been examined using 1.6 MeV protons to produce a nearly homogeneous and rather strong excitation in 2.6 μm thick MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers. To estimate the radiation hardness of such material, the evolution of the photoconductivity transients and of the proton induced photoluminescence characteristics has been studied by in situ measurements of the changes of luminescence intensity and photoconductivity decay rate during the exposure to a proton beam reaching fluences up to 1015 cm-2. The production rate of radiation defects, determined from in situ and post-irradiation examination of the changes of radiative and non-radiative recombination have been examined by combining penetrative hadron (nuclear reactor neutrons and 24 GeV/c protons) irradiations with those of the 1.6 MeV protons. The parameters of the efficiency κP of carrier pair generation by a single proton of κP = nP/NP cong 1.3 × 107 cm-3 per proton and κPApr = 40 carrier pairs per a micrometer of layer depth per proton have been estimated. The production rate of radiation defects is estimated to be KP cong 0.6 cm-1 for both penetrative

  2. Nanoheteroepitaxial growth of GaN on Si nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersee, S. D.; Sun, X. Y.; Wang, X.; Fairchild, M. N.; Liang, J.; Xu, J.

    2005-06-01

    Nanoheteroepitaxial growth of GaN by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition on dense arrays of (111) Si nanopillars has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and electron-diffraction analysis of 0.15-μm-thick GaN layers indicate single-crystal films. Most of the mismatch defects were in-plane stacking faults and the threading dislocation concentration was <108cm-2 at the interface and decreased away from the interface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that grain-boundary defects could heal and were followed by high quality, single-crystal GaN. Facetted voids were also present at the GaN /Si interface and are believed to be an additional strain-energy reduction mechanism. The unusual defect behavior in these samples appears to be related to the high compliance of the nanopillar silicon substrate.

  3. Anisotropic cubic curvature couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Quentin G.

    2016-09-01

    To complement recent work on tests of spacetime symmetry in gravity, cubic curvature couplings are studied using an effective field theory description of spacetime-symmetry breaking. The associated mass-dimension-eight coefficients for Lorentz violation studied do not result in any linearized gravity modifications and instead are revealed in the first nonlinear terms in an expansion of spacetime around a flat background. We consider effects on gravitational radiation through the energy loss of a binary system and we study two-body orbital perturbations using the post-Newtonian metric. Some effects depend on the internal structure of the source and test bodies, thereby breaking the weak equivalence principle for self-gravitating bodies. These coefficients can be measured in Solar-System tests, while binary-pulsar systems and short-range gravity tests are particularly sensitive.

  4. Movement of basal plane dislocations in GaN during electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimov, E. B.; Vergeles, P. S.; Polyakov, A. Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, S. J.

    2015-03-30

    The movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in low-dislocation-density GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth as a result of irradiation with the probing beam of a scanning electron microscope was detected by means of electron beam induced current. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocations was susceptible to such changes and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide for dislocations pinned by two different types of pinning sites: a low-activation-energy site and a high-activation-energy site. Only dislocation segments pinned by the former sites can be moved by irradiation and only until they meet the latter pinning sites.

  5. Mg acceptors in GaN: Dependence of the /g-anisotropy on the doping concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Detlev M.; Burkhardt, Wolfgang; Leiter, Frank; Walter von Förster; Alves, Helder; Hofstaetter, Albrecht; Meyer, Bruno K.; Romanov, Nikolai G.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    1999-12-01

    Mg acceptors in GaN epitaxial layers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy were investigated by optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy. The magnetic resonances were detected on the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of the acceptor bound exciton (Mg0X) in the near bandgap region, and in the infrared spectral range on the MCD of the hole ionisation transition Mg0+hν→Mg-+hVB. The observed g-values of the Mg0 acceptors range for g|| from 2.102 to 2.065 and for g⊥ from 1.94 to 2.00, respectively. These variations depend on the Mg doping concentration.

  6. Axial and radial growth of Ni-induced GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhaar, L.; Cheze, C.; Weber, W. M.; Averbeck, R.; Riechert, H.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Karakostas, Th.

    2007-08-27

    GaN nanowires (NWs) were grown on sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy. NWs form only in the presence of Ni seed particles and only under N-rich conditions. Their length increases linearly with growth time up to about 7.5 {mu}m while their diameter remains almost constant. In contrast, a switch to Ga-rich conditions after NW formation results in radial growth, i.e., the NW diameter increases while lengthening is negligible. These results corroborate the fact that the growth of III-V NWs is governed by the accumulation of group-III atoms in the seeds, while group-V species are not preferentially incorporated at the seeds.

  7. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  8. GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.

    2016-06-01

    Power semiconductor devices based on silicon (Si) are quickly approaching their limits, set by fundamental material properties. In order to address these limitations, new materials for use in devices must be investigated. Wide bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have suitable properties for power electronic applications; however, fabrication of practical devices from these materials may be challenging. SiC technology has matured to point of commercialized devices, whereas GaN requires further research to realize full material potential. This review covers fundamental material properties of GaN as they relate to Si and SiC. This is followed by a discussion of the contemporary issues involved with bulk GaN substrates and their fabrication and a brief overview of how devices are fabricated, both on native GaN substrate material and non-native substrate material. An overview of current device structures, which are being analyzed for use in power switching applications, is then provided; both vertical and lateral device structures are considered. Finally, a brief discussion of prototypes currently employing GaN devices is given.

  9. Effect of photocatalytic oxidation technology on GaN CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    GaN is so hard and so chemically inert that it is difficult to obtain a high material removal rate (MRR) in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. This paper discusses the application of photocatalytic oxidation technology in GaN planarization. Three N-type semiconductor particles (TiO2, SnO2, and Fe2O3) are used as catalysts and added to the H2O2-SiO2-based slurry. By optical excitation, highly reactive photoinduced holes are produced on the surface of the particles, which can oxidize OH- and H2O absorbed on the surface of the catalysts; therefore, more OH* will be generated. As a result, GaN MRRs in an H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system combined with catalysts are improved significantly, especially when using TiO2, the MRR of which is 122 nm/h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows the variation trend of chemical composition on the GaN surface after polishing, revealing the planarization process. Besides, the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation combined with TiO2 is analyzed deeply. Furthermore, the physical model of GaN CMP combined with photocatalytic oxidation technology is proposed to describe the removal mechanism of GaN.

  10. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Itoi, Takaomi; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)1/(GaN)1-20 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)1/(GaN)4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ˜1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ˜1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  11. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  12. Structural and optical nanoscale analysis of GaN core-shell microrod arrays fabricated by combined top-down and bottom-up process on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wen, Baomei; Blanchard, Paul; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew R.; Davydov, Albert V.; Christen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Large arrays of GaN core-shell microrods were fabricated on Si(111) substrates applying a combined bottom-up and top-down approach which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of patterned GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and selective overgrowth of obtained GaN/Si pillars using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The structural and optical properties of individual core-shell microrods have been studied with a nanometer scale spatial resolution using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) directly performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). SEM, TEM, and CL measurements reveal the formation of distinct growth domains during the HVPE overgrowth. A high free-carrier concentration observed in the non-polar \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} HVPE shells is assigned to in-diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate. In contrast, the HVPE shells directly grown on top of the c-plane of the GaN pillars reveal a lower free-carrier concentration.

  13. Polyolefin cubic silsesquioxane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lei

    This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of polyolefin nanocomposites containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) units. Two copolymerization methods were developed utilizing either ring-opening metathesis polymerization or metallocene-catalyzed reactions to incorporate cubic silsesquioxane into polyolefins. Ring-opening metathesis copolymerizations of cyclooctene and the POSS-norbornylene macromonomer have been performed using Grubbs' catalyst RuCl2(=CHPh)(PCy3)2. Random copolymers have been prepared and characterized with POSS loadings as high as 55 wt%. Diimide reduction of these copolymers affords polyethylene-POSS random copolymers. Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (PP) copolymers incorporating POSS have also been prepared using a metallocene/methylaluminoxane (MAO) cocatalyst system. A wide range of POSS concentrations was obtained in these polyolefin POSS copolymers under mild conditions; up to 56 wt% for PE-POSS copolymers and 73 wt% for PP-POSS copolymers were prepared. Copolymerizations of styrene and the POSS-styryl macromonomer have been performed using CpTiCl 3 in conjunction with MAO. Random copolymers of syndiotactic polystyrene and POSS copolymers have been formed and characterized. Novel nanocomposites of PE-POSS have been characterized using Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS). From both line broadening of the diffraction maxima and also the oriented diffraction in a drawn sample, we conclude that POSS forms anisotropically shaped crystallites. On the basis of this result, a novel approach to obtain nanocomposites containing inorganic nanolayers is proposed. Cubic silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles are used to achieve the nanolayered "clay-like" structure through controlled self-assembly. The organic polymer, covalently connected to POSS, is intended to regulate the POSS crystallization into a two-dimensional lattice. The concept is demonstrated by random copolymers of polybutadiene and POSS. The data from

  14. Effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Yongchun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    The effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers (QBs) on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated through a duel wavelength method. Barrier Mg doping would lead to the enhanced hole transportation and reduced polarization field in the quantum wells (QWs), both may reduce the efficiency droop. However, heavy Mg doping in the QBs would strongly deteriorate the crystal quality of the QWs grown after the doped QB. When increasing the injection current, the carriers would escape from the QWs between n-GaN and the doped QB and recombine non-radiatively in the QWs grown after the doped QB, leading to a serious efficiency droop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41171143).

  15. Morphology and strain of self-assembled semipolar GaN quantum dots in (1122) AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Kalesaki, E.; Kioseoglou, J.; Kehagias, Th.; Lotsari, A.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Lahourcade, L.; Monroy, E.; Jurczak, G.; Young, T. D.; Dluzewski, P.

    2010-11-15

    GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown in semipolar (1122) AlN by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. The embedded (1122)-grown QDs exhibited pyramidal or truncated-pyramidal morphology consistent with the symmetry of the nucleating plane, and were delimited by nonpolar and semipolar nanofacets. It was also found that, in addition to the (1122) surface, QDs nucleated at depressions comprising (1011) facets. This was justified by ab initio density functional theory calculations showing that such GaN/AlN facets are of lower energy compared to (1122). Based on quantitative high-resolution TEM strain measurements, the three-dimensional QD strain state was analyzed using finite-element simulations. The internal electrostatic field was then estimated, showing small potential drop along the growth direction, and limited localization at most QD interfaces.

  16. Small signal model parameters analysis of GaN and GaAs based HEMTs over temperature for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Thermal and small-signal model parameters analysis have been carried out on 0.5 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate and 0.25 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on SiC substrate. Two different technologies are investigated in order to establish a detailed understanding of their capabilities in terms of frequency and temperature using on-wafer S-parameter measurement over the temperature range from -40 to 150 °C up to 50 GHz. The equivalent circuit parameters as well as their temperature-dependent behavior of the two technologies were analyzed and discussed for the first time. The principle elevation or degradation of transistor parameters with temperature demonstrates the great potential of GaN device for high frequency and high temperature applications. The result provides some valuable insights for future design optimizations of advanced GaN and a comparison of this with the GaAs technology.

  17. Synchrotron-based XPS studies of AlGaN and GaN surface chemistry and its relationship to ion sensor behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khir, Farah Liyana Muhammad; Myers, Matthew; Podolska, Anna; Sanders, Tarun Maruthi; Baker, Murray V.; Nener, Brett D.; Parish, Giacinta

    2014-09-01

    Soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the fundamental surface chemistry of both AlGaN and GaN surfaces in the context of understanding the behaviour of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as chemical field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) ion sensors. AlGaN and GaN samples were subjected to different methods of oxide growth (native oxide and thermally grown oxide) and chemical treatment conditions. Our investigations indicate that the etching of the oxide layer is more pronounced with AlGaN compared to GaN. Also, we observed that chloride ions have a greater tendency to attach to the GaN surface relative to the AlGaN surface. Furthermore, chloride ions are comparatively more prevalent on surfaces treated with 5% HCl acid solution. The concentration of chloride ions is even higher on the HCl treated native oxide surface resulting in a very clear deconvolution of the Cl 2p1/2 and Cl 2p3/2 peaks. For GaN and AlGaN surfaces, a linear response (e.g. source-drain current) is typically seen with variation in pH of buffered solutions with constant reference electrode voltage at the surface gate; however, an inverted bath-tub type response (e.g. a maximum at neutral pH and lower values at pH values away from neutral) and a general tendency to negative charge selectivity has been also widely reported. We have shown that our XPS investigations are consistent with the different sensor response reported in the literature for these CHEMFET devices and may help to explain the differing response of these materials.

  18. Infrared cubic dielectric resonator metamaterial.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David William; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-06-01

    Dielectric resonators are an effective means to realize isotropic, low-loss optical metamaterials. As proof of this concept, a cubic resonator is analytically designed and then tested in the long-wave infrared.

  19. Cross-stacked carbon nanotubes assisted self-separation of free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tongbo; Yang, Jiankun; Wei, Yang; Huo, Ziqiang; Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate. Raman and photoluminescence spectra further reveal the stress relief and crystalline improvement of GaN with CSCNTs. It is expected that the efficient, low cost and mass-producible technique may enable new applications for CNTs in nitride optoelectronic fields.

  20. InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dots yellow-green light-emitting diode with optimized GaN barriers.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenbin; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi

    2012-11-07

    InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED is demonstrated successfully. The transmission electron microscopy image shows the uniform multilayer InGaN QDs clearly. As the injection current increases from 5 to 50 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelength shifts from 574 to 537 nm.

  1. Composition and Interface Analysis of InGaN/GaN Multiquantum-Wells on GaN Substrates Using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fang; Huang, Li; Davis, Robert F.; Porter, Lisa M.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Kuchibhatla, S. V. N. T.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Preble, Edward; Paskova, Tanya; Evans, K. R.

    2014-09-04

    In0.20Ga0.80N/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on [0001]-oriented GaN substrates with and without an InGaN buffer layer were characterized using three-dimensional atom probe tomography. In all samples, the upper interfaces of the QWs were slightly more diffuse than the lower interfaces. The buffer layers did not affect the roughness of the interfaces within the quantum well structure, a result attributed to planarization of the surface of the 1st GaN barrier layer which had an average root-mean-square roughness of 0.177 nm. The In and Ga distributions within the MQWs followed the expected distributions for a random alloy with no indications of In clustering.

  2. InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dots yellow-green light-emitting diode with optimized GaN barriers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED is demonstrated successfully. The transmission electron microscopy image shows the uniform multilayer InGaN QDs clearly. As the injection current increases from 5 to 50 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelength shifts from 574 to 537 nm. PMID:23134721

  3. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  4. Cross-stacked carbon nanotubes assisted self-separation of free-standing GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tongbo; Yang, Jiankun; Wei, Yang; Huo, Ziqiang; Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high quality 2-inch freestanding GaN substrate grown on cross-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) coated sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). As nanoscale masks, these CSCNTs can help weaken the interface connection and release the compressive stress by forming voids during fast coalescence and also block the propagation of threading dislocations (TDs). During the cool-down process, thermal stress-induced cracks are initiated at the CSCNTs interface with the help of air voids and propagated all over the films which leads to full self-separation of FS-GaN substrate. Raman and photoluminescence spectra further reveal the stress relief and crystalline improvement of GaN with CSCNTs. It is expected that the efficient, low cost and mass-producible technique may enable new applications for CNTs in nitride optoelectronic fields. PMID:27340030

  5. Thermodynamic States and Phase Diagrams for Bulk-Incoherent, Bulk-Coherent, and Epitaxially-Coherent Semiconductor Alloys: Application to Cubic (Ga,In)N

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. Z.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    {Delta}H{sup epi} < 0. For cubic (Ga,In)N grown on GaN (001) substrate, we find that the stablest epitaxial phases are chalcopyrite and the (InN){sub 4}/(GaN){sub 1} superlattice along the (210) crystal direction. Here, we calculate, from first principles, the formation enthalpies of cubic zinc blende (Ga,In)N alloy under the three forms of thermodynamic states indicated above to establish a cluster expansion, from which we calculate the finite-temperature phase diagrams. This illustrates how the thermodynamic constraints during growth can radically alter the alloy phase behavior and its microstructures.

  6. Optical studies of strain and defect distribution in semipolar (11xAF01) GaN on patterned Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izyumskaya, N.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Selden, T.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Metzner, S.; Karbaum, C.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Morkoç, H.

    2013-09-01

    Formation of defects in semipolar (11¯01)-oriented GaN layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on patterned Si (001) substrates and their effects on optical properties were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and spectrally and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). Near-band edge emission is found to be dominant in the c+-wings of semipolar (11¯01)GaN, which are mainly free from defect-related emission lines, while the c- wings contain a large number of basal stacking faults. When the advancing c+ and c— fronts meet to coalesce into a continuous film, the existing stacking faults contained in c— wings continue to propagate in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and, as a result, the region dominated by stacking fault emission is extended to the film surface. Additional stacking faults are observed within the c+ wings, where the growing c+ wings of GaN are in contact with the SiO2 masking layer. Out-diffusion of oxygen/silicon species and concentration of strain near the contact region are considered as possible causes of the stacking fault formation. CL linescans performed along the surface and across the thickness of the non-coalesced and coalesced layers revealed that, while most of the material in the near-surface region of the non-coalesced layers is relaxed, coalescence results in nonuniform strain distribution over the layer surface. Red-shifted near-band-edge emission from the near-surface region indicates tensile stress near the surface of a coalesced layer, reaching a value of 0.3 GPa. The regions near the GaN/AlN/Si(111) interface show slightly blue shifted, broadened near-band-edge emission, which is indicative of a high concentration of free carriers possibly due to incorporation of shallow-donor impurities (Si and/or O) from the substrate or SiO2 mask. Steady-state and time-resolved PL results indicate that semipolar (11¯01)GaN on patterned Si exhibits optical properties (PL

  7. Comparison of Strain in GaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Silicon(111) and Sapphire Substrates.

    PubMed

    Jeon, K S; Sung, J H; Lee, M W; Song, H Y; Lee, E A; Kim, S O; Choi, H J; Shin, H Y; Park, W H; Jang, Y I; Kang, M G; Choi, Y H; Lee, J S; Ko, D H; Ryu, H Y

    2015-07-01

    We compare the strain states and device performances of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on Si(111) and sapphire substrates. The strain characteristics are investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These analyses reveal that GaN layer grown on Si has a residual tensile strain in contrast to a compressive strain for GaN on sapphire, and quantum wells (QWs) on GaN/Si experience reduced lattice mismatch than those of GaN/sapphire. When external quantum efficiencies of LED on sapphire and Si substrates are compared, the LED on Si shows better efficiency droop characteristics and this is attributed to a decrease in piezo-electric field strength in InGaN/GaN layers owing to reduced lattice mismatch.

  8. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2013-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  9. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  10. Stability of Carbon Incorpoated Semipolar GaN(1101) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2011-08-01

    The structural stability of carbon incorporated GaN(1101) surfaces is theoretically investigated by performing first-principles pseudopotential calculations. The calculated surface formation energies taking account of the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy conditions demonstrate that several carbon incorporated surfaces are stabilized depending on the growth conditions. Using surface phase diagrams, which are obtained by comparing the calculated adsorption energy with vapor-phase chemical potentials, we find that the semipolar surface forms NH2 and CH2 below ˜1660 K while the polar GaN(0001) surface with CH3 is stabilized below ˜1550 K. This difference could be one of possible explanations for p-type doping on the semipolar GaN(1101) surface.

  11. Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Hoshi; Kishino, Katsumi; Sakai, Masaru; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities were demonstrated using room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outer diameter, height, and thickness of the GaN nanorings were approximately 750-800, 900, and 130-180 nm, respectively. The nanorings functioned as whispering-gallery-mode (WGM)-type optical cavities and exhibited sharp resonant peaks like lasing actions. The evanescent component of the WGM was strongly affected by the refractive index of the ambient environment, the type of liquid, and the sucrose concentration of the analyzed solution, resulting in shifts of the resonant wavelengths. The results indicate that the GaN nanorings can potentially be used in sugar sensors of the biosensors.

  12. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  13. ECR, ICP, and RIE plasma etching of GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Shul, R.J.; McClellan, G.B.; Rieger, D.J.; Hafich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    The group III-nitrides continue to generate interest due to their wide band gaps and high dielectric constants. These materials have made significant impact on the compound semiconductor community as blue and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs). Realization of more advanced devices; including lasers and high temperature electronics, requires dry etch processes which are well controlled, smooth, highly anisotropic and have etch rates exceeding 0.5 {mu}m/min. In this paper, we compare electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and reactive ion etch (RIE) etch results for GaN. These are the first ICP etch results reported for GaN. We also report ECR etch rates for GaN as a function of growth technique.

  14. Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Hoshi; Kishino, Katsumi; Sakai, Masaru; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities were demonstrated using room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outer diameter, height, and thickness of the GaN nanorings were approximately 750–800, 900, and 130–180 nm, respectively. The nanorings functioned as whispering-gallery-mode (WGM)-type optical cavities and exhibited sharp resonant peaks like lasing actions. The evanescent component of the WGM was strongly affected by the refractive index of the ambient environment, the type of liquid, and the sucrose concentration of the analyzed solution, resulting in shifts of the resonant wavelengths. The results indicate that the GaN nanorings can potentially be used in sugar sensors of the biosensors.

  15. Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(1122) growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahourcade, L.; Wirthmueller, A.; Monroy, E.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Laufer, A.; Eickhoff, M.

    2009-10-26

    We report the effect of Mg doping on the growth kinetics of semipolar GaN(1122) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Mg tends to segregate on the surface, inhibiting the formation of the self-regulated Ga film which is used as a surfactant for the growth of undoped and Si-doped GaN(1122). We observe an enhancement of Mg incorporation in GaN(1122) compared to GaN(0001). Typical structural defects or polarity inversion domains found in Mg-doped GaN(0001) were not observed for the semipolar films investigated in the present study.

  16. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  17. Dislocation luminescence in GaN single crystals under nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Xu, Ke; Fan, Ying Min; Wang, Jian Feng; Zhang, Ji Cai; Ren, Guo Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the dislocation luminescence in GaN by nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and Raman. The dislocation luminescence peaking at 3.12 eV exhibits a series of special properties in the cathodoluminescence measurements, and it completely disappears after annealing at 500°C. Raman spectroscopy shows evidence for existence of vacancies in the indented region. A comprehensive investigation encompassing cathodoluminescence, Raman, and annealing experiments allow the assignment of dislocation luminescence to conduction-band-acceptor transition involving Ga vacancies. The nanoscale plasticity of GaN can be better understood by considering the dislocation luminescence mechanism.

  18. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D'Evelyn, MP

    2014-10-01

    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heteroepitaxial growth of InN on GaN intermediate layer by PA-MOMBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Fang-I.; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Chen, Wei-Chun; Lin, Woei-Tyng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Chang, Li; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Chiang, Chung-Hao

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, high-quality wurtzite indium nitride was epi-grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted metal-organic molecule beam epitaxy system (PA-MOMBE). Structural and electrical properties of the InN films were significantly improved by employing a GaN buffer layer. In addition, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall Effect, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the effect of the growth temperature on structural and optoelectronic properties. It was found that highly c-axis oriented InN epilayer can be obtained by optimizing growth conditions. TEM images reveal that the epitaxially grown InN/GaN interface is sharp, and the spacing of the InN(0 0 0 2) lattice plane is about 0.57 nm. Raman spectra also show a sharp peak at 491 cm -1 attributed to the E 2(high) mode of wurtzite InN. These results indicate that the improvement of InN material quality can be achieved using heteroepitaxy on GaN/sapphire templates.

  20. First-principles study of d0 ferromagnetism in alkali-metal doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The d0 ferromagnetism in GaN has been studied based on density functional theory. Our results show that GaN with sufficient hole become spin-polarized. Alkali-metal doping can introduce holes in GaN. Among them, both of Li- and Na-doping induce ferromagnetism in GaN and Na-doped GaN behaves as half-metallic ferromagnet. Moreover, at a growth temperature of 2000 K under N-rich condition, both concentrations can exceed 18%, which is sufficient to produce detectable macroscopic magnetism in GaN. The Curie temperature of Li- and Na-doped GaN is estimated to be 304 and 740 K, respectively, which are well above room temperature.