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Sample records for culex pipiens group

  1. Ecological and genetic analyses of the complete genomes of Culex flavivirus strains isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) group mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Obara-Nagoya, M; Yamauchi, T; Watanabe, M; Hasegawa, S; Iwai-Itamochi, M; Horimoto, E; Takizawa, T; Takashima, I; Kariwa, H

    2013-03-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus that was first reported in 2007 in Japan. CxFV strains were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Culex pipiens L. group mosquitoes and genetically characterized in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, from 2004 to 2009, to reveal host specificity, mode of transmission, and seasonal and geographical distribution. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of CxFV within Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations was 0.3 and much lower than that within Cx. pipiens group (17.9). The complete genome sequences of 11 CxFV isolates (four from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and seven from Cx. pipiens group) consisted of 10,835-10,837 nucleotides. When these 11 isolates and five reference strains (NIID-21-2 and Tokyo strains from Japan, Iowa07 and HOU24518 strains from the United States, H0901 strain from China) were compared, there were 95.2-99.2% nucleotide and 98.1-99.8% amino acid identities. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 isolates were divided into four clusters. One cluster consisted of five isolates from Cx. pipiens group and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus from one site and their nucleotide sequences almost completely matched. One cluster consisted of an isolate with a unique sequence from a Cx. pipiens group mosquito captured in an aircraft from Taiwan, suggesting that it was introduced from abroad. CxFV strains were divided into several groups according to countries when nucleotide sequences of CxFV available in GenBank and 11 Toyama isolates were compared. These results suggest that CxFV is maintained in nature among Culex mosquitoes in a mosquito habitat-specific but not a species-specific manner.

  2. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also

  3. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Bolling, Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Moore, Chester G; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros, America A; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Diaz-Perez, Alfonso; Beaty, Barry J; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-05-09

    Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The

  4. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Sara; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance. Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated papers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions according to the method described by WHO. Number of take-offs were counted during 15 minutes of exposure time. Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group. Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended. PMID:27308276

  5. First Nationwide Surveillance of Culex pipiens Complex and Culex torrentium Mosquitoes Demonstrated the Presence of Culex pipiens Biotype pipiens/molestus Hybrids in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Börstler, Jessica; Melaun, Christian; Jöst, Hanna; von Thien, Heidrun; Badusche, Marlis; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Krüger, Andreas; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes and other arthropods may transmit medically important pathogens, in particular viruses such as West Nile virus. The presence of suitable hosts and competent vectors for those zoonotic viruses is essential for an enzootic transmission, which is a prerequisite for epidemics. To establish reliable risk projections, it is an urgent need for an exact identification of mosquito species, which is especially challenging in the case of sibling species, such as Culex. pipiens pipiens biotypes pipiens and molestus. To facilitate detection of different Culex pipiens forms and their hybrids we established a multiplex real-time PCR. Culex pipiens samples were obtained by egg raft collection and rearing until imago stage or adult sampling using CO2 baited traps and gravid traps. In total, we tested more than 16,500 samples collected all over Germany in the years 2011 and 2012. The predominant species in Germany are Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens and Culex. torrentium, but we also detected Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus and hybrids of the two pipiens biotypes at sites where both species occur sympatrically. This report of a potentially important bridge vector for West Nile virus might have major impact in the risk projections for West Nile virus in Germany. PMID:24039724

  6. Comparative analysis of the circadian rhythm genes period and timeless in Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaikevich, Elena V.; Karan, Ludmila S.; Fyodorova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nucleotide sequences of the circadian rhythm genes, period and timeless, were studied for the first time in mosquitoes Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. In this work we evaluated variations of the studied genome fragments for the two forms of Culex pipiens (forma “pipiens” – mosquitoes common for aboveground habitats, forma “molestus” – underground mosquitoes). We compared Culex pipiens from Russia with transatlantic Culex pipiens and subtropical Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823. Our results show that intraspecies variability is higher for the gene period than for the gene timeless. The revealed substitutions in nucleotide sequences and especially in amino acid sequences grouped the individuals of the two forms into distinct clusters with high significance. The detected fixed amino acid substitutions may appear essential for functioning of the circadian rhythm proteins in Culex pipiens, and may be correlated with adaptations of the taxa within the group Culex pipiens. Our results suggest that natural selection favors fixed mutations and the decrease in diversity of the genes period and timeless in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens f. “molestus” compared with the Culex pipiens f. “pipiens”, is probably correlated with adaptive features of Culex pipiens f. “molestus”. The studied genome regions may be considered as promising molecular-genetic markers for identification, population and phylogenetic analysis of similar species and forms of the Culex pipiens complex. PMID:28123673

  7. Population Genetic and Admixture Analyses of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in California, United States

    PubMed Central

    Kothera, Linda; Nelms, Brittany M.; Reisen, William K.; Savage, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to genetically characterize 19 Culex pipiens complex populations from California. Two populations showed characteristics of earlier genetic bottlenecks. The overall FST value and a neighbor-joining tree suggested moderate amounts of genetic differentiation. Analyses using Structure indicated K = 4 genetic clusters: Cx. pipiens form pipiens L., Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl, and a group of genetically similar individuals of hybrid origin. A Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components indicated that the latter group is a mixture of the other three taxa, with form pipiens and form molestus contributing somewhat more ancestry than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Characterization of 56 morphologically autogenous individuals classified most as Cx. pipiens form molestus, and none as Cx. pipiens form pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus. Comparison of California microsatellite data with those of Cx. pipiens pallens Coquillett from Japan indicated the latter does not contribute significantly to genotypes in California. PMID:23958909

  8. Emergence of Culex pipiens from overwintering hibernacula.

    PubMed

    Ciota, Alexander T; Drummond, Cori L; Drobnack, Jason; Ruby, Meghan A; Kramer, Laura D; Ebel, Gregory D

    2011-03-01

    Overwintering populations of Culex pipiens, the principal enzootic vector of West Nile virus in the northeastern USA, were studied over 3 consecutive winters from 2006 to 2008, using mark-recapture techniques to determine when Cx. pipiens females began to disperse from overwintering hibernacula and how their survival influenced early season populations. In February of each year, Cx. pipiens were aspirated and marked using fluorescent powder; 4,067, 752, and 3,070 diapausing Cx. pipiens were marked in each successive year. Mosquitoes were then trapped from mid-April to early May of each year using 19 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and 16 CDC gravid traps. A total of 348, 39, and 111 Culex mosquitoes were captured in the spring of 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The number of mosquitoes marked in overwintering habitats is generally positively correlated with the number of mosquitoes recaptured in the early spring (linear regression, R2 = 0.79, P = 0.04), yet results also suggest that seasonal variations beyond overwintering population size are likely important in determining the success of emergent populations. A single marked Cx. pipiens was captured in both 2006 and 2008. In 2006, the mosquito was captured 0.5 km from its overwintering site while in 2008 the mosquito was captured 0.3 km from its overwintering site. In all study years, mosquitoes consistently began exiting overwintering hibernacula the 3rd week of April, yet evidence of earlier exodus was observed in 2007, when outside temperatures were significantly higher in preceding days and months.

  9. Transmission Incompetence of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pipiens from North America for Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Joan L.; Romo, Hannah; Duggal, Nisha K.; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Savage, Harry M.

    2017-01-01

    In late 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) emerged as a significant arboviral disease threat in the Western hemisphere. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been considered the principal vectors of ZIKV in the New World due to viral isolation frequency and vector competence assessments. Limited reports of Culex transmission potential have highlighted the need for additional vector competence assessments of North American Culex species. Accordingly, North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus were orally exposed and intrathoracically inoculated with the African prototype ZIKV strain and currently circulating Asian lineage ZIKV strains to assess infection, dissemination, and transmission potential. Results indicated that these two North American Culex mosquito species were highly refractory to oral infection with no dissemination or transmission observed with any ZIKV strains assessed. Furthermore, both Culex mosquito species intrathoracically inoculated with either Asian or African lineage ZIKVs failed to expectorate virus in saliva. These in vivo results were further supported by the observation that multiple mosquito cell lines of Culex species origin demonstrated significant growth restriction of ZIKV strains compared with Aedes-derived cell lines. In summation, no evidence for the potential of Cx. pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus to serve as a competent vector for ZIKV transmission in North America was observed. PMID:28500817

  10. Insecticide-resistance in Culex pipiens fatigans*

    PubMed Central

    Busvine, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    The three main subspecies of the Culex pipiens complex—pipiens, fatigans and molestus—have similar “normal” levels of susceptibility to insecticides. C. p. fatigans larvae resemble those of anopheline mosquitos in sensitivity to dieldrin, but are more resistant to DDT; the adults are unusually resistant to chlorinated insecticides, but do not differ greatly from other species of mosquito in susceptibility to organophosphorus compounds. There is evidence of conversion of DDT to DDE in C. p. fatigans and other mosquitos, but this may well not be the only cause of resistance. Dieldrin-resistance in C. p. fatigans involves cross-resistance to HCH, but at a considerably lower level; the mechanism of resistance is still obscure. Resistance to organophosphorus insecticides has been observed; the cross-resistance to diazinon indicates that the mechanism is not solely one of carboxy-esterase detoxication. Mechanisms of inheritance of resistance have been investigated. The most recent results indicate the monofactorial inheritance of resistance by a single pair of nearly dominant genes on chromosome 2 for DDT-resistance and by a single pair of genes on chromosome 3 with intermediate dominance for HCH dieldrin-resistance. PMID:5300068

  11. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  12. Asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Comporta region, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions. This species consists of two forms, denoted molestus and pipiens, that exhibit important behavioural and physiological differences. The evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these forms remain unclear. In northern European latitudes molestus and pipiens populations occupy different habitats (underground vs. aboveground), a separation that most likely promotes genetic isolation between forms. However, the same does not hold in southern Europe where both forms occur aboveground in sympatry. In these southern habitats, the extent of hybridisation and its impact on the extent of genetic divergence between forms under sympatric conditions has not been clarified. For this purpose, we have used phenotypic and genetic data to characterise Cx. pipiens collected aboveground in Portugal. Our aims were to determine levels of genetic differentiation and the degree of hybridisation between forms occurring in sympatry, and to relate these with both evolutionary and epidemiological tenets of this biological group. Results Autogeny and stenogamy was evaluated in the F1 progeny of 145 individual Cx. pipiens females. Bayesian clustering analysis based on the genotypes of 13 microsatellites revealed two distinct genetic clusters that were highly correlated with the alternative traits that define pipiens and molestus. Admixture analysis yielded hybrid rate estimates of 8-10%. Higher proportions of admixture were observed in pipiens individuals suggesting that more molestus genes are being introgressed into the pipiens form than the opposite. Conclusion Both physiological/behavioural and genetic data provide evidence for the sympatric occurrence of molestus and pipiens forms of Cx. pipiens in the study area. In spite of the significant genetic differentiation between forms, hybridisation occurs at considerable levels. The observed pattern of asymmetric introgression probably relates to

  13. Ecological Distribution and CQ11 Genetic Structure of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Severini, Francesco; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Minelli, Giada; Bongiorno, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Arnoldi, Daniele; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Romi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are considered to be involved in the transmission of a range of pathogens, including West Nile virus (WNV). Although its taxonomic status is still debated, the complex includes species, both globally distributed or with a more limited distribution, morphologically similar and characterised by different physiological and behavioural traits, which affect their ability as vectors. In many European countries, Cx. pipiens and its sibling species Culex torrentium occur in sympatry, exhibiting similar bionomic and morphological characters, but only Cx. pipiens appears to play a vector role in WNV transmission. This species consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can interbreed when in sympatry, and their hybrids can act as WNV-bridge vectors, due to intermediate ecological features. Considering the yearly WNV outbreaks since 2008 and given the morphological difficulties in recognising species and biotypes, our aim was to molecularly identify and characterised Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium in Italy, using recently developed molecular assays. Culex torrentium was not detected; as in other European countries, the pipiens and molestus biotypes were widely found in sympatry with hybrids in most environments. The UPGMA cluster analysis applied to CQ11 genotypic frequencies mainly revealed two groups of Cx. pipiens populations that differed in ecological features. The high propensity of the molestus biotype to exist in hypogean environments, where the habitat’s physical characteristics hinder and preclude the gene flow, was shown. These results confirmed the CQ11 assay as a reliable diagnostic method, consistent with the ecological and physiological aspects of the populations analysed. Since the assessment of the actual role of three biotypes in the WNV circulation remains a crucial point to be elucidated, this extensive molecular screening of Cx. pipiens populations can provide new insights into the ecology of the species

  14. Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance to Filarial Worm Infection in Culex pipiens pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Michelle L.; Erickson, Sara M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies of these worms

  15. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait. PMID:26484540

  16. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait.

  17. Variation in adult longevity of Culex pipiens f. pipiens, vector of the West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, S S; Dimotsiou, O C; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2014-11-01

    The common house mosquito, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), which is considered the primary bridge vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) to humans, is a wide spread insect pest with medical importance and consists of two distinct bioforms, Cx. pipiens f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Here, we consider the adult lifespan of male and female Cx. pipiens f. pipiens under controlled conditions at five constant temperature regimes (15, 20, 25, 27.5, and 30 °C). Our results show that adult longevity was affected by temperature, as it significantly decreased with increase in temperature. At the highest tested temperature, mean adult longevity did not exceed 12 days for both sexes and thus makes impossible the risk of WNV transmission. On the other hand at the lowest temperature, longevity was extremely high with some individuals surviving up to 129 and 132 days, males and females, respectively, and thus enable them to function as potential vectors of WNV for a prolonged period of time. As far as sex is concerned, adult females displayed a 1.2-1.4-fold longer longevity compared to the male ones. However, this difference was significant only at the lowest and highest tested temperature regime. This information is useful in determining the critical temperatures which may affect the distribution of Cx. pipiens and consequently the risk of WNV transmission. Moreover, the effect of environmental temperature should be considered when evaluating the abundance of these species.

  18. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  19. Phenotypic variation among Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: horizontal and vertical transmission of West Nile virus, diapause potential, autogeny, and host selection.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Brittany M; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause.

  20. HISTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENTS ON CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE.

    PubMed

    El Sobky, Mona M; Ismail, Howaida I H; Assar, Abada A

    2016-04-01

    The histochemical effects of the lethal concentration that kills 50% of larvae (LC50) of three biological agents, abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis and spinosad on the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, nucleic acids and lipids content of the midgut and fat bodies of Culex pipiens 2nd instar larvae were studied. The results showed that the three tested compounds reduced the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, RNA synthesis and lipids content after 72 hours of treatment where abamectin was the most effective followed by Bacillus thuringiensis then spinosad.

  1. "Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M; Kramer, Laura D; Marm Kilpatrick, A

    2011-10-01

    The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex australicus, and Culex globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipienspipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental host preference of diapause and non-diapause induced Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-07-24

    Culex pipiens pipiens plays an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Laboratory and field studies suggest that this species is ornithophilic but because of genetic hybridization with sibling species during the active mosquito season, it may occasionally feed on mammals. Adult female Cx. p. pipiens undergo a facultative diapause and may serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. To determine the effect of diapause on the innate host preference of Cx. p. pipiens emerging from winter hibernation, we conducted host-choice experiments using bird and mammal hosts. Mosquitoes were reared under non-diapause induced (NDI), diapause induced (DI), and field collected from overwintering (OW) hibernaculae. They were released into a large mesh enclosure housing two lard can traps, and given a choice between feeding on a dove or a rat. Host seeking Cx. p. pipiens were four times more likely to feed on the dove than the rat, regardless of experimental conditions. Under NDI conditions, Cx. p. pipiens were (p < 0.001) more attracted to the bird (79.9% [75.6-84.1]) than the rat (20.1 [15.9-24.4]). Overwintering mosquitoes and those exposed to DI conditions were also significantly (p < 0.001) more attracted to birds (81.6% [75.9-87.3]) than to rats (18.5 [12.7-24.2]). We provide new information about the innate host preference of Cx. p. pipiens emerging from diapause in temperate habitats where winter survival is crucial for disease transmission cycles. Although we showed that Cx. p. pipiens prefers an avian to a mammalian host, nearly 20% of emerging mosquitoes in the spring could feed on mammals. Changes in host preferences may also contain valuable clues about transmission dynamics and subsequent timely interventions by vector control and public health practitioners.

  3. Oviposition Activity Patterns of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Stough, Jennifer E; Wallace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans are the main vectors of West Nile virus and the primary target species of surveillance and control programs in Pennsylvania. Performing adult control, specifically ultra-low volume (ULV) applications, at night during peak oviposition activity time(s) is necessary to control these species. In July and August of 2009, collections were made at 15-min intervals starting at sunset and continuing until 3 h after sunset to establish a more accurate timeline of Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans oviposition flight activity. The highest numbers of Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans were collected during the 15-30, 30-45, and 45-60 min postsunset time intervals (P < 0.05). Oviposition activity began to decrease after 60 min postsunset. These observations have identified a smaller oviposition activity period for Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans than noted from other studies, thus potentially improving the timing of ULV operations to control these 2 vector species.

  4. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the sibling vector species Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hesson, Jenny C; Ostman, Orjan; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2011-10-01

    Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens are sibling species and potential viral vectors that coexist in Europe. Larvae and females of the two species are morphologically almost identical, and reliable identification can only be done on males. To investigate the distribution and relative abundance of the two species in Sweden, we collected Culex larvae from sites spread over the country, identified them as Culex pipiens/torrentium based on morphology, and identified them to species using a recently developed restriction enzyme method. Cx. torrentium was the dominant species (89%, n=1012) and it occurred in 48 of the 49 sites investigated, and also dominated in most of the study sites. The proportion of Cx. pipiens larvae in relation to Cx. torrentium collected at each site decreased with both increasing latitude and altitude, and the presence of Cx. pipiens decreased with latitude. In addition, Cx. pipiens/torrentium females were sampled with Centres for Disease Control light traps baited with carbon dioxide. The overall country mean was 4.0 Cx. pipiens/torrentium caught per trap night, with decreasing numbers of Cx. pipiens/torrentium caught per trap night with increasing latitude. Thus, the abundance of Cx. pipiens/torrentium decreased, but the proportion Cx. torrentium increased, with increasing latitude. This is the first study that shows the vast dominance of Cx. torrentium over Cx. pipiens in Sweden. The unexpected dominance of Cx. torrentium highlights the importance of distinguishing between the two species in studies of Culex-borne arboviruses in Europe.

  5. Global Perspective on the Culex pipiens Complex in the 21st Century I

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Culex pipiens complex, including Culex pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. molestus are important pest species and vectors of human and animal diseases throughout the world's tropical, temperate, and Holarctic regions. Diseases transmitted by member of the complex include: St. Louis encephali...

  6. Effects of nutrition and density in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Alto, B W; Muturi, E J; Lampman, R L

    2012-12-01

    Mosquito larvae face numerous biotic and abiotic challenges that affect their development and survivorship, as well as adult fitness. We conducted two experiments under semi-natural conditions to evaluate the effects of intraspecific competition, nutrient limitation and sub-lethal doses of malathion on individual life history traits in adult Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). In the first experiment, larvae of Cx. pipiens were reared at different intraspecific densities and exposed to sub-lethal doses of malathion. In the second experiment, different intraspecific densities of Cx. pipiens larvae were reared under conditions of low or high larval nutrients, and subsequent adults were fed on either water or 10% sucrose solution. Malathion treatment had relatively minor effects compared with density, which had significant negative effects on development rate, survivorship to adulthood, body size (wing length) and longevity. As larval density increased, a sex ratio distortion in survivorship to adulthood emerged, in which a bias towards males was apparent. Nutrient-rich larval environments alleviated, in part, the effects of increasing density and extended the lifespan of mosquitoes fed on water and 10% sucrose. Density-dependent alterations in adult longevity attributable to the larval environment are complex and show contrasting results depending on interactions with other environmental factors. This study suggests that larval resource availability and competition influence Cx. pipiens population growth correlates and have lasting effects on traits that relate to a mosquito's ability to vector pathogens.

  7. Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jennifer E; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M; Childs, James E; Simons, Leah E; Andreadis, Theodore G; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2009-11-17

    Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius). To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42-6.46]) and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22-2.90]). There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials). Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission.

  8. Bionomics and control of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. in Ceylon

    PubMed Central

    Chow, C. Y.; Thevasagayam, E. S.

    1957-01-01

    The climatic and housing conditions which favour the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans in Ceylon, and its life-cycle and resting-habits, are described. The results of the treatment of breeding-places (mainly catch-pits) and the interior of houses with various insecticides of specific action on larvae or adults, in different preparations and concentrations, are given, and suggestions are made for the control of the mosquito on this island. The fundamental measure for successful control is efficient sanitation, but until this can be achieved, application of larvicides seems to be the method of choice. PMID:13472415

  9. Decreased Flight Activity in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected With Culex flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) commonly infect vectors of mosquito-borne arboviruses. To investigate whether infection with an ISFV might affect mosquito flight behavior, we quantified flight behavior in Culex pipiens L. naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV). We observed a significant reduction in the scotophase (dark hours) flight activity of CxFV-positive mosquitoes relative to CxFV-negative mosquitoes, but only a marginal reduction in photophase (light hours) flight activity, and no change in the circadian pattern of flight activity. These results suggest that CxFV infection alters the flight activity of naturally infected Cx. pipiens most dramatically when these vectors are likely to be host seeking and may therefore affect the transmission of medically important arboviruses. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The forms of the Culex pipiens complex in East Asia, with ecological thoughts on their origin and interrelation.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2012-12-01

    In East Asia, 4 forms of the Culex pipiens complex have been confirmed. A form pipiens s. s. (anautogeous pipiens) has been confirmed only in westernmost China. A temperate form pallens and a subtropical and tropical form quinquefasciatus are connected with intermediates in morphology and many aspects of ecology, but their difference is rather clear in climatic adaptation traits. The distribution of a form molestus overlaps with pallens and, in Taiwan, quinquefasciatus, and, in East Asia, this form requires artificial underground habitats for its persistence. The origin and interrelation of 3 forms other than pipiens s. s. are considered from ecological aspects, especially climatic adaptation. A hypothesis is presented that molestus was originally a form having adapted to the Mediterranean climate in the western Palaearctic, secondarily colonized artificial underground habitats, and reached East Asia in the early 20th century by ships from North America. At present, it is difficult to assign pallens with certainty to either the old or new groups of the Manchurian mosquito fauna. Three hypotheses about the interrelation between pallens and quinquefasciatus are compared, and the strengths and problems of each hypothesis are indicated. Finally, a map to show the distribution of the forms of the Culex pipiens complex before it was extensively changed by humans is presented as an initial trial. The Culex pipiens problems now troubling humans are largely human-made problems.

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Culex pipiens Mosquitoes by Wolbachia Influences Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon; Kambris, Zakaria; Sutton, Elizabeth R.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Parkhill, Julian; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes complex patterns of crossing sterility between populations of the Culex pipiens group of mosquitoes. The molecular basis of the phenotype is yet to be defined. In order to investigate what host changes may underlie CI at the molecular level, we examined the transcription of a homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene grauzone that encodes a zinc finger protein and acts as a regulator of female meiosis, in which mutations can cause sterility. Upregulation was observed in Wolbachia-infected C. pipiens group individuals relative to Wolbachia-cured lines and the level of upregulation differed between lines that were reproductively incompatible. Knockdown analysis of this gene using RNAi showed an effect on hatch rates in a Wolbachia infected Culex molestus line. Furthermore, in later stages of development an effect on developmental progression in CI embryos occurs in bidirectionally incompatible crosses. The genome of a wPip Wolbachia strain variant from Culex molestus was sequenced and compared with the genome of a wPip variant with which it was incompatible. Three genes in inserted or deleted regions were newly identified in the C. molestus wPip genome, one of which is a transcriptional regulator labelled wtrM. When this gene was transfected into adult Culex mosquitoes, upregulation of the grauzone homolog was observed. These data suggest that Wolbachia-mediated regulation of host gene expression is a component of the mechanism of cytoplasmic incompatibility. PMID:24204251

  12. [Presumptive role of Wolbachia in deltamethrin resistance of Culex pipiens pallens].

    PubMed

    Hong, Shan-Chao; Lv, Yuan; Fang, Fu-Jin; Zhu, Chang-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between Wolbachia and deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. PCR was used to detect Wolbachia in Culex pipiens pallens and qRT-PCR was performed to determine and compare the expression of Wolbachia between deltamethrin- resistant and - susceptible strains of Culex pipiens pallens. Wolbachia was detected in Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory. The expression of Wolbachia was 18.42, 3.69, 4.43, 3.96, 6.31, 1.55 and 3.76 folds higher in the deltamethrin-resistant strain than in susceptible strain in the egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th stages, and male and female adults, but there was no statistical difference in the pupae stage. The expression of Wolbachia was 2.64 folds higher in deltamethrin-resistant females than in susceptible females which were caught in Jiangxinzhou of Nanjing. Wolbachia is associated with deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipines pallens.

  13. Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes harbor distinct microbiota dominated by few bacterial taxa.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Bara, Jeffrey; Bach, Elizabeth M; Siddappaji, Madhura H

    2016-01-13

    Mosquitoes host diverse microbial communities that influence many aspects of their biology including reproduction, digestion, and ability to transmit pathogens. Unraveling the composition, structure, and function of these microbiota can provide new opportunities for exploiting microbial function for mosquito-borne disease control. MiSeq® sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterize the microbiota of adult females of Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald collected from nine study sites in central Illinois. Out of 195 bacterial OTUs that were identified, 86 were shared between the two mosquito species while 16 and 93 OTUs were unique to Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, respectively. The composition and structure of microbial communities differed significantly between the two mosquito species with Cx. restuans hosting a more diverse bacterial community compared to Cx. pipiens. Wolbachia (OTU836919) was the dominant bacterial species in Cx. pipiens accounting for 91% of total microbiota while Sphingomonas (OTU817982) was the dominant bacterial species in Cx. restuans accounting for 31% of total microbiota. Only 3 and 6 OTUs occurred in over 60% of individuals in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, respectively. There was little effect of study site on bacterial community structure of either mosquito species. These results suggest that the two mosquito species support distinct microbial communities that are sparsely distributed between individuals. These findings will allow investigations of the role of identified microbiota on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in WNV transmission and their potential application in disease control.

  14. Avian Host-Selection by Culex pipiens in Experimental Trials

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jennifer E.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Childs, James E.; Simons, Leah E.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius). To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42–6.46]) and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22–2.90]). There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials). Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission. PMID:19924251

  15. Wide recognition of Culex pipiens and lack of detection of Culex torrentium through biomolecular differentiation of mosquitoes in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, M; Bonilauri, P; Bellini, R; Becker, S; Dottori, M

    2016-12-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes species with reported differences in vector competence for arthropod-borne viruses, many of which are of significant importance to human health such as the West Nile virus and the Sindbis virus. This group of mosquitoes is difficult to distinguish morphologically; particularly as adult females. In Europe, the two species of the complex, Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Culex torrentium Martini 1925, are often found sympatrically. With the aim to characterize the presence and spread of both species in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy, mosquitoes of the complex - collected during the West Nile virus surveillance plans - were tested by multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of the two species Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. A total of 24 165 mosquitoes, collected between 2012 and 2014 from 105 sites, and sorted in 204 pools, were tested. All tested pools were found to be composed of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cx. torrentium was not detected. These results indicate a likely absence of Cx. torrentium mosquitoes within the surveyed territory, whereas Cx. pipiens is widely distributed in the area mentioned. This is in line with previous reports, which describe a pre-alpine distribution of Cx. torrentium in Italy. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus: a potential vector to transmit Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Xing, Dan; Liu, Qin-Mei; Wu, Qun; Sun, Ai-Juan; Dong, Yan-de; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-07

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a threat to global health since the outbreak in Brazil in 2015. Although ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen, new evidence has shown that parts of the virus closely resemble Culex-transmitted viruses. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the competence of Culex species for ZIKV to understand their potential as vectors. In this study, female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were orally exposed to ZIKV. Mosquito midguts, salivary glands and ovaries were tested for ZIKV to measure infection and dissemination at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 18 days post exposure (pe). In addition, saliva was collected from mosquitoes after infection and infant mice were bitten by infected mosquitoes to measure the transmission ability of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The results showed that the peak time of virus appearance in the salivary glands was day 8 pe, with 90% infection rate and an estimated virus titer of 3.92±0.49 lg RNA copies/mL. Eight of the nine infant mice had positive brains after being bitten by infected mosquitoes, which meant that Cx. p. quinquefasciatus could be infected with and transmit ZIKV following oral infection. These laboratory results clearly demonstrate the potential role of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus as a vector of ZIKV in China. Because there are quite different vector management strategies required to control Aedes (Stegomyia) species and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, an integrated approach may be required should a Zika epidemic occur.

  17. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester) and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the Ester2 allele, which exhibits

  18. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  19. Composite linkage map and enhanced genome map for Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hickner, Paul V; Mori, Akio; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2013-01-01

    We report here the development of 65 novel microsatellite loci and construction of a composite genetic linkage map for Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes. Microsatellites were identified by in silico screening of the Culex quinquefasciatus genome assembly. Cross-species utility of 73 microsatellites for population studies in C. pipiens sensu stricto and C. quinquefasciatus was evaluated by genotyping a subset of samples collected in Indiana, United States, and Point Fortin, Trinidad. Allele frequencies of 67 microsatellites were within Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both population subsets. A composite linkage map was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite polymorphisms in 12 independent F1 intercross mapping populations. The composite map consists of 61 marker loci totaling 183.9 cM distributed across the 3 linkage groups. These loci cover 29.5, 88.8, and 65.6 cM on chromosomes I-III, respectively, and allow for assignment of 10.4% of the genome assembly and 13.5% of the protein coding genes to chromosome position. Our results suggest that these microsatellites will be useful for mapping and population studies of 2 pervasive species in the C. pipiens complex. Moreover, the composite map presented here will serve as a basis for the construction of high-resolution genetic and physical maps, as well as detection of quantitative trait loci to aid in the investigation of complex genetic traits influencing phenotypes of interest.

  20. Cane-sugar feeding in Culex pipiens fatigans.

    PubMed

    de Meillon, B; Sebastian, A; Khan, Z H

    1967-01-01

    The relatively poor results that have been obtained in controlling or eradicating Culex pipiens fatigans, the urban vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, have made it necessary to obtain as much information as possible about its biology. In this paper the unexpected finding of the influence of cane sugar in delaying oviposition in the gravid female is reported. This is an important finding for those who are investigating the biology of this mosquito in the laboratory and who make use of the age-old practice of keeping adult mosquitos alive by feeding them cane sugar. It is also reported that under certain conditions extensive cane-sugar feeding takes place in nature and it seems possible that this habit may have unsuspected repercussions on behaviour and physiology beyond the confines of the laboratory. One possible development would be the isolation of the attractant present in unrefined sugars and its use in traps in order to assess mosquito populations in the field.

  1. Dieldrin-resistance in Culex pipiens fatigans in Malaya

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, R. H.

    1958-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides in Culex pipiens fatigans has already been reported from two areas in Malaya. In Penang two years' use of BHC as a larvicide resulted in the development of a strain which was found to have acquired a tenfold resistance to BHC, and also to dieldrin to which it had not been exposed. In Singapore, when larval control became unsatisfactory after 6 months' use of a dieldrin emulsion, laboratory experiments confirmed that active resistance to dieldrin had developed. The present observations report the finding of two further dieldrin-BHC resistant strains of C. p. fatigans in Malaya, but differ from the previous reports in that resistance, in one strain at least, was developed as a result of house-spraying with dieldrin against adult mosquitos. In this strain resistance to dieldrin was about 100 times in both adults and larvae, resistance to gamma-BHC in larvae was about 20 times, while resistance to DDT was slight. PMID:13536808

  2. The susceptibility of Culex pipiens fatigans to residual insecticides*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A.; Bransby-Williams, W. R.

    1962-01-01

    Observations have been made on Culex pipiens fatigans in the Taveta-Pare area in East Africa from 1954 to 1961, during which time dieldrin was applied to local houses over a 3½-year period as part of an experiment in malaria control. At the end of the period of residual spraying the numbers of C. p. fatigans had been reduced by two-thirds in the Taveta area, but in the South Pare area, only some 160 km away, this mosquito was twice as numerous as before spraying. The results of susceptibility tests carried out in untreated and dieldrin-treated areas showed that the susceptibility of C. p. fatigans in East Africa to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides was low compared with that of Anopheles gambiae, and varied by at least 20 times in some areas relatively short distances apart. C. p. fatigans from all areas sampled were, however, susceptible to fenthion and malathion. PMID:13993106

  3. Genetic diversity of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in distinct populations from Europe: contribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus in Mediterranean populations.

    PubMed

    Shaikevich, Elena V; Vinogradova, Elena B; Bouattour, Ali; Gouveia de Almeida, António Paulo

    2016-01-27

    Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are cosmopolitan, and important vectors of neglected tropical diseases, such as arbovirosis and lymphatic filariasis. Among the complex taxa, Cx. pipiens (with two forms pipiens and molestus) and Cx. quinquefasciatus are the most ubiquitous mosquitoes in temperate and tropical regions respectively. Mosquitoes of this taxa lack of morphological differences between females, but have frank behavioral and physiological differences and have different trophic preferences that influence their vectorial status. Hybridization may change the vectorial capacity of these mosquitoes, increasing vector efficiency and medical importance of resulting hybrids. Culex pipiens s.l. from 35 distinct populations were investigated by the study of mtDNA, symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, nuclear DNA and flanking region of microsatellite CQ11 polymorphism using PCR with diagnostic primers, RFLP analysis and sequencing. Six different mitochondrial haplotypes were revealed by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and three different Wolbachia (wPip) groups were identified. A strong association was observed between COI haplotypes/groups, wPip groups and taxa; haplogroup A and infection with wPipII appear to be typical for Cx. pipiens form pipiens, haplotype D and infection with wPipIV for form molestus, while haplogroup E, characteristic of Cx. quinquefasciatus, were correlated with wPipI and found in Cx. pipiens sl. from coastal regions of Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. Analysis of microsatellite locus and nuclear DNA revealed hybrids between Cx. pipiens form pipiens and form molestus, as well as between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, in Mediterranean populations, as opposed to Northern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of COI sequences yielded a tree topology that supported the RFLP analysis with significant bootstrap values for haplotype D and haplogroup E. Molecular identification provides the first evidence

  4. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. PMID:27605056

  5. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection.

  6. Wolbachia Endobacteria in Natural Populations of Culex pipiens of Iran and Its Phylogenetic Congruence

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mohsen; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Yahyapour, Yousef; Ferdosi-Shahandashti, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that infect different groups of arthropods including mosquitoes. These bacteria modify host biology and may induce feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Recently Wolbachia is being nominated as a bio-agent and paratransgenic candidate to control mosquito borne diseases. Methods: Here we report the results of a survey for presence, frequency, and phylogenetic congruence of these endosymbiont bacteria in Culex pipiens populations in Northern, Central, and Southern parts of Iran using nested-PCR amplification of wsp gene. Results: Wolbachia DNA were found in 227 (87.3%) out of 260 wild-caught mosquitoes. The rate of infection in adult females ranged from 61.5% to 100%, while in males were from 80% to 100%. The Blast search and phylogenetic analysis of the wsp gene sequence revealed that the Wolbachia strain from Iranian Cx. pipiens was identical to the Wolbachia strains of supergroup B previously reported in members of the Cx. pipiens complex. They had also identical sequence homology with the Wolbachia strains from a group of distinct arthropods including lepidopteran, wasps, flies, damselfly, thrips, and mites from remote geographical areas of the world. Conclusion: It is suggested that Wolbachia strains horizontally transfer between unrelated host organisms over evolutionary time. Also results of this study indicates that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all Cx. pipiens populations throughout the country, however further study needs to define Wolbachia inter-population reproductive incompatibility pattern and its usefulness as a bio-agent control measure. PMID:27308293

  7. Structure, Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Culex pipiens Complex in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Xiong, Chenglong; Su, Fei; Cao, Hui; Zhou, Jianjun; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Culex pipiens molestus was first reported in Shanghai in 2010. The population structures and seasonal distributions of Culex pipiens subspecies C. p. molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus are not well known. Methods: From late February to November 2013, we conducted daily field surveillance of mosquitoes at eight sites at two green lands and three residential areas in downtown Shanghai. Morphological comparison and DV/D ratios (DV/D is an indicator of mosquito taxonomy) were used to identify adult mosquitoes. Results: The distribution curves of the Culex pipiens complex members indicated seasonal fluctuations. The temperature range of 20–25 °C was the most suitable for adult activity. Micro-environmental factors may differentiate the complex population structures. Hybridization between C. p. pallens and C. p. quinquefasciatus was common and neither “DV/D = 0.40” nor “DV/D = 0.50” can distinguish these subspecies and their hybrids. Conclusion: the population structure of the Culex pipiens complex is complex and characterized by significant hybridization. Measures other than DV/D ratios are needed for the discrimination of subspecies. The C. p. molestus invasion might result in the transmission of novel vector-borne diseases in Shanghai. PMID:27869687

  8. Mom Matters: Diapause Characteristics of Culex pipiens-Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Hybrid Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Meuti, Megan E; Short, Clancy A; Denlinger, David L

    2015-03-01

    Females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., are capable of entering an adult overwintering diapause characterized by arrested ovarian development, enhanced stress tolerance, and elevated lipid stores. In contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, lacks this capacity and is therefore unable to survive the harsh winters found in northern regions of North America. These two species are capable of forming fertile hybrids in the United States, yet the diapause characteristics of these hybrids have not been extensively investigated. We crossed Cx. pipiens from Columbus, OH, with Cx. quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, and reared F1 hybrids from all mothers separately under diapause-inducing, short-day conditions (a photoperiod of 8:16 [L:D] h) at 18°C. Egg follicle length and lipid content were used to assess the diapause status of hybrids. Diapause incidence of hybrids varied widely for progeny from different mothers of the same species, but hybrids with Cx. pipiens mothers were consistently more prone to enter diapause than hybrids that had Cx. quinquefasciatus mothers. Our results suggest a strong maternal influence on the diapause phenotype and that a high percentage (45-75%) of Cx. pipiens-Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids are capable of entering diapause. This implies that many hybrids can successfully overwinter, leading to a possible widening of the hybrid zone of these two species in North America. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  10. The molecular and morphological variations of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, H; Sadraei, J; Moosa-Kazemi, S H; Baniani, N Akbari; Nowruzi, F

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic status of Culex pipiens is well-known as many years with such a wide variety of morphological and biological characteristics. These changes have been the subject of extensive investigation by many researchers. There are a little information about the morphology and molecular data of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran. The taxonomic status of the complex is very important because of medical and veterinary importance and wide distribution in the country. This study was carried out in 11 areas in Iran using dipping technique from April 2009 to October 2010. Molecular study was carried out using primers F1457 as forward and B1256 as reverse, which amplified Ace.2 gene and performed PCR-RFLP using ScaI restriction enzyme. Culex quinquefasciatus found in south to central areas of Iran and reported as sympatric with Cx. pipiens in the central regions. Culex pipiens distributed in many areas of the country. Sequencing alignment of Ace.2 gene of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens showed 6.5% variation in 46bp, especially in intron locus of gene. Culex pipiens complex from Iran are located in two separate clades with sister branches using phylogenetic sequencing tree. The male genitalia found as the most reliable diagnostic characters for identification of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran that confirmed by amplify the Ace.2 gene in the samples but we recommended the use of sequencing PCR products of microsatellite loci and COI gene in future study.

  11. “BIRD BITING” MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN DISEASE: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF CULEX PIPIENS COMPLEX MOSQUITOES IN EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts it feeds on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Cx. pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. australicus, and Cx. globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipiens pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology, of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. PMID:21875691

  12. Naive and conditioned responses of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) to flower odors.

    PubMed

    Jhumur, Umma Salma; Dötterl, Stefan; Jürgens, Andreas

    2006-11-01

    Flower odors are important signals for chemical communication between plants and flower visitors. Here, we studied the naive responses of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskal 1775 (Diptera: Culicidae) to typical flower odors and assessed the learning capacity of mosquitoes to floral volatiles. The odor compounds used in the bioassay, phenyl acetaldehyde, veratrole, and 2-methoxyphenol, are typically found in the floral odor of Silene otites (L.) Wibel, a plant that is pollinated by nectar-drinking mosquitoes and moths, and/or in other closely related Silene species. Wind tunnel bioassays with a mixture of these compounds revealed that attraction of mosquitoes to odors was positively correlated with time passed since the last feeding. In single component bioassays, mosquitoes showed strong innate responses to phenyl acetaldehyde and only moderate or weak responses to veratrole and 2-methoxyphenol. Furthermore, in comparison with naive mosquitoes, conditioned mosquitoes were significantly more attracted to the mixture and single volatiles. These results indicate that naive mosquitoes are effectively attracted by appropriate floral scent compounds and that learning can increase the attractiveness of these compounds.

  13. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  14. High Degree of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in California Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YOOSOOK; SEIFERT, STEPHANIE N.; NIEMAN, CATELYN C.; McABEE, RORY D.; GOODELL, PARKER; FRYXELL, REBECCA TROUT; LANZARO, GREGORY C.; CORNEL, ANTHONY J.

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of systematic relationships among members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex has important implications for public health as well as for studies on the evolution of sibling species. Currently held views contend that in California considerable genetic introgression occurs between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, and as such, these taxa behave as if they are a single species. Development of high throughput SNP genotyping tools for the analysis of Cx. pipiens complex population structure is therefore desirable. As a first step toward this goal, we sequenced 12 gene fragments from specimens collected in Marin and Fresno counties. On average, we found a higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density than any other mosquito species reported thus far. Coding regions contained significantly higher GC content (median 54.7%) than noncoding regions (42.4%; Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 5.29 × 10−5). Differences in SNP allele frequencies observed between mosquitoes from Marin and Fresno counties indicated significant genetic divergence and suggest that SNP markers will be useful for future detailed population genetic studies of this group. The high density of SNPs highlights the difficulty in identifying species within the complex and may be associated with the large degree of phenotypic variation observed in this group of mosquitoes. PMID:22493847

  15. Repellent effect of Lagenaria siceraria extracts against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Fouda, Mohamad A; Hammad, Kotb M; Tanani, Mohamad A; Shehata, Ahmed Z

    2014-04-01

    Ethanolic, acetone and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and stems of Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae) were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens L. mosquito. The repellent action of the present plant extracts were varied depending on the plant parts and the dose of extract. The petroleum ether extract of leaves showed the same repellency percent (100%) of commercial formulation, N. N.diethyl toulamide (DEET) at the higher dose (3.33 mg/cm2), while petroleum ether extract from stems exhibiting the repellent action (89.6%) at the same dose, respectively. Ethanolic extracts of leaves and stems exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded (81.3% and 69.1%) at (6.67 mg/cm2), respectively. Results of this study may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  16. Tracking factors modulating cytoplasmic incompatibilities in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Bernard, Clotilde; Unal, Sandra; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Weill, Mylène

    2006-09-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect many arthropod species and may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), resulting in abortive embryonic development. One Wolbachia host, Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes, displays high levels of variability in both CI crossing types (cytotypes) and DNA markers. We report here an analysis of 14 mosquito strains, containing 13 Wolbachia variants, and with 13 different cytotypes. Cytotypes were Wolbachia-dependent, as antibiotic treatment rendered all strains tested compatible. Cytotype distributions were independent of geographical distance between sampling sites and host subspecies, suggesting that Wolbachia does not promote a reproductive isolation depending on these parameters. Backcross analysis demonstrated a mild restoring effect of the nuclear genome, indicating that CI is mostly cytoplasmically determined for some crosses. No correlation was found between the phenotypic and genotypic variability of 16 WO prophage and transposon markers, except for the WO prophage Gp15 gene, which encodes a protein similar to a bacterial virulence factor. However, Gp15 is partially correlated with CI expression, suggesting that it could be just linked to a CI gene.

  17. Multiple Wolbachia determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Celestine M; Duron, Olivier; Tortosa, Pablo; Pasteur, Nicole; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylene

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that can invade arthropod populations through manipulation of their reproduction. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induce embryonic death, known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whenever infected males mate with females either uninfected or infected with an incompatible strain. Although genetic determinants of CI are unknown, a functional model involving the so-called mod and resc factors has been proposed. Natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito display a complex CI relationship pattern associated with the highest Wolbachia (wPip) genetic polymorphism reported so far. We show here that C. pipiens populations from La Réunion, a geographically isolated island in the southwest of the Indian Ocean, are infected with genetically closely related wPip strains. Crossing experiments reveal that these Wolbachia are all mutually compatible. However, crosses with genetically more distant wPip strains indicate that Wolbachia strains from La Réunion belong to at least five distinct incompatibility groups (or crossing types). These incompatibility properties which are strictly independent from the nuclear background, formally establish that in C. pipiens, CI is controlled by several Wolbachia mod/resc factors.

  18. Introduction to the symposium Global Perspective on the Culex pipiens Complex in the 21st century: The Interrelationship of Culex pipiens, quinquefasciatus, molestus and others.

    PubMed

    Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens Complex, including Culex pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. molestus, are important pest species and vectors of human and animal diseases throughout the world's tropical, temperate, and Holarctic regions. Diseases transmitted by member of the Pipiens Complex include: St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus in North America, West Nile virus on several other continents, Rift Valley fever in Africa, lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in the tropics, and Dirofilaria immitis globally. Here and in the following 14 papers, 3 abstracts and a summary paper are the proceedings of a symposium that gathered many of the world's experts on the Pipiens Complex to explore the current state of knowledge of the taxa. Information presented at the symposium will improve our knowledge of important members of the complex and enhance our ability to conduct efficient surveillance and efficacious control strategies. A background on previous discussions on the Pipiens Complex, and a brief description of current symposium contributors and their topics are discussed.

  19. Feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a region of high hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two biological forms of the mosquito Culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. In this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in Comporta (Portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded. Methods Indoor and outdoor mosquito collections were performed in the summer of 2010. Collected Cx. pipiens s.l. females were molecularly identified to species and form by PCR and genotyped for six microsatellites. The source of the blood meal in post-fed females was determined by ELISA and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Results The distribution of the forms differed according to the collection method. The molestus form was present only in indoor collections, whereas pipiens and admixed individuals were sampled both indoors and outdoors. In both forms, over 90% of blood meals were made on avian hosts. These included blood meals taken from Passeriformes (Passer domesticus and Turdus merula) by females caught resting inside domestic shelters. Conclusion Genetic structure and blood meal analyses suggest the presence of a bird biting molestus population in the study area. Both forms were found to rest indoors, mainly in avian shelters, but at least a proportion of females of the pipiens form may bite outdoors in sylvan habitats and then search for anthropogenic resting sites to complete their gonotrophic cycle. This behaviour may potentiate the accidental transmission of arboviruses to humans in the region. PMID:23578139

  20. The use of morphometric wing characters to discriminate female Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium.

    PubMed

    Börstler, Jessica; Lühken, Renke; Rudolf, Martin; Steinke, Sonja; Melaun, Christian; Becker, Stefanie; Garms, Rolf; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    The reliability of the length of wing radial vein r(2/3) as a character for the morphological discrimination of the two potential arbovirus vectors Culex pipiens s.s. and Cx. torrentium from Germany was reassessed, after this character had been neglected for more than 40 years. Additionally, multivariate morphometric analyses were applied to evaluate wing shape variation between both species. Although high-throughput molecular tools are now available to differentiate the two species, a simple, low-cost routine alternative may be useful in the absence of a molecular laboratory, such as under semi-field conditions. A thin-plate splines transformation confirmed that primarily the shrinkage of vein r(2/3) is responsible for the wing differences between the two species. In the bivariate analysis, the r(2/3)/r3 indices of Cx. pipiens s.s. and Cx. torrentium were 0.185 and 0.289, respectively, resulting in a correct classification of more than 91% of all tested specimens. Using the absolute length of vein r(2/3) alone still allowed for more than 90% accurate discrimination. Furthermore, classification accuracy of linear discriminant analysis exceeded 97%.

  1. Trapping biases of Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens revealed by comparison of captures in CDC traps, ovitraps, and gravid traps.

    PubMed

    Hesson, Jenny C; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R; Östman, Örjan; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate three trapping methods for their effectiveness at capturing Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium, both enzootic vectors of bird-associated viruses in Europe. The comparisons, performed in two regions in Sweden, were among CDC traps baited with carbon dioxide, gravid traps, and ovitraps baited with hay infusion. The proportions of the two Culex species in a catch differed between trap types, with CDC traps catching a lower proportion of Cx. torrentium than both gravid traps and ovitraps. Between gravid traps and ovitraps, there was no difference in the proportions of the two species. The results indicate that Cx. torrentium may go undetected or underestimated compared to Cx. pipiens when using carbon dioxide baited CDC traps. The new insight of trap bias presented here adds an important dimension to consider when investigating these vectors of bird-associated viruses in the field.

  2. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  3. Culex pipiens forms and urbanization: effects on blood feeding sources and transmission of avian Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ferraguti, Martina; Ruiz, Santiago; Roiz, David; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-12-08

    The wide spread mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens have two forms molestus and pipiens which frequently hybridize. The two forms have behavioural and physiological differences affecting habitat requirements and host selection, which may affect the transmission dynamic of Cx. p. pipiens-borne diseases. During 2013, blood engorged Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes were captured in urban, rural and natural areas from Southern Spain. In 120 mosquitoes, we identified the blood meal origin at vertebrate species/genus level and the mosquito form. The presence and molecular lineage identity of avian malaria parasites in the head-thorax of each mosquito was also analysed. Mosquitoes of the form pipiens were more frequently found in natural than in urban areas. The proportion of Cx. pipiens form molestus and hybrids of the two forms did not differ between habitat categories. Any significant difference in the proportion of blood meals on birds between forms was found. Birds were the most common feeding source for the two forms and their hybrids. Among mammals, dogs and humans were the most common hosts. Two Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were found in mosquitoes, with non-significant differences between forms. This study supports a differential distribution of Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens between urban and natural areas. Probably due to the similar feeding sources of both mosquito forms and their hybrids here, all of them may frequently interact with avian malaria parasites playing a role in the transmission of Plasmodium.

  4. Energetic cost of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rivero, A; Magaud, A; Nicot, A; Vézilier, J

    2011-05-01

    The extensive use of insecticides to control vector populations has lead to the widespread development of different mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Mutations that confer insecticide resistance are often associated to fitness costs that prevent them from spreading to fixation. In vectors, such fitness costs include reductions in preimaginal survival, adult size, longevity, and fecundity. The most commonly invoked explanation for the nature of such pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance is the existence of resource-based trade-offs. According to this hypothesis, insecticide resistance would deplete the energetic stores of vectors, reducing the energy available for other biological functions and generating trade-offs between insecticide resistance and key life history traits. Here we test this hypothesis by quantifying the energetic resources (lipids, glycogen, and glucose) of larvae and adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens L. resistant to insecticides through two different mechanisms: esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification. We find that, as expected from trade-off theory, insecticide resistant mosquitoes through the overproduction of esterases contain on average 30% less energetic reserves than their susceptible counterparts. Acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, however, also showed a significant reduction in energetic resources (20% less). We suggest that, in acetylcholinesterase-modified mosquitoes, resource depletion may not be the result of resource-based trade-offs but a consequence of the hyperactivation of the nervous system. We argue that these results not only provide a mechanistic explanation for the negative pleiotropic effects of insecticide resistance on mosquito life history traits but also can have a direct effect on the development of parasites that depend on the vector's energetic reserves to fulfil their own metabolic needs.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic studies on egg surface morphology and morphometrics of Culex pipiens pipiens (Lin.) (northern house mosquito) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (southern house mosquito) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Adham, Fatma K; Yaman, Abeer S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2012-08-01

    During this study the surface morphology and morphometric of Culex pipiens pipiens (Lin.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) eggs were described and compared using scanning electron microscopy for the first time. The results indicate that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. However, morphometric provide 71.621% demarking attributes out of 44 attributes at various significant levels (P < 0.05-0.001), i.e., egg length, width and ratio of length/width, attributes of micropylar apparatus including corolla, disc, mound, tubercles size, and length of tubercular rows in micropylar region, size and density of tubercles, exochorionic pore in conical-shaped regions of eggs, and size of tubercular wheel units. Structurally, the additional presence of large tubercles strengthens the micropylar region to bear various collapsing forces in these species.

  6. Summary of the symposium Global Perspective on the Culex pipiens Complex in the 21st Century: The Interrelationship of Culex pipiens, quinquefasciatus, molestus and others.

    PubMed

    Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    A symposium on the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens Complex (Pipiens Complex), including Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. molestus, invited 17 of the world's experts on this species Complex to explore the current state of knowledge on the systematic status, speciation, ecology, biology, vector competence, population genetics, endosymbionts, and role in disease transmission of these species in various parts of the world. A Foreword, Introduction, 14 full papers, 3 abstracts and this Summary are published in this special issue of the Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. A summary of findings, overall conclusions, and research needs will be discussed in relation to mosquito control and interrupting disease transmission caused by these species.

  7. The susceptibility of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae to insecticides in Rangoon, Burma

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Philip

    1967-01-01

    Since April 1963, the susceptibility to insecticides of larvae of Culex pipiens fatigans has been extensively studied by the WHO Filariasis Research Unit in Rangoon, Burma, as part of a programme of research aimed at establishing which compound or group of compounds could be used to control the vector of filariasis. Larvae from various localities in Rangoon showed wide variations in susceptibility to chlorinated hydrocarbons. There were also seasonal variations and it was difficult to standardize test conditions. Nevertheless, resistance to this group of compounds, especially DDT, sufficient to prevent control has been clearly demonstrated. As C. p. fatigans has never been subjected to intensive control by insecticides in Rangoon, the results confirm the findings made elsewhere that this mosquito is naturally resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons. The larvae are, however, susceptible to organophosphorus compounds, especially fenthion and parathion. PMID:4230023

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  9. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Vector Competence for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Lord, Cynthia C.; Pesko, Kendra N.; Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between environmental and biological factors affect the vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for West Nile virus. Three age cohorts from two Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonies were fed blood containing a low- or high-virus dose, and each group was held at two different extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) for 13 days. The colonies differed in the way that they responded to the effects of the environment on vector competence. The effects of mosquito age on aspects of vector competence were dependent on the EIT and dose, and they changed depending on the colony. Complex interactions must be considered in laboratory studies of vector competence, because the extent of the genetic and environmental variation controlling vector competence in nature is largely unknown. Differences in the environmental (EIT and dose) and biological (mosquito age and colony) effects from previous studies of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus vector competence for St. Louis encephalitis virus are discussed. PMID:20595491

  10. Characterization of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Colorado, USA Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Kothera, Linda; Godsey, Marvin S.; Doyle, Michael S.; Savage, Harry M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes such as those in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of disease. This study was conducted to genetically characterize Cx. pipiens complex populations in the state of Colorado, USA, and to determine the number of genetic clusters represented by the data. Thirteen populations located among four major river basins were sampled (n = 597 individuals) using a panel of 14 microsatellites. The lowest-elevation sites had the highest Expected Heterozygosity (HE) values (range 0.54–0.65). AMOVA results indicated the presence of statistically significant amounts of variation within each level when populations were analyzed as one group or when they were grouped either by river basin or by their position on the east or west side of the Rocky Mountains. Most pairwise FST values were significant via permutation test (range 0–0.10), with the highest values from comparisons with Lamar, in southeast CO. A neighbor joining tree based on Cavalli–Sforza and Edwards’s chord distances was consistent with the geographic locations of populations, as well as with the AMOVA results. There was a significant isolation by distance effect, and the cluster analysis resolved five groups. Individuals were also assayed with an additional microsatellite marker, Cxpq78, proposed to be monomorphic in Cx. pipiens but polymorphic in the closely related but biologically distinct species Cx. quinquefasciatus. Low frequencies (≤3%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles for this marker were noted, and mostly confined to populations along the Interstate 25 corridor. Pueblo was distinct in that it had 10% Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles, mostly of one allele size. The degree of population genetic structure observed in this study is in contrast with that of Cx. tarsalis, the other major vector of WNV in the western U.S., and likely reflects the two species’ different dispersal strategies. PMID:23094068

  11. Characterization of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Colorado, USA using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Kothera, Linda; Godsey, Marvin S; Doyle, Michael S; Savage, Harry M

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes such as those in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of disease. This study was conducted to genetically characterize Cx. pipiens complex populations in the state of Colorado, USA, and to determine the number of genetic clusters represented by the data. Thirteen populations located among four major river basins were sampled (n = 597 individuals) using a panel of 14 microsatellites. The lowest-elevation sites had the highest Expected Heterozygosity (H(E)) values (range 0.54-0.65). AMOVA results indicated the presence of statistically significant amounts of variation within each level when populations were analyzed as one group or when they were grouped either by river basin or by their position on the east or west side of the Rocky Mountains. Most pairwise F(ST) values were significant via permutation test (range 0-0.10), with the highest values from comparisons with Lamar, in southeast CO. A neighbor joining tree based on Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards's chord distances was consistent with the geographic locations of populations, as well as with the AMOVA results. There was a significant isolation by distance effect, and the cluster analysis resolved five groups. Individuals were also assayed with an additional microsatellite marker, Cxpq78, proposed to be monomorphic in Cx. pipiens but polymorphic in the closely related but biologically distinct species Cx. quinquefasciatus. Low frequencies (≤3%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles for this marker were noted, and mostly confined to populations along the Interstate 25 corridor. Pueblo was distinct in that it had 10% Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles, mostly of one allele size. The degree of population genetic structure observed in this study is in contrast with that of Cx. tarsalis, the other major vector of WNV in the western U.S., and likely reflects the two species' different dispersal strategies.

  12. Spatial Variation in Host Feeding Patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, T. C.; LEMENAGER, D. A.; KLUH, S.; CARROLL, B. D.; LOTHROP, H. D.; REISEN, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV. PMID:22897051

  13. Asymmetrical Competition and Patterns of Abundance of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    COSTANZO, KATIE S.; MORMANN, KIMBERLY; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2007-01-01

    We tested for competitive advantage among larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens L. in a laboratory experiment and determined the frequency and spatial and temporal patterns of co-occurrence in the field in East St. Louis, IL. In a laboratory competition experiment at multiple combined densities of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens larvae, Ae. albopictus survivorship and developmental times were significantly affected by conspecific densities but not by Cx. pipiens densities. In contrast, Cx. pipiens survivorship and developmental times were significantly affected by both conspecific and Ae. albopictus densities. Per capita rate of increase (r′) for Ae. albopictus cohorts declined significantly due to density of conspecifics, but not density of Cx. pipiens. Interspecific competition between Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens under these laboratory conditions was strong and asymmetrical, with the effect of Ae. albopictus on Cx. pipiens much stronger than the reverse. In monthly samples from tire sites in East St. Louis, Ae. albopictus was highly seasonal, occurring in relatively low abundance from early May to July and increasing in abundance in August and September. Co-occurrence corresponded to the seasonality of Ae. albopictus, with Cx. pipiens encountering Ae. albopictus in more tires and at higher numbers within a tire, in August and September. Abundance of both species was high in residential areas and was unrelated to overstory cover, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Abundance of Ae. albopictus, but not of Cx. pipiens, was positively associated with conductivity. We expect Cx. pipiens to suffer from the effects of interspecific competition in tires in which it encounters Ae. albopictus. Interspecific competition between these species may be of both ecological and medical importance. PMID:16119544

  14. Contrasting levels of variability between cytoplasmic genomes and incompatibility types in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, T; Pasteur, N; Rousset, F

    1997-01-01

    Reproductive incompatibilities called cytoplasmic incompatibilities are known to affect a large number of arthropod species and are mediated by Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted microorganism. The crossing relationships between strains of potential hosts define their incompatibility types and it is generally assumed that differences between strains of Wolbachia induce different crossing types. Among all the described host species, the mosquito, Culex pipiens, displays the greatest variability of cytoplasmic incompatibility crossing types. We analysed mitochondrial and bacterial DNA variability in Culex pipiens in order to investigate some possible causes of incompatibility crossing type variability. We sequenced fragments of the ftsZ gene, and the A + T-rich control region of the mtDNA. We also sequenced the second subunit of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COII) gene, in Culex pipiens and a closely related species, C. torrentium, in order to verify the usefulness of the A + T-rich region for the present purposes. No variability was found in the Wolbachia ftsZ gene fragment, and very limited variation of the mitochondrial marker whatever the compatibility type or the origin of the host. A low variability was found in the A + T-rich region and comparison of divergence of the A + T-rich region and COII gene between C. pipiens and C. torrentium did not reveal any special constraints affecting this region. In contrast to observations in other host species, variability of incompatibility crossing types is not due to multiple infections by distantly related Wolbachia strains. PMID:9061971

  15. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) In Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Hossein; Sadraei, Javid; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Abolghasemi, Esmail; Solimani, Hassan; Jaffari Nodoshan, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran. Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hamedan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5. Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefasciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens. Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran. PMID:27308288

  16. Highly polluted larval habitats of the Culex pipiens complex in central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, T.; Sohn, S.R.

    1987-06-01

    Larvae of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium) were abundant in two highly polluted pools receiving sewage sludge in Uppsala, Sweden (early August through late September 1985). The water was characterized by high BOD, and high ion concentration of Cu, Fe, Al and much suspended matter. Maximum larval number at the pool surface area was 26.1/ml. The ratio between species was studied and Cx. torrentium comprised ca. 20% at the peak of abundance. Some egg rafts showed no embryogeny.

  17. Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs.

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, E; Fysikopoulos, A; Franc, M

    2009-08-01

    A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effectiveness of pyriprole, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and fipronil-(S)-methoprene commercial spot-on products in preventing adult female Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Twenty-four beagle dogs were tested for their attractiveness to the mosquitoes and ranked accordingly to produce four groups of equivalent sensitivity to mosquitoes; six were treated with the pyriprole spot-on, six with the metaflumizone combined with amitraz spot-on, six with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene spot-on, and six were left untreated. All the dogs were challenged with 50 unfed adult female Culex in cages for one hour seven days before the treatment, and one and seven days after it. The mosquitoes were checked for blood feeding after one hour and for mortality 24 hours after they had been released into the cages. There was a significant reduction in the number of engorged mosquitoes only with the fipronil-(S)-methoprene product and there were significantly more dead mosquitoes with this product and the pyriprole product, but their effects were too small for them to be recommended for use in a dirofilariosis prevention programme.

  18. Oviposition preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) for selected infusions in oviposition traps and gravid traps.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bryan T; Paulson, Sally L; Youngman, Roger R; Scheffel, Sabra L; Hawkins, Belinda

    2005-12-01

    Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens by using ovitraps and gravid traps baited with selected infusions. For the ovitrap collections, 4 different infusions (manure, hay, grass, and rabbit chow) were used. Significant differences among infusions were detected on most sample dates for both species. For 3 of the first 4 wk of collections, the manure infusion collected significantly more Cx. restuans than all the other infusions. The hay and grass infusions collected the majority of the egg rafts during weeks 5-9. Cx. pipiens egg rafts were absent from the first 3 wk of collections. Of the remaining 6 wk, 4 showed significant differences in attractiveness of infusions, with the hay and grass infusions preferred by Cx. pipiens. Two infusions, manure and hay, were used for the gravid trap experiment and both Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens data were combined for analysis. Only the first 2 wk showed significance, with manure being preferred over hay in both weeks. In later collections, the relative attractiveness of the hay infusion increased. A seasonal shift in infusion preference may be related to incubation temperature during preparation of the infusions. New infusions were prepared each week and incubation was done outside. Increased attractiveness of the hay infusion coincided with higher average temperatures in July and August. Hay infusion was very effective for trapping both Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans in southwestern Virginia and is more convenient to use than manure. However, cool outside temperatures in the early season may interfere with the fermentation process and thus incubation should be done for a longer time or brought indoors.

  19. The Culex pipiens complex in continental Portugal: distribution and genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruno; Parreira, Ricardo; Sousa, Carla A; Novo, Maria T; Almeida, António P G; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is a southern European country that displays favorable ecological conditions for the establishment of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles. Competent mosquito vector species are present throughout the country. Among the species with reported cases of WNV isolation in Portugal, Culex pipiens is the most ubiquitous and abundant mosquito. This species exhibits two biological forms with differences in host preferences. The molestus form has a greater tendency to feed upon humans and other mammals whereas the pipiens form prefers avian hosts. In northern latitudes, both forms are physically separated, with molestus occupying underground habitats and pipiens being found aboveground. However, the warmer climatic conditions of southern regions such as Portugal may favor the sympatric occurrence of both forms hence promoting interform hybridization. Genetic introgression between molestus and pipiens forms may result in a higher propensity for admixed populations to serve as bridge-vectors of WNV between humans and birds. Here we revise our present knowledge on the distribution, role in WNV transmission and genetic structure of the Cx. pipiens complex in continental Portugal. We focus on recent findings of sympatric molestus and pipiens populations that display considerable levels of hybridization and discuss the epidemiological repercussions of this occurrence.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Key Gene Expression Differences between Diapausing and Non-Diapausing Adults of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, David S.; Denlinger, David L.; Sim, Cheolho

    2016-01-01

    Diapause is a critical eco-physiological adaptation for winter survival in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex pipiens, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that distinguish diapause from non-diapause in this important mosquito species. We used Illumina RNA-seq to simultaneously identify and quantify relative transcript levels in diapausing and non-diapausing adult females. Among 65,623,095 read pairs, we identified 41 genes with significantly different transcript abundances between these two groups. Transcriptome divergences between these two phenotypes include genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis, anaerobic metabolism, innate immunity and cold tolerance. PMID:27128578

  1. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  2. Microsatellite primers for Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonseca, Dina M.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), was introduced accidentally to Hawaii in 1826 (van Riper et al. 1986). There it eventually became the vector of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, a disease that severely limits the size and distribution of endemic forest bird populations in Hawaii (Atkinson et al. 1995). Cx.p. quinquefasciatus has a circumtropical distribution and is also the vector for human diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and several encephalitis.

  3. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:26335474

  4. Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Hao, Shunhua; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Chunrong; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Donghui; Hong, Shanchao; Shi, Linna; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Yu, Xinyou; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2012-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2,061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Cx. quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of Cx. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant Cx. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22561195

  5. Wolbachia Divergence and the Evolution of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Dumas, Emilie; Milesi, Pascal; Charlat, Sylvain; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2014-01-01

    Many insect species harbor Wolbachia bacteria that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), i.e. embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females, or between males and females carrying incompatible Wolbachia strains. The molecular mechanism of CI remains unknown, but the available data are best interpreted under a modification–rescue model, where a mod function disables the reproductive success of infected males’ sperm, unless the eggs are infected and express a compatible resc function. Here we examine the evolution of CI in the mosquito Culex pipiens, harbouring a large number of closely related Wolbachia strains structured in five distinct phylogenetic groups. Specifically, we used a worldwide sample of mosquito lines to assess the hypothesis that genetic divergence should correlate with the divergence of CI properties on a low evolutionary scale. We observed a significant association of Wolbachia genetic divergence with CI patterns. Most Wolbachia strains from the same group were compatible whereas those from different groups were often incompatible. Consistently, we found a strong association between Wolbachia groups and their mod-resc properties. Finally, lines from the same geographical area were rarely incompatible, confirming the conjecture that the spatial distribution of Wolbachia compatibility types should be constrained by selection. This study indicates a clear correlation between Wolbachia genotypes and CI properties, paving the way toward the identification of the molecular basis of CI through comparative genomics. PMID:24498078

  6. Testing of UK Populations of Culex pipiens L. for Schmallenberg Virus Vector Competence and Their Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Robyn; Harrup, Lara E.; Veronesi, Eva; Stubbins, Francesca; Stoner, Jo; Gubbins, Simon; Wilson, Anthony; Batten, Carrie; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Henstock, Mark; Barber, James; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern Europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. While Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been identified as a biological transmission agent of SBV, the role of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. Culex pipiens L. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern Europe; they are present on farms across the region and have previously been implicated as vectors of several other arboviruses. We assessed the ability of three colony lines of Cx. pipiens, originating from geographically diverse field populations, to become fully infected by SBV using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR (sqPCR). Findings Two colony lines of Cx. pipiens were created in the UK (‘Brookwood’ and ‘Caldbeck’) from field collections of larvae and pupae and characterised using genetic markers. A third strain of Cx. pipiens from CVI Wageningen, The Netherlands, was also screened during experiments. Intrathoracic inoculation of the Brookwood line resulted in infections after 14 days that were characterised by high levels of RNA throughout individuals, but which demonstrated indirect evidence of salivary gland barriers. Feeding of 322 individuals across the three colony lines on a membrane based infection system resulted in no evidence of full dissemination of SBV, although infections did occur in a small proportion of Cx. pipiens from each line. Conclusions/Significance This study established two novel lines of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes of UK origin in the laboratory and subsequently tested their competence for SBV. Schmallenberg virus replication and dissemination was restricted, demonstrating that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to be an epidemiologically important vector of the virus in northern Europe. PMID:26291533

  7. Seasonal dynamics of insecticide resistance, multiple resistance, and morphometric variation in field populations of Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Belgin Gocmen; Dogaroglu, Taylan; Kilic, Sercan; Dogac, Ersin; Taskin, Vatan

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to insecticides that impairs nervous transmission has been widely investigated in mosquito populations as insecticides are crucial to effective insect control. The development of insecticide resistance is also of special interest to evolutionary biologists since it represents the opportunity to observe the genetic consequences of a well-characterized alteration in the environment. Although the frequencies of resistance alleles in Culex pipiens populations against different groups of insecticides have been reported, no detailed information is available on the relative change in these allele frequencies over time. In this study, we collected mosquitoes of the Cx. pipiens complex from six locations in three seasons in the Aegean region of Turkey and examined the i) seasonal variations in resistance to four different chemical classes of insecticides, ii) seasonal fluctuations in frequencies of resistance-associated target-site mutations of the three genes (ace-1, kdr, and Rdl), and iii) potential seasonal variations in wing morphometric characters that may be modified in resistant mosquitoes. Our bioassay results indicated the presence of different levels of resistance to all tested insecticides for all three seasons in all locations. The results of the PCR-based molecular analysis revealed low frequencies of mutations in ace-1 and Rdl that are associated with resistance to malathion, bendiocarb, and dieldrin and no obvious seasonal changes. In contrast, we detected high frequencies and striking seasonal changes for two kdr mutations associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. In addition, the evaluation of the field populations from all seasons in terms of the combinations of polymorphisms at four resistance-associated mutations did not reveal the presence of insects that are resistant to all pesticides. Results from the morphological analysis displayed a similar pattern for both wings and did not show a clear separation among the samples from the

  8. [Sexual receptivity of the female and insemination power of the male Culex pipiens autogenicus (Diptera, Culicidae). The cases of strict monogamy and occasional polygamy].

    PubMed

    Thanh-Xuan-Nguyen; Cabes, J L

    1977-03-14

    Females of Culex pipiens autogenicus generally have two refractory periods: post-emergence refractory period (during the first 48 hrs. after emergence) and post-insemination refractory period. Males of Culex pipiens autogenicus can inseminate 2 to 3 females. After the 4th insemination he can no longer completely fulfill his reproductory role. Therefore the female can inseminated by another male.

  9. Ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase 1 (PRPS1) associated with deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shanchao; Zhou, Dan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weijie; Lv, Yuan; Ye, Yvting; Zou, Ping; Yv, Jing; Chang, Xuelian; Yv, Xinyou; Shi, Linna; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase 1 (PRPS1) was identified and isolated as a differentially expressed gene between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line through microarray and 2D-Gel. An open reading frame of PRPS1 cloned from C. pipiens pallens has 1,011 bp and encodes for a 336 amino acids protein which shares high homology with Culex quinquefasciatus. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcript expression level of PRPS1 in DS and DR strains. The expression levels of PRPS1 were higher in DR laboratory strains and natural population JXZ-DR, JXZ-LDR. PRPS1 was also detected and expressed at all developmental stages of C. pipiens pallens and increased expression level in DR3 strain than DS strain in the third and fourth instar larvae, female and male stages. In addition, to further investigate the role of PRPS1 in deltamethrin resistance, PRPS1 was transiently expressed in A. albopictus C6/36 cells and detected by western blotting. Cells transfected with PRPS1 had an increased resistance to deltamethrin compared with control cells. These results suggested that the increased expression level of PRPS1 may play roles in the regulation of deltamethrin resistance. PMID:23250545

  10. Plasmodium relictum (lineages pSGS1 and pGRW11): complete synchronous sporogony in mosquitoes Culex pipiens pipiens.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskienė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium relictum is a widespread invasive agent of avian malaria, responsible for acute, chronic and debilitating diseases in many species of birds. Recent PCR-based studies revealed astonishing genetic diversity of avian malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), with numerous genetic lineages deposited in GenBank. Many studies addressed distribution and evolutionary relationships of avian Plasmodium lineages, but information about patterns of development of different lineages in mosquito vectors remains insufficient. Here we present data on sporogonic development of 2 widespread mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages (cyt b) of P. relictum (pSGS1 and pGRW11) in mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens. Genetic distance between these lineages is 0.2%; they fall in a well-supported clade in the phylogenetic tree. Three P. relictum strains were isolated from common crossbill (Loxia curvirostra, lineage pSGS1), domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica, pSGS1) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, pGRW11). These strains were multiplied in domestic canaries and used as donors of malarial gametocytes to infect C. p. pipiens. Mosquitoes were allowed to take blood meal on infected canaries and then dissected on intervals to study development of sporogonic stages. All 3 strains developed synchronously and completed sporogony in this vector, with infective sporozoites reported in the salivary glands on the day 14 after infection. Ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites of all strains were indistinguishable morphologically. This study shows that patterns of sporogonic development of the closely related lineages pSGS1 and pGRW11 and different strains of the lineage pSGS1 of P. relictum are similar indicating that phylogenetic trees based on the cyt b gene likely can be used for predicting sporogonic development of genetically similar avian malaria lineages in mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Culex pipiens Development Is Greatly Influenced by Native Bacteria and Exogenous Yeast.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M; D Alessio, Cecilia; Perotti, M Alejandra; Berón, Corina M

    2016-01-01

    Culex pipiens is the most cosmopolitan mosquito of the Pipiens Assemblage. By studying the nature of interactions between this species and microorganisms common to its breeding environment we can unravel important pitfalls encountered during development. We tested the survival rate of larval stages, pupae and adults of a Cx. pipiens colony exposed to a variety of microorganisms in laboratory conditions and assessed the transmission to offspring (F1) by those organisms that secured development up to adulthood. Three complementary experiments were designed to: 1) explore the nutritional value of yeasts and other microorganisms during Cx. pipiens development; 2) elucidate the transstadial transmission of yeast to the host offspring; and 3) to examine the relevance of all these microorganisms in female choice for oviposition-substratum. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proved to be the most nutritional diet, but despite showing the highest survival rates, vertical transmission to F1 was never confirmed. In addition, during the oviposition trials, none of the gravid females was attracted to the yeast substratum. Notably, the two native bacterial strains, Klebsiella sp. and Aeromonas sp., were the preferred oviposition media, the same two bacteria that managed to feed neonates until molting into 2nd instar larvae. Our results not only suggest that Klebsiella sp. or Aeromonas sp. serve as attractants for oviposition habitat selection, but also nurture the most fragile instar, L1, to assure molting into a more resilient stage, L2, while yeast proves to be the most supportive diet for completing development. These experiments unearthed survival traits that might be considered in the future development of strategies of Cx. pipiens control. These studies can be extended to other members of the Pipiens Assemblage.

  12. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    PubMed

    de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Desprès, Philippe; Choumet, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds.

  13. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Desprès, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. Findings After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds. PMID:28085881

  14. Culex pipiens Development Is Greatly Influenced by Native Bacteria and Exogenous Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Nieto, Leonardo M.; D´Alessio, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Culex pipiens is the most cosmopolitan mosquito of the Pipiens Assemblage. By studying the nature of interactions between this species and microorganisms common to its breeding environment we can unravel important pitfalls encountered during development. We tested the survival rate of larval stages, pupae and adults of a Cx. pipiens colony exposed to a variety of microorganisms in laboratory conditions and assessed the transmission to offspring (F1) by those organisms that secured development up to adulthood. Three complementary experiments were designed to: 1) explore the nutritional value of yeasts and other microorganisms during Cx. pipiens development; 2) elucidate the transstadial transmission of yeast to the host offspring; and 3) to examine the relevance of all these microorganisms in female choice for oviposition-substratum. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proved to be the most nutritional diet, but despite showing the highest survival rates, vertical transmission to F1 was never confirmed. In addition, during the oviposition trials, none of the gravid females was attracted to the yeast substratum. Notably, the two native bacterial strains, Klebsiella sp. and Aeromonas sp., were the preferred oviposition media, the same two bacteria that managed to feed neonates until molting into 2nd instar larvae. Our results not only suggest that Klebsiella sp. or Aeromonas sp. serve as attractants for oviposition habitat selection, but also nurture the most fragile instar, L1, to assure molting into a more resilient stage, L2, while yeast proves to be the most supportive diet for completing development. These experiments unearthed survival traits that might be considered in the future development of strategies of Cx. pipiens control. These studies can be extended to other members of the Pipiens Assemblage. PMID:27055276

  15. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  16. High Insecticides Resistance in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tehran, Capital of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Mirhendi, Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: During recent years transmission of Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm) by Culex pipiens and West Nile virus have been reported from Iran. The present study was preformed for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens collected from capital city of Tehran, Iran. Methods: Four Insecticides including: DDT 4%, Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Deltamethrin 0.05% and Cyfluthrin 0.15 % according to WHO standard methods were used for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens from Tehran moreover For comparison susceptibility status a Laboratory strain also was used. Bioassay data were analyzed using Probit program. The lethal time for 50% and 90% mortality (LT50 and LT90) values were calculated from regression line. Results: The susceptibility status of lab strain of Cx. pipiens revealed that it is susceptible to Lambdacyhalothrin, Deltamethrin, Cyfluthrin and resistant to DDT. Moreover cyfluthrin with LT50=36 seconds and DDT with LT50=3005 seconds had the least and most LT50s. Field population was resistance to all tested insecticides and DDT yielded no mortality. Conclusion: Highly resistance level against all WHO recommended imagicides were detected in field populations. We suggest more biochemical and molecular investigations to detect resistance mechanisms in the field population for further decision of vector control. PMID:28032100

  17. The Ecological Aspects of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Hossein; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sadraei, Javid; Soleimani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to survey the specific factors, which cause to decrease blood feeding of mosquitoes important to succeed vector control. Methods: Larval collection was carried out from fixed and variable breeding places of Yazd County, central Iran in 2009. Autogeny-Anautogeny, Stenogamy-Eurygamy, and blood preference of Culex pipiens were studied using standard mosquito cages blood meal source for Cx. pipiens females considered as the chickens and human and fed females were kept in insectary condition (16:8 L: D, 27±3 °C and 70±10% RH). The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5 soft ware. Results: Totally, 96 females’ mosquitoes were tested for Stenogamy versus Eurygamy and 122 for blood preference assay. In the small cages (20 × 20 × 20cm) and large cage (60 × 40 × 60cm), the ability of mating and insemination rates were 60.0 and 67.0%, respectively. In spite of Cx. pipiens fed from sucrose 5%, none of them laying eggs in 60 × 40 × 60 cages during the study. This finding indicated the Anautogeny behavior of this species. This species was found of low tendency to human blood and almost 4 fold fed on chicken. Conclusion: The occurrence of Steno-Eurygamy, Anautogeny, and Ornithophilic behaviors of Cx. Pipiens was noted. More studies need to be carried out about the bionomics of this species to gain more data about the ecophysiological and behavioral characteristics in other parts of Iran. PMID:25629063

  18. The problem of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific (including Australia)*

    PubMed Central

    Dobrotworsky, N. V.

    1967-01-01

    There are three representatives of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific. C. p. fatigans is the most common and most widely distributed subspecies; it is closely associated with man. The males can be readily distinguished by the structure of the phallosome of the terminalia. C. p. molestus is spread over the southern part of Australia and in Tasmania; it also is a domestic mosquito. Throughout its extensive range in Australia, it exhibits all the biological traits that distinguish it from C. p. pipiens. C. p. australicus is widely distributed over the mainland of Australia and in Tasmania. It is superficially similar to C. p. fatigans but can be distinguished from C. p. pallens by the structure of the phallosome. It is primarily a rural non-man-biting mosquito. C. p. australicus is probably a relatively ancient member of the Australian fauna that may have evolved in the southern temperate zone. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 2 PMID:5300062

  19. Cloning and characterization of 40S ribosomal protein S4 gene from Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Jiao, Jianhua; Tan, Wenbin; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2007-02-01

    The 40S ribosomal protein S4 gene (RPS4) has been cloned from Culex pipiens pallens. An open reading frame (ORF) of 789 bp was found to encode a putative 262 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 96% and 91% identity with RPS4 genes from Aedes and Anopheles respectively. Transcript expression of RPS4 was determined by real-time PCR in all life stages of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains. The results demonstrated that this gene is expressed at all developmental stages. Meanwhile, in pupae and adults, RPS4 is overexpressed in deltamethrin-resistant strain than in -susceptible strain. Our data for the first time suggests that increased expression of the RPS4 gene may play some role in the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. pipiens pallens.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Temephos against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens Larvae in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria is still a health problem in Iran. There are several vector control activities, including Indoor Residual spraying, using insecticide treated nets and larviciding including Temephos. In addition nuisance mosquitos are prevalent in the urban areas. So that evaluation of this species to larvicide will provide a clue for management of vector control activities. Methods: Two mosquito species were used in this study: Anopheles stephensi were collected from Kazeroun and Culex pipiens from Tehran, capital of Iran. All the tests were carried out according to the WHO method. All the test kis was provided by WHO. Results: Results showed a LC50= 0.0523 and LC90=0.3822 mg/l for An. stephensi. The figure for Cx. pipiens was 0.1838 and 0.8505 mg/l respectively. Conclusion: monitoring of insecticide resistance to Temephos should be evaluated regularly for management of vector control. PMID:28032103

  1. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-07-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

  3. Natural vertical transmission of ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae.

    PubMed

    Lutomiah, Joel; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the family Togaviridae and genus Alphavirus. In Kenya, the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. NDUV was isolated from two pools of female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, IJR37 (n = 18) and IJR73 (n = 3), which were collected as larvae on 15 April 2013 from two dambos near the village of Marey, Ijara District, Garissa County, Kenya, and reared to adults and identified to species. These results represent the first field evidence of vertical transmission of NDUV among mosquitoes.

  4. Larvicidal activity of the extract of seaweed, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Huseyin; Gokoglu, Mehmet; Oz, Emre

    2010-12-01

    The larvicidal efficacy of the acetone extract of the thalli of Caulerpa scalpelliformis var. denticulata was determined against late 2nd to early 3rd instars of Culex pipiens at concentrations ranging from 100 to 2,000 parts per million (ppm). At 1,200 ppm, the extract caused >70% larval mortality at 24-, 48-, and 72-h exposure. The LC50 (lethal concentration) and LC90 values of C. scalpelliformis were 338.91 and 1,891.31 ppm, respectively. Our data showed that this species of seaweed contains components with larvicidal properties against mosquitoes.

  5. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Greek Myrtle Essential Oils against Culex pipiens biotype molestus.

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Aikaterini; Lignou, Irene; Bazos, Ioannis; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Myrtus communis collected from different localities in Greece, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the oils obtained were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The analyses showed mainly quantitative differences, with the monoterpenes myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool, along with limonene, dominating the majority of the analyzed Myrtle oils. The evaluation of the larvicidal activity of the samples against Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquito showed that all tested samples exhibited moderate to weak toxicity, with cultivated M. communis subsp. communis oil being the most active.

  6. [State resistance of the mosquito Culex pipiens towards temephos central Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Ouali Lalami, A; El-Akhal, F; El Amri, N; Maniar, S; Faraj, C

    2014-08-01

    In Morocco, Culex pipiens plays a role in the high annoyance experienced by most urban cities, suburban and rural areas, especially since it was strongly suspected as the most likely vector in the transmission of West Nile virus epidemics that have hit Morocco in 1996. Chemical insecticides are generally the way in which they use the programs against harmful mosquitoes and disease vectors. However, the repeated and excessive use of these products regularly led to the emergence of the phenomenon of insect resistance. At the center of Morocco, information on the susceptibility or resistance to insecticides in mosquitoes (larvae and adults) vectors of diseases or pests, are almost nonexistent. This article reports the results of studies conducted between 2007 and 2010 with sensitivity tests WHO on larvae local populations of Culex pipiens collected in three lodging in the city of Fez, towards the insecticide mostly used by hygienic services: temephos. Five concentrations of insecticide (0.0025 mg/l, 0.005 mg/l, 0.0125 mg/l, 0.025 mg/l, 0.0625 mg/l) in addition to control, were used to determine the LC50 and LC 90 of Culex pipiens species towards temephos. Sensitivity tests were carried out at the entomology unit and monitoring of insect sensitivity towards insecticides installed at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene (LRDEHM), Fez, under the Regional Directorate of Health in Fes Boulemane Region. The LC50 and LC90, concentrations corresponding to 50 and 90% mortality were determined graphically, by the linear relationship between the decimal logarithm of insecticide concentrations (x-axis) and the percentage of mortality transformed into probit values (ordinate) on logarithmic gausso paper. Resistance rates were determined on the basis of the sensitivity of a reference strain (S-Lab). The bioassay results affirmed the presence of resistance in larvae Culex pipiens towards temephos and that this species has also equally

  7. Efficacy of fipronil combined with permethrin commercial spot on (Effitix) preventing Culex pipiens from feeding on dogs.

    PubMed

    Franc, Michel; Lienard, Emmanuel; Jacquiet, Philippe; Bonneau, Stephane; Bouhsira, Emilie

    2015-06-01

    A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the adulticidal and anti-feeding effectiveness of a spot-on combining fipronil and permethrin (Effitix, Virbac, Carros, France) in preventing Culex pipiens from feeding on dogs. Twelve dogs with equal sensitivity to mosquitoes were included in the study and divided into two groups of six dogs: an untreated control group and a group treated with Effitix. All dogs were challenged with 80 females C. pipiens for 90 ± 5 min on days -7, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (day 0 being treatment day). The number of engorged, dead, and live mosquitoes was determined after each exposure to treated and untreated dogs. Dead mosquitoes were also counted 24 h after exposure. The anti-feeding effect of the spot-on formulation was 100, 99.5, 97.7, 98.3, and 96.7% on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. The mortality effect was 66.6, 55.9, 38, 17.2, and 12.3% on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively. At each challenge point, the mortality and anti-feeding effects on mosquitoes were significantly different between the control and treated group (p < 0.05). The results indicate that a combination of permethrin and fipronil could be used as an effective mosquito control strategy in dogs and is therefore recommended for use in a dirofilariasis prevention program.

  8. Isolation and identification of α-proteobacteria from Culex pipiens (Diptera Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, M C; Riccillo, P M; Rodriguero, M S; García, J J; Micieli, M V

    2012-01-01

    A survey of drainage ditches in suburban areas of La Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina for pathogens of Culex pipiens larvae was conducted from 2003 to 2006. C. pipiens larvae of opaque, white color were found in several of those field collections. When the white larvae were dissected and observed by phase-contrast microscopy in wet-mount preparations, the presence of bacteria, located in the hemocoel, was recorded. Laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the pathway for transmission of this pathogen. Although approaches involving traditional culturing had failed to reveal the identity of the new microorganism present, molecular techniques to identify the pathogen in the studies reported here were successful. The partial sequence of the 16S-rRNA gene constitutes a powerful tool for the detection of new isolates from the hemocoele of C. pipiens larvae. These bacteria were characterized as belonging to the genus Novispirillum. In spite of the genus's wide distribution in different aquatic environments, information related to the parasitic relationship of Novispirillum spp. to aquatic insects is scarce, and this association has not been described in other mosquito species. This report constitutes the first documentation of Novispirillum spp. as a pathogen for mosquito larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeated bouts of dehydration deplete nutrient reserves and reduce egg production in the mosquito Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Patrick, Kevin R.; Desai, Karina; Hardesty, Jeffrey J.; Krause, Tyler B.; Denlinger, David L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study of the mosquito, Culex pipiens, we examined the impact of multiple bouts of dehydration and rehydration on survival, depletion of metabolic reserves and egg production in both non-diapausing and diapausing females. Mosquitoes provided with access to sugar during rehydration survived longer than those allowed to rehydrate without sugar, and their survival was similar to that of mosquitoes of the same age that were not dehydrated. Among mosquitoes not provided with sugar, each dehydration bout reduced the mosquito's dry mass – an effect likely to be due to the utilization of carbohydrates and lipid reserves. The toll on glycogen and lipid reserves is likely to be especially costly for diapausing mosquitoes that are dependent on these stored reserves for winter survival. Egg production in both non-diapausing and post-diapausing C. pipiens was also reduced in response to multiple bouts of dehydration. Although egg quality was not compromised, the number of eggs produced was reduced. Both non-diapausing and diapausing females can compensate for the nutrient loss due to dehydration by sugar feeding but the opportunity to feed on sugar is likely to be rarely available in the overwintering habitat of diapausing females, thus the impact of dehydration may be especially pronounced in overwintering populations of C. pipiens. PMID:20675546

  10. Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno; Alves, Joana; Sousa, Carla A; Santa-Ana, Marta; Vieira, Inês; Silva, Teresa L; Almeida, António PG; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-01-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes two widespread mosquito vector species, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The distribution of these species varies in latitude, with the former being present in temperate regions and the latter in tropical and subtropical regions. However, their distribution range overlaps in certain areas and interspecific hybridization has been documented. Genetic introgression between these species may have epidemiological repercussions for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. Bayesian clustering analysis based on multilocus genotypes of 12 microsatellites was used to determine levels of hybridization between these two species in Macaronesian islands, the only contact zone described in West Africa. The distribution of the two species reflects both the islands' biogeography and historical aspects of human colonization. Madeira Island displayed a homogenous population of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cape Verde showed a more intriguing scenario with extensive hybridization. In the islands of Brava and Santiago, only Cx. quinquefasciatus was found, while in Fogo and Maio high hybrid rates (∼40%) between the two species were detected. Within the admixed populations, second-generation hybrids (∼50%) were identified suggesting a lack of isolation mechanisms. The observed levels of hybridization may locally potentiate the transmission to humans of zoonotic arboviruses such as WNV. PMID:22957190

  11. Latitudinal Diversity of Culex pipiens Biotypes and Hybrids in Farm, Peri-Urban, and Wetland Habitats in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Melsen, Diede; Favia, Guido; Wennergren, Uno; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes and circulation of West Nile virus (WNV), WNV outbreaks have so far not occurred in northern Europe. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two morphologically identical biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can form hybrids. Until now, population dynamic studies of Cx. pipiens have not differentiated between biotypes and hybrids at the European scale, nor have they used comparative surveillance approaches. We therefore aimed to elucidate the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens biotypes and hybrids in three habitat types at different latitudes across Europe, using two different surveillance traps. BG-Sentinel and Mosquito-Magnet Liberty Plus traps were placed in three habitat types (farms, peri-urban, wetlands), in three European countries (Sweden, The Netherlands, Italy). Collected Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were identified to biotype with real-time PCR. Both trap types collected equal ratios of the biotypes and their hybrids. From northern to southern latitudes there was a significant decrease of pipiens and an increase of molestus. Habitat types influenced the relative ratios of biotypes and hybrids, but results were not consistent across latitudes. Our results emphasize the need to differentiate Cx. pipiens to the biotype level, especially for proper future WNV risk assessments for Europe. PMID:27870890

  12. Diapause-specific gene expression in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we probe the molecular events underpinning diapause observed in overwintering females of Culex pipiens. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) we have identified 40 genes that are either upregulated or downregulated during this seasonal period of dormancy. Northern blot hybr...

  13. Diapause-specific gene expression in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Robich, Rebecca M.; Rinehart, Joseph P.; Kitchen, Linda J.; Denlinger, David L.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we probe the molecular events underpinning diapause observed in overwintering females of Culex pipiens. Using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) we have identified 40 genes that are either upregulated or downregulated during this seasonal period of dormancy. Northern blot hybridizations have confirmed the expression of 32 of our SSH clones, including 6 genes that are upregulated specifically in early diapause, 17 that are upregulated in late diapause, and 2 upregulated throughout diapause. In addition, 2 genes are diapause downregulated and 5 remain unchanged during diapause. These genes can be categorized into eight functional groups: genes with regulatory functions, metabolically-related genes, those involved in food utilization, stress response genes, cytoskeletal genes, ribosomal genes, transposable elements, and genes with unknown functions. PMID:17098250

  14. The impact of weather conditions on Culex pipiens and Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance: a case study in Peel Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafeng; Ogden, Nick H; Zhu, Huaiping

    2011-03-01

    Mosquito populations are sensitive to long-term variations in climate and short-term variations in weather. Mosquito abundance is a key determinant of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, such as West Nile virus (WNV). In this work, the short-term impact of weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) on Culex pipiens L.-Culex restuans Theobald mosquito abundance in Peel Region, Ontario, Canada, was investigated using the 2002-2009 mosquito data collected from the WNV surveillance program managed by Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and a gamma-generalized linear model. There was a clear association between weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito abundance, which allowed the definition of threshold criteria for temperature and precipitation conditions for mosquito population growth. A predictive statistical model for mosquito population based on weather conditions was calibrated using real weather and mosquito surveillance data, and validated using a subset of surveillance data. Results showed that WNV vector abundance on any one day could be predicted with reasonable accuracy from relationships with mean degree-days >9 degrees C over the 11 preceding days, and precipitation 35 d previously. This finding provides optimism for the development of weather-generated forecasting for WNV risk that could be used in decision support systems for interventions such as mosquito control.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang

    2016-02-01

    The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450 s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  16. Sequence analysis of mtDNA COI barcode region revealed three haplotypes within Culex pipiens assemblage.

    PubMed

    Koosha, Mona; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Mohtarami, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Culex pipiens assemblage specimens from different climate zones of Iran were collected and identified to species level based on morphological characteristics. Nucleotide sequences of the loci for the specimens plus available data in the GenBank were analyzed to find species specific genetic structures useful for diagnosis purposes. ITS2 region was highly divergent within species or populations suggesting lack of consistency as a reliable molecular marker. In contrast, sequence analysis of 710 bp of COI gene revealed three fixed haplotypes named here "C, T, H" within the assemblage which can be distinguished by HaeIII and AluI enzymes. There were a correlation between the haplotypes and the world climate regions, where the haplotypes H/T and C are present mainly in temperate and tropical regions of the world, respectively. In the New world, Australia, and Japan only haplotype H is found. In conjunction between tropical and temperate regions such Iran, China, and Turkey, a mix of C/H or C/H/T are present. Although, the haplotypes are not strictly species-specific, however, Cx. quinquefasciatus was mainly of haplotype C. Due to the lack of mating barrier and questionable taxonomic situation of the complex members, the mentioned haplotypes in combination with other morphological and molecular characters might be used to address the genetic structure of the studied populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1,826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1,078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1,826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:26377942

  18. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  19. Transcriptomics of differential vector competence: West Nile virus infection in two populations of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus linked to ovary development.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Civana, Ayse; Acevedo, Carolina; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2014-06-22

    Understanding mechanisms that contribute to viral dissemination in mosquito vectors will contribute to our ability to interfere with the transmission of viral pathogens that impact public health. The expression of genes in two Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus populations from Florida with known differences in vector competence to West Nile virus (WNV) were compared using high throughput sequencing. A total of 15,176 transcripts were combined for comparison of expression differences between the two populations and 118 transcripts were differentially expressed (p < 0.05). The fold change in expression of the differentially expressed genes ranged from -7.5 - 6.13. The more competent population for WNV (Gainesville) over expressed 77 genes and down regulated 44 genes, compared with the less competent population for WNV (Vero Beach). Also, splicing analysis identified 3 transcripts with significantly different splice forms between the two populations. The functional analysis showed that the largest proportion of transcripts was included in the catalytic activity and transporter activity groups except for those in the unknown group. Interestingly, the up- regulated gene set contained most of the catalytic activity function and the down- regulated gene set had a notable proportion of transcripts with transporter activity function. Immune response category was shown in only the down regulated gene set, although those represent a relatively small portion of the function. Several different vitellogenin genes were expressed differentially. Based on the RNAseq data analysis, ovary development was compared across the populations and following WNV infection. There were significant differences among the compared groups. This study suggests that ovary development is correlated to vector competence in two Culex populations in Florida. Both populations control energy allocations to reproduction as a response to WNV. This result provides novel insight into the defense mechanism used by

  20. Behavioural response of female Culex pipiens pallens to common host plant volatiles and synthetic blends.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Ding, Yan-Mei; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2015-11-17

    Most mosquito species need to obtain sugar from host plants. Little is known about the chemical cues that Culex pipiens pallens use during their orientation to nectar host plants. In this study, we investigated the behavioural responses of female Cx. pipiens pallens to common floral scent compounds and their blends. Behavioural responses of female Cx. pipiens pallens to 18 individual compounds at different concentrations were determined in the olfactometer bioassays. A synthetic blend composed of behaviourally active compounds was formulated, and its attractiveness to mosquitoes was tested. Several most attractive compounds constituted a reduced blend, and its attractiveness was tested against the solvent and the full blend, respectively. Mosquito response in the olfactometer was analyzed by comparing the percentages of mosquitoes caught in the two arms by χ(2) test (observed versus expected). Fifteen of the 18 compounds were attractive to female Cx. pipiens pallens in the dose-dependent bioassays, with the exception of β-pinene, acetophenone and nonanal. (68.00 ± 2.49) % mosquitoes responded to the full blend composed of these 15 compounds on their optimal doses when tested against the solvent, with the preference index at 46.11 ± 3.57. Six individual compounds whose preference indices were over 40 constituted the reduced blend, and it attracted (68.00 ± 1.33) % mosquitoes when tested against the solvent while its preference index was 42.00 ± 3.54. When tested against the full blend simultaneously in the olfactometer, the reduced blend could attract (45.00 ± 2.69) % of released mosquitoes, which was as attractive as the full blend. Our results demonstrate that female Cx. pipiens pallens is differentially attracted by a variety of compounds at different concentrations. Alteration of the concentration strongly affects the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. Several floral scent volatiles might be the universal olfactory cues for various

  1. Detection and widespread distribution of sodium channel alleles characteristic of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-M; Li, C-X; Xing, D; Yu, Y-H; Liu, N; Xue, R-D; Dong, Y-D; Zhao, T-Y

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes are widely distributed throughout China and are known to be important disease vectors. Two pyrethroid resistance associated mutations have been identified in Cx. pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae), but there is little information on the diversity and distribution of kdr alleles in pyrethroid resistance in Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes in China. In the present study, we report on a modified three tube allele-specific (AS)-PCR method for detecting the 1014F and 1014S alleles. The new technique was applied to identify the distribution of the two alleles in natural Cx. pipiens complex populations in China. The results confirmed that the new method is both sensitive and specific. The 1014F allele was found in all 14 of the field populations tested (frequency ranged from 6.8 to 76.2%) and the 1014S allele was found in almost two-thirds (frequency from 2.4 to 28.6%), indicating that the genotypes known to be associated with pyrethroid resistance are widespread in China. The resistance-associated alleles were more common in southern Chinese sampling sites than in northern sites. The coexistence of the two resistant mutations in individual mosquitoes was also observed in five of the field populations. Two alternative mutations within the L1014 codon were identified in Culex pipiens molestus Forskal, 1775, including a non-synonymous mutation resulting in a 1014C substitution. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Microsatellite characterization of subspecies and their hybrids in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes along a north-south transect in the central United States of America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, Cx. p. pipiens L. (Cpp) and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus Say (Cpq), are morphologically similar and important vectors of the West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis viruses in the US. They hybridize when found in sympatry, which could facilitate the transfer of adva...

  3. High genetic diversity in the Culex pipiens complex from a West Nile Virus epidemic area in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Mauro; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Cavaletto, Giacomo; Santoiemma, Giacomo; Saltarin, Andrea; Mazzon, Luca

    2016-03-15

    The Culex pipiens complex includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Cx. pipiens is the primary vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and North America. Cases of WNV have been recorded in Italy since 1998. In particular, wet areas along the Po River are considered some of the most WNV affected areas in Italy. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure of ten Cx. pipiens populations collected in the last part of the Po River including the Delta area. We assessed the genetic variability of two mitochondrial markers, cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and 2 (COII), for a total of 1200 bp, and one nuclear marker, a fragment of acetylcholinesterase-2 (ace-2), 502 bp long. The effect of the landscape features was evaluated comparing haplotype and nucleotide diversity with the landscape composition. The analysis showed a high genetic diversity in both COI and COII gene fragments mainly shared by the populations in the Delta area. The COI-COII network showed that the set of haplotypes found was grouped into three main supported lineages with the higher genetic variability gathered in two of the three lineages. By contrast, ace-2 fragment did not show the same differentiation, displaying alleles grouped in a single clade. Finally, a positive correlation between mitochondrial diversity and natural wetland areas was found. The high mitochondrial genetic diversity found in Cx. pipiens populations from the Po River Delta contrasts with the low variability of inland populations. The different patterns of genetic diversity found comparing mitochondrial and nuclear markers could be explained by factors such as differences in effective population size between markers, sex biased dispersal or lower fitness of dispersing females. Moreover, the correlation between genetic diversity and wetland areas is consistent with ecosystem stability and lack of insecticide pressure characteristic of this habitat. The mtDNA polymorphism found in the Po River Delta is even more

  4. Laboratory and field trials of four repellents with Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, R E; Richards, A L; Magnon, G J; Maxwell, C S; Debboun, M; Klein, T A; Wirtz, R A

    1994-01-01

    During Operation "Desert Shield," 16 volunteers field-tested four insect repellents (deet, the lactone CIC-4, and the piperidine compounds AI3-37220 and AI3-35765) against biting mosquitoes at King Fahd Airport, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. CIC-4 and AI3-37220 (25% wt/vol) provided effective (> 90%) protection against bites for 4 h. Deet and AI3-35765 protected for only 2 h. The compounds subsequently were evaluated for repellency against laboratory-reared Culex pipiens L. CIC-4 was more effective than deet, AI3-37220, or AI3-35765 at the ED50 but not at the ED95 level in initial sensitivity tests using human volunteers. At the ED95 level, deet provided significantly better protection than either piperidine compound. In laboratory duration tests, AI3-37220 provided 8 h of effective (> 90%) protection against Cx. pipiens bites, deet and AI3-35765 7 h of protection, and CIC-4 2 h of protection.

  5. Molecular Ecology of Pyrethroid Knockdown Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donghui; Shi, Linna; Zhou, Guofa; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; He, Ji; Hong, Shanchao; Zhou, Dan; Xiong, Chunrong; Chen, Chen; Zou, Ping; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies. PMID:20657783

  6. Many compatible Wolbachia strains coexist within natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Duron, O; Raymond, M; Weill, M

    2011-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia often manipulate the reproduction of arthropods to promote their transmission. In most species, Wolbachia exert a form of conditional sterility termed cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), characterized by the death of embryos produced by the mating between individuals with incompatible Wolbachia infections. From a theoretical perspective, no stable coexistence of incompatible Wolbachia infections is expected within host populations and CI should induce the invasion of one strain or of a set of compatible strains. In this study, we investigated this prediction on CI dynamics in natural populations of the common house mosquito Culex pipiens. We surveyed the Wolbachia diversity and the expression of CI in breeding sites of the south of France between 1990 and 2005. We found that geographically close C. pipiens populations harbor considerable Wolbachia diversity, which is stably maintained over 15 years. We also observed a very low frequency of infertile clutches within each sampled site. Meanwhile, mating choice experiments conducted in laboratory conditions showed that assortative mating does not occur. Overall, this suggests that a large set of compatible Wolbachia strains are always locally dominant within mosquito populations thus, fitting with the theoretical expectations on CI dynamics. PMID:21119702

  7. The Arrival of the Northern House Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Chaulk, Andrew C; Carson, Kate P; Whitney, Hugh G; Fonseca, Dina M; Chapman, Thomas W

    2016-11-01

    Culex pipiens L., the northern house mosquito, is the primary vector of West Nile virus to humans along the east coast of North America and thus the focus of much study. This species is an urban container-breeding mosquito whose close contact with humans and flexibility in host choice has led to its classification as a "bridge vector"; that is, it is thought to move zoonotic diseases to humans from vertebrate reservoirs. While this invasive species is now well documented in its established range, which expanded in 2001 to include Canada, the existence of populations of this species along the fringes of its range are less well known. Here we report, using morphological and genetic techniques, the existence of two locations where Cx. pipiens exists in Newfoundland in both expected and unexpected sites based on projected habitat suitability on the island. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of differential attraction of Culex pipiens pallens to fruit-based sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan-Mei; Hu, Yin; Yu, Bao-Ting; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mosquito adults usually need to obtain sugar from floral nectaries and damaged fruits/seed pods to replenish their energy reserves. The newly developed attractive toxic sugar baits have been successfully applied in controlling various mosquito species outdoors. However, the attraction of Culex pipiens pallens to different fruit-based sugar baits remains unknown. In the present study, we selected nine common fruit species, prepared the fruit-based sugar solutions, and investigated the attractiveness of different sugar baits to newly emerged Cx. pipiens pallens in the laboratory. The results showed that when tested against the 5% brown sugar solution, all the sugar baits were significantly attractive to both females and males. When tested together in the mesh-covered cage, there was a significant difference on the attractiveness between different fruit-based sugar baits. The most attractive fruit species included Broussonetia papyrifera, Cucumis melo, C. melo var. saccharinus, Amygdalus persica and Pyrus bretschneideri, and their seed pods could be potentially used as ingredients in ATSB for controlling mosquitoes outdoors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Resistance to Pyrethroid in Culex pipiens pallens Population under Different Insecticide Selection Pressures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Linna; Hu, Hongxia; Ma, Kai; Zhou, Dan; Yu, Jing; Zhong, Daibin; Fang, Fujin; Chang, Xuelian; Hu, Shengli; Zou, Feifei; Wang, Weijie; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Current vector control programs are largely dependent on pyrethroids, which are the most commonly used and only insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). However, the rapid spread of pyrethroid resistance worldwide compromises the effectiveness of control programs and threatens public health. Since few new insecticide classes for vector control are anticipated, limiting the development of resistance is crucial for prolonging efficacy of pyrethroids. In this study, we exposed a field-collected population of Culex pipiens pallens to different insecticide selection intensities to dynamically monitor the development of resistance. Moreover, we detected kdr mutations and three detoxification enzyme activities in order to explore the evolutionary mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Our results revealed that the level of pyrethroid resistance was proportional to the insecticide selection pressure. The kdr and metabolic resistance both contributed to pyrethroid resistance in the Cx. pipiens pallens populations, but they had different roles under different selection pressures. We have provided important evidence for better understanding of the development and mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance which may guide future insecticide use and vector management in order to avoid or delay resistance.

  10. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  11. Amblyospora sp. (Microspora, Amblyosporidae) infecting nerve ganglia of Culex pipiens (Diptera, Culicidae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Darwish, A; Canning, E U

    1991-09-01

    A species of Amblyospora-infecting neurones of Culex pipiens is described. Diplokaryotic meronts, which divided by binary fission, were distinguished at the electron microscope level by their unthickened plasma membranes. Sporonts with an electron-dense surface coat gave rise to eight uninucleate sporoblasts within a sporophorous vesicle, cytoplasmic division occurring at the quadrinucleate or octonucleate stages. Indications that nuclear fusion and chromosome reorganization occurred in merogony and sporogony were obtained by light microscopy but meiosis was not detected at the ultrastructural level. Spores were typical of Amblyospora, being ovoid when fresh, truncate when stained, and having an exospore of two membranous layers subtended by a thick amorphous layer, an electron-lucent endospore, an anisofilar polar filament, and a polaroplast comprised of an anterior region of close-packed lamellae and a posterior region of expanded sacs. The metabolic products in the sporophorous vesicle took the form of large globules, small globules with electron-dense borders, and fine granules. These were depleted in mature sporophorous vesicles, though a surface layer of fine granules on the spores may have been derived from them. Many stages were degenerate and it is suggested that C. pipiens may be an accidental host in which the parasite could develop suboptimally in nervous tissue only. Infections in larvae hatched from eggs in the laboratory indicate that vertical transmission occurs.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-08-20

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  14. Elevated couch potato transcripts associated with adult diapause in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qirui; Denlinger, David L

    2011-05-01

    The couch potato (cpo) cDNA that we cloned from the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, encodes the C-terminus containing a highly conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM). Protein structure prediction indicates a canonical RRM structure with a βαββαβ topological structure. Northern blots indicate a single mRNA band over 9.49 kb, and Southern blot analysis suggests that the cpo gene contains large introns. Highest expression was noted in first instar larvae and pupae. A comparison of nondiapausing (long daylength) and diapausing (short daylength) adult females showed no difference immediately at adult eclosion, but by day 7 and thereafter, expression of cpo was much higher in diapausing adults. When 2-month old diapausing females were transferred from short daylength to diapausing-terminating conditions of long daylength and high temperature, expression of cpo declined. Similarly, when a topical application of JH III was used to terminate diapause abundance of the cpo transcript declined. Consistent with observations in Drosophila melanogaster and several other species levels of cpo in C. pipiens are influenced by the diapause program, although the direction of change is not the same in all species.

  15. Sugar feeding improves survival of nondiapausing cold-stored Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D; Robich, Rebecca M

    2012-11-01

    The continuous culture of mosquitoes is a costly endeavor for vector biology laboratories. In addition to the resources that must be committed to colony maintenance, biological costs, including genetic drift and accidental colony loss, also can occur. Although alternatives do exist, their application to mosquitoes is limited. Mosquito cryopreservation remains elusive, and many important species lack a well-defined diapause. Previously, we demonstrated that cold storing nondiapausing mated adult females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L. resulted in a nearly four-fold increase in longevity when measured at the LT50, allowing for cold storage for up to 10 wk. In the current study, we used sugar feeding during cold storage to significantly improve cold storage longevity. At 6 degrees C, the LT50 of cold stored females was 23 wk, and 100% mortality was not realized until 43 wk. Cold-stored females did exhibit reduced fecundity, but egg production returned to normal levels within two generations. These results suggest that cold storage without diapause induction is a viable option for Cx. pipiens, and with the addition of sugar feeding, a colony could be maintained with less than two generations per year.

  16. The cuticle proteins: a putative role for deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fujin; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Lv, Yuan; Zhou, Dan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-12-01

    Insecticide resistance has been a major public health challenge. It is impendent to study the mechanism on insecticide resistance. In our previous study, 14 differentially accumulated insect cuticle proteins (ICPs) based on insecticide resistance proteomes and transcriptomes were found in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) and -susceptible (DS) strains of Culex pipiens pallens. To investigate if these ICPs are associated with deltamethrin resistance, different transcriptional levels of the 14 ICPs were detected in the DS and DR strains from laboratory and field populations by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression levels of the 14 ICPs were also measured after short-term exposure of the DS strain to deltamethrin. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of CpCPLCG5 gene, which encodes one of the 14 ICPs, was cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens. Homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis were carried out with some other insects. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown the expression level of CpCPLCG5 gene for characterizing its contribution to deltamethrin resistance. The results showed that the expression level of CpCPLCG5 gene was higher in DR strain than in DS strain both in laboratory and field populations while the other 13 ICPs were downregulated. The full-length cDNA of CpCPLCG5 gene was 732 bp, with the ORF of 390 bp and deduced 129 amino acids (GenBank/KF723314,2013). Knockdown of CpCPLCG5 gene increased the susceptibility of the DR strain while the expression level of the other 13 ICPs elevated. Our findings indicate that the cuticle proteins are associated with deltamethrin resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.

  17. Temporal changes in mosquito abundance (Culex pipiens), avian malaria prevalence and lineage composition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge on the temporal dynamics of host/vector/parasite interactions is a pre-requisite to further address relevant questions in the fields of epidemiology and evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases. In studies of avian malaria, the natural history of Plasmodium parasites with their natural mosquito vectors, however, is mostly unknown. Methods Using artificial water containers placed in the field, we monitored the relative abundance of parous females of Culex pipiens mosquitoes during two years (2010–2011), in a population in western Switzerland. Additionally, we used molecular tools to examine changes in avian malaria prevalence and Plasmodium lineage composition in female C. pipiens caught throughout one field season (April-August) in 2011. Results C. pipiens relative abundance varied both between years and months, and was associated with temperature fluctuations. Total Plasmodium prevalence was high and increased from spring to summer months (13.1-20.3%). The Plasmodium community was composed of seven different lineages including P. relictum (SGS1, GRW11 and PADOM02 lineages), P. vaughani (lineage SYAT05) and other Plasmodium spp. (AFTRU5, PADOM1, COLL1). The most prevalent lineages, P. vaughani (lineage SYAT05) and P. relictum (lineage SGS1), were consistently found between years, although they had antagonistic dominance patterns during the season survey. Conclusions Our results suggest that the time window of analysis is critical in evaluating changes in the community of avian malaria lineages infecting mosquitoes. The potential determinants of the observed changes as well as their implications for future prospects on avian malaria are discussed. PMID:24499594

  18. Population structure and distribution patterns of the sibling mosquito species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae) reveal different evolutionary paths.

    PubMed

    Werblow, Antje; Klimpel, Sven; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W C; Sauer, Jan; Melaun, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium. Due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. Culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from March till October 2012. All analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. Population structure as well as distribution patterns of both species were analysed using molecular methods and different statistical tests like distance based redundancy analysis (dbDRA), analysis of molecular variances (AMOVA) or McDonald & Kreitman test and Tajima's D. Within both species, we could show a genetic variability among the cox1 fragment. The construction of haplotype networks revealed one dominating haplotype for Cx. pipiens, widely distributed within Germany and a more homogeneous pattern for Cx. torrentium. The low genetic differences within Cx. pipiens could be a result of an infection with Wolbachia which can induce a sweep through populations by passively taking the also maternally inherited mtDNA through the population, thereby reducing the mitochondrial diversity as an outcome of reproductive incompatibility. Pairwise population genetic differentiation (FST) ranged significantly from moderate to very great between populations of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Analyses of molecular variances revealed for both species that the main genetic variability exists within the populations (Cx. pipiens [88.38%]; Cx. torrentium [66.54%]). Based on a distance based redundancy analysis geographical origin explained a small but significant part of the species' genetic variation. Overall, the results confirm that Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium underlie different factors regarding their mitochondrial differentiation, which could be a result of endosymbiosis, dispersal

  19. Population Structure and Distribution Patterns of the Sibling Mosquito Species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae) Reveal Different Evolutionary Paths

    PubMed Central

    Werblow, Antje; Klimpel, Sven; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W. C.; Sauer, Jan; Melaun, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium. Due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. Culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from March till October 2012. All analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. Population structure as well as distribution patterns of both species were analysed using molecular methods and different statistical tests like distance based redundancy analysis (dbDRA), analysis of molecular variances (AMOVA) or McDonald & Kreitman test and Tajima's D. Within both species, we could show a genetic variability among the cox1 fragment. The construction of haplotype networks revealed one dominating haplotype for Cx. pipiens, widely distributed within Germany and a more homogeneous pattern for Cx. torrentium. The low genetic differences within Cx. pipiens could be a result of an infection with Wolbachia which can induce a sweep through populations by passively taking the also maternally inherited mtDNA through the population, thereby reducing the mitochondrial diversity as an outcome of reproductive incompatibility. Pairwise population genetic differentiation (FST) ranged significantly from moderate to very great between populations of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Analyses of molecular variances revealed for both species that the main genetic variability exists within the populations (Cx. pipiens [88.38%]; Cx. torrentium [66.54%]). Based on a distance based redundancy analysis geographical origin explained a small but significant part of the species' genetic variation. Overall, the results confirm that Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium underlie different factors regarding their mitochondrial differentiation, which could be a result of endosymbiosis, dispersal

  20. Culex pipiens as a potential vector for transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and other unclassified Filarioidea in Southwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Barriga, Daniel; Parreira, Ricardo; Almeida, António P G; Calado, Manuela; Blanco-Ciudad, Juan; Serrano-Aguilera, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Sánchez-Peinado, Joaquín; Pinto, João; Reina, David; Frontera, Eva

    2016-06-15

    Dirofilaria immitis is one of the most frequently detected mosquito-transmitted zoonotic filarioid nematode in mammals in Europe, being canine dirofilariosis a major animal health problem, endemic in the Mediterranean area. This study, focused on Southwest Spain, in order to bring new insights into (i) the epidemiology of Dirofilaria spp., (ii) the species of Culicid vectors possibly involved in their transmission and (iii) the genetic variability of those potential vectors. A total of 881 adult female mosquitoes from 11 different species, were captured during 2012-2013, and detection of filarioid DNA was attempted by PCR using specific primers (ITS-2 and COI), followed by DNA sequencing. In a single Culex pipiens specimen D. immitis DNA was detected both in the head-thorax and abdomen sections. Filarioid nematode DNA was also detected in eight additional Cx. pipiens specimens also in both the thorax and the abdomen, but analysis of sequence data did not allow unambiguous assignment of any of the obtained sequences to a previously defined species. All Cx. pipiens with filarioid DNA were individually analysed by CQ11 to discriminate between pipiens, molestus, and hybrid forms. Besides, rDNA ITS-2 sequence analysis revealed the presence of haplotype H1 and H2 of Cx. pipiens. To our knowledge this study revealed, for the first time in Spain, the occurrence of likely mature infection of D. immitis in Cx. pipiens, as well as with other yet uncharacterized nematodes, supporting its role as a potential vector of these filarids.

  1. Attract-and-kill strategy. Laboratory studies on hatched larvae of Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Mihou, Anastasia P; Koliopoulos, George; Couladouros, Elias A

    2007-10-01

    The attract-and-kill strategy is a new pest management technique that presupposes the intelligent combination of an attracting agent (e.g. pheromone) and a killing agent (e.g. insecticide). In the present study, the potential combination of the microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide with an insecticide has been tested. Initially, polyurea microcapsules containing 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, the synthetic mixture of diastereomers of the oviposition pheromone of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), were studied. Laboratory bioassays were performed to confirm the bioactivity of the microencapsulated pheromone on the oviposition activity of Culex pipiens L. biotype molestus Førskal (Diptera: Culicidae) with the aim of determining the optimum dose for oviposition response. Its effect was dose dependent, revealing an optimum dose of 300 mg of dried microcapsules. Attractancy over time was also studied. The microencapsulated pheromone was found to be sufficiently attractive to gravid female mosquitoes for a period of 40 days. Finally, the combination of the synthetic pheromone with the control agent temephos showed both an acceptable oviposition activity and sufficient larvicidal effect.

  2. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. PMID:26516902

  3. Insecticidal and repellent activities of insecticide-sucrose solutions to Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ehyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal has been reported as a dominant species in underground structures of urban areas in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during all seasons and becomes bothersome to humans in late autumn and winter. Most Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks are controlled in the ROK using larvicides such as Bt and IGR. However, there are a number of problems associated with larvicides, such as high cost and requirement for frequent use. In the present work, a new control method for Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks by using mixtures of sucrose solution with insecticides was investigated. The insecticidal and repellent activities of ten insecticides were evaluated for best control of Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks. Firstly, differences in susceptibilities to insecticides were evaluated in topical assays by forced direct contact bioassay and in a screened wire cage by free direct contact bioassay. The difference in insecticide susceptibility in the mosquitoes was the result of repellency by the insecticides. In three septic tanks, the density of Culex mosquitoes was sharply reduced by a deltamethrin-sucrose solution kit. The results demonstrated the potential for mosquito control by deltamethrin-sucrose solution, and the study offers basic information related to mosquito control in septic tanks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Rift Valley fever virus and European mosquitoes: vector competence of Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus).

    PubMed

    Brustolin, M; Talavera, S; Nuñez, A; Santamaría, C; Rivas, R; Pujol, N; Valle, M; Verdún, M; Brun, A; Pagès, N; Busquets, N

    2017-08-07

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Rift Valley fever affects a large number of species, including human, and has severe impact on public health and the economy, especially in African countries. The present study examined the vector competence of three different European mosquito species, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) form molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex pipiens hybrid form and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquitoes were artificially fed with blood containing RVFV. Infection, disseminated infection and transmission efficiency were evaluated. This is the first study to assess the transmission efficiency of European mosquito species using a virulent RVFV strain. The virus disseminated in Cx. pipiens hybrid form and in S. albopicta. Moreover, infectious viral particles were isolated from saliva of both species, showing their RVFV transmission capacity. The presence of competent Cx. pipiens and S. albopicta in Spain indicates that an autochthonous outbreak of RVF may occur if the virus is introduced. These findings provide information that will help health authorities to set up efficient entomological surveillance and RVFV vector control programmes. © 2017 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  5. An approach to mosquito control: using the dominant attraction of flowering Tamarix jordanis trees against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Yosef; Müller, Gunter C

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we identified blossoms that attract Culex pipiens L. s.l. in a Mediterranean habitat by using branches of 26 common plant species as baits for traps. The highest catch, 60.5% of the total, by flowers of Tamarix jordanis Boiss., was approximately 6 times greater than the 10.7% caught by flowering Polygonum equisetiforme Sm., and 10 times higher than the 6.6% caught by flowers of Acacia saligna (Lindle) H. L. Wendl. The catch elicited by the other plants ranged between 4.0 and 0.1%. Plant attraction also was evaluated in a field situation. Experimental and control sites were similar strips of vegetation along water channels with T. jordanis trees in the center. In the experimental site, these trees were sprayed with sucrose solution, food dye, and oral insecticide (Spinosad). Concurrently, patches of plant species and trees in the control site were sprayed with solutions of sucrose and different food dye markers. Cx. pipiens populations in both sites were monitored. The highest proportion (65.2%) of the marked mosquitoes in the control site carried the dye of flowering T. jordanis. The dye of flowering P. equisetiforme and that of A. saligna were found, respectively, in 8.1 and 3.5% of the labeled mosquitoes. The marker of reed groups (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Steudel) above the water was found in 19.4% of mosquitoes, whereas the different marker of dry land reeds was found in only 0.4% of the labeled mosquitoes. In the experimental site, after treatment, the mosquitoes decreased from approximately 255 per trap to approximately 24 mosquitoes per trap, whereas the catch in the control site reached approximately 400 mosquitoes per trap.

  6. The effects of resource type and ratio on competition with Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Muturi, E J; Lampman, R L; Alto, B W

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the United States has been associated with declines in abundance of resident mosquito species, presumably because of resource competition, as larvae of Ae. albopictus have been illustrated as superior competitors under certain resource conditions. We evaluated the hypothesis that varying the type and ratio of two food resources (Foxtail grass: American elm) alters the competitive outcome of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens (L.). We measured survivorship, development time, size, and adult longevity, and estimated the population growth index (A') of populations raised both alone and in equal number with the interspecific competitor, across five ratios of the two food resources. Competition was asymmetric with Ae. albopictus, the superior competitor across all resource treatments; however, the competitive advantage Ae. albopictus had over Cx. pipiens was reduced as grass became the predominant resource. With elm as the predominant resource, the population growth index (A') for both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens was lower in intraspecific and interspecific competition treatments, respectively. The treatments also impacted adult life history, as life spans of both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens varied when they emerged from larval conditions with different resource and competition treatments. We discuss the possible differences in the two species' efficiencies in exploiting the two resource types. Despite some resource conditions alleviating the competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Cx. pipiens, competition remained asymmetric; thus, additional mechanisms are likely operating under field conditions when the two species coexist.

  7. Predicting Culex pipiens/restuans population dynamics by interval lagged weather data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens/restuans mosquitoes are important vectors for a variety of arthropod borne viral infections. In this study, the associations between 20 years of mosquito capture data and the time lagged environmental quantities daytime length, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed were used to generate a predictive model for the population dynamics of this vector species. Methods Mosquito population in the study area was represented by averaged time series of mosquitos counts captured at 6 sites in Cook County (Illinois, USA). Cross-correlation maps (CCMs) were compiled to investigate the association between mosquito abundances and environmental quantities. The results obtained from the CCMs were incorporated into a Poisson regression to generate a predictive model. To optimize the predictive model the time lags obtained from the CCMs were adjusted using a genetic algorithm. Results CCMs for weekly data showed a highly positive correlation of mosquito abundances with daytime length 4 to 5 weeks prior to capture (quantified by a Spearman rank order correlation of rS = 0.898) and with temperature during 2 weeks prior to capture (rS = 0.870). Maximal negative correlations were found for wind speed averaged over 3 week prior to capture (rS = −0.621). Cx. pipiens/restuans population dynamics was predicted by integrating the CCM results in Poisson regression models. They were used to simulate the average seasonal cycle of the mosquito abundance. Verification with observations resulted in a correlation of rS = 0.899 for daily and rS = 0.917 for weekly data. Applying the optimized models to the entire 20-years time series also resulted in a suitable fit with rS = 0.876 for daily and rS = 0.899 for weekly data. Conclusions The study demonstrates the application of interval lagged weather data to predict mosquito abundances with a feasible accuracy, especially when related to weekly Cx. pipiens

  8. Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: cyclopidae) for the Biocontrol of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens in Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Maini, Stefano; Bellini, Romeo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the potential of Macrocyclops albidus as a biological control agent against the 1st and 2nd instars of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus. Under laboratory conditions of prey saturation (50 1st instars/copepod), an average of 58.98% of Cx. pipiens and 54.99% of Ae. albopictus larvae were killed by 1 copepod in 24 h. Trials run in big drums containing 200 liters of water showed that the M. albidus population, inoculated in April, efficiently controlled the mosquito population for the entire season. The predator was particularly effective against Ae. albopictus, as only 2 larvae of this species were found in the treated drums, compared to 814 larvae in untreated control drums throughout the study period. No difference was observed in the control efficacy between the 2 initial densities of copepods used. The reduction in Ae. albopictus density in the drums with 100 and 500 M. albidus with respect to the control drums was 99.90 ± 0.35% and 100.0 ± 0.0%, respectively. For Cx. pipiens, the reduction in density was 88.69 ± 13.51% and 84.65% in drums inoculated with 100 and 500 copepods, respectively. Macrocyclops albidus populations survived through the winter and continued to keep the mosquito population under control during the 2008 season. The M. albidus population developed very well both in drums placed in sunny and shaded areas and proved to be tolerant to both high (summer) and low (winter) temperatures. Trials performed on M. albidus survival in catch basins showed that after a few weeks, the copepod population dramatically decreased and subsequently disappeared. The main problem for copepod survival in catch basins seemed to be the low oxygen tension and accumulation of toxic substances, rather than copepods being flushed out in heavy rainfall episodes. During the period when copepods were present, they maintained the mosquito population under control; their partial disappearance from the catch basins, however, would

  9. Molecular expression of aquaporin mRNAs in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane-bound proteins, originally described as water-channels, that broadly exist in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, some AQPs can transport small molecules (e.g. urea, glycerol) along with or preferentially to water. Previous work in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae have characterized the molecular expression of one or more AQP genes and shown that they are involved in water homeostasis after blood feeding, tolerance to dehydration and heat stresses, and development of Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito. However, the molecular expression of AQPs in the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens, the primary vector of West Nile virus, is presently unknown. Here we characterize the relative mRNA expression of six AQP genes in C. pipiens. We used quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) to compare AQP mRNA levels 1) among different life stages and sexes, 2) between blood fed and non-blood fed adult females, 3) between adult females injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and non-injected females, and 4) between adult females exposed to a low vs. high relative humidity. We found that: 1) four AQP mRNAs (Drip, Bib, Eglp1, Aqp12L) were differentially expressed between larval and adult life stages, but not between sexes; 2) after a blood meal, the expression of two AQP mRNAs (Drip and Aqp12L) were down-regulated and one AQP mRNA (Eglp2) was up-regulated; 3) the expression of two AQP mRNAs (Drip and Prip) were down-regulated and one AQP mRNA (Eglp1) was up regulated after injecting the hemolymph of mosquitoes with PBS; and 4) the expression of Prip and Eglp2 mRNAs were both down-regulated in response to a low relative humidity. Our study is the first to characterize the molecular expression patterns of AQPs in C. pipiens, thus providing a foundation for future research elucidating the physiological and functional roles of AQPs in this important disease vector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling the impact of variable climatic factors on the crossover of Culex restauns and Culex pipiens (Diptera: culicidae), vectors of West Nile virus in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Kenneth E; Novak, Robert J; Lampman, Richard L; Gu, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to model the impact of temperature on the timing of the seasonal shift in relative proportion of Culex restuans Theobald and Culex pipiens L. in Illinois. The temporal pattern of West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission in the midwest exhibits a late summer to early fall peak in activity, which parallels the temporal increase in the abundance of Cx. pipiens. The daily number of egg rafts oviposited by each species has been monitored at multiple surveillance sites in Urbana-Champaign in central Illinois for more than 13 years. The time when the two Culex species are in equal abundance (crossover) varies considerably from year to year. Our investigation of several thermal measures indicated that this variation was related in large part to climatic conditions with warmer (cooler) temperatures correlated to earlier (later) crossover dates. Models based on degree days and the number of days in which the daily maximum temperature exceeded an upper temperature threshold explained more than 60% of the variance in crossover dates. In contrast, models based on the number of days in which the daily minimum temperature exceeded a lower temperature threshold explained no more than 52% of the variance. An evaluation of these models demonstrated that they provide relatively simple and accurate estimates of crossover date from daily temperature data, a necessary component for developing an overall climatic index for the risk of WNV transmission in Illinois.

  11. Studies on the Mechanism of DDT Resistance in Culex pipiens fatigans

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    The mechanism of DDT resistance in Culex pipiens fatigans is poorly understood. Earlier studies indicated that the dehydrochlorination of DDT does not explain resistance in this species. Studies on the role of lipids as a mechanism of resistance included the estimation of lipid content and the determination of the proportions of different classes of lipids in the larvae of susceptible and resistant strains. There was no evidence of any correlation between the lipid content and DDT resistance in this species and the proportions of neutral lipids, phospholipids and fatty acids of different strains did not indicate any consistent correlation with DDT resistance. Within one strain, the larvae containing the higher amount of lipids were able to resist better the toxic effect of DDT. Analysis of fatty acids of the larvae that survived and died as a result of treatment with DDT did not reveal any difference. Neither p,p′-DDT nor o,p′-DDT at sublethal concentration affected the lipids of the larvae of susceptible and resistant strains. PMID:5310957

  12. Effect of chlorfenapyr on cypermethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J Z; Li, Q F; Huang, J B; Gao, J F

    2015-03-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. The effect of chlorfenapyr on pyrethorid-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq (Diptera: Culicidae) has not been fully investigated under laboratory conditions. In this study, cypermethrin-resistant C. p. pallens exhibited 376.79-fold and 395.40-fold increase in resistance to cypermethrin compared with susceptible strains after exposure for 24 and 48h, respectively. Larvae and adults were tested for susceptibility using dipping, topical, and impregnated paper methods as recommended by the WHO. No cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr was found. Increased mortality was apparent between 48 and 72h, indicating a slow rate of toxic activity. Synergism experiments with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) showed an antagonistic effect on chlorfenapyr toxicity. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr and cypermethrin could therefore provide additional benefits over either insecticide used alone. Mixtures of 5ng/ml chlorfenapyr and 500ng/ml cypermethrin exhibited a slight synergistic effect on cypermethrin-resistant mosquitoes (3.33, 6.84 and 2.34% after 24, 48 and 72h exposure, respectively. This activity was lost when the chlorfenapyr concentration was increased to 10 or 20ng/ml. Chlorfenapyr showed quite good results for pyrethroid-resistant C. p. pallens, and could improve public health by reducing the occurrence of mosquito bites and subsequently protecting against transmission of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis.

  13. West Nile Virus Infection Alters Midgut Gene Expression in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Smartt, Chelsea T.; Richards, Stephanie L.; Anderson, Sheri L.; Erickson, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression in the midgut of female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus exposed to blood meals containing 6.8 logs plaque-forming units/mL of West Nile virus (WNV) were studied by fluorescent differential display. Twenty-six different cDNAs exhibited reproducible differences after feeding on infected blood. Of these, 21 cDNAs showed an increase in expression, and 5 showed a decrease in expression as a result of WNV presence in the blood meal. GenBank database searches showed that one clone with increased expression, CQ G12A2, shares 94% identity with a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein from Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and 32% identity to Toll-like receptors from Aedes aegypti. We present the first cDNA clone isolated from female Cx. p. quinquefasciatus midgut tissue whose expression changes on exposure to WNV. This cDNA represents a mosquito gene that is an excellent candidate for interacting with WNV in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and may play a role in disease transmission. PMID:19635880

  14. The duration of egg, larval and pupal stages of Culex pipiens fatigans in Rangoon, Burma*

    PubMed Central

    de Meillon, Botha; Sebastian, Anthony; Khan, Z. H.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory experiments to determine the duration of the immature stages of Culex pipiens fatigans were carried out because such information is important from the point of view of control by larvicides. At a temperature of 25.1°C±0.7°C the mean incubation period is 27.11±0.57 hours. Females spend a longer time in the pupal stage than males (34.16±0.74 hours and 32.95±0.75 hours, respectively, at 28.6°C±0.8°C; there is no 24-hour pupating or emerging rhythm. The duration of larval life is longer for the female (135.3±4.4 hours) than for the male (118.4±2.4 hours). Larvae that take a long time to pupate also take a long time to emerge. Withholding of food for a few hours from first-stage larvae increases the duration of larval life but does not affect that of pupal life. These observations on the differences between the sexes in the duration of larval and pupal life are in agreement with observations made on Aedes aegypti in Uganda. PMID:4227199

  15. Solid-state NMR reveals differential carbohydrate utilization in diapausing Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, James; Singh, Jugeshwar; Kim, Sungshil; Hockaday, William C.; Sim, Cheolho; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Culex pipiens is the mosquito that vectors West Nile Virus and other human-pathogenic flavivruses in North America. In response to shortened day length and lower temperatures, female Cx. pipiense prepares for the diapause by actively feeding on carbohydrates to increase the biosynthesis of glycogen and lipid to store energy for overwintering. The effect of feeding different carbohydrates on glycogen and lipid biosynthesis in diapausing mosquitoes was investigated in vivo using 13C solid-state NMR. Diapause-destined adult females and nondiapausing counterparts after adult eclosion were fed with three different carbohydrate sources for 7 days: 1) 10% sucrose, 2) 10% D-[13C6]glucose, and 3) 1% D-[13C6]glucose co-provisioned with 10% sucrose. NMR measurements show that sucrose and glucose are metabolized differently in diapausing mosquitoes. Mosquitoes fed on sucrose primarily accumulate glycogen with increased branching structures, but less of lipids. In contrast, mosquitoes fed exclusively on glucose show accumulation of both glycogen and lipid with increased aliphatic chain length. Glucose is exclusively metabolized for the biosynthesis of triacylglyceride when mosquitoes were co-fed with sucrose. Our findings provide novel insights into the insect carbohydrate metabolism that governs glycogen and lipid biosynthesis during diapause, which is fundamental for the insect survival during inimical environments. PMID:27853281

  16. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Micieli, María V; Maciá, Arnaldo; García, Juan J

    2009-12-01

    Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. Copepod tolerance to desiccation and capacity to survive in water from artificial containers were also evaluated. D. uruguayensis and A. robustus survived under dry conditions, but D. uruguayensis showed lower survival in water from cemetery flower vases. M. albidus did not survive under dry conditions and did not tolerate water extracted from artificial containers. M. longisetus survival was not severely reduced after desiccation or breeding in water from flower vases. The Neotropical cyclopoids D. uruguayensis and A. robustus can be considered good candidates and merit further research as biological control agents for mosquitoes.

  17. Larvicidal activity of extracts of Ginkgo biloba exocarp for three different strains of Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lixin; Dong, Huiqin; Guo, Chongxia; Qian, Jin; Sun, Jing; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2006-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts from the Ginkgo biloba L. exocarp from the Chinese ginkgo were assayed against larvae of three strains of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett. The chemical compositions were detected using a Hewlett-Packard 6890/5973 mass spectrometric detector. The larvicidal bioassay was carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The analysis of the essential oil of ginkgo exocarp showed that its major components are ginkgo acid (85.3%) and ginkgo phenolic (5.69%). The larvicidal bioassay showed that extracts of ginkgo exocarp have LC50 of 18.6, 12.7, and 25.0 mg/liter for deltamethrin-susceptible, deltamethrin-resistant, and field strains, respectively. The acute toxicity concentrations of the ginkgo extracts that killed 50% (LD50) of Wistar rats within 2 wk and young carp within 96 h were 4947.2 mg/kg and 557.9 mg/liter, respectively. These results are promising in creating new, effective, and affordable approaches to mosquito control.

  18. Effects of sublethal doses of DDT on the reproduction and susceptibility of Culex pipiens L.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, T M; Brown, A W

    1968-01-01

    The effect of non-selecting doses of DDT on the induction of resistance was investigated in the house mosquito, Culex pipiens. Sublethal doses of DDT were applied to the adults in each generation, at levels which just fell short of causing mortality in these adults. A susceptible strain, a DDT-resistant strain, and a slightly DDT-tolerant strain were so treated for 6-7 generations.It was found that the treatment initially caused approximately 25% of the ovaries to degenerate, and reduced the proportion of females that fed and oviposited. This reduction in biotic potential became aggravated in successive generations of the DDT-resistant and DDT-tolerant strains, which failed to show any material increase in resistance level. In the susceptible strain, however, the biotic potential became enhanced, and considerable resistance was developed. It was concluded that the increase of resistance in this strain was due to hidden selection, of eggs in the ovary, and of females which failed to oviposit.

  19. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences in host preferences between mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations.

  20. Interruption of chemical mosquito control and evolution of insecticide resistance genes in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Eritja, R; Chevillon, C

    1999-01-01

    Within the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain), Culex pipiens L. has been the target of organophosphate insecticide (OP) control for 10 yr (1982-1992). Between 1991 and 1992, OPs were replaced by Bacillus-based toxins in all the mosquito control programs within > 150 km of this area. The distribution of several OP-resistance genes was surveyed within the Llobregat Delta and neighboring populations (< 25 km) during the 2 yr following this regional pesticide change to investigate how the change in selection pressure affected the dynamics of OP-resistance genes. The immigration failure of the A2-B2 resistant esterases and the observed difference in OP-resistance dynamics between isolated and nonisolated populations may indicate fitness disadvantages associated with OP-resistance genes, hence a tendency for a decrease in OP-resistance. In contrast, one OP-resistance gene further increased in frequency, whereas the frequencies of some others were maintained. These unexpected results question the importance of pesticides from sources other than mosquito control, and the variability of pleiotropic fitness costs among pesticide resistance genes.

  1. Solid-state NMR reveals differential carbohydrate utilization in diapausing Culex pipiens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, James; Singh, Jugeshwar; Kim, Sungshil; Hockaday, William C.; Sim, Cheolho; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-11-01

    Culex pipiens is the mosquito that vectors West Nile Virus and other human-pathogenic flavivruses in North America. In response to shortened day length and lower temperatures, female Cx. pipiense prepares for the diapause by actively feeding on carbohydrates to increase the biosynthesis of glycogen and lipid to store energy for overwintering. The effect of feeding different carbohydrates on glycogen and lipid biosynthesis in diapausing mosquitoes was investigated in vivo using 13C solid-state NMR. Diapause-destined adult females and nondiapausing counterparts after adult eclosion were fed with three different carbohydrate sources for 7 days: 1) 10% sucrose, 2) 10% D-[13C6]glucose, and 3) 1% D-[13C6]glucose co-provisioned with 10% sucrose. NMR measurements show that sucrose and glucose are metabolized differently in diapausing mosquitoes. Mosquitoes fed on sucrose primarily accumulate glycogen with increased branching structures, but less of lipids. In contrast, mosquitoes fed exclusively on glucose show accumulation of both glycogen and lipid with increased aliphatic chain length. Glucose is exclusively metabolized for the biosynthesis of triacylglyceride when mosquitoes were co-fed with sucrose. Our findings provide novel insights into the insect carbohydrate metabolism that governs glycogen and lipid biosynthesis during diapause, which is fundamental for the insect survival during inimical environments.

  2. Evolutionary genomics of Culex pipiens: global and local adaptations associated with climate, life-history traits and anthropogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Hosseinali; Chang, Peter L.; Lysenkov, Sergey; Scobeyeva, Victoria A.; Reisen, William K.; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first genome-wide study of recent evolution in Culex pipiens species complex focusing on the genomic extent, functional targets and likely causes of global and local adaptations. We resequenced pooled samples of six populations of C. pipiens and two populations of the outgroup Culex torrentium. We used principal component analysis to systematically study differential natural selection across populations and developed a phylogenetic scanning method to analyse admixture without haplotype data. We found evidence for the prominent role of geographical distribution in shaping population structure and specifying patterns of genomic selection. Multiple adaptive events, involving genes implicated with autogeny, diapause and insecticide resistance were limited to specific populations. We estimate that about 5–20% of the genes (including several histone genes) and almost half of the annotated pathways were undergoing selective sweeps in each population. The high occurrence of sweeps in non-genic regions and in chromatin remodelling genes indicated the adaptive importance of gene expression changes. We hypothesize that global adaptive processes in the C. pipiens complex are potentially associated with South to North range expansion, requiring adjustments in chromatin conformation. Strong local signature of adaptation and emergence of hybrid bridge vectors necessitate genomic assessment of populations before specifying control agents. PMID:26085592

  3. Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krtinić, B; Ludoški, J; Milankov, V

    2015-02-01

    Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens ('rural') and molestus ('urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of 'urban' and 'rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third- and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

  4. Evolutionary genomics of Culex pipiens: global and local adaptations associated with climate, life-history traits and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Hosseinali; Chang, Peter L; Lysenkov, Sergey; Scobeyeva, Victoria A; Reisen, William K; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2015-07-07

    We present the first genome-wide study of recent evolution in Culex pipiens species complex focusing on the genomic extent, functional targets and likely causes of global and local adaptations. We resequenced pooled samples of six populations of C. pipiens and two populations of the outgroup Culex torrentium. We used principal component analysis to systematically study differential natural selection across populations and developed a phylogenetic scanning method to analyse admixture without haplotype data. We found evidence for the prominent role of geographical distribution in shaping population structure and specifying patterns of genomic selection. Multiple adaptive events, involving genes implicated with autogeny, diapause and insecticide resistance were limited to specific populations. We estimate that about 5-20% of the genes (including several histone genes) and almost half of the annotated pathways were undergoing selective sweeps in each population. The high occurrence of sweeps in non-genic regions and in chromatin remodelling genes indicated the adaptive importance of gene expression changes. We hypothesize that global adaptive processes in the C. pipiens complex are potentially associated with South to North range expansion, requiring adjustments in chromatin conformation. Strong local signature of adaptation and emergence of hybrid bridge vectors necessitate genomic assessment of populations before specifying control agents.

  5. Transmission of a pathogenic virus (Iridoviridae) of Culex pipiens larvae mediated by the mermithid Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Muttis, Evangelina; Micieli, María Victoria; Urrutia, María Inés; García, Juan José

    2015-07-01

    Little progress been made in elucidating the transmission pathway of the invertebrate iridescent virus (MIV). It has been proposed that the MIV has no active means to enter the mosquito larva. We have previously found that the presence of the mermithid nematode Strelkovimermis spiculatus is associated with MIV infection in Culex pipiens under field conditions. In the present study, we evaluated the transmission of MIV to C. pipiens larvae mediated by S. spiculatus and several factors involved in this pathway (mosquito instars, nematode:mosquito larva ratio, amount of viral inoculum). Our results indicate that S. spiculatus functions as an MIV vector to C. pipiens larvae and seems to be an important pathway of virus entry into this system. Moreover, TEM images of S. spiculatus exposed to the viral suspension showed no infections inside the nematode but showed that viral particles are carried over the cuticle of this mermithid. This explains the correspondence between MIV infection and the factors that affect the parasitism of S. spiculatus in C. pipiens larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypervariable prophage WO sequences describe an unexpected high number of Wolbachia variants in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2006-02-22

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect many arthropod species and may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) resulting in abortive embryonic development. Among all the described host species, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex display the highest variability of CI crossing types. Paradoxically, searches for polymorphism in Wolbachia infecting strains and field populations hitherto failed or produced very few markers. Here, we show that an abundant source of the long-sought polymorphism lies in WO prophage sequences present in multiple copies dispersed in the genome of Wolbachia infecting C. pipiens (wPip). We identified up to 66 different Wolbachia variants in C. pipiens strains and field populations and no occurrence of superinfection was observed. At least 49 different Wolbachia occurred in Southern Europe C. pipiens populations, and up to 10 different Wolbachia were even detected in a single population. This is in sharp contrast with North African and Cretan samples, which exhibited only six variants. The WO polymorphism appeared stable over time, and was exclusively transferred maternally. Interestingly, we found that the CI pattern previously described correlates with the variability of Gp15, a prophage protein similar to a bacterial virulence protein. WO prophage sequences thus represent variable markers that now open routes for approaching the molecular basis of CI, the host effects, the structure and dynamics of Wolbachia populations.

  7. Hypervariable prophage WO sequences describe an unexpected high number of Wolbachia variants in the mosquito Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Duron, Olivier; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2005-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect many arthropod species and may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) resulting in abortive embryonic development. Among all the described host species, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex display the highest variability of CI crossing types. Paradoxically, searches for polymorphism in Wolbachia infecting strains and field populations hitherto failed or produced very few markers. Here, we show that an abundant source of the long-sought polymorphism lies in WO prophage sequences present in multiple copies dispersed in the genome of Wolbachia infecting C. pipiens (wPip). We identified up to 66 different Wolbachia variants in C. pipiens strains and field populations and no occurrence of superinfection was observed. At least 49 different Wolbachia occurred in Southern Europe C. pipiens populations, and up to 10 different Wolbachia were even detected in a single population. This is in sharp contrast with North African and Cretan samples, which exhibited only six variants. The WO polymorphism appeared stable over time, and was exclusively transferred maternally. Interestingly, we found that the CI pattern previously described correlates with the variability of Gp15, a prophage protein similar to a bacterial virulence protein. WO prophage sequences thus represent variable markers that now open routes for approaching the molecular basis of CI, the host effects, the structure and dynamics of Wolbachia populations. PMID:16615218

  8. Recent amplification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the vector mosquito Culex pipiens: characterization of the Mimo family.

    PubMed

    Feschotte, C; Mouchès, C

    2000-05-30

    We describe a new family of repetitive elements, named Mimo, from the mosquito Culex pipiens. Structural characteristics of these elements fit well with those of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are ubiquitous and highly abundant in plant genomes. The occurrence of Mimo in C. pipiens provides new evidence that MITEs are not restricted to plant genomes, but may be widespread in arthropods as well. The copy number of Mimo elements in C. pipiens ( approximately 1000 copies in a 540Mb genome) supports the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between genome size and the magnitude of MITE proliferation. In contrast to most MITE families described so far, members of the Mimo family share a high sequence conservation, which may reflect a recent amplification history in this species. In addition, we found that Mimo elements are a frequent nest for other MITE-like elements, suggesting that multiple and successive MITE transposition events have occurred very recently in the C. pipiens genome. Despite evidence for recent mobility of these MITEs, no element has been found to encode a protein; therefore, we do not know how they have transposed and have spread in the genome. However, some sequence similarities in terminal inverted-repeats suggest a possible filiation of some of these mosquito MITEs with pogo-like DNA transposons.

  9. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  10. Decapitation Improves Detection of Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes by the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    BECKMANN, J. F.; FALLON, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is often used to detect microorganisms, pathogens, or both, including the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), in mosquitoes. Natural populations of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes are infected with one or more strains of W. pipientis, and crosses between mosquitoes harboring different Wolbachia strains provide one of the best-known examples of cytoplasmic incompatibililty (CI). When we used PCR to monitor Wolbachia in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens, and in a Wolbachia-cured sister colony obtained by tetracycline treatment, we noted false negative PCR reactions with DNA samples from infected mosquitoes; these results were inconsistent with direct microscopic observation of Wolbachia-like particles in gonads dissected from mosquitoes in the same population. Assays with diluted template often improved detection of positive samples, suggesting that DNA prepared from whole mosquitoes contained an inhibitor of the PCR reaction. We reconciled discrepancies between PCR and microscopy by systematic measurement of the PCR reaction in the presence of an internal standard. Mosquito decapitation before DNA extraction restored the reliability of the PCR reaction, allowing accurate determination of Wolbachia infection status in infected and tetracycline-cured mosquito populations, consistent with microscopic examination. Using PCR primers based on the Tr1 gene, we confirmed that the Wolbachia infection in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens belongs to the genotype designated wPip1. Finally, to explore more widely the distribution of PCR inhibitors, we demonstrated that DNA isolated from the cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.); the beetle, Tenebrio molitor L.; the honey bee, Apis mellifera L.; and the mosquito, Anopheles punctipennis Say also contained PCR inhibitors. These results underscore the importance of measuring the presence of inhibitors in PCR templates by using a known positive

  11. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE). However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE) technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75%) were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a susceptible strain. Fifteen

  12. MiR-278-3p regulates pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhentao; Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Guo, Qin; Zou, Feifei; Hu, Shengli; Fang, Fujin; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Liu, Xianmiao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection in many species. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are involved in drug resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the miRNAs and insecticide resistance in mosquitos. Here, we reported that conserved miR-278-3p and its target gene are critical for pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. We found that CYP6AG11 is the target of miR-278-3p, through bioinformatic analysis and experimental verification. The expression level of miR-278-3p was lower, whereas the level of CYP6AG11 was higher in deltamethrin-resistant strain, which were detected using qRT-PCR. We also found that CYP6AG11 was regulated by miR-278-3p via a specific target site with the 3′UTR by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, overexpression of CYP6AG11 in the mosquito C6/36 cells showed better prolification than the cells with empty vector when treated by deltamethrin at different concentrations. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-278-3p through microinjection led to a significant reduction in the survival rate, and the level of CYP6AG11 was simultaneously reduced. These results indicated that miR-278-3p could regulate the pyrethroid resistance through CYP6AG11. PMID:25420996

  13. Vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Anderson, Sheri L.; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess vector competence (infection, dissemination and transmission) of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for Florida (FL) West Nile virus (WNV) isolates. METHODS West Nile virus isolates (WN-FL-03: NY99 genotype; WN-FL-05-558, WN-FL-05-2186, WN-FL-05-510: WN02 genotype) collected from different regions of FL were used for vector competence experiments in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus from Alachua County and Indian River County in FL. Mosquitoes from both colonies were fed blood containing 7.9 ± 0.2 log10 plaque-forming units WNV/ml ± SE and incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. Vector competence, including rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission, was compared between colonies for WN-FL-03 using chi-squared. Virus titres in bodies, legs and saliva were compared using ANOVA. Daily measurements of in vitro replication of WNV isolates were evaluated in Vero cells so that a standardised virus dose for each isolate could be delivered to mosquitoes. RESULTS Infection and dissemination rates were high (≥95%) and not affected by isolate or colony (infection, P = 0.679; dissemination, P = 0.799). Transmission rates were low (≤20%), detected in one colony and affected by isolate (P = 0.008). Body and leg titres differed between isolates (body titre, P = 0.031; leg titre, P = 0.044) and colonies (body titre, P = 0.001; leg titre, P = 0.013) while saliva titre did not differ between isolates (P = 0.462). CONCLUSIONS Variation in vector competence of mosquito populations may be attributed, in part, to exposures to WNV with genetic differences leading to different rates of replication in mosquitoes. Evaluation of vector competence for different WNV isolates may help us understand vector–virus interactions and, hence, the role of vectors in complex virus transmission cycles in nature. PMID:24898274

  14. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    PubMed

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  15. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l−1 and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1R allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1R and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1V or the duplicated ace-1D allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects. PMID:26463842

  16. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l(-1) and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1(R) allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1(R) and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1(V) or the duplicated ace-1(D) allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects.

  17. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-xiao; Guo, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ying-mei; Dong, Yan-de; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Heng-duan; Zhao, Tong-yan

    2016-05-01

    Culex pipiens pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus are important vectors of many diseases, such as West Nile fever and lymphatic filariasis. The widespread use of insecticides to control these disease vectors and other insect pests has led to insecticide resistance becoming common in these species. In this study, high throughout Illumina sequencing was used to identify hundreds of Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus genes that were differentially expressed in response to insecticide exposure. The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for facilitation of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) life history traits by the nonnative invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii).

    PubMed

    Shewhart, Lauren; McEwan, Ryan W; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes are one of the most globally important insect pests and vectors of human pathogens, and their populations may be facilitated or inhibited by anthropogenic environmental change. Invasive plant species are an important management concern and environmental modifier in many ecosystems; these plant invasions have the potential to exacerbate or diminish mosquito populations. The purpose of this study was to assess potential effects of a highly invasive plant, Lonicera maackii, on a common mosquito species Culex pipiens L., which is an important pathogen vector in the United States. Three microcosm assays were conducted to determine the responses of C. pipiens life history attributes of larval survivorship, growth, and pupation when subjected to leachate from two native plant leaves (Platanus occidentalis and Acer saccharum) and both the leaves and flowers of L. maackii. Only C. pipiens larvae exposed to L. maackii leachate pupated and emerged as adults. However, in all three assays there were statistically significant differences in survivorship and body size change among treatments, and in each assay the highest survivorship and maximum larval size was found in the L. maackii leachate treatments, suggesting positive effects on certain life history traits. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the potential facilitative effect of this invasive plant species on an insect vector and suggests that plant invasion could have positive feedbacks into mosquito population dynamics and, ultimately, human disease.

  19. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-12-01

    The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5-1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens.

  20. Rainfall Influences Survival of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Residential Neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic USA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christy E.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Marra, Peter P.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the survival and dispersal rates of mosquito vectors is an important step in designing and implementing control strategies. Vector survival plays a key role in determining the intensity of pathogen transmission, and vector movement determines the spatial scale on which control efforts must operate to be effective. We provide the first estimates of field survival and dispersal rates for Culex pipiens in North America, an important enzootic and bridge vector for West Nile virus (WNV). We conducted mark-release-recapture studies in a residential area near Washington DC in two consecutive years and fit nonlinear regression models to the recapture data that incorporate weather information into survival and recapture probabilities. We found that daily survival rates were not significantly different between the two years but were negatively affected by rainfall. The daily survival rate was 0.904 ± 0.037 (SE), which implies an average longevity of 10.4 days. As with other vector-borne pathogens, the measured survival rate suggests that at our site the majority of WNV-infected Cx. pipiens mosquitoes may perish before becoming infectious (being able to transmit WNV to hosts). We found relatively little evidence of dispersal following the initial night after release. Our results suggest that transmission of WNV and other pathogens transmitted by Cx. pipiens may be highly local and they highlight the importance of factors that influence survival of mosquito vectors. PMID:22679852

  1. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  2. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  3. Insecticide resistance alleles in wetland and residential populations of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Fonseca, Dina M

    2016-03-01

    In spite of the extensive use of insecticides to control Culex pipiens in the aftermath of West Nile virus, knowledge of the spatial distribution and frequency of insecticide resistance in this species is poorly understood in the United States. This paper reports on the occurrence of upregulated esterases that detoxify organophosphates (OPs) and mutations conferring resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in natural and developed areas of New Jersey. We report the first observations of the OP resistance alleles Ester(B1) and Ester(2) and the classical knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation L1014F in New Jersey Cx. pipiens. Upregulated Ester(B1) peaked at 23% (mean ± SE = 12 ± 2.3%) and Ester(2) at 14% (8 ± 1.8%), and both were widely distributed. L1014F, which confers strong resistance to pyrethroids when homozygous, was also widely distributed and ranged in frequency from 2 to 19% (5.1% heterozygous individuals and 1.4% homozygous). We have demonstrated that OP resistance is common and broadly distributed in New Jersey Cx. pipiens, and that homozygous individuals resistant to pyrethroids are present. Further, we have detected double mutants at Ester and kdr, a condition that may annul the purging effects of insecticide rotations. Our results therefore indicate the need for continued monitoring of insecticide resistance in order to achieve effective mosquito control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Survivorship and fecundity of Culex pipiens pallens feeding on flowering plants and seed pods with differential preferences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Ding, Yan-Mei; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Liu, Ning; Li, Hong-Jie; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2016-03-01

    Adult mosquitoes rely on ingestion of sugar from plants to survive, swarm and mate. Culex pipiens pallens Coguillett is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis and epidemic encephalitis. Little is known about the effect of feeding on different sugar sources on the survivorship and fecundity of Cx. pipiens pallens. In the present study, newly emerged mosquitoes were exposed to several flowering plant and seed pod species with different olfactory preferences, and the survival times of mosquitoes exposed to these sugar sources were determined. The proportions of mosquitoes that ingested sugar from host plants were investigated by cold anthrone tests. The numbers of eggs per egg raft laid by mosquitoes were compared when they were provided with different sugar sources and one blood meal. The results revealed that feeding on different kinds of sugar sources significantly affected female and male mosquitoes' survival times. Cold anthrone tests indicated that the proportions of sugar-positive mosquitoes from different nutritional regimes within 24h corresponded to the preference rankings of Cx. pipiens pallens to these sugar sources, and rapid declines in the proportions of surviving individuals might be attributed to their insufficient ingestion of sugar from nutritional regimes. Feeding on different sugar sources strongly affected the proportions of engorged mosquitoes, and females that had fed on their preferred sugar sources laid more eggs than mosquitoes provided with less preferred sugar sources. The results would provide insights in developing mosquito control strategies that target the sugar feeding behavior of mosquitoes.

  5. Upregulation of two actin genes and redistribution of actin during diapause and cold stress in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two actin genes cloned from Culex pipiens L. are upregulated during adult diapause. Though actins 1 and 2 were expressed throughout diapause, both genes were most highly expressed early in diapause. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by a conspicuous redistribution of polymerized acti...

  6. Geographic variation in the response of Culex pipiens life history traits to temperature.

    PubMed

    Ruybal, Jordan E; Kramer, Laura D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2016-02-29

    Climate change is predicted to alter the transmission of many vector-borne pathogens. The quantitative impact of climate change is usually estimated by measuring the temperature-performance relationships for a single population of vectors, and then mapping this relationship across a range of temperatures or locations. However, life history traits of different populations often differ significantly. Specifically, performance across a range of temperatures is likely to vary due to local adaptation to temperature and other factors. This variation can cause spatial variation in pathogen transmission and will influence the impact of climate change on the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We quantified variation in life history traits for four populations of Culex pipiens (Linnaeus) mosquitoes. The populations were distributed along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in the eastern United States that spanned ~3 °C in mean summer temperature, which is similar to the magnitude of global warming expected in the next 3-5 decades. We measured larval and adult survival, development rate, and biting rate at six temperatures between 16 and 35 °C, in a common garden experiment. Temperature had strong and consistent non-linear effects on all four life history traits for all four populations. Adult female development time decreased monotonically with increasing temperature, with the largest decrease at cold temperatures. Daily juvenile and adult female survival also decreased with increasing temperature, but the largest decrease occurred at higher temperatures. There was significant among-population variation in the thermal response curves for the four life history traits across the four populations, with larval survival, adult survival, and development rate varying up to 45, 79, and 84 % among populations, respectively. However, variation was not correlated with local temperatures and thus did not support the local thermal adaptation hypothesis. These results suggest

  7. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  8. The mosquito fauna of the western region of Spain with emphasis on ecological factors and the characterization of Culex pipiens forms.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Barriga, Daniel; Gomes, Bruno; Almeida, Antonio P G; Serrano-Aguilera, Francisco J; Pérez-Martín, Juan E; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Reina, David; Frontera, Eva; Pinto, João

    2017-06-01

    This study updates the diversity, distribution, and seasonal trends of mosquitoes in a western region of Spain, assesses ecological determinants of Culex pipiens s.l., and determines form composition of Cx. pipiens s.s. A total of 1,495 mosquitoes of 16 species was collected during 2012-2013, of which Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. theileri were the most abundant. Five new records for An. maculipennis s.s., Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) punctor, Cx. europaeus, and Cx. modestus were found for this region. Cx. pipiens density varied across weather and habitat patterns, correlating positively with high temperatures and with a preference for urbanized areas and rural areas within a proximity of ovine farms. Moreover, molecular identification by CQ11FL was performed in 467 Cx. pipiens s.s., detecting both pipiens (66%) and molestus (8.4%) forms coexisting in different habitats (urban, peri-urban and rural) aboveground with a high degree of hybridization (25.7%). The abundance of Cx. pipiens in urban areas and farms, with the presence of hybrids, may increase their capacity to act as bridge vectors for the transmission of arboviral infections. These data will be helpful for further implementation of entomological programs focused on risk assessment for arboviruses or other mosquito-borne pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W; Kaufmann, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Young, David R; Carroll, Scott P; McCall, Scott; Chester, S Theodore; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-30

    Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act/Frontect) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed to mosquitoes on Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 (and also on Day 35 in the A. aegypti study). After a 1-h exposure period, all mosquitoes were counted and categorized as live or dead and fed or non-fed. Live mosquitoes were kept in an insectary and observed for mortality counts 4, 24 and 48 h post-exposure (PE) for Aedes spp. and 24 and 48 h PE for C. pipiens. Repellency and insecticidal efficacies were defined as the percent reduction in the number of fed and live mosquitoes, respectively, in the treated group as compared to the untreated control group. Repellency against A. albopictus was ≥93.4% through Day 21 and 86.9% on Day 28. It was ≥91.0% through Day 35 against A. aegypti and ≥90.4% through Day 28 against C. pipiens. Insecticidal efficacy against A. albopictus was ≥97.1% at 24 h PE from Day 7 to Day 28. It was ≥98.0% for the first 3 weeks and still 75.7% on Day 35 against A. aegypti at 24 h PE. For C. pipiens, insecticidal efficacy ranged from 93.8% (Day 7) to 30.9% (Day 28) at 48 h PE. A single topical administration of the combination of fipronil and permethrin provides repellency against mosquitoes on dogs for at least 4 weeks. The product may therefore significantly reduce the potential for the transmission of vector-borne pathogens through the inhibition of mosquito feeding, as well as the discomfort associated with mosquito bites. Moreover, mosquito mortality was induced by contact with the treated dogs, which could aid in the control of mosquitoes, and

  10. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) Vector Competence for Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Lord, Cynthia C.; Pesko, Kendra; Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    Complex interactions between environmental and biological factors influence the susceptibility of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to St. Louis encephalitis virus and could affect the epidemiology of virus transmission. Similar interactions could have epidemiologic implications for other vector-virus systems. We conducted an experiment to examine four such factors in combination: mosquito age, extrinsic incubation temperature (EIT), virus dose, and colony. The proportion of mosquitoes with body infections or disseminated infections varied between colonies, and was dependant on age, EIT, and dose. We also show that the probability of a body or leg infection interacted in complex ways between colonies, ages, EITs, and doses. The complex interactive effects of environmental and biological factors must be taken into account for studies of vector competence and epidemiology, especially when laboratory studies are used to generalize to natural transmission dynamics where the extent of variation is largely unknown. PMID:19635881

  11. A sex-linked Ace gene, not linked to insensitive acetylcholinesterase-mediated insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C A; Bourguet, D; Ascolillo, A; Rooker, S J; Garvey, C F; Hall, L M; Pasteur, N; Raymond, M

    1998-05-01

    An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, Ace.x, showing 93% identity of deduced amino acid sequence to Anopheles stephensi Ace has been cloned from a Culex pipiens strain homozygous for insensitive AChE (iAChE) mediated insecticide resistance. DNA sequence of genomic DNA clones identified exons 2-5. RFLP of six clones indicated four possible alleles. Linkage analysis located Ace.x to chromosome I, less than 0.8 centimorgans from the sex locus, whereas the locus conferring resistance was 2.0 centimorgans from plum-eye on chromosome II. Ace.1 coding for AChE1, which is associated with resistance, is therefore autosomal. We propose that Ace.x is the recently postulated Ace.2 coding for the biochemically distinct AChE2, which is not associated with resistance.

  12. Effect of incubation at overwintering temperatures on the replication of West Nile Virus in New York Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dohm, D J; Turell, M J

    2001-05-01

    We examined the effect of simulated overwintering temperatures on West Nile (WN) virus replication in Culex pipiens L. derived from mosquitoes collected during the autumn 1999 WN epizootic in New York. The WN virus was a strain isolated from a dead crow also collected during this outbreak. Virus was recovered from most mosquitoes held exclusively at 26 degres C. In contrast, none of the mosquitoes held exclusively at the lower temperatures had detectable infections. When mosquitoes were transferred to 26 degrees C after being held at 10 degrees C for 21-42 d, infection and dissemination rates increased with increased incubation at 26 degrees C. Future studies involving the attempted isolation of WN virus from overwintering mosquitoes may benefit from holding the mosquitoes at 26 degrees C before testing for infectious virus.

  13. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Taktak, Nehad E. M.; Awad, Osama M.; Elfiki, Souraya A.; Abou El-Ela, Nadia E.

    2016-01-01

    Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene) were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone) on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min) followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min) and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min). Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol) monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.). Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations. PMID:27891154

  14. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs in Culex pipiens and their potential roles in pyrethroid resistance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shanchao; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Hu, Shengli; Fang, Fujin; Lv, Yuan; Yu, Jing; Zou, Feifei; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-12-01

    Pyrethroids are the major class of insecticides used for mosquito control. Excessive and improper use of insecticides, however, has resulted in pyrethroid resistance, which has become a major obstacle for mosquito control. The development of pyrethroid resistance is a complex process involving many genes, and information on post-transcription regulation of pyrethroid resistance is lacking. In this study, we extracted RNA from mosquitoes in various life stages (fourth-instar larvae, pupae, male and female adult mosquitoes) from deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) and resistant (DR) strains. Using illumina sequencing, we obtained 13760296 and 12355472 reads for DS-strains and DR-strains, respectively. We identified 100 conserved miRNAs and 42 novel miRNAs derived from 21 miRNA precursors in Culex pipiens. After normalization, we identified 28 differentially expressed miRNAs between the two strains. Additionally, we found that cpp-miR-71 was significant down regulated in female adults from the DR-strain. Based on microinjection and CDC Bottle Bioassay data, we found that cpp-miR-71 may play a contributing role in deltamethrin resistance. The present study provides the firstly large-scale characterization of miRNAs in Cu. pipiens and provides evidence of post-transcription regulation. The differentially expressed miRNAs between the two strains are expected to contribute to the development of pyrethroid resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Prevalence and Lineage Diversity of Avian Malaria in Wild Populations of Great Tits (Parus major) and Mosquitoes (Culex pipiens)

    PubMed Central

    Glaizot, Olivier; Fumagalli, Luca; Iritano, Katia; Lalubin, Fabrice; Van Rooyen, Juan; Christe, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and behaviour, and there is a need for basic investigations to obtain a better picture of the natural associations between Plasmodium lineages, vector species and bird hosts. The aim of the present study was to identify the mosquito species involved in the transmission of the haemosporidian parasites Plasmodium spp. in two wild populations of breeding great tits (Parus major) in western Switzerland. Additionally, we compared Plasmodium lineages, based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences, between the vertebrate and dipteran hosts, and evaluated the prevalence of the parasite in the mosquito populations. Plasmodium spp. were detected in Culex pipiens only, with an overall 6.6% prevalence. Among the six cytochrome b lineages of Plasmodium identified in the mosquitoes, three were also present in great tits. The results provide evidence for the first time that C. pipiens can act as a natural vector of avian malaria in Europe and yield baseline data for future research on the epidemiology of avian malaria in European countries. PMID:22506060

  16. Functional circadian clock genes are essential for the overwintering diapause of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Meuti, Megan E.; Stone, Mary; Ikeno, Tomoko; Denlinger, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The short day lengths of late summer are used to program the overwintering adult diapause (dormancy) of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens. Here, we investigated the role of clock genes in initiating this diapause and asked whether the circadian cycling of clock gene expression persists during diapause. We provide evidence that the major circadian clock genes continue to cycle throughout diapause and after diapause has been terminated. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knock down the core circadian clock genes and to then assess the impact of the various clock genes on the ability of females to enter diapause. RNAi directed against negative circadian regulators (period, timeless and cryptochrome2) caused females that were reared under diapause-inducing, short day conditions to avert diapause. In contrast, knocking down the circadian-associated gene pigment dispersing factor caused females that were reared under diapause-averting, long day conditions to enter a diapause-like state. Our results implicate the circadian clock in the initiation of diapause in C. pipiens. PMID:25653422

  17. High prevalence and lineage diversity of avian malaria in wild populations of great tits (Parus major) and mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    PubMed

    Glaizot, Olivier; Fumagalli, Luca; Iritano, Katia; Lalubin, Fabrice; Van Rooyen, Juan; Christe, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and behaviour, and there is a need for basic investigations to obtain a better picture of the natural associations between Plasmodium lineages, vector species and bird hosts. The aim of the present study was to identify the mosquito species involved in the transmission of the haemosporidian parasites Plasmodium spp. in two wild populations of breeding great tits (Parus major) in western Switzerland. Additionally, we compared Plasmodium lineages, based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences, between the vertebrate and dipteran hosts, and evaluated the prevalence of the parasite in the mosquito populations. Plasmodium spp. were detected in Culex pipiens only, with an overall 6.6% prevalence. Among the six cytochrome b lineages of Plasmodium identified in the mosquitoes, three were also present in great tits. The results provide evidence for the first time that C. pipiens can act as a natural vector of avian malaria in Europe and yield baseline data for future research on the epidemiology of avian malaria in European countries.

  18. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  19. Naturally occurring incompatibilities between different Culex pipiens pallens populations as the basis of potential mosquito control measures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a supplement to other control measures.

  20. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the California Culex pipiens mosquito species complex: parameter estimates and infection dynamics in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Rasgon, Jason L; Scott, Thomas W

    2003-01-01

    Before maternally inherited bacterial symbionts like Wolbachia, which cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; reduced hatch rate) when infected males mate with uninfected females, can be used in a program to control vector-borne diseases it is essential to understand their dynamics of infection in natural arthropod vector populations. Our study had four goals: (1) quantify the number of Wolbachia strains circulating in the California Culex pipiens species complex, (2) investigate Wolbachia infection frequencies and distribution in natural California populations, (3) estimate the parameters that govern Wolbachia spread among Cx. pipiens under laboratory and field conditions, and (4) use these values to estimate equilibrium levels and compare predicted infection prevalence levels to those observed in nature. Strain-specific PCR, wsp gene sequencing, and crossing experiments indicated that a single Wolbachia strain infects Californian Cx. pipiens. Infection frequency was near or at fixation in all populations sampled for 2 years along a >1000-km north-south transect. The combined statewide infection frequency was 99.4%. Incompatible crosses were 100% sterile under laboratory and field conditions. Sterility decreased negligibly with male age in the laboratory. Infection had no significant effect on female fecundity under laboratory or field conditions. Vertical transmission was >99% in the laboratory and approximately 98.6% in the field. Using field data, models predicted that Wolbachia will spread to fixation if infection exceeds an unstable equilibrium point above 1.4%. Our estimates accurately predicted infection frequencies in natural populations. If certain technical hurdles can be overcome, our data indicate that Wolbachia can invade vector populations as part of an applied transgenic strategy for vector-borne disease reduction. PMID:14704183

  1. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  2. Culex pipiens, an experimental efficient vector of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses in the Maghreb region.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 10(7.8) and 10(8.5) plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14-21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology.

  3. Effects of forced egg retention on the temporal progression of West Nile virus infection in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Smartt, Chelsea T; Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Vitek, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    Environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. Lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force Culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say were fed blood meals containing West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9, 13, 20, 27 d) at 28 degrees C. Oviposition status did not significantly affect rates of WNV infection (% with virus-positive bodies), dissemination (% with virus-positive legs), or transmission (% with virus-positive saliva) for any of the tested time points. As expected, WNV titers in bodies and legs were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at late time points compared with early time points. No significant differences were observed in WNV titers in saliva between time points. There were no significant effects of oviposition status on virus titers of bodies, legs, or saliva. However, we found that egg retention may increase vector competence at early and late time points after infection and that a single oviposition event may decrease vector competence, possibly by activating an immune response against the virus. Environmental changes that influence mosquito biology are important determinants of virus transmission, and further studies are needed to assess the effects of drought on virus transmission risk and how these interactions affect our interpretation of field data.

  4. Effects of Forced Egg Retention on the Temporal Progression of West Nile Virus Infection in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    SMARTT, CHELSEA T.; RICHARDS, STEPHANIE L.; ANDERSON, SHERI L.; VITEK, CHRISTOPHER J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. Lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force Culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say were fed blood meals containing West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9, 13, 20, 27 d) at 28°C. Oviposition status did not signiÞcantly affect rates of WNV infection (% with virus-positive bodies), dissemination (% with virus-positive legs), or transmission (% with virus-positive saliva) for any of the tested time points. As expected, WNV titers in bodies and legs were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at late time points compared with early time points. No significant differences were observed in WNV titers in saliva between time points. There were no significant effects of oviposition status on virus titers of bodies, legs, or saliva. However, we found that egg retention may increase vector competence at early and late time points after infection and that a single oviposition event may decrease vector competence, possibly by activating an immune response against the virus. Environmental changes that influence mosquito biology are important determinants of virus transmission, and further studies are needed to assess the effects of drought on virus transmission risk and how these interactions affect our interpretation of field data. PMID:20146856

  5. Operational Evaluation Of Vectomax® WSP (Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis+Bacillus sphaericus) Against Larval Culex pipiens in Septic Tanks (1).

    PubMed

    Cetin, Huseyin; Oz, Emre; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2015-06-01

    The residual effectiveness of VectoMax® WSP (a water-soluble pouch formulation containing a combination of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain AM65-52 and B. sphaericus strain ABTS 1743) when applied to septic tanks against 3rd- and 4th-stage larvae of Culex pipiens L. was evaluated in this study. This formulation was evaluated at operational application rates of 1 pouch (10 g) and 2 pouches (20 g) per septic tank. Both application rates resulted in >96% control of larvae for 24 days. Operationally, VectoMax WSP has proven to be a useful tool for the nonchemical control of Culex species in septic tank environments.

  6. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  7. Host-feeding habits of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at the urban and suburban residential areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Kyoko; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Sasaki, Toshinori; Roychoudhury, Sudipta; Higa, Yukiko; Kasai, Shinji; Tsuda, Yoshio; Nishiumi, Isao; Hisai, Nobuo; Hamao, Shoji; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes for viruses in Japan, the host-feeding habits of the mosquitoes were analyzed by sequencing polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal RNA regions of the mitochondrial DNA of 516 mosquitoes of 15 species from seven genera that were collected from residential areas during 2003-2006. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse were the most commonly collected species in urban and suburban residential areas. Anautogenous Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett was distinguished from the autogenous Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskal using a polymerase chain reaction-based identification method. Both Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. form molestus exhibited similar host-feeding habits, broadly preferring avian (50.0 and 42.5% of avian, respectively) and mammalian (38.6 and 45.0% of avian, respectively) hosts, such as tree sparrows, ducks, and humans. Conversely, Ae. albopictus exhibited a highly mammalophilic and anthropophilic feeding pattern, with 84.2% feeding on mammalian hosts and 68.5% of these on humans. We concluded that in Japan, Cx. pipiens might play a significant role in the avian-to-mammal transmission of viruses, such as West Nile virus, whereas Ae. albopictus might play a role in the human-human transmission of dengue and Chikungunya viruses.

  8. [Role of the mosquitoes Culex pipienis f. pipiens and Cx. pipiens f. molestus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the spread of West Nile virus in the south of Russia].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Shaĭkevich, E V

    2013-01-01

    Cx. pipiens is one of the major vectors of West Nile virus in the south of Russia and it is represented by the autogenic form, molestus, and the non-autogenic form, pipiens. The spatial distribution of its larvae and food preferences of females was investigated to assess the potential role of each form in the spread of the virus. The taxonomic status of the mosquitoes was determined from their capacity for autogenicity (543 specimens) and the type of mitochondrial DNA (348 specimens). The mosquitoes of the pipiens form were shown to develop in the open urban and rural reservoirs and the females were non-autogenic. Cx. pipiens form molestus was found only in the urban biotopes, mainly in the flooded basements and, in some years, also in the open reservoirs where it formed a mixed population with Cx. pipiens form pipiens. Both autogenic (85-95.2%) and non-autogenic specimens were identified among the females with the mitotype in form molestus. Genetic analysis of Cx. pipiens females collected under the Berezantsev bell and in the trap with a bird showed that both forms were attracted to man and the bird. The findings suggest that Cx. pipiens form pipiens can transmit West Nile virus to humans both in the town and in its suburb and Cx. pipiens form molestus can only in urban areas.

  9. Evaluation of Isotope 32P Method to Mark Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Huaiju; Liu, Hongmei; Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Gong, Maoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to develop a marking technique as an internal marker to mark post blood meal mosquitoes by using stable phosphate isotope 32P and determine the optimal concentration of it. Methods: An isotonic physiological saline solution, containing different concentration of radioactive isotope 32P-labeled disodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4) was injected into rabbits via the jugular vein in the laboratory. Emerged Cx. pipiens were marked after feeding on rabbit. At the same time, the labeled conditions of emerged Cx. pipiens were also measured by placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside. Results: According to the label condition of Cx. pipiens after taking blood and the effect of different dosage Na2H32PO4 on rabbit health, the optimal concentration of radioactive isotope was determined, that is, 0.1211 mCi/kg. By placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside, the emerged mosquitoes were also labeled. Therefore, feeding mosquitoes on the animal injected with radioactive Na2H32PO4 was more practical for detecting and tracing mosquitoes. Conclusion: The method was less time-consuming, more sensitive and safer. This marking method will facilitate post-bloodmeal studies of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. PMID:27308279

  10. Insecticide resistance and cytochrome-P450 activation in unfed and blood-fed laboratory and field populations of Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Ju, Young Ran

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance to vector mosquitoes is critical for the implementation of effective control measures. A nulliparous susceptible Culex pipiens pallens (KSCP) laboratory colony and two field strains from Paju (PAJ) and Jeonju (JEO) Korea were evaluated for susceptibility to five pesticides by microapplication techniques. Unfed PAJ and JEO females demonstrated increased resistance compared to unfed KSCP females, respectively. While blood-fed KSCP females demonstrated <10-fold decreased susceptibility to pesticides compared to unfed KSCP females, blood-fed PAJ and JEO females demonstrated 25.0-50.0- and 16.0-38.6-fold increased resistance compared to unfed PAJ and JEO females, respectively. Unfed and blood-fed groups were assayed for α- and β-esterase, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P-450 (P450) enzyme activity assays. P450 activity was 58.8- and 72.8-fold higher for unfed PAJ and JEO females, respectively, than unfed KSCP females. P450 enzyme activity of KSCP females assayed 1 and 7 days after a blood meal increased by 14.5- and 11.8-fold, respectively, compared to unfed KSCP females, while PAJ and JEO females demonstrated 164.9- and 148.5- and 170.7- and 160.4-fold increased activity, respectively, compared to unfed females of each population. However, other three resistance-related metabolic enzymes showed low activation at <10-fold after a blood meal. The data demonstrate that P450 acts on elevated insecticide resistance after blood meals in resistant field populations. Our findings might reveal that suppressing of the P450 protein by artificial gene mutation increases insecticidal susceptibility of Cx. pipiens and will promise effective vector mosquito control.

  11. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  12. Effects of latitude and longitude on the population structure of Culex pipiens s.l., vectors of West Nile virus in North America.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances; Kiszewski, Anthony; Manjourides, Justin; Pagano, Marcello; Hutchinson, Michael; Kyle, Andrew; Arias, Jorge; Gaines, David; Lampman, Richard; Novak, Robert; Foppa, Ivo; Lubelcyzk, Charles; Smith, Robert; Moncayo, Abelardo; Spielman, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    We assessed the structure and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between Culex pipiens populations distributed along North-South and East-West axes in eastern North America. Strong population structure between Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus existed. Among Cx. p. pipiens, a 100-km increase in the latitudinal change resulted in an increased square root of F(ST) by 0.002. A 100-km increase in the longitudinal change caused an increased square root of F(ST) by 0.035. A lack of latitudinal influence on the structure between Cx. p. pipiens populations suggests a uniform signal using the 12 microsatellite markers, which might increase the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission toward northern areas because of longer breeding season, extend host-seeking period, and larger population size. Northern Cx. p. pipiens may have undergone additional generations before diapause is triggered, magnifying population size when WNV amplification is peaking.

  13. Effects of Latitude and Longitude on the Population Structure of Culex pipiens s.l., Vectors of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Edillo, Frances; Kiszewski, Anthony; Manjourides, Justin; Pagano, Marcello; Hutchinson, Michael; Kyle, Andrew; Arias, Jorge; Gaines, David; Lampman, Richard; Novak, Robert; Foppa, Ivo; Lubelcyzk, Charles; Smith, Robert; Moncayo, Abelardo

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the structure and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between Culex pipiens populations distributed along North-South and East-West axes in eastern North America. Strong population structure between Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus existed. Among Cx. p. pipiens, a 100-km increase in the latitudinal change resulted in an increased square root of FST by 0.002. A 100-km increase in the longitudinal change caused an increased square root of FST by 0.035. A lack of latitudinal influence on the structure between Cx. p. pipiens populations suggests a uniform signal using the 12 microsatellite markers, which might increase the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission toward northern areas because of longer breeding season, extend host-seeking period, and larger population size. Northern Cx. p. pipiens may have undergone additional generations before diapause is triggered, magnifying population size when WNV amplification is peaking. PMID:19861620

  14. Identification of proteins associated with pyrethroid resistance by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijie; Lv, Yuan; Fang, Fujin; Hong, Shanchao; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Zou, Feifei; Shi, Linna; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-02-10

    Mosquito control based on chemical insecticides is considered as an important element in the current global strategies for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. Unfortunately, the development of pyrethroid resistance in important vector mosquito species jeopardizes the effectiveness of insecticide-based mosquito control. To date, the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance are still unclear. Recent advances in proteomic techniques can facilitate to identify pyrethroid resistance-associated proteins at a large-scale for improving our understanding of resistance mechanisms, and more importantly, for seeking some genetic markers used for monitoring and predicting the development of resistance. We performed a quantitative proteomic analysis between a deltamethrin-susceptible strain and a deltamethrin-resistant strain of laboratory population of Culex pipiens pallens using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. One differentially expressed protein was chosen to confirm by Western blot in the laboratory and field populations of Cx. pipiens pallens. We identified 30 differentially expressed proteins assigned into 10 different categories, including oxidoreductase activity, transporter activity, catalytic activity, structural constituent of cuticle and hypothetical proteins. GO analysis revealed that 25 proteins were sub-categorized into 35 hierarchically-structured GO classifications. Western blot results showed that CYP6AA9 as one of the up-regulated proteins was confirmed to be overexpressed in the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared with the deltamethrin-susceptible strains both in the laboratory and field populations. This is the first study to use modern proteomic tools for identifying pyrethroid resistance-related proteins in Cx. pipiens. The present study brought to light many proteins that were not

  15. Infection and reinfection of Culex pipiens fatigans with Wuchereria bancrofti and the loss of mature larvae in blood-feeding*

    PubMed Central

    de Meillon, Botha; Hayashi, Shigeyo; Sebastian, Anthony

    1967-01-01

    Although previous workers had found no evidence of resistance to superinfection in vectors of filariasis, it was considered desirable to reinvestigate the subject because of the epidemiological implications, since a mosquito that can incubate to maturity successive broods of filarial larvae will obviously be a more efficient vector than one that cannot. The results obtained indicate that a Culex pipiens fatigans mosquito that picks up an infection early in its life can, by taking subsequent infecting feeds, remain infective for the rest of its life. The movement of mature larvae in the vector and losses of larvae during feeding are of interest since from this information one can estimate the probable number of larvae deposited on the host at each feed and the period of infectivity of the vector. In the present experiment there were, on average, 6.1 larvae per infective mosquito before a second blood-meal; after the meal the figure was 3.6. Thus, 41% of the original infective larvae were lost; not all would be inoculated into the host, as some would die on the surface of his skin. The release of infective larvae through blood-feeding results from a combination of the passive pressure of the engorged blood in the abdomen and the active movement of the larva itself. PMID:5298677

  16. EFFECTS OF WEST NILE VIRUS DOSE AND EXTRINSIC INCUBATION TEMPERATURE ON TEMPORAL PROGRESSION OF VECTOR COMPETENCE IN CULEX PIPIENS QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, SHERI L.; RICHARDS, STEPHANIE L.; TABACHNICK, WALTER J.; SMARTT, CHELSEA T.

    2010-01-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood containing either 7.0 ± 0.1 logs plaque-forming units (pfu)/ml (high dose) or 5.9 ± 0.1 logs pfu/ml (low dose) of West Nile virus and held at extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) of 28°C or 25°C. Approximately 20 mosquitoes per dose were collected after incubation periods (IP) of 4, 6, 8, and 12 days postinfection (dpi). Infection rates were influenced by EIT and virus dose but not by IP. Body titer was significantly higher for mosquitoes fed the high dose and held at 28°C at the later IPs (6, 8, and 12 dpi). However, leg titer was significantly higher for mosquitoes at the later IPs but did not differ between EITs or doses. Because infection rates varied with EIT and dose, there is likely a midgut infection barrier influenced by these factors that is not influenced by IP. Dissemination rates were influenced by all 3 factors consistent with the presence of a midgut escape barrier. Dissemination rate, body titer, and leg titer were dependent on IP, indicating the need to investigate multiple time points in vector competence studies to elucidate critical events in infection and dissemination. PMID:20402358

  17. The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Smartt, Chelsea T.; Shin, Dongyoung; Anderson, Sheri L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP) in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70%) and Anopheles gambiae (63%) that function in pathogen recognition. CQ G1A1 also was differentially expressed following WNV infection in two populations of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonized from Florida with known differences in vector competence for WNV and showed spatial and temporal gene expression differences in midgut, thorax, and carcass tissues. These data suggest gene expression of CQ G1A1 is influenced by WNV infection and the WNV infection-controlled expression differs between populations and tissues. PMID:27999244

  18. The role of miR-2∼13∼71 cluster in resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Zou, Feifei; Liu, Bingqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Ye, Wenyun; Guo, Juxin; Sun, Xueli; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-03-22

    Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure expression levels of miR-2∼13∼71 clusters. MiR-2∼13∼71 cluster was down regulated in adult female mosquitoes from the DR strain and played important roles in deltamethrin resistance through regulating target genes, CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3. Knocking down CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3 resulted in decreased mortality of DR mosquitoes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNA clusters are associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Moreover, we investigated the regulatory networks formed between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster and its target genes, which provide a better understanding of the mechanism involved in deltamethrin resistance.

  19. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of larvicidal constituents from Asarum heterotropoides root to Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kim, Soon-Il; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of pellitorine alone or in combination with (-)-asarinin, alpha-asarone, methyleugenol, or pentadecane (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1 ratios) to third instars from an insecticide-susceptible KS-CP strain and -resistant DJ-CP colony of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett was evaluated using a direct-contact mortality bioassay. The binary mixture of pellitorine and (-)-asarinin (3:1 ratio) was significantly more toxic against KS-CP larvae (0.95 mg/liter) and DJ-CP larvae (1.07 mg/liter) than either pellitorine (2.08 mg/liter for KS-CP and 2.33 mg/liter for DJ-CP) or (-)-asarinin (11.45 and 12.61 mg/liter) alone. The toxicity of the other binary mixtures (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 2:1 ratios) and pellitorine did not differ significantly from each other. Based on the co-toxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures (1:3, 2:1, and 3:1) operated synergistically (CC, 250-390 and SF, 1.4-2.2 for KS-CP; CC, 257-279 and SF, 1.1-2.1 for DJ-CP). The binary mixtures of pellitorine and (-)-asarinin merit further study as potential larvicides for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations.

  20. MiR-285 targets P450 (CYP6N23) to regulate pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Hu, Hongxia; Li, Xixi; Guo, Qin; Zou, Feifei; Liu, Xianmiao; Hu, Mengxue; Guo, Juxin; Ma, Lei; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, which participate in the modulation of almost all of the cellular processes. Although emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs are related with antineoplastic drugs resistance, whether microRNAs are responsible for insecticide resistance in mosquitos is poorly understood. In this paper, we found that miR-285 was significantly upregulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain of Culex pipiens pallens, and overexpression miR-285 through microinjection increased mosquito survival rate against deltamethrin treatement. Using bioinformatic software, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, luciferase reporter assay and microinjection approaches, we conformed that CYP6N23 was the target of miR-285. Lower expression of CYP6N23 was observed in the deltamethrin-resistant strain. While, mosquito mortality rate was decreased after downregulating expression of CYP6N23 by dsRNA against CYP6N23 or miR-285 mimic microinjection. These findings revealed that miR-285 could target CYP6N23 to regulate pyrethroid resistance, providing new insights into mosquito insecticide resistance surveillance and control.

  1. Genetic Characterization of Esterase Activity Variants Associated with an Esterase Gene Amplification in a Strain of Culex pipiens from California.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, James A

    2015-03-01

    In the Culex pipiens complex, a common mechanism of insecticide resistance is amplification of esterase genes leading to overproduction of detoxifying esterase enzymes. A number of electrophoretic esterase alleles have been identified, and in field populations individuals with the same esterase electromorph can exhibit a wide range of esterase enzyme activities. We isolated and characterized esterase activity variants associated with the esterase B1 electromorph from a field strain. A mating scheme was used to isolate chromosomes with esterase genes from the strain into 45 families. Twenty-six of the families received esterase genes from the field strain that conferred elevated esterase activity. Mean esterase activities in these families ranged from 43 to 695 nmoles α-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzed/min/mg protein. Variance components indicated that genetic variance (i.e., genetic differences among families) accounted for 77% of the total variation in esterase activity. A comparison of mean esterase activities indicated that there were at least 11 different esterase activity variants contributing to the observed genetic variation in esterase activity among the 26 families. The relevance of these results to understanding the dynamics of amplified esterase genes in populations is discussed.

  2. Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Weather factors influencing the population dynamics of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Po Plain Valley, Italy (1997-2011).

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Fariselli, Piero; Maccagnani, Bettina; Angelini, Paola; Calzolari, Mattia; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-04-01

    The impact of weather variables on Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) population dynamics in the Po Valley, Northern Italy, a densely populated region containing the largest industrial and agricultural areas in Italy, was investigated. Monitoring of mosquitoes was carried out by using CO(2)-baited traps without light, collecting data weekly from 1700 to 0900 hours during the period May-September, from 1997 to 2011. Daily minimum, average, and maximum relative humidity; daily minimum, maximum, and average temperature; rainfall; and hydroclimatic balance (rainfall-potential evapotranspiration) were obtained from three weather stations within the surveillance zone. The average population dynamic trend over the 15-yr period showed a bell-shaped curve with a major peak in June and a secondary peak at the end of August in the rural areas, whereas bimodality was not evidenced in the urban areas. The correlation analyses showed that the mosquito seasonal population and the population in the period of maximum West Nile virus circulation (August-September) was mostly affected by the relative humidity registered from March to July, particularly in May, and, to a lower extent, also by hydroclimatic balance registered in April-July, and by the rainfall occurred in June-July. In addition, the rate of increase of the population during the spring months influenced the development of the mosquito population of the following months.

  4. Preoviposition activation of cathepsin-like proteinases in degenerating ovarian follicles of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Ohmori, D; Ueno, T; Nishizuka, M; Eshita, Y; Fukunaga, A; Kominami, E

    2001-09-01

    Within developing ovaries of many insects, some developing follicles or oocytes usually degenerate (follicular atresia or oosorption), while the others may continue to grow to maturity, thus maintaining the balance between the number of eggs and reproductive circumstances such as available nutrients. To help clarify the phenomenon of follicular atresia during ovarian development, we examined cysteine proteinases stored in mosquito Culex pipiens pallens ovaries. First, analysis using synthesized substrates showed that cathepsin B- and L-like proteinases gradually accumulated in the developing ovaries after a blood meal, which required more than 10 min of preincubation under acidic conditions to reach their maximum activities. However, homogenates of degenerating follicles 3 days after feeding showed proteolytic activities without acid treatment, suggesting that the proteinases had already been activated, while the extract of normally developing follicles collected from the same ovaries required more than 10 min of acid preincubation to reach the optimum activities, suggesting that the enzymes remained as inactive forms. Chemical and immunohistochemical analyses showed that more proteinases are located in the cytoplasm, rather than being associated with yolk granules. Ovarian proteinases, which are believed to become activated at the onset of embryogenesis, should also be activated during oogenesis, presumably to enhance oosorption.

  5. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  6. Effects of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole treatment of bancroftian filariasis on parasite uptake and development in Culex pipiens L.

    PubMed

    Farid, Hoda A; Hammad, Ragaa E; Hassan, Marah M; Ramzy, Reda M R; El Setouhy, Maged; Weil, Gary J

    2005-07-01

    We studied effects of combined diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) treatment on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria (MF) uptake and development of infective larvae (L3) in Culex pipiens. Consenting Egyptian adults with microfilaremia (MF > 300/mL) were treated with one or seven daily doses of DEC/ALB. Laboratory-reared mosquitoes were fed on subjects before and after treatment. MF uptake and infectivity (assessed by mosquito dissection) were reduced by 89.6% and 82.9%, respectively, 12 months after single-dose treatment and by 96.2% and 99.7%, respectively, after multi-dose treatment. The L3:mosquito ratio decreased by 88% to 0.082 after single-dose treatment and by 99.8% to 0.001 after multi-dose treatment. If high coverage rates can be achieved for several annual cycles, mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC/ALB has the potential to decrease transmission to unsustainable levels and eliminate filariasis in populations. Multi-dose MDA (especially in the first year) might interrupt transmission with fewer cycles than single-dose treatment.

  7. Recognition of a Novel Melanotic Mutant in a Field Population of Culex Pipiens Quinquefasciatus in Southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Hamapumbu, Harry; Norris, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations controlling eye color, fat body color, structural abnormalities, and insecticide resistance are common in mosquitoes. We have identified a novel color variant of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus characterized by a heavily pigmented integument in adult specimens circulating in field populations of this species in southern Zambia. Mosquitoes were collected monthly by pyrethrum spray catch between November and May 2004–05 and 2005–06, with between 25% and 80% of the total Cx. p. quinquefasciatus collections comprising this pigmented variety. The identity of pigmented specimens was morphologically confirmed as Cx. p. quinquefasciatus by examination of orientation of the dorsal and ventral arms of the male genitalia of F1 male progeny reared in the laboratory, and molecularly verified by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase subunit 4 nucleotide sequence homology. Preliminary laboratory rearings indicated that the pigmentation was heritable and not influenced by larval habitat and environmental conditions. Further investigation into the mechanism of the mutation, inheritance patterns, and potential linkage to additional markers is pending. PMID:17536371

  8. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  9. Fecundity reduction in the second gonotrophic cycle of Culex pipiens infected with the apicomplexan blood parasite, Hepatozoon sipedon.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura V; Smith, Todd G

    2014-08-01

    Fecundity reduction is a well-recognized phenomenon of parasite infection in insects. Reduced production of eggs might increase longevity of a host and release nutrients to both host and parasite that would otherwise be used for oogenesis. The objective of this study was to assess effects on fecundity caused by Hepatozoon sipedon, an apicomplexan blood parasite of snakes, in its invertebrate host, the mosquito Culex pipiens. In the first gonotrophic cycle, the mean number of eggs laid by mosquitoes infected with H. sipedon did not differ significantly from those laid by uninfected mosquitoes. However, in the second gonotrophic cycle infected mosquitoes laid significantly fewer eggs than did uninfected mosquitoes, and fecundity was reduced by 100% in mosquitoes with parasite burdens of more than 60 oocysts. There was a significant negative correlation between parasite burden, or the number of oocysts, and the number of eggs produced in the second gonotrophic cycle. Significantly fewer viable larvae hatched from eggs laid by infected compared to uninfected mosquitoes in the second gonotrophic cycle. These data indicate that fecundity reduction occurs in this system, although the physiological mechanisms driving this phenotype are not yet known.

  10. The effects of forced-egg retention on the blood-feeding behavior and reproductive potential of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-07-01

    High rates of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans are associated with exceptionally hot and dry summers. This is paradoxical since the eggs of Culex vectors of WNV depend on the persistence of containers with water, which decline during droughts. We examined the effects of forced-egg retention on the reproductive success of female Culex pipiens as well as behavioral responses, such as likelihood of secondary blood meals. As controls we examined the effects of female age and delayed mating. We found that early mating is essential to achieve reproductive success and, consistent with an "all-or-none" ovipositing strategy, C. pipiens females are able to retain considerable reproductive potential while searching for oviposition sites. Specifically, although forced-egg retention resulted in significant decreases in fitness, the decline was moderate for 5 weeks and most can be accounted for by increases in female age. Consequently, no females took blood more than once per gonotrophic cycle, which eliminates the possibility that heightened vectorial capacity due to multiple blood-feedings increases WNV transmission during periods of drought. Instead, our findings suggest that during droughts populations of C. pipiens have time to locate the remaining water holes, which are associated with human populations and WNV-competent bird species.

  11. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.

  12. Relationships Between Infection, Dissemination, and Transmission of West Nile Virus RNA in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Anderson, Sheri L.; Lord, Cynthia C.; Smartt, Chelsea T.; Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say fed blood containing 6.8 ± 0.3 logs (mean ± SE) plaque-forming units of West Nile virus (WNV)/ml were maintained at 28°C for incubation periods (IP) of 7, 14, or 21 d. Several attributes of vector competence were determined at each IP using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to estimate plaque forming unit equivalents including: infection rate (WNV-positive abdomens), dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs or thoraces), combined dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs and thoraces), transmission rate (WNV-positive saliva), and WNV titers in abdomens, legs, thoraces, and saliva. Each rate increased or was equivalent with increasing IP. Mosquitoes transmitting WNV in saliva also had significantly higher IP-dependent WNV titers in abdomens, legs, and thoraces. Titers of WNV in abdomens were significantly correlated with titers in legs and thoraces, but the degree of association changed with IP. However, titers of abdomens, legs, and thoraces were not correlated with WNV presence or titer in the saliva. The results show that WNV presence or titer in the saliva of infected Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was not directly influenced by processes involved in WNV replication in other tissues. The processes controlling midgut infection and escape are, in part, independent from the infection processes in other tissues. The relationship between infection, dissemination, and transmission varied over time. The infection and replication of WNV in different tissues is likely influenced by different barriers encountered during the extrinsic incubation period. The significance of these observations for understanding vector competence is discussed. PMID:22308781

  13. Structure and expression strategy of the genome of Culex pipiens densovirus, a mosquito densovirus with an ambisense organization.

    PubMed

    Baquerizo-Audiot, Elizabeth; Abd-Alla, Adly; Jousset, Françoise-Xavière; Cousserans, François; Tijssen, Peter; Bergoin, Max

    2009-07-01

    The genome of all densoviruses (DNVs) so far isolated from mosquitoes or mosquito cell lines consists of a 4-kb single-stranded DNA molecule with a monosense organization (genus Brevidensovirus, subfamily Densovirinae). We previously reported the isolation of a Culex pipiens DNV (CpDNV) that differs significantly from brevidensoviruses by (i) having a approximately 6-kb genome, (ii) lacking sequence homology, and (iii) lacking antigenic cross-reactivity with Brevidensovirus capsid polypeptides. We report here the sequence organization and transcription map of this virus. The cloned genome of CpDNV is 5,759 nucleotides (nt) long, and it possesses an inverted terminal repeat (ITR) of 285 nt and an ambisense organization of its genes. The nonstructural (NS) proteins NS-1, NS-2, and NS-3 are located in the 5' half of one strand and are organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) due to the split of both NS-1 and NS-2 into two ORFs. The ORF encoding capsid polypeptides is located in the 5' half of the complementary strand. The expression of NS proteins is controlled by two promoters, P7 and P17, driving the transcription of a 2.4-kb mRNA encoding NS-3 and of a 1.8-kb mRNA encoding NS-1 and NS-2, respectively. The two NS mRNAs species are spliced off a 53-nt sequence. Capsid proteins are translated from an unspliced 2.3-kb mRNA driven by the P88 promoter. CpDNV thus appears as a new type of mosquito DNV, and based on the overall organization and expression modalities of its genome, it may represent the prototype of a new genus of DNV.

  14. Activity of Free and Clay-Bound Insecticidal Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis against the Mosquito Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, LanNa; Saxena, Deepak; Stotzky, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces parasporal insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) that have larvicidal activity against some members of the order Diptera, such as blackflies and mosquitoes. Hydrolysis of the ICPs in the larval gut results in four major proteins with a molecular mass of 27, 65, 128, and 135 kDa. Toxicity is caused by synergistic interaction between the 25-kDa protein (proteolytic product of the 27-kDa protein) and one or more of the higher-molecular-mass proteins. Equilibrium adsorption of the proteins on the clay minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are homoionic to various cations, was rapid (<30 min for maximal adsorption), increased with protein concentration and then reached a plateau (68 to 96% of the proteins was adsorbed), was significantly lower on kaolinite than on montmorillonite, and was not significantly affected by the valence of the cation to which the clays were homoionic. Binding of the toxins decreased as the pH was increased from 6 to 11, and there was 35 to 66% more binding in phosphate buffer at pH 6 than in distilled water at pH 6 or 7.2. Only 2 to 12% of the adsorbed proteins was desorbed by two washes with water; additional washings desorbed no more toxins, indicating that they were tightly bound. Formation of clay-toxin complexes did not alter the structure of the proteins, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the equilibrium supernatants and desorption washes and by dot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the complexes, which was confirmed by enhanced chemiluminescence Western blot analysis. Free and clay-bound toxins resulted in 85 to 100% mortality of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Persistence of the bound toxins in nonsterile water after 45 days was significantly greater (mortality of 63% ± 12.7%) than that of the free toxins (mortality of 25% ± 12.5%). PMID:12839788

  15. Point Mutations Associated with Organophosphate and Carbamate Resistance in Chinese Strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minghui; Dong, Yande; Ran, Xin; Wu, Zhiming; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yingmei; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hengduan; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase resistance has been well documented in many insects, including several mosquito species. We tested the resistance of five wild, Chinese strains of the mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to two kinds of pesticides, dichlorvos and propoxur. An acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1) was cloned and sequenced from a pooled sample of mosquitoes from these five strains and the amino acids of five positions were found to vary (V185M, G247S, A328S, A391T, and T682A). Analysis of the correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance levels (LC50) suggests that two point mutations, G247S (r2 = 0.732, P = 0.065) and A328S (r2 = 0.891, P = 0.016), are associated with resistance to propoxur but not to dichlorvos. Although the V185M mutation was not associated with either dichlorvos or propoxur resistance, its RS genotype frequency was correlated with propoxur resistance (r2 = 0.815, P = 0.036). And the HWE test showed the A328S mutation is linked with V185M, also with G247S mutation. This suggested that these three mutations may contribute synergistically to propoxur resistance. The T682A mutation was negatively correlated with propoxur (r2 = 0.788, P = 0.045) resistance. Knowledge of these mutations may help design strategies for managing pesticide resistance in wild mosquito populations. PMID:24788312

  16. The effects of Nosema algerae Vavra and undeen (Microsporida: Nosematidae) pathogen of Culex pipiens L.(Diptera: Culicidae) from Egypt on fecundity and longevity of the host.

    PubMed

    Seif, A I

    2000-12-01

    A microsporidian, Nosema algerae Vavra and undeen, was found parasitizing larvae and adults of a laboratory colony of Culex pipiens L. originated from Gharbia Governorate. A detailed examination of the developmental stages of the pathogen under light and electron microscopes showed that they are typical of the original characteristics of N. algerae. Other observations on the infected individuals revealed that spores of the pathogen were found in all organs of the infected mosquitoes except the nervous system. The most heavily infected organ was the alimentary canal, particularly the mid gut. The susceptibility of the different larval instars of a laboratory maintained Cx. pipiens colony to infection by N. algerae was determined. Using 24 hours exposure to a range of doses between 40 and 5 x 10(5) spores per cm, larvae of the 1st and 2nd instars were more susceptible to infection than 3rd and 4th instar larvae as indicated by the differences in the estimated IC50 dosages. The dosages of N. algerae which produced 50% mortality (LC50) in each group of treated larvae was approximately 25-30 times higher than the doses that caused 50% infection. When a sublethal dose of 1.2 x 10(3) spores per cm2 of N. algerae was used to induce infection in each of the different larval instars infection rates of 100% were obtained in all exposed larval instars and in adults developed from them. Females from larvae infected with N. algerae had significantly reduced fecundity, fertility, and longevity regardless the larval instar in which infection was initiated. However, the reduction was obviously high when 1st and 2nd instars were exposed. The accumulative effects of reduced survival and fecundity on the reproductive potential of the infected females derived from larvae that were infected as 1st and 2nd instars probably serve to limit the natural increase of mosquito populations. Further studies are necessary, however, to determine the efficacy of this pathogen on target species in

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and larvicidal activity of novel diamide derivatives against Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culex is an important mosquito as vectors for the transmission of serious diseases, such as filariasis, West Nile virus, dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and other encephalitides. Nearly one billion people in the developing countries are at risk. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on mosquito, we designed active amide structure and synthesized a series of novel diamide derivatives. Results A series of novel diamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H NMR, FTIR and HRMS. The single crystal structure of compound 6n was determined to further elucidate the structure. Biological activities of these compounds were tested. Most of them exhibited higher mosquito larvicidal activity. Especially compound 6r displayed relatively good activity to reach 70% at 2 μg/mL. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to amide derivatives by the reaction of amide with another acid is presented. This study suggests that the diamide derivatives exhibited good effective against mosquito. PMID:22963735

  18. Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Savage, Harry M; Anderson, Michael; Gordon, Emily; McMillen, Larry; Colton, Leah; Delorey, Mark; Sutherland, Genevieve; Aspen, Stephen; Charnetzky, Dawn; Burkhalter, Kristen; Godsey, Marvin

    2008-03-01

    Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July to December 2002, by using chicken-baited can traps (CT) at four ecologically different sites in Shelby County, TN. Host-seeking height was assessed by CT placed at elevations of 3.1, 4.6, and 7.6 m during one 24-h period per month. Host-seeking activity was assessed by paired CT placed at an elevation of 4.6 m. Can traps were sampled at one 10-h daytime interval and at seven 2-h intervals during the evening, night, and morning. Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes accounted for 87.1% of collected mosquitoes. Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 11.9% of specimens. The average number of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected per 24-h CT period from July to September was lowest at a rural middle income site (1.7), intermediate at an urban middle income site (11.3), and highest at an urban low income site (47.4). Can traps at the forested site failed to collect Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. From July to September at urban sites, Culex pipiens pipiens L. was the rarest of the three complex members accounting for 11.1-25.6% of specimens. At the rural site, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say was the rarest member of the complex. Cx. p. pipiens was not collected after September. Mean abundance of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes was higher in traps at 7.6 m than in traps at 4.6 m. Abundances at 3.1 m were intermediate and not significantly different from abundances at the other heights. Initiation of host-seeking activity was associated with the end of civil twilight and activity occurred over an extended nighttime period lasting 8-10 h. All 11 WNV-positive mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected from urban sites in traps placed at elevations of 4.6 and 7.6 m. Infection rates were marginally nonsignificant by height. Infection rates, host

  19. Mitochondrial genomes and comparative analyses of Culex camposi, Culex coronator, Culex usquatus and Culex usquatissimus (Diptera:Culicidae), members of the coronator group.

    PubMed

    Demari-Silva, Bruna; Foster, Peter G; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Bergo, Eduardo S; Sanabani, Sabri S; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2015-10-21

    The Coronator Group currently encompasses six morphologically similar species (Culex camposi Dyar, Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex covagarciai Forattini, Culex usquatus Dyar, Culex usquatissimus Dyar, and Culex ousqua Dyar). Culex coronator has been incriminated as a potential vector of West Nile Virus (WNV), Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV), and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). The complete mitochondrial genome of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi was sequenced, annotated, and analyzed to provide genetic information about these species. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi varied from 15,573 base pairs in Cx. usquatus to 15,576 in Cx. coronator. They contained 37 genes (13 protein-encoding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and the AT-rich control region. Comparative analyses of the 37 genes demonstrated the mitochondrial genomes to be composed of variable and conserved genes. Despite the small size, the ATP8, ATP6 plus NADH5 protein-encoding genes were polymorphic, whereas tRNAs and rRNAs were conserved. The control region contained some poly-T stretch. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree corroborated that both the Coronator Group and the Culex pipens complex are monophyletic taxa. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx. usquatissimus and Cx. camposi share the same gene composition and arrangement features that match to those reported for most Culicidae species. They are composed of the same 37 genes and the AT-rich control region, which contains poly-T stretches that may be involved in the functional role of the mitochondrial genome. Taken together, results of the dN/dS ratios, the sliding window analyses and the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses suggest that ATP6, ATP8 and NADH5 are promising genes to be employed in phylogenetic studies involving species of the Coronator Group, and probably other species groups of the subgenus Culex

  20. Attraction of Culex pipiens/restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to bird uropygial gland odors at two elevations in the Niagara region of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Russell, Curtis B; Hunter, Fiona F

    2005-05-01

    In an effort to determine whether female Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted to crow, Corvus brachyrhynchus, uropygial gland secretions, CDC miniature light traps (baited with CO2 but with the lights removed) were placed at approximately 1.5- and 5-m elevations, in 10 trees in awoodlot near Niagara Falls, Canada. These traps were assigned either a bird odor or a blank control. Bird odors were created by attaching cotton swabs coated with crow uropygial gland secretions to the trap intake. A significantly greater number of Cx. pipiens/ restuans were found in the 5-m traps compared with 1.5-m traps, with a significant number attracted to the bird odor over the no odor traps at the 5-m elevation, but not at 1.5 m. We also found more Aedes vexans (Meigen) in the 1.5-m traps than the 5-m traps; however, presence or absence of bird odor did not influence the distribution of Ae. vexans.

  1. Cloning and expression of cry2Aa from native Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 and its insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Semih; Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Temizgul, Ridvan; Atciyurt, Zehra Büşra; Karabörklü, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) is well known for having toxicity against pest insects because of their ability to form endospores and broad-range activity of their parasporal inclusions. In this study, a new member of cry2A gene from previously characterized native B. thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and used for its activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The sequence analysis of the cloned cry2A gene revealed that it encodes a polypeptide of 633 aa residues with 99% identity to Cry2Aa protein with expected molecular weight of 70.7 kDa. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin nomenclature committee designed our sequence as Cry2Aa18 being a new member of Bt toxins. Bioassays against last instar larvae of C. pipiens indicated that Cry2Aa18 has considerable toxicity with LC50 of 630 μg ml(-1). In order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases mediated by C. pipiens, this newly characterized cry2Aa18 gene could constitute as an important biological control tool for controlling mosquito larvae living in freshwater systems and can be used as a good alternative for minimizing the use of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmission dynamics of an insect-specific flavivirus in a naturally infected Culex pipiens laboratory colony and effects of co-infection on vector competence for West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J.; Eisen, Lars; Moore, Chester G.; Blair, Carol D.

    2012-01-01

    We established a laboratory colony of Culex pipiens mosquitoes from eggs collected in Colorado and discovered that mosquitoes in the colony are naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus. In this study we examined transmission dynamics of CxFV and effects of persistent CxFV infection on vector competence for West Nile virus (WNV). We found that vertical transmission is the primary mechanism for persistence of CxFV in Cx. pipiens, with venereal transmission potentially playing a minor role. Vector competence experiments indicated possible early suppression of WNV replication by persistent CxFV infection in Cx. pipiens. This is the first description of insect-specific flavivirus transmission dynamics in a naturally infected mosquito colony and the observation of delayed dissemination of superinfecting WNV suggests that the presence of CxFV may impact the intensity of enzootic transmission of WNV and the risk of human exposure to this important pathogen. PMID:22425062

  3. [Comparative characteristics of intergenic spacers of ribosomal RNA gene cluster in mosquitoes of the genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Shaĭkevich, E V; Zagoskin, M V; Mukha, D V

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of intergenic spacer of ribosomal RNA gene cluster (rIGS) were identified in mosquitoes Culex modestus, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens pallens. The level of interpopulation variability of the rIGS in the subspecies C. pipiens pipiens (form pipiens--mosquitoes that inhabit the open waters, and form molestus--mosquitoes that inhabit basements) living in Russia was estimated. No extensive repetitive sequences characteristic of the rIGS of all previously described species of mosquitoes were found within the rIGS of Culex mosquitoes. At the same time, evolutionarily conserved motifs and relatively short degenerate sequences of different classes of transposable elements, as well as multiple blocks of variable microsatellite repeats were identified. Our data demonstrated that the rIGS of Culex mosquitoes can be considered as a promising molecular marker for the analysis of population and phylogenetic relationships within this group of insects.

  4. Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2010-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative.

  5. Determinants of the population growth of the West Nile virus mosquito vector Culex pipiens in a repeatedly affected area in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Paolo; Ferguson, Heather M; Bonfanti, Lebana; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-01-15

    The recent spread of West Nile Virus in temperate countries has raised concern. Predicting the likelihood of transmission is crucial to ascertain the threat to Public and Veterinary Health. However, accurate models of West Nile Virus (WNV) expansion in Europe may be hampered by limited understanding of the population dynamics of their primary mosquito vectors and their response to environmental changes. We used data collected in north-eastern Italy (2009-2011) to analyze the determinants of the population growth rate of the primary WNV vector Culex pipiens. A series of alternative growth models were fitted to longitudinal data on mosquito abundance to evaluate the strength of evidence for regulation by intrinsic density-dependent and/or extrinsic environmental factors. Model-averaging algorithms were then used to estimate the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic variables in describing the variations of per-capita growth rates. Results indicate a much greater contribution of density-dependence in regulating vector population growth rates than of any environmental factor on its own. Analysis of an average model of Cx. pipiens growth revealed that the most significant predictors of their population dynamics was the length of daylight, estimated population size and temperature conditions in the 15 day period prior to sampling. Other extrinsic variables (including measures of precipitation, number of rainy days, and humidity) had only a minor influence on Cx. pipiens growth rates. These results indicate the need to incorporate density dependence in combination with key environmental factors for robust prediction of Cx. pipiens population expansion and WNV transmission risk. We hypothesize that detailed analysis of the determinants of mosquito vector growth rate as conducted here can help identify when and where an increase in vector population size and associated WNV transmission risk should be expected.

  6. Determinants of the population growth of the West Nile virus mosquito vector Culex pipiens in a repeatedly affected area in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent spread of West Nile Virus in temperate countries has raised concern. Predicting the likelihood of transmission is crucial to ascertain the threat to Public and Veterinary Health. However, accurate models of West Nile Virus (WNV) expansion in Europe may be hampered by limited understanding of the population dynamics of their primary mosquito vectors and their response to environmental changes. Methods We used data collected in north-eastern Italy (2009–2011) to analyze the determinants of the population growth rate of the primary WNV vector Culex pipiens. A series of alternative growth models were fitted to longitudinal data on mosquito abundance to evaluate the strength of evidence for regulation by intrinsic density-dependent and/or extrinsic environmental factors. Model-averaging algorithms were then used to estimate the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic variables in describing the variations of per-capita growth rates. Results Results indicate a much greater contribution of density-dependence in regulating vector population growth rates than of any environmental factor on its own. Analysis of an average model of Cx. pipiens growth revealed that the most significant predictors of their population dynamics was the length of daylight, estimated population size and temperature conditions in the 15 day period prior to sampling. Other extrinsic variables (including measures of precipitation, number of rainy days, and humidity) had only a minor influence on Cx. pipiens growth rates. Conclusions These results indicate the need to incorporate density dependence in combination with key environmental factors for robust prediction of Cx. pipiens population expansion and WNV transmission risk. We hypothesize that detailed analysis of the determinants of mosquito vector growth rate as conducted here can help identify when and where an increase in vector population size and associated WNV transmission risk should be expected. PMID:24428887

  7. Winter Survival of Blood-Fed and Nonblood-Fed Culex pipiens L

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    environmentally precondi- the room as numerous spiders and their webs were tioned. That is, it appears that when a population seen on the walls and ceiling...and inde- female’s response to environmental stimuli. pendent of the age of the individuals in the groups Of epidemiological importance are those fe...20. Bradley, E. L., 1973. The equivalence of maxi- : ~~hormone induction of biting behavior in Culez u ieiodadwihe es qae si mosquitoes. Science, 209

  8. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Conley, Amy K; Fuller, Douglas O; Haddad, Nabil; Hassan, Ali N; Gad, Adel M; Beier, John C

    2014-06-24

    The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson's r=0.774, r=0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r=0.666,r=0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of independent surveys or previous disease outbreaks. Cx

  9. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  10. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of < 6 L (flower vases) were the predominant breeding habitats, to compare various measures of the productivity of sunlit and shaded containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P < 0.001]; Cx pipiens: 6.3% vs. 1.8% [chi(2) = 24, P < 0.001]). However, the number and the density of immatures per infested container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting

  11. Whole transcriptome responses among females of the filariasis and arbovirus vector mosquito Culex pipiens implicate TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification as key drivers of diapause induction

    PubMed Central

    Hickner, Paul V.; Mori, Akio; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C.; Severson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens mosquitoes are important disease vectors inhabiting temperate zones, worldwide. The seasonal reduction in temperature and photoperiod accompanying late summer and early fall prompts female mosquitoes to enter diapause, a stage of developmental arrest and physiological conditioning that enhances survival during the winter months. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying diapause induction, we used custom whole-transcriptome microarrays to identify differences in gene expression following exposure to nondiapause (long days, 25°C) and diapause-inducing (short days, 18°C) environmental conditions. Using a two-way ANOVA we identified 1130 genes that were differentially expressed. We used the expression of these genes across three time points to construct a gene co-expression network comprising five modules. Genes in modules 1, 2 and 3 were largely up-regulated, while genes in modules 4 and 5 were down-regulated when compared to nondiapause conditions. Pathway enrichment analysis of the network modules revealed some potential regulatory mechanisms driving diapause induction. Module 1 was enriched for genes in the TGF-β and Wnt signaling pathways; module 2 was enriched for genes involved in insect hormone biosynthesis, specifically, ecdysone synthesis; module 3 was enriched for genes involved in chromatin modification, and module 5 was enriched for genes in the circadian rhythm pathway. Our results suggest that TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification are key drivers for the integration of environmental signals into the diapause induction phase in C. pipiens mosquitoes. PMID:25634120

  12. The Role of Climatic and Density Dependent Factors in Shaping Mosquito Population Dynamics: The Case of Culex pipiens in Northwestern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Giacobini, Mario; Pugliese, Andrea; Merler, Stefano; Rosà, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Culex pipiens mosquito is a species widely spread across Europe and represents a competent vector for many arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), which has been recently circulating in many European countries, causing hundreds of human cases. In order to identify the main determinants of the high heterogeneity in Cx. pipiens abundance observed in Piedmont region (Northwestern Italy) among different seasons, we developed a density-dependent stochastic model that takes explicitly into account the role played by temperature, which affects both developmental and mortality rates of different life stages. The model was calibrated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach exploring the likelihood of recorded capture data gathered in the study area from 2000 to 2011; in this way, we disentangled the role played by different seasonal eco-climatic factors in shaping the vector abundance. Illustrative simulations have been performed to forecast likely changes if temperature or density–dependent inputs would change. Our analysis suggests that inter-seasonal differences in the mosquito dynamics are largely driven by different temporal patterns of temperature and seasonal-specific larval carrying capacities. Specifically, high temperatures during early spring hasten the onset of the breeding season and increase population abundance in that period, while, high temperatures during the summer can decrease population size by increasing adult mortality. Higher densities of adult mosquitoes are associated with higher larval carrying capacities, which are positively correlated with spring precipitations. Finally, an increase in larval carrying capacity is expected to proportionally increase adult mosquito abundance. PMID:27105065

  13. Juvenile hormone III suppresses forkhead of transcription factor in the fat body and reduces fat accumulation in the diapausing mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Sim, Cheolho; Denlinger, David L

    2013-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls diverse physiological and developmental events including diapause and nutrient metabolism. The focal point of endocrine regulation in adult reproductive diapause is initiated by a halt of JH synthesis. In diapausing females of the mosquito Culex pipiens, the other key molecular event is the signalling pathway from insulin to forkhead of transcription factor (FOXO). We hypothesized that a halt of JH synthesis is related to activation of FOXO, which results in increasing lipid reserves in the fat body at the onset of the diapause programme. In this study, the full-length sequence of the foxo gene in C. pipiens was characterized, and the protein abundance pattern of the foxo gene product was analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. FOXO was much more abundant in the fat body of diapausing females than in the fat body of nondiapausing females; much lower levels were present in other adult tissues. When we topically applied JH III to diapause-destined females, FOXO was suppressed, and fat accumulation was reduced, suggesting an interaction between JH synthesis and FOXO that is critical for expression of the diapause phenotype. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Essential oils of indigenous in Greece six Juniperus taxa: chemical composition and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Vourlioti-Arapi, F; Michaelakis, A; Evergetis, E; Koliopoulos, G; Haroutounian, S A

    2012-05-01

    The chemical composition of 14 essential oils (EOs), obtained from various parts (leaves, fruits, wood) of the six indigenous in Greece Juniperus family taxa, was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against Culex pipiens L. larvae of 3rd and early 4th instars, in order to delineate the relationship between the phytochemical content of the EOs and their larvicidal activities. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic, and to a lesser percent, of diterpenes. The larvicidal bioassays against C. pipiens larvae revealed that the most active EO was derived from the wood of Juniperus drupacea and contains mainly non-oxygenated monoterpenes and a significant amount of diterpenes, displaying the highest chemodiversity. Its initial LC(50) value was 26.47 mg L(-1). On the contrary, the EO isolated from J. phoenicea berries, which consisted of monoterpenes (non-oxygenated, cyclic), was the less active displaying an LC(50) value of 96.69 mg L(-1). In respect to the contained phytochemicals, myrcene was assayed as the most toxic, displaying an LC(50) value of 33.83 mg L(-1), while the four isomers of pinene abundant in all EOs were less active exhibiting LC(50) values ranging from 70.40 to 94.88 mg L(-1). Results herein reveal that the EOs isolated from the studied Juniperus family taxa represent an inexpensive source of natural mosquito control mixtures.

  15. The Role of Climatic and Density Dependent Factors in Shaping Mosquito Population Dynamics: The Case of Culex pipiens in Northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marini, Giovanni; Poletti, Piero; Giacobini, Mario; Pugliese, Andrea; Merler, Stefano; Rosà, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Culex pipiens mosquito is a species widely spread across Europe and represents a competent vector for many arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), which has been recently circulating in many European countries, causing hundreds of human cases. In order to identify the main determinants of the high heterogeneity in Cx. pipiens abundance observed in Piedmont region (Northwestern Italy) among different seasons, we developed a density-dependent stochastic model that takes explicitly into account the role played by temperature, which affects both developmental and mortality rates of different life stages. The model was calibrated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach exploring the likelihood of recorded capture data gathered in the study area from 2000 to 2011; in this way, we disentangled the role played by different seasonal eco-climatic factors in shaping the vector abundance. Illustrative simulations have been performed to forecast likely changes if temperature or density-dependent inputs would change. Our analysis suggests that inter-seasonal differences in the mosquito dynamics are largely driven by different temporal patterns of temperature and seasonal-specific larval carrying capacities. Specifically, high temperatures during early spring hasten the onset of the breeding season and increase population abundance in that period, while, high temperatures during the summer can decrease population size by increasing adult mortality. Higher densities of adult mosquitoes are associated with higher larval carrying capacities, which are positively correlated with spring precipitations. Finally, an increase in larval carrying capacity is expected to proportionally increase adult mosquito abundance.

  16. Evaluation of halofenozide against prey mosquito larvae Culex pipiens and the predator fish Gambusia affinis: impact on growth and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Soltani, N; Chouahda, S; Smagghe, G

    2008-01-01

    Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most widely distributed mosquito species in Algeria and many other countries in the world. Mosquitoes are generally controlled by conventional insecticides but these may pose strong secondary effects on the environment. In this context, the insect growth regulators (IGRs) have shown promise in controlling pest insects. Halofenozide (23% EC) is a novel IGRs belonging to the class of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, and it was found toxic for larvae of C. pipiens. In addition biological methods constitute an alternative to chemical control. Several fish species have been tested against mosquitoes, and Gambusia affinis was found very efficient. In the present study we evaluated the impact of this new potent insecticide (halofenozide) on growth and metric indexes in the larvivorous fish G. affinis under laboratory conditions. In addition, the effects were evaluated on the enzymatic activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The insecticide was added in water at two concentrations (12.6 and 28.6 microg/L) corresponding to the LC50 and LC90 obtained against fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens, and adult females of G. affinis were exposed to halofenozide for 30 days. At different exposure times we measured the length and weight of fishes, the index of condition (K), the gonado-somatic ratio (GSR) and the hepato-somatic ratio (HSR). The results showed that halofenozide had no significant (p>0.05) effects on growth, metric indexes and AChE activities. However, treatment caused a significant induction (p<0.05) in GST activities at days 15 and 30 with the highest dose. Our results indicate that this ecdysteroid agonist presented only minor secondary effects on the non-target fish species, and so it has potential for controlling of mosquitoes in an integrated manner.

  17. Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Hosni, Dawood; Wei, Jiqian; Abbas, Ghulam; Ga'al, Hassan; Jianchu, Mo

    2017-05-25

    Mosquitoes act as key vector for transmission of devastating parasites and pathogens which affect millions of people globally. In this research, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles of Cassia fistula fruit pulp as an innovative and operative tool against vector mosquitoes is presented. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a series of techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Silver nanoparticles were highly effective against the larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. Ae. albopictus had LC50 values ranging from 8.3 mg/L (I instar) to 17.3 mg/L (pupae) and LC50 ranging from 1.1 mg/L (I instar) to 19.0 mg/L (pupae) against Cx. pipiens pallens. The systemic effect of AgNPs was further assessed in the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens pallens by measuring the levels of total proteins and activity of two important marker enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase and α- and β-carboxylesterase. Overall, the findings of the study suggest that the use of Cassia fistula-fruit pulp extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles can be used for controlling vector mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of AgNPs synthesized by Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its possible mechanism of action.

  18. Total salivary gland proteins of female Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) and their fractionation during adult development and after blood sucking.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E; Mansour, M M; Seif, A I; Kamel, K I; el Hamshary, E M

    1999-08-01

    Salivary glands of Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius were analyzed to determine total protein content and its fractionation during adult female development and after blood sucking. In both species, the molecular weight of proteins ranged between 26.000 and 84.000 Daltons. These proteins were not identical in the two species. In Cx. pipiens, the total protein level increased during the first 3 days of adult development from 4.94 +/- 0.84 to 6.6 +/- 0.37 micrograms/gland. During this period, the salivary gland proteins were separated into 35, 34 and 37 fractions respectively. Cx. pipiens released in the human host 64% of the total proteins while taking a blood meal compared to unfed females. This decrease in protein level was proportional to protein fractions. Over the next 6 days, the protein level increased again to attain values comparable to those obtained prior to blood sucking. In Ae. caspius, the total protein level of the salivary glands did not change during the first 4 days of adult development (range between 3.13 +/- 0.27 and 3.91 +/- 0.36 micrograms gland), but on the fifth day, 2-fold increase was observed. The total salivary gland protein increased during the next 3 days after blood sucking to reach 15.5 +/- 0.98 micrograms/gland. During this period, a tremendous change in protein patterns was observed. After oviposition, on the fourth day, a significant reduction in the total protein level was observed (4.13 +/- 0.56 micrograms/gland), but over the next 3 days the level increased again (range between 4.13 +/- 0.66 and 7.13 +/- 0.66 micrograms/gland).

  19. Molecular cloning and preliminary function study of iron responsive element binding protein 1 gene from cypermethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance jeopardizes the control of mosquito populations and mosquito-borne disease control, which creates a major public health concern. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified one protein segment with high sequence homology to part of Aedes aegypti iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP). Method RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) were used to clone a cDNA encoding full length IRE-BP 1. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the transcriptional level changes in the Cr-IRE strain Aedes aegypti compared to the susceptible strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. The expression profile of the gene was established in the mosquito life cycle. Methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) was used to observe the cypermethrin resistance changes in C6/36 cells containing the stably transfected IRE-BP 1 gene of Cx. pipiens pallens. Results The complete sequence of iron responsive element binding protein 1 (IRE-BP 1) has been cloned from the cypermethrin-resistant strain of Culex pipiens pallens (Cr-IRE strain). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the IRE-BP 1 transcription level was 6.7 times higher in the Cr-IRE strain than in the susceptible strain of 4th instar larvae. The IRE-BP 1 expression was also found to be consistently higher throughout the life cycle of the Cr-IRE strain. A protein of predicted size 109.4 kDa has been detected by Western blotting in IRE-BP 1-transfected mosquito C6/36 cells. These IRE-BP 1-transfected cells also showed enhanced cypermethrin resistance compared to null-transfected or plasmid vector-transfected cells as determined by 3H-TdR incorporation. Conclusion IRE-BP 1 is expressed at higher levels in the Cr-IRE strain, and may confer some insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22075242

  20. The effects of laboratory Hepatozoon gracilis infection on the fecundity, mortality and longevity of Culex (Culex) pipiens Linneaus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Adham, Fatma K; Gabre, Refaat M; Ayaad, Tahany H; Galal, Fatma H

    2003-08-01

    Laboratory observations on the effect of Hepatozoon gracilis on the egg production of the mosquito Cx. (Cx.) pipiens Linneaus under laboratory conditions revealed that H. gracilis infected mosquitoes produced significantly fewer eggs than uninfected ones. The egg production decreased as parasite burdens increased. Reduction in blood meal size in infected females did not reduce fecundity. No size differences was detected between oocyst-infected and uninfected females although sporozoite positive females were significantly large. Preoviposition period was affected significantly, while incubation period and percentage of egg hatching showed no significant changes. The longevity of female infected mosquitoes decreased insignificantly than in uninfected ones.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis to control filarial vector Culex pipiens pallens and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Yanmei, Ding; Baoting, Yu; El-Shakh, Ahmed; Abbas, Ghulam; Jianchu, Mo

    2017-11-01

    Culex pipiens pallens are the most common mosquito's vector in Asia. In order to protect the people from diseases, the anti-mosquito population is necessary that uses safe and new bio-pesticides such as bacteria-AgNPs. In our report, we used two kinds of bacteria to synthesize silver nanoparticles to examine the toxic effect on the larvae and pupae of Cx. pipiens pallens and also used as antimicrobial activity. The biosynthesis of AgNPs and its characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, TEM, SEM, and EDX. The larvicidal and pupicidal assays revealed that the lethal concentration LC50 values of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-AgNPs were 0.72 ppm (I), 0.73 ppm (II), 0.69 ppm (III), 1.16 ppm (IV), and 4.18 (Pupae), while LC50 values of Bacillus subtilis-AgNPs were 0.60 ppm (I), 0.62 ppm (II), 0.21 ppm (III), 0.28 ppm (IV), and 3.46 ppm (Pupae) after 72 h of exposure. Antibacterial activity test of AgNPs reveals better results against rice pathogenic bacteria than bacteria alone. Thus, bacteria-mediated silver nanoparticles have a rapid effect on vector mosquito and microbial pathogen suggesting savings of energy and resources. Hence, bacteria-AgNPs may be used in the future as an effective weapon to control vector mosquito and harmful bacteria.

  2. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  3. Seasonal changes in the feeding pattern of Culex pipiens pallens govern the transmission dynamics of multiple lineages of avian malaria parasites in Japanese wild bird community.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneity in the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens is determined largely by distribution patterns of mosquito bites among wild animal populations. Although mosquitoes are crucial for transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known about the ecology of natural vectors. We examined bloodmeal and parasite incidence in Culex pipiens pallens by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure to determine how the feeding pattern of mosquitoes govern transmission dynamics of avian malaria parasites in Japanese wild birds. We collected 881 unfed and 486 blood-fed Cx. pipiens pallens resting on vegetation in a park in Tokyo. The mosquitoes were separated into abdomen and thorax prior to PCR screening. Abdomens of unfed mosquitoes were combined into 95 pools. From these, we amplified Plasmodium DNA in 32 (33.7%) pools. Among blood-fed mosquitoes, 371 individuals were screened for blood-sources and Plasmodium parasites. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from mosquitoes fed on 6 of 13 avian species identified as blood-sources. Ten Plasmodium lineages were identified on the basis of 478 bp of the cytochrome b gene, with 0.2-10% sequence divergence. The three commonest Plasmodium lineages (CXPIP09, SGS1 and PADOM02) were detected in both the abdomens and thoraxes of mosquitoes, strongly suggesting transmission of these lineages. Jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) served as a natural host for the three commonest Plasmodium lineages and made up 63.8% of blood-sources. As a significant increase in feeding of vector mosquitoes on jungle crows coincided with their breeding season, jungle crows were considered to be the primary reservoir of Plasmodium transmission in this study.

  4. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Shaurub H; El-Bassiony, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium oleander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality). The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent extract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies. Results: The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non-treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults. Conclusion: It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens. PMID:27047967

  5. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy.

    PubMed

    Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Bolzoni, Luca; Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Delucchi, Luca; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Balbo, Luca; Mosca, Andrea; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2014-06-12

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Climate data collected early in the year, in conjunction with local land

  6. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. Methods We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Results Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Conclusions Climate data collected early in

  7. Control of Culex quinquefasciatus in a storm drain system in Florida with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens group, including Culex quinquefasciatus, are important vectors of West Nile virus and other viruses around the world. Control of these mosquitoes in urban areas is often difficult because of the use of storm drains and other man-made structures as larval habitats. I...

  8. Upregulation of two actin genes and redistribution of actin during diapause and cold stress in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mijung; Robich, Rebecca M.; Rinehart, Joseph P.; Denlinger, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Two actin genes cloned from Culex pipiens L. are upregulated during adult diapause. Though actins 1 and 2 were expressed throughout diapause, both genes were most highly expressed early in diapause. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by a conspicuous redistribution of polymerized actin that was most pronounced in the midguts of diapausing mosquitoes that were exposed to low temperature. In nondiapausing mosquitoes reared at 25°C and in diapausing mosquitoes reared at 18°C, polymerized actin was clustered at high concentrations at the intersections of the muscle fibers that form the midgut musculature. When adults 7–10 days post-eclosion were exposed to low temperature (-5°C for 12h), the polymerized actin was evenly distributed along the muscle fibers in both nondiapausing and diapausing mosquitoes. Exposure of older adults (1month post-eclosion) to low temperature (−5°C for 12h) elicited an even greater distribution of polymerized actin, an effect that was especially pronounced in diapausing mosquitoes. These changes in gene expression and actin distribution suggest a role for actins in enhancing survival of diapausing adults during the low temperatures of winter by fortification of the cytoskeleton. PMID:17078965

  9. Influence of warming tendency on Culex pipiens population abundance and on the probability of West Nile fever outbreaks (Israeli Case Study: 2001-2005).

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit; Albersheim, Iris

    2008-03-01

    Climate change and West Nile fever (WNV) are both subjects of global importance. Many mosquitoes and the diseases they carry, including West Nile virus (WNV), are sensitive to temperature increase. The current study analyzes the lag correlations between weather conditions (especially air temperature) and 1) Culex pipiens mosquito population abundance, and 2) WNF frequency in humans, between 2001 and 2005 in Israel. These 5 years follow a long period with a documented tendency for temperature increase in the hot season in the country. Monthly anomalies of minimum and maximum temperatures, relative seasonal rainfall contribution, mosquito samplings (hazard level), and WNF cases (hospital admission dates and patients' addresses) were analyzed. Logistic regression was calculated between the climatic data and the mosquito samples, as Spearman correlations and Pearson cross-correlations were calculated between daily temperature values (or daily precipitation amounts) and the hospital admission dates. It was found that the disease appearance reflects the population distribution, while the risk tends to escalate around the metropolis characterized by an urban heat island. Positive anomalies of the temperature during the study period appear to have facilitated the mosquito abundance and, consequently, the disease emergence in humans. An important finding is the potential influence of extreme heat in the early spring on the vector population increase and on the disease's appearance weeks later. Awareness of such situations at the beginning of the spring may help authorities to reduce the disease risk before it becomes a real danger.

  10. Relationships between Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria counts in human blood and parasite uptake and maturation in Culex pipiens, with observations on the effects of diethylcarbamazine treatment on these parameters.

    PubMed

    Farid, Hoda A; Hammad, Ragaa E; Soliman, Doaa A; El Setouhy, Maged A; Ramzy, Reda M R; Weil, Gary J

    2003-03-01

    This study examined relationships between blood microfilaria (MF) counts and parasite uptake and maturation in Culex pipiens fed on Egyptian volunteers with bancroftian filariasis. Uptake of MF and production of infective larvae (L3) were more closely correlated with MF counts in finger prick blood than in venous blood. Only a minority of ingested MF developed into L3. Few MF were ingested, and very few L3 were produced by mosquitoes that fed on infected subjects who were amicrofilaremic by 50 microL thick blood smear; the contribution of such carriers to filariasis transmission in Egypt is probably negligible. These results suggest that filariasis elimination programs should aim to achieve MF smear rates of zero. Single-dose diethylcarbamazine therapy reduced MF counts by 87.9% 6-7 months after treatment; similar reductions were observed for MF uptake, MF/mosquito, infectivity, and L3/mosquito. Thus, single-dose diethylcarbamazine had a major impact on MF ingestion and L3 production by mosquitoes.

  11. Evaluation of Culex pipiens Populations in a Residential Area with a High Density of Catch Basins in a Suburb of Chicago, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Henry, Marlon; Xamplas, Christopher; Dugas, Lara R

    2014-09-01

    The North Shore Mosquito Abatement District applies extended release larvicides including methoprene-based Altosid® XR Extended Residual Briquets to approximately 40,000 catch basins in the southern half of the District's operational area at the beginning of each season. Treatments begin in May and typically again 9 to 10 wk later when larvicide efficacy appears to wane. In 2013 spinosad-based Natular™ XRT tablets were applied to basins, and a subset were monitored for larvae and pupae weekly with a standard dipper. When setting the threshold for retreatment as 12 juveniles per dip sample it was observed that basins required a second application 9 wk after the initial application, a time period similar to Altosid despite utilizing a different active ingredient. Average counts of weekly larval samples appeared to be positively associated with average numbers of Culex pipiens collected the following week in a gravid trap located among catch basins, highlighting the importance of basins as sources of these mosquitoes.

  12. Molecular structure of the prothoracicotropic hormone gene in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, and its expression analysis in association with diapause and blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Denlinger, D L

    2011-04-01

    We cloned the gene that encodes prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, and investigated its expression profile in short-day (diapause-destined) and long-day (nondiapause-destined) individuals from the fourth-instar larval stage to 2 months of adulthood, as well as after a blood meal. The deduced C. pipiens PTTH (Cupip-PTTH) amino acid sequence contains seven cysteines with a specific spacing pattern. Sequence alignment suggests that Cupip-PTTH is 23% identical to Drosophila melanogaster PTTH, but is ≥59% identical to the PTTHs of other mosquitoes. Cupip-PTTH has structural characteristics similar to those of Bombyx mori PTTH and some vertebrate nerve growth factors with cysteine-knot motifs. PTTH transcripts exhibit a daily cycling profile during the final (fourth) larval instar, with peak abundance occurring late in the scotophase. The fourth-larval instar stage is one day longer in short-day larvae than in long-day larvae, resulting in larger larvae and adults. This additional day of larval development is associated with one extra PTTH cycle. No cycling was observed in pupae, but PTTH transcripts were slightly higher in short-day pupae than in long-day pupae throughout much of the pupal stage. PTTH expression persisted at a nearly constant level in diapausing adult females for the first month but then dropped by ∼50%, while expression decreased at the beginning of adulthood in nondiapausing females and then remained at a low level as long as the females were denied a blood meal. However, when nondiapausing females were offered a blood meal, PTTH transcripts rose approximately 7 fold in 2 h and remained elevated for 24 h. A few diapausing females (∼10%) will take a blood meal when placed in close proximity to a host, but much of the blood is ejected and such meals do not result in mature eggs. Yet, elevated PTTH mRNA expression was also observed in diapausing females that were force fed. Our results thus point to

  13. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Göertz, G P; Fros, J J; Miesen, P; Vogels, C B F; van der Bent, M L; Geertsema, C; Koenraadt, C J M; van Rij, R P; van Oers, M M; Pijlman, G P

    2016-11-15

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1/Pacman on conserved RNA structures in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genomic RNA. sfRNA production is conserved in insect-specific, mosquito-borne, and tick-borne flaviviruses and flaviviruses with no known vector, suggesting a pivotal role for sfRNA in the flavivirus life cycle. Here, we investigated the function of sfRNA during WNV infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and evaluated its role in determining vector competence. An sfRNA1-deficient WNV was generated that displayed growth kinetics similar to those of wild-type WNV in both RNA interference (RNAi)-competent and -compromised mosquito cell lines. Small-RNA deep sequencing of WNV-infected mosquitoes indicated an active small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based antiviral response for both the wild-type and sfRNA1-deficient viruses. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sfRNA is an RNAi substrate in vivo Two reproducible small-RNA hot spots within the 3' UTR/sfRNA of the wild-type virus mapped to RNA stem-loops SL-III and 3' SL, which stick out of the three-dimensional (3D) sfRNA structure model. Importantly, we demonstrate that sfRNA-deficient WNV displays significantly decreased infection and transmission rates in vivo when administered via the blood meal. Finally, we show that transmission and infection rates are not affected by sfRNA after intrathoracic injection, thereby identifying sfRNA as a key driver to overcome the mosquito midgut infection barrier. This is the first report to describe a key biological function of sfRNA for flavivirus infection of the arthropod vector, providing an explanation for the strict conservation of sfRNA production. Understanding the flavivirus transmission

  14. Effect of the combined application of microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone (MSP) with different larvicidal agents on the oviposition of Culex pipiens biotype molestus.

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Dimitrios, Papachristos P; Christos, Rumbos I; Christos, Athanassiou G

    2017-08-29

    Attract-and-kill strategies, in which a behavior-modifying stimulus (e.g. a pheromone) is integrated with a pest control agent, are lately gaining interest for mosquito control. Previously, it was demonstrated that the polyurea microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MSP) was sufficiently attractive to gravid females of Culex pipiens L. biotype molestus Førskal (Diptera: Culicidae) for a period of 40 days. Furthermore, it was shown that MSP could be effectively combined with the organophosphate temephos to achieve efficient mosquito control. In the present study, the effect of the combined application of MSP with commonly used larvicides on the oviposition response of Cx. p. biotype molestus females over time was investigated in two-choice oviposition bioassays. As larvicides, the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron and the bacterial insecticide spinosad were evaluated at their lowest recommended label dose, whereas temephos was used as control. When MSP was applied in combination with diflubenzuron, the attractancy of MSP to gravid females was in all cases negatively affected, as fewer egg rafts were laid in pots treated with MSP and diflubenzuron compared to MSP alone. Spinosad did not reduce, rather increased the attractive effect of the oviposition pheromone in the beginning of the bioassay (2 d of ageing) when co-applied, however, the observed attractive effect was significantly reduced after 7 d of ageing and remained stable at the same level until the termination of the bioassay. Finally, the oviposition pattern of egg rafts laid on the pot with MSP and temephos was similar to the one laid on the pot with MSP alone, showing that temephos did not significantly affect MSP activity. The results of the present study highlight the effects of the combined application of MSP with spinosad and diflubenzuron on the oviposition of gravid Cx. p. biotype molestus females, which in most cases eliminated the attractive effect of

  15. Pyrethroid-resistance is modulated by miR-92a by targeting CpCPR4 in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Li, Xixi; Hu, Hongxia; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The wide use of pyrethroids has resulted in the emergence and spread of resistance in mosquito populations, which represent a major obstacle in the struggle against vector-borne diseases. Resistance to pyrethroids is a complex genetic phenomenon attributed by polygenetic inheritance. We previously have sequenced and analyzed the miRNA profiles of Culex pipiens pallens. MiR-92a was found to be overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain. The association of miR-92a with pyrethroid-resistance was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression levels of miR-92a were 2.72-fold higher in the DR strain than in the deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CpCPR4, a mosquito cuticle gene, is the target of miR-92a. Dual luciferase reporter assays further confirmed that CpCPR4 is modulated by miR-92a through binding to a specific target site in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Microinjection of the miR-92a inhibitor upregulated CpCPR4 expression levels, leading to an increase in the susceptibility of the DR strain in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay (a surveillance tool for detecting resistance to insecticides in vector populations). Taken together, our findings indicate that miR-92a regulates pyrethroid-resistance through its interaction with CpCPR4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diurnal resting behavior of adult Culex pipiens in an arid habitat in Israel and possible control measurements with toxic sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Yosef; Müller, Günter C

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of resting Culex pipiens s.l., L. in vegetation at the margins of breeding sites and the effects of a narrow, surrounding, sprayed belt of sugar, food dye and toxin on adult mosquitoes were studied near two pairs of control and experimental sewage ponds close to human habitation in the Judean hills. Control belts were without toxin. A sprayed belt of sugar and toxin 0.5 m from the water gradually reduced the population to an average of 38.3 mosquitoes per trap, 7.6% of the highest catch, which was 504.6 mosquitoes per trap in the control site. In the second experiment, in which bait belts were 5 m from the water, the toxic bait spraying was followed by a rise in catches from 207.9 to 274.9 mosquitoes. This was 41% of the 670.2 mosquitoes per trap in the parallel control site. In areas without toxin treatment, diurnal catches by net amounted to 20,705 mosquitoes. Of these, 86.1% (17,825) were caught within 1m of the water while only 8.2% (1701) were caught at a distance of 3 m. The remainders were caught up to 20 m away. Parity status was determined for female samples caught by net. In areas without toxin, parous females accounted for 37% of the catch and 13.2% were young, meconium containing specimens. The population diminished following spraying of toxic bait 1m from the water and included 13% parous females and 17.6% had meconium in the gut.

  17. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae.

  18. Digestive enzyme as benchmark for insecticide resistance development in Culex pipiens larvae to chemical and bacteriologic insecticides.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Nashwa H; Bahgat, Iman M; El Kady, Gamal A

    2013-04-01

    This work monitored changes in some digestive enzymes (trypsin and aminopeptidase) associated with the building up of resistance in Cx. pipiens larvae to two chemical insecticides (methomyl and/or malathion) and one biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis-H14 or B.t H 14). The LC50 value of methomyl for both field- and the 12th generation (F12) of the selected strain was 1.789 ppm and 8.925 ppm respectively. The LC50 value of malathion for both field and the F12 of the selected strain was 0.082 ppm and 0.156 ppm respectively, and those of B.t H14 of field strain and the F12 was 2.550ppm & 2.395ppm respectively. The specific activity of trypsin enzyme in control susceptible colony was 20.806 +/- 0.452micromol/min/mg protein; but at F4 and F8 for malathion and methomyl treated larvae were 10.810 +/- 0.860 & 15.616+/-0.408 micromol/min/mg protein, respectively. Trypsin activity of F12 in treated larvae with B.t.H14 was 2.097 +/- 0.587 microiol/min/mg protein. Aminopeptidase specific activity for susceptible control larvae was 173.05 +/- 1.3111 micromol/min/mg protein. This activity decreased to 145.15 +/- 4.12, 152.497 +/- 6.775 & 102.04 +/- 3.58a micromol/min/mg protein after larval (F 12) treatment with methomyl, malathion and B.t H 14 respectively.

  19. Some considerations relating to the role of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann in the transmission of human filariasis*

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, P. F.

    1962-01-01

    This paper is concerned mainly with the relationship between microfilarial periodicity and vector periodicity. The so-called ”non-periodic” Pacific form of Wuchereria bancrofti in fact shows a well-marked and relatively constant periodicity. The amplitude of this periodicity is low, which may account for the difficulty of detecting it in small clinical samples. The periodicity is well adapted to the biting cycle of Aëdes polynesiensis, though less so than that of the ”semi-periodic” Brugia malayi to forest Mansonioides. Microfilarial periodicity is discussed in the light of recent work on circadian rhythms in other animals and it is suggested that certain possibilities have been given insufficient weight. The use of the term ”migration” to describe microfilarial translocation within the host may have given rise to misunderstanding but it is in good agreement with current concepts of migration. Recent work suggests some behavioural heterogeneity in Culex fatigans which could render it a useful mosquito for elucidating certain important but little-understood problems. PMID:13933891

  20. Diversity of Wolbachia pipientis Strain wPip in a Genetically Admixtured, Above-Ground Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Population: Association With Form Molestus Ancestry and Host Selection Patterns

    PubMed Central

    MORNINGSTAR, REBECCA J.; HAMER, GABRIEL L.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.; HUANG, SHAOMING; ANDREADIS, THEODORE G.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of molecular genetic diversity in nine marker regions of five genes within the bacteriophage WO genomic region revealed high diversity of the Wolbachia pipentis strain wPip in a population of Culex pipiens L. sampled in metropolitan Chicago, IL. From 166 blood fed females, 50 distinct genetic profiles of wPip were identified. Rarefaction analysis suggested a maximum of 110 profiles out of a possible 512 predicted by combinations of the nine markers. A rank-abundance curve showed that few strains were common and most were rare. Multiple regression showed that markers associated with gene Gp2d, encoding a partial putative capsid protein, were significantly associated with ancestry of individuals either to form molestus or form pipiens, as determined by prior microsatellite allele frequency analysis. None of the other eight markers was associated with ancestry to either form, nor to ancestry to Cx. quinquefasciatus Say. Logistic regression of host choice (mammal vs. avian) as determined by bloodmeal analysis revealed that significantly fewer individuals that had fed on mammals had the Gp9a genetic marker (58.5%) compared with avian-fed individuals (88.1%). These data suggest that certain wPip molecular genetic types are associated with genetic admixturing in the Cx. pipiens complex of metropolitan Chicago, IL, and that the association extends to phenotypic variation related to host preference. PMID:22679853

  1. Host Choice and West Nile Virus Infection Rates in Blood-Fed Mosquitoes, Including Members of the Culex pipiens Complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002–2003

    PubMed Central

    SAVAGE, HARRY M.; AGGARWAL, DEEPAK; APPERSON, CHARLES S.; KATHOLI, CHARLES R.; GORDON, EMILY; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; ANDERSON, MICHAEL; CHARNETZKY, DAWN; M, LARRY; MILLEN, C; UNNASCH, EMILY A.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2008-01-01

    The source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from February 2002 through December 2003 in Memphis and surrounding areas of Shelby County, Tennessee were determined. Members of the genus Culex and Anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. No significant difference was seen in the host class of bloodmeals in mosquitoes identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids between these two taxa. Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Cx. erraticus fed primarily upon mammalian hosts. Three avian species (the American Robin, the Common Grackle, and the Northern Cardinal) made up the majority of avian-derived bloodmeals, with the American Robin representing the most frequently fed upon avian host. An analysis of these host feeding data using a modification of a transmission model for Eastern Equine encephalitis virus suggested that the American Robin and Common Grackle represented the most important reservoir hosts for West Nile virus. A temporal analysis of the feeding patterns of the dominant Culex species did not support a shift in feeding behavior away from robins to mammals late in the summer. However, a significant degree of temporal variation was noted in the proportion of robin-derived bloodmeals when the data were analyzed by semi-monthly periods throughout the summers of 2002 and 2003. This pattern was consistent with the hypothesis that the mosquitoes were preferentially feeding upon nesting birds. PMID:17767413

  2. Laboratory Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses by Molestus Form of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected in Uzbekistan in 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    298 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 43, no. 2 at transmitting JEV than were Culex nigripalpus Theobald , Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex sali...Lanciotti, R. S., J. T. Roehrig, V. Deubel, J. Smith ,M. Parker, K. Steele, B. Crise, K. E. Volpe, M. B. Crabtree, J. H. Scherret, et al. 1999. Origin of

  3. Molecular structure and expression analysis of the prothoracicotropic hormone gene in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, in association with diapause and blood feeding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qirui; Denlinger, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We cloned the gene that encodes prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, investigated its expression profile in short-day (diapause-destined) and long-day (nondiapause-destined) individuals from the fourth instar larval stage through two-months of adulthood, as well as after a blood meal. The deduced Cupip-PTTH amino acid sequence contains seven cysteines with a specific spacing pattern. Sequence alignment suggests that Cupip-PTTH is 23% identical to Drosophila melanogaster PTTH, but is ≥ 59% identical to the PTTHs of other mosquitoes. Cupip-PTTH has structural characteristics similar to Bombyx mori PTTH and some vertebrate nerve growth factors with cysteine-knot motifs. PTTH transcripts exhibit a daily cycling profile during the final (fourth) larval instar, with peak abundance occuring late in the scotophase. The fourth larval instar is one day longer in short-day larvae than in long-day larvae, resulting in larger larvae and adults. This additional day of larval development is associated with one extra PTTH cycle. No cycling was observed in pupae, but PTTH transcripts were slightly higher in short-day pupae than in long-day pupae throughout much of the pupal stage. PTTH expression persisted at a nearly constant level in diapausing adult females for the first month but then dropped approximately 50%, while expression decreased at the beginning of adulthood in nondiapausing females and then remained at a low level as long as the females were denied a blood meal. But, when nondiapausing females were offered a blood meal, PTTH transcripts rose approximately 7-fold in 2 h and remained elevated for 24 h. A few diapausing females (~ 10%) will take a blood meal when placed in close proximity of a host, but much of the blood is ejected and such meals do not result in mature eggs. Yet, elevated PTTH mRNA expression was also observed in diapausing females that were force fed. Our results thus point to several distinctions in PTTH

  4. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Six New Species of the Culex (Lophoceraomyia) Mammilifer Group from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-03-01

    608 and 412 pp. CoIIess, D. H. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus LophoceraomyM, in Malaya (Diptera: Culicidae). Jour. ;Med. Ent. 2: 261-307. ...SIX NEW SPECIES OF THE CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) MAMMILIF-ER GROUP FROM THAILAND ( DIPTERA: CULICIDAIZ)~ F~ALPH A. BRAM and MANOP RAT~TAN- South...of de Cukr subgenus Lophoceraomyiu in any area of South East Asia was that of Colless ( 1965). This study described 14 new species, revalidated

  6. Characterization of a new Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)-Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) symbiotic association generated by artificial transfer of the wPip strain from Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Lampazzi, Elena; Bellini, Romeo; Dobson, Stephen L

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont inducing various effects in insects and other invertebrate hosts that facilitate the invasion of naive host populations. One of the effects is a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) through which females are effectively sterilized when they mate with males harboring a different Wolbachia strain. The repeated mass release of cytoplasmically incompatible males can be a tool to suppress insect populations. Here, we attempt to infect an Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) strain, artificially deprived of the natural Wolbachia infection, with a new Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Further experiments were designed to study the effects of the new infection on Ae. albopictus fitness and evaluate key parameters that affect infection dynamics, including CI level and maternal inheritance. Using embryonic microinjection, the new Wolbachia strain was successfully established in Ae. albopictus. Crosses demonstrated a pattern of bidirectional CI between naturally infected and transinfected individuals. Specifically, egg hatch was essentially absent (i.e., CI was very high) in all crosses between the transinfected males and females with a different infection status. Furthermore, naturally infected Ae. albopictus males were incompatible with the transinfected females. Maternal inheritance was close to 100%. Moreover, the new infection did not affect immature and adult survivorship, but it significantly reduced female fecundity and egg hatch rate. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of the new Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia symbiotic association as a suitable system for the study and development of CI-based strategies for suppressing populations of this important pest and disease vector.

  7. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-01-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. PMID:27605159

  8. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-09-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV.

  9. Medical Entomology Studies - III. A Revision of the Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 12, Number 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    fatigans Wiedemann 1828 of authors), huangae Meng 1958, hutchinsoni Barraud 1924, ficscocephalu Theobald 1907, theileri Theobald 1903, univittatus...Sirivanakarn: Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region 29 Theobald 1901 and vagans Wiedemann 1828. It is also possible that pipiens molestus Forskal 1775...of Pipiens, recognized a pipiens complex to include quinquefasciutus Say (or fatigans Wiedemann ) and australicus Dobrot- worsky and Drummond as

  10. Unexpected spatiotemporal abundance of infected Culex restuans suggest a greater role as a West Nile virus vector for this native species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Robson, Mark G; Fonseca, Dina M

    2015-04-01

    Difficulties in correctly differentiating Culex restuans mosquitoes from Culex pipiens have left the spatiotemporal mechanisms underlying the epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States largely unresolved. We performed weekly surveys across a natural to urban gradient of sites in central New Jersey (USA) and used a rapid and cheap DNA extraction and a species-specific PCR assay to create single species pools for WNV testing. To assess seasonal trends we combined these results with WNV surveillance records generated from grouped Cx. restuans/Cx. pipiens pools tested in 2011-2012. Cx.restuans was found to be highly abundant within all sites and reached especially high abundance in urban wetland habitats greatly disturbed by human action. In contrast, the seasonal presence of Cx. pipiens was greatest in residential and urban habitats and its presence in natural areas was minimal throughout the season. WNV infection rates in both species were similar but Cx. restuans was consistently found infected first and more frequently, even as early as May, whereas WNV was first detected in Cx. pipiens in late July. WNV activity peaked during the month of August when WNV was commonly isolated from both species. The peak in WNV activity in August observed for both species was consistent with data from 2011 to 2012 when Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were grouped, although analyzing single species pools increased overall predicted infection levels. Our results support the preeminence of Cx. restuans as an enzootic vector of WNV and strongly suggest this species has become a "native invasive" exploiting human modified habitats and reaching very high abundance there. Importantly, high infection rates in disturbed wetland sites with high populations of Cx. restuans suggest this species may enable the introduction of WNV to urbanized environments where both Culex contribute to transmission potentiating disease risk.

  11. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex ( Culex ) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Laurito, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Tatiane MP; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex ( Culex ) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species ( Cx. acharistus , Cx. chidesteri , Cx. dolosus , Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis ) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus . Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex ( Cux. ) species. PMID:24473810

  12. Culex Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

  13. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  14. Genetic-morphometric variation in Culex quinquefasciatus from Brazil and La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes de; Moratore, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2010-08-01

    Variation among natural populations of Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say is associated with different vectorial capacities. The species Cx. quinquefasciatus is present in the equatorial, tropical and subtropical zones in the Brazilian territory, with intermediate forms between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens occurring in regions of latitudes around 33°-35° S. Herein, we studied geographically distinct populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus by genetic characterization and analysis of intra-specific wing morphometrics. After morphological analysis, molecular characterization of Cx. quinquefasciatus and intermediate forms was performed by polymerase chain reaction of the polymorphic nuclear region of the second intron of the acetylcholinesterase locus. Additionally, the morphology of adult female wings collected from six locations was analyzed. Wing centroid sizes were significantly different between some geographical pairs. Mean values of R2/R2+3 differed significantly after pairwise comparisons. The overall wing shape represented by morphometric characters could be divided into two main groupings. Our data suggest that Brazilian samples are morphologically and genetically distinct from the Argentinean samples and also indicated a morphological distinction between northern and southern populations of Brazilian Cx. quinquefasciatus. We suggest that wing morphology may be used for preliminary assessment of population structure of Cx. quinquefasciatusin Brazil.

  15. The contrasting bionomics of Culex mosquitoes in western North America.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes in the genus Culex are the primary enzootic maintenance and bridge vectors of the North American encephalitides, now including West Nile virus. This review briefly summarizes the biology of three key vector species in western North America, Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. stigmatosoma, focusing on the long history of research done in California. Topics reviewed include population genetic structure, larval ecology, autogeny, mating behavior, host-seeking behavior, host-selection patterns, and overwintering strategies. These attributes collectively have allowed the successful exploitation of anthropogenically altered ecosystems and enabled the role of these species as maintenance and bridge vectors of arboviruses.

  16. Mom Matters: Diapause Characteristics of Culex pipiens–Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Hybrid Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Short, Clancy A.; Denlinger, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L., are capable of entering an adult overwintering diapause characterized by arrested ovarian development, enhanced stress tolerance, and elevated lipid stores. In contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, lacks this capacity and is therefore unable to survive the harsh winters found in northern regions of North America. These two species are capable of forming fertile hybrids in the United States, yet the diapause characteristics of these hybrids have not been extensively investigated. We crossed Cx. pipiens from Columbus, OH, with Cx. quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, and reared F1 hybrids from all mothers separately under diapause-inducing, short-day conditions (a photoperiod of 8:16 [L:D] h) at 18°C. Egg follicle length and lipid content were used to assess the diapause status of hybrids. Diapause incidence of hybrids varied widely for progeny from different mothers of the same species, but hybrids with Cx. pipiens mothers were consistently more prone to enter diapause than hybrids that had Cx. quinquefasciatus mothers. Our results suggest a strong maternal influence on the diapause phenotype and that a high percentage (45–75%) of Cx. pipiens–Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids are capable of entering diapause. This implies that many hybrids can successfully overwinter, leading to a possible widening of the hybrid zone of these two species in North America. PMID:26336296

  17. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S

    2002-09-01

    The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens.

  18. The abundance and seasonal distribution of Culex mosquitoes in Iowa during 1995-97.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Rowley, W A

    2000-12-01

    The abundance and seasonal distribution of Culex mosquitoes were monitored by measuring oviposition activity during the summers of 1995, 1996, and 1997. Five species of culicine mosquitoes laid egg rafts in ovitraps. Egg rafts of 4 Culex species-Cx. restuans (54.98%), Cx. pipiens (25.41%), Cx. salinarius (12.18%), and Cx. tarsalis (0.14%)-constituted more than 92% of the total egg rafts collected. Culiseta inornata (0.1%) was the only other species to lay viable egg rafts in the ovitraps. A small percentage (7.19%) of egg rafts did not hatch; thus identification was not possible. Compared with New Jersey light trap data in a nearby area, the abundance of Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata was markedly underestimated with ovitraps. These data may also reflect differences in the specific location of the 2 trap sites rather than attractiveness of ovitraps for Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata. In general, Cx. restuans oviposition activity began in late May, and it was the dominant Culex species through June. After July 1, the number of egg rafts laid by Cx. restuans decreased continually until the end of the summer. Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius oviposition began in early June and increased gradually during the summer. Over the course of a summer, there were about twice as many Cx. pipiens as there were Cx. salinarius. A crossover in the number of Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans egg rafts occurred in late July or early August, depending on the year. By late August each year, Cx. pipiens was the most abundant species. At this time, Cx. restuans and Cx. salinarius populations were similar, but each was about half of the Cx. pipiens population. Differences in the abundance of all 3 species could not be explained by changes in ambient temperature (both minimum and maximum) or relative humidity, either within or among years.

  19. Culex mosquitoes in temporary urban rain pools: seasonal dynamics and relation to environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sylvia; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2004-12-01

    The study was conducted in a park of Buenos Aires City, where a total of 89 rain pools were sampled weekly for mosquito immature stages over a one-year period. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the seasonal dynamics of three Culex species breeding in temporary rain pools and to analyze the relationships of the presence of these species to pool dimensions, pool age, vegetation, and insolation degree. The three species showed differences in their seasonal patterns, Culex dolosus being present during the whole year, Culex pipiens mainly in the summer season, and Culex maxi almost exclusively during the fall. The variable explaining most of the variation among sampling dates in species composition was weekly mean temperature. A significant positive association was detected among mosquito species, as they were recorded together more frequently than expected by chance. The statistical analyses performed revealed significant positive relationships of all three mosquito species to increasing surface area, whereas no relationship to insolation degree was detected in the studied pools. Culex pipiens and Culex dolosus showed positive relationships to increasing vegetation cover, whereas the presence of Culex dolosus was also related to pool age.

  20. Larvicidal activity of phytosteroid compounds from leaf extract of Solanum nigrum against Culex vishnui group and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Ray, Anushree Singha; Ghosh, Anupam; Sakar, Mary; Chandra, Goutam

    2017-03-23

    Vector control is facing a menace due to the appearance of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may provide appropriate substitute biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to investigate the bio control potentiality of active ingredient isolated from chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of mature leaves of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) against early 3rd instar larvae of Culex vishnui group (comprising of Cx. vishnui Theobald, Cx. pseudovishnui Colless and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles) and Anopheles subpictus Grassi. S. nigrum is a common plant distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties. Bioactive compound isolated from chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum was (25, 45, 60 mg/L) tested against early 3rd instar larvae of Cx. vishnui group and An. subpictus. The lethal concentration was determined by log probit analysis. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and infrared (IR) analysis. The compound was also studied on non target organisms such as Daphnia sp. and Diplonychus annulatum. TLC spot having Rf value of 0.94 (Rf = 14.1/15 = 0.94) showed larvicidal activity. In a 72 h bioassay experiment, mortality rate at 60 mg/L was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 25 and 45 mg/L against early 3rd instar. Result of log-probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that LC50 and LC90 values gradually decreased with the exposure period showing the lowest value at 72 h of exposure. A clear dose-dependent mortality was observed, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X) having regression coefficient value close to one in each case. The compound was found to be eco-friendly as it did not show any adverse effect to the studied non target organisms. Chemical characterization (GC-MS and IR analyses) of the active ingredient

  1. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L) were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more successful, with

  2. Cold storage of Culex pipiens in the absence of diapause

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major expenditure in vector biology laboratories is the rearing of mosquitoes. Most mosquito colonies require substantial effort to maintain, including frequent blood meals for optimal performance. Successful cryopreservation of mosquitoes continues to be elusive. Although using diapause as a s...

  3. Sugar feeding improves survival of nondiapausing cold stored Culex pipiens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The continuous culture of mosquitoes is a costly endeavor for vector biology laboratories. In addition to the resources that must be committed to colony maintenance, biological costs including genetic drift and accidental colony loss can also occur. While alternatives do exist, their application t...

  4. Distribution and abundance of host-seeking Culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rochlin, I.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of Cx. salinarius, whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest Cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive Culex pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

  5. Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Larsson, Anders; Ahmed, Raija; Lundkvist, Åke; Lundström, Jan O.

    2015-01-01

    We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia. PMID:25898013

  6. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  8. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hongfei; DeGaetano, Arthur T; Harrington, Laura C

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  9. La Crosse Virus Field Detection and Vector Competence of Culex Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. Camille; Yang, Fan; Jackson, Dorian M.; Dotseth, Eric J.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral pediatric encephalitis in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. Here, we report field and laboratory evidence that suggest LACV may be using Culex mosquitoes as additional vectors in this region. This bunyavirus was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in two pools of Culex mosquitoes in southwestern Virginia and in six pools in West Virginia. To assess vector competence, we offered LACV blood meals to field-collected Culex restuans Theobald, Cx. pipiens L., and Aedes triseriatus (Say). Both Culex species were susceptible to infection. LACV-positive salivary expectorate, indicative of the ability to transmit, was detected in a small proportion of Cx. restuans (9%) and Cx. pipiens (4%) compared with Ae. triseriatus (40%). In a companion study of Cx. restuans only, we found that adults derived from nutritionally stressed larvae were significantly more likely to disseminate and transmit LACV. Our results indicate a potential role of Culex spp. in LACV dynamics that should be explored further in endemic areas. PMID:26175029

  10. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  11. Effects of Wolbachia on fitness of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fábio de; Moura, Alexandre S; Cardoso, André F; Winter, Carlos E; Bijovsky, A Tania; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2011-12-01

    Wolbachia are α-proteobacteria that were first reported in Culex pipiens mosquitoes early in the twentieth century. Since then, the effect of Wolbachia on their host's reproduction has drawn attention and has been increasingly investigated. Given the extreme complexity of this interaction, new study cases are welcomed to enhance its understanding. The present work addressed the influence of Wolbachia on Cx. quinquefasciatus, the cosmopolitan member of the Cx. pipiens complex. Samples of a Cx. quinquefasciatus colony (wPip(+)) originated from individuals naturally infected by Wolbachiapipientis B strain, were cured with tetracycline, yielding a Wolbachia-free colony (wPip(-)). Both the presence of bacteria and the efficiency of bacterial elimination were checked by PCR of the wsp gene. Total reproductive unidirectional incompatibility occurred when wPip(-) females were crossed with wPip(+) males, whereas the other three types of reciprocal crosses were viable. Reproductive aspects were also comparatively evaluated between colonies. Concerning oviposition time during the first gonotrophic cycle, wPip(+) females developed and laid eggs earlier than did wPip(-) females. Reproductive fitness was higher among wPip(-) than wPip(+) females regarding the following parameters: fertility: egg rafts/fed females; fecundity: eggs/raft, and viability: larvae/eggs. Conversely, longevity of wPip(-) females was lower. Summarising, although the infected mosquitoes have the advantage of a higher longevity, they have lower reproductive fitness. Our results are partly distinct from all other reports on Aedes and Culex mosquitoes previously published.

  12. Insect-Specific Flaviviruses from Culex Mosquitoes in Colorado, with Evidence of Vertical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Eisen, Lars; Moore, Chester G.; Blair, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes were collected in Colorado during 2006 and 2007 to examine spatial and seasonal patterns of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus. We used universal flavivirus primers to test pools of Culex mosquitoes for viral RNA. This led to the detection and subsequent isolation of two insect-specific flaviviruses: Culex flavivirus (CxFV), which was first described from Japan, and a novel insect flavivirus, designated Calbertado virus (CLBOV), which has also been detected in California and Canada. We recorded both viruses in Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens from Colorado. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of CxFV RNA in Cx. pipiens eggs and larvae from a laboratory colony established in 2005 and naturally infected with CxFV, suggesting vertical transmission as a means of viral maintenance in natural Culex populations. Finally, we present phylogenetic analyses of the relationships between insect-specific flaviviruses and other selected flaviviruses. PMID:21734144

  13. Considerations for accurate identification of adult Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in field studies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Laura C; Poulson, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and behavior of different mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) is essential for identifying their role in disease transmission cycles and public health risk. Two species of Culex mosquitoes in the northeastern United States, Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald, have been implicated in enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). Despite the difficulty of differentiating these two species as adults, many public health workers and vector biologists collecting adults in the field separate these species based on external morphology. This approach is often used rather than examination of dissected male genitalia or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics due to time or cost constraints. We evaluated the reliability of seven published morphological characters to differentiate adults of these species by comparing blindly scored morphology with PCR-based confirmations. Our study demonstrates that morphological identification of Cx. pipiens is marginal and often not reliable for Cx. restuans. We also examined error rates with molecular-based approaches. DNA samples were contaminated with as little as one leg from another species. We conclude that to fully understand the respective roles of Culex species in the epidemiology of WNV and other pathogens, more attention should be paid to these considerations for accurate species identification.

  14. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcripts of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 in Aedes and Culex spp. mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Blair, Carol D; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2007-11-01

    We determined the sequences of cDNA encoding Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1 (IAP1) homologues from Aedes triseriatus, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Culex tarsalis. The cDNAs encode translation products that share > or = 84% sequence similarity. The IAP1 mRNA of each mosquito species exists as 3-5 distinct variants due to the presence of heterogeneous sequences at the distal end of their 5'UTRs. Partial genomic sequencing upstream of the 5' end of the Ae. triseriatus IAP1 gene, and analysis of the Ae. aegypti genomic sequence, suggest that these mRNA variants are generated by alternative splicing. Each IAP1 mRNA variant from Ae. triseriatus and Cx. pipiens was detected by RT-PCR in all mosquito life-stages and adult tissues examined, and the relative concentration of each Ae. triseriatus IAP mRNA variant in various tissues was determined.

  15. Distribution of the members of the Pipiens Assemblage in the sympatric area from Argentina: which is where and when?

    PubMed

    Cardo, María V; Rubio, Alejandra; Junges, Melania; Vezzani, Darío; Carbajo, Aníbal E

    2016-11-01

    Given their medical and veterinary relevance, the members of the Pipiens Assemblage are a worldwide target of ecological research. The distribution of Culex pipiens s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus converge in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where hybrids have been detected. Each member of the assemblage exhibits a distinct eco-physiological behaviour that can affect its efficiency in pathogen transmission. Our aim was to identify the environmental drivers for the spatio-temporal distribution of each member, focusing on latitudinal and urbanisation gradients. Immatures of mosquitoes were surveyed in artificial containers found within 11 public cemeteries, raised up to the adult stage and identified by their male genitalia. The distribution of each member was associated with the environment in a Generalized Linear Model. The variable accounting for most of the heterogeneity was latitude; Cx. quinquefasciatus was collected more frequently at northern cemeteries, whereas Cx. pipiens and hybrids were more likely at the southern extreme. The urbanisation gradient was also associated with the occurrence of Cx. quinquefasciatus and hybrids at the high and low end, respectively. Other relevant variables were cemetery total area, the proportion with graves and the presence of plastic flowers in the containers. The spatial distribution of the members of the Pipiens Assemblage within the sympatric region in South America is driven by environmental features. The information presented herein provides essential baseline data for surveillance programs and control activities.

  16. Distribution of the members of the Pipiens Assemblage in the sympatric area from Argentina: which is where and when?

    PubMed Central

    Cardo, María V; Rubio, Alejandra; Junges, Melania; Vezzani, Darío; Carbajo, Aníbal E

    2016-01-01

    Given their medical and veterinary relevance, the members of the Pipiens Assemblage are a worldwide target of ecological research. The distribution of Culex pipiens s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus converge in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where hybrids have been detected. Each member of the assemblage exhibits a distinct eco-physiological behaviour that can affect its efficiency in pathogen transmission. Our aim was to identify the environmental drivers for the spatio-temporal distribution of each member, focusing on latitudinal and urbanisation gradients. Immatures of mosquitoes were surveyed in artificial containers found within 11 public cemeteries, raised up to the adult stage and identified by their male genitalia. The distribution of each member was associated with the environment in a Generalized Linear Model. The variable accounting for most of the heterogeneity was latitude; Cx. quinquefasciatus was collected more frequently at northern cemeteries, whereas Cx. pipiens and hybrids were more likely at the southern extreme. The urbanisation gradient was also associated with the occurrence of Cx. quinquefasciatus and hybrids at the high and low end, respectively. Other relevant variables were cemetery total area, the proportion with graves and the presence of plastic flowers in the containers. The spatial distribution of the members of the Pipiens Assemblage within the sympatric region in South America is driven by environmental features. The information presented herein provides essential baseline data for surveillance programs and control activities. PMID:27783720

  17. Detection and isolation of the α-proteobacterium Asaia in Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    De Freece, C; Damiani, C; Valzano, M; D'Amelio, S; Cappelli, A; Ricci, I; Favia, G

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of microbiota within mosquitoes continue to widen the spectrum of possible symbiont-based applications against vector-borne diseases. In this context, α-proteobacteria of the genus Asaia (Rhodospirillales: Acetobacteraceae) are emerging as possible endosymbiotic candidates, particularly in paratransgenic approaches aimed at interrupting pathogen transmission. Previous studies have shown that Asaia spp. distribution among Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes displayed positive rates of infection in isolated midguts, salivary glands and reproductive tissues. Similarly, Asaia has been detected in Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) and Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations. Within the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae), Asaia infection is still largely unexplored. Here, we summarize a preliminary survey of laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens complex and field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus for the presence of Asaia spp., and present the first identification of Asaia in some of the members of the Cx. pipiens complex and the first description in West African populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Morphological and fecundity traits of Culex mosquitoes caught in gravid traps in urban and rural Berkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Townroe, S; Callaghan, A

    2015-10-01

    Culex pipiens s.l. is one of the primary vectors of West Nile Virus in the USA and Continental Europe. The seasonal abundance and eco-behavioural characteristics of the typical form, Cx. pipiens pipiens, make it a key putative vector in Britain. Surveillance of Culex larvae and adults is essential to detect any changes to spatial and seasonal activity or morphological traits that may increase the risk of disease transmission. Here we report the use of the modified Reiter gravid box trap, which is commonly used in the USA but scarcely used in the UK, to assess its suitability as a tool for British female Culex mosquito surveillance. Trapping was carried out at 110 sites in urban and rural gardens in Berkshire in May, July and September 2013. We tested if reproductively active adult female Culex are more abundant in urban than rural gardens and if wing characteristic traits and egg raft size are influenced by location and seasonal variations. Gravid traps were highly selective for Culex mosquitoes, on average catching significantly more per trap in urban gardens (32.4 ± 6.2) than rural gardens (19.3 ± 4.0) and more in July than in May or September. The majority of females were caught alive in a good condition. Wing lengths were measured as an indicator of size. Females flying in September were significantly smaller than females in May or July. Further non-significant differences in morphology and fecundity between urban and rural populations were found that should be explored further across the seasons.

  19. Evaluation of a novel emergence trap to study Culex mosquitoes in urban catch basins.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Gabriel L; Kelly, Patrick H; Focks, Dana A; Goldberg, Tony L; Walkers, Edward D

    2011-06-01

    Stormwater catch basins in urban areas provide important larval habitat for Culex mosquitoes. In this study we quantified adult Culex emergence using a newly designed emergence trap deployed in catch basins in suburban Chicago, IL. Traps were deployed from late June to mid-October, 2009-10, in 19 catch basins for a total of 461 trap-days. Based on laboratory trials, the percentage of adults emerging under the trap and reaching the collection cup ranged from 37.7 +/- 6.5% for closed-cup and 50.5 +/- 3.8% for open-cup configurations. In 2009, catch basins containing immature mosquitoes produced an estimated 58.9 +/- 30.8 female and 86.2 +/- 36.4 male Culex spp. per day. Most (84.4%) were Culex pipiens and the remainder were Cx. restuans. The trap was also effective in documenting reductions in adult emergence following intense precipitation events that caused "flushing" of larvae and pupae. In general, the new emergence trap was effective for studying Culex production in catch basins and should be broadly useful in studies of container-breeding mosquitoes.

  20. A standard cytogenetic map of Culex quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes in application for fine-scale physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Unger, Maria F; Sharakhova, Maria V; Harshbarger, Adam J; Glass, Patrick; Collins, Frank H

    2015-06-06

    Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus belongs to the C. pipiens cryptic species complex, with global distribution and unclear taxonomy. Mosquitoes of the complex can transmit human and animal pathogens, such as filarial worm, West Nile virus and avian malarial Plasmodium. Physical gene mapping is crucial to understanding genome organization, function, and systematic relationships of cryptic species, and is a basis for developing new vector control strategies. However, physical mapping was not established previously for Culex due to the lack of well-structured polytene chromosomes. Inbreeding was used to diminish inversion polymorphism and asynapsis of chromosomal homologs. Identification of larvae of the same developmental stage using the shape of imaginal discs allowed achievement of uniformity in chromosomal banding pattern. This together with high-resolution phase-contrast photography enabled the development of a cytogenetic map. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used for gene mapping. A detailed cytogenetic map of C. quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes was produced. Landmarks for chromosome recognition and cytological boundaries for two inversions were identified. Locations of 23 genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs, and 2 cDNA were established. Six supercontigs were oriented and one was found putatively misassembled. The cytogenetic map was linked to the previously developed genetic linkage groups by corresponding positions of 2 genetic markers and 10 supercontigs carrying genetic markers. Polytene chromosomes were numbered according to the genetic linkage groups. This study developed a new standard cytogenetic photomap of the polytene chromosomes for C. quinquefasciatus and was applied for the fine-scale physical mapping. It allowed us to infer chromosomal position of 1333 of annotated genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs and find orientation of 6 of these supercontigs; the new cytogenetic and previously developed genetic linkage

  1. West Nile virus-infected dead corvids increase the risk of infection in Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in domestic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carrie F; Reisen, William K

    2007-11-01

    A comparative study of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates in Culex mosquitoes collected at 13 sites, seven reporting WNV-positive dead corvids (case sites) and six without reported dead birds (control sites) was conducted in Davis, CA, from 14 to 21 July at the beginning of the 2006 WNV outbreak. In total, 3051 Culex mosquitoes were collected using gravid traps and CO2-baited traps; WNV-infected mosquitoes were only collected with CO2-baited traps. WNV-infected Culex pipiens L. were collected at one of the seven case sites. Six of seven case sites yielded WNV-infected Culex tarsalis Coquillett, whereas only one of six control sites had WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis. Overall, the odds of finding WNV-positive mosquitoes were 19.75 times greater at sites reporting a WNV-infected dead corvid than sites without a WNV-infected dead corvid. Maximum likelihood estimates of the overall infection rates at the case sites were 3.48/1000 for Cx. tarsalis and 8.69/1000 for Cx. pipiens compared with 1.02/1000 in Cx. tarsalis collected at the control sites. Results indicate that Cx. tarsalis was important in early season enzootic transmission within Davis and that sites reporting WNV-infected dead corvids are areas to focus control and surveillance efforts.

  2. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  3. First record of Culex (Culex) coronator in Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Debboun, Mustapha; Kuhr, Dennis D; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pecor, James E

    2005-12-01

    The 1st confirmed record of Culex coronator for Louisiana was made at Fort Polk, LA, from carbon dioxide-baited light trap and gravid trap collections performed from April to October 2004. In addition to the new record, 17 mosquito species in 5 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, and Psorophora) were collected. Collection-site and species distribution data are included.

  4. The effect of temperature on life history traits of Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ciota, Alexander T; Matacchiero, Amy C; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kramer, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Climatic changes forecasted in the coming years are likely to result in substantial alterations to the distributions and populations of vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens. Characterization of the effect of temperature shifts on the life history traits of specific vectors is needed to more accurately define how such changes could impact the epidemiological patterns of vector-borne disease. Here, we determined the effect of temperatures including 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 degreeC on development time, immature survival, adult survival, mosquito size, blood feeding, and fecundity of both field and colonized populations of the Culex mosquitoes Culex pipiens L, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex restuans Theobald. Our results demonstrate that temperature significantly affects all of these traits, yet also that the extent of this effect is at times incongruent among temperatures, as well as being population and species-specific. Comparisons of colonized mosquitoes with field populations generally demonstrate decreased adult and immature survival, increased blood feeding and egg production, and significant variation in the effects of temperature, indicating that such colonies are not fully representative of natural populations. Results with field populations in general indicate that increases in temperature are likely to accelerate mosquito development, and that this effect is greater at temperatures below 24 degreeC, but also that temperature significantly increases mortality. Among field populations, Cx. restuans were most affected by temperature increases, with decreased longevity relative to other species and significant increases in adult and immature mortality measured with each incremental temperature increase. Despite the unique climates characteristic of the geographic ranges ofCx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens, evidence of significant species-specific adaptation to temperature ranges was not seen. Taken together, these results indicate that geographic region

  5. Experimental and natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus by California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Brittany M; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Carroll, Brian D; Macedo, Paula; Kluh, Susanne; Reisen, William K

    2013-03-01

    Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, the primary summer vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), also may serve as overwintering reservoir hosts. Detection of WN viral RNA from larvae hatched from eggs deposited by infected females during late summer and fall may provide evidence for the vertical passage of WNV to overwintering cohorts. To determine whether vertical transmission to the overwintering generation occurs in populations of Culex mosquitoes throughout California, larvae from naturally infected females were tested by family for WN viral RNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during August through October 2011. Viral RNA was detected in 34 of 934 Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. pipiens complex females that laid viable egg rafts. From these egg rafts, first-instar larvae from nine families tested positive, yielding an overall field vertical transmission rate of 26% (n = 34). To determine whether the WNV may be lost transtadially during development to the adult stage, first-instar larvae and adult progeny from experimentally infected Cx. pipiens complex females were assessed for the presence and quantity of WN viral RNA. Most (approximately 75%) WNV infections were lost from positive families during larval development to the adult stage. In field and laboratory studies, only infected mothers with mean cycle threshold scores < or = 20 vertically transmitted WNV to larval progeny, adult progeny, or both. In summary, vertical transmission of WNV was detected repeatedly in naturally infected Culex mosquitoes collected throughout California during late summer and fall, with females having high titered infections capable of passing WNV onto their progeny destined for overwintering.

  6. Baseline Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Six Active Ingredients for Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Fields, Melinda; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes may develop resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AI). Thus, mosquitoes should be tested for resistance to confirm efficacy of insecticide-based control, inform management decisions, and protect public and environmental health. Our objectives were to determine a baseline of resistance for six AIs used in mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance differs between mosquito collection location, AI, and mosquito species (container-ovipositing Aedes and Culex that may oviposit in containers or other sources). Field-collected eggs from 26 mosquito populations of five different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Say, Aedes triseriatus Say, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained from four regions across the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to determine baseline resistance and susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (< 80% mortality at DT). Aedes spp. mosquitoes were less likely to exhibit resistance, compared with Culex spp. mosquitoes. A high degree of resistance to etofenprox and malathion was observed (4-26-fold greater resistance to these two AIs compared with the other examined AIs). Baseline data on resistance and susceptibility for mosquitoes exposed to commonly used insecticides may help us evaluate resistance trends and highlight the importance of assessing local resistance trends before insecticide-based control measures are implemented. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Investigation of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a biological control agent of Culex mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Patrick; Paskewitz, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Many urban areas have engineered storm-water runoff control structures such as ditches and detention ponds. These often serve as excellent habitats for Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, the primary enzootic vectors of West Nile virus in the Midwest. We evaluated predation and control of these species by a fish species native to Wisconsin, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In the lab, a single minnow consumed an average of 74 Cx. pipiens larvae in a 24-h period. Minnow gender and age had minimal effect on predation of 2nd and 4th instars. In the field, fathead minnows (1,000 fish/ha) were introduced 1 time into 3 storm-water ditches with an additional 9 sites serving as controls. Sites where fish were introduced required no Bacillus sphaericus (VectoLex) treatments during the 10-week experiment. The control sites required 19 VectoLex treatments during the same 10-week time span. Survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in time to first VectoLex treatment between fish sites and control sites. Our results suggest fathead minnows may provide a long-lasting and ecologically and economically feasible alternative to the use of VectoLex for Culex larval control.

  8. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  9. Development time of Culex mosquitoes in stormwater management structures in California.

    PubMed

    Henn, Jennifer B; Metzger, Marco E; Kwan, Jonathan A; Harbison, Justin E; Fritz, Curtis L; Riggs-Nagy, Jamie; Shindelbower, Mitch; Kramer, Vicki L

    2008-03-01

    A widely recommended strategy to minimize mosquito production in structural stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) is to ensure they hold captured water for no more than 72 h. However, this standard may be overly conservative for many mosquito species found in urban environments and may impede or prevent the capacity of BMPs to fulfill more stringent water quality standards in environmentally sensitive areas. Egg-to-pupa development of Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were examined during July, August, and September 2006 in stormwater management basins and in water collected from these basins in 3 climatically distinct regions of California: the Lake Tahoe Basin, Sacramento Valley, and Los Angeles Basin. The observed minimum times to pupal development were 6 days for Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus and 8 days for Cx. pipiens. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate minimum predicted development times under optimal conditions for each region. The results suggest that water residence times of up to 96 h will not significantly increase the potential for Culex mosquito production in stormwater BMPs in the 3 regions included in this study.

  10. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  11. Ovicidal activity of three insect growth regulators against Aedes and Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific variations in the susceptibility of freshly and embryonated eggs of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. atropalpus and Culex pipiens were tested against three classes of insect growth regulators (IGRs) including ecdysone agonist (azadirachtin), chitin synthesis inhibitor (diflubenzuron) and juvenile hormone analog (pyriproxyfen) at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0ppm concentrations. Egg hatching inhibition was dose dependent, the highest being at 1.0ppm concentration for freshly laid eggs of Ae. albopictus (pyriproxyfen: 80.6%, azadirachtin: 42.9% and diflubenzuron: 35.8%). Aedes aegypti showed lower egg hatching inhibition when exposed to pyriproxyfen (47.3%), azadirachtin (15.7%) and diflubenzuron (25.5%). Freshly laid eggs of Cx. pipiens were most susceptible to diflubenzuron. Aedes atropalpus eggs were tolerant to all three classes of IGRs. Embryonated eggs of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. atropalpus and Cx. pipiens were resistant to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin and diflubenzuron than freshly laid eggs. The median desiccation time (DT50) of Ae. atropalpus eggs was maximum (5.1h) as compared to Ae. aegypti (4.9h), Ae. albopictus (3.9h) or Cx. pipiens (1.7h) eggs. Insignificant relationship between the rates of desiccation and egg hatching inhibition suggests other factors than physical providing eggs the ability to tolerate exposures to various IGRs. Egg hatching inhibition was due to the alteration in embryonic development caused by IGRs. Changes in the egg shell morphology and abnormal egg hatching from the side of the egg wall instead of operculum, was observed at higher concentrations of diflubenzuron. Morphological and physiological variations in eggs may be the key factor to influence the ovicidal efficacy of IGRs. The present data provide a base line for the improvement of the ovicidal efficacy of the insecticide and its formulation.

  12. First record of a mosquito iridescent virus in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mosquito iridescent viruses (MIVs) are large icosahedral DNA viruses that replicate and assemble in the cytoplasm of the host. Paracrystalline arrangements of virions that accumulate in the cytoplasm produce an iridescent color that is symptomatic of acute infections. In August 2010, we found ...

  13. Generation and Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Viral Reassortants by the Mosquito ’Culex pipiens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Reassortant viruses replicat- < Valley fever (RVF) virus . The origin of the S and M ed efficiently in mosquitoes and were readily transmis- RNA segments...epidemiology and evolution of RVF parental viruses by interrupted feeding on two infected virus . Introduction between spontaneous mutants arising in an infected...of RVF virus , in mosquitoes that fed on a vertebrate host 1990). As is well documented with other viruses infected with two different strains of RVF

  14. Cold storage of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, in the absence of diapause

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One major obstacle in vector biology experimentation is the rearing of mosquitoes. Most mosquito colonies require substantial effort to maintain, including a blood meal at least once a month for optimal performance. While the induction of diapause can be used to reduce the amount of work required ...

  15. Dissecting the cost of insecticide resistance genes during the overwintering period of the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Gazave, E; Chevillon, C; Lenormand, T; Marquine, M; Raymond, M

    2001-10-01

    In several insects, there appears to be a high fitness cost associated with insecticide resistance genes during the overwintering period. In order to understand when and how this cost operates, all mosquitoes entering a natural cave for overwintering were regularly sampled, and their resistance genes at two loci (Ester and Ace.1) were individually identified. During the main period of entry (October and November), susceptible mosquitoes were first observed, followed by resistant ones, this trend being similar for both loci. This observation is best explained by a migration phenomenon, northern and more susceptible populations starting to overwinter first, followed by southern and more resistant ones. During the remaining part of the winter (December-March), mosquitoes entering the cave were still caught and they probably corresponded to individuals leaving a former overwintering site in search of a more suitable one. A lower overall frequency of resistant phenotypes was found in the second part of the winter at Ester, suggesting that a large fitness cost (42%) had operated. A decreasing frequency of resistant phenotypes was also found at Ace.1, indicating a large survival cost of resistant mosquitoes (7% for the homozygote Ace.1R) in their former overwintering site. These results are discussed in the light of the local evolution of these resistance genes in southern France.

  16. The vortex wake of the free-swimming larva and pupa of Culex pipiens (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, J

    2001-06-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming pupal and larval (final-instar) culicids were investigated using videography and a simple wake-visualisation technique (dyes). In both cases, swimming is based on a technique of high-amplitude, side-to-side (larva) or up-and-down (pupa) bending of the body. The pupa possesses a pair of plate-like abdominal paddles; the larval abdominal paddle consists of a fan of closely spaced bristles which, at the Reynolds numbers involved, behaves like a continuous surface. Wake visualisation showed that each half-stroke of the swimming cycle produces a discrete ring vortex that is convected away from the body. Consecutive vortices are produced first to one side then to the other of the mean swimming path, the convection axis being inclined at approximately 25 degrees away from dead aft. Pupal and larval culicids therefore resemble fish in using the momentum injected into the water to generate thrust. Preliminary calculations for the pupa suggest that each vortex contains sufficient momentum to account for that added to the body with each half-stroke. The possibility is discussed that the side-to-side flexural technique may allow an interaction between body and tail flows in the production of vorticity.

  17. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  18. A New Species, Culex (Culex) Litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the Coastal Region of Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    with existing keys and descriptions. Further study revealed that this species is closely related to Culex ( Culex ) antennatus (Becker), differing...254 Mosquito S.ystematics Vol. 17(3) 1985 A new species, Culicidae), Culex (Cu7ex) 7itwakae (Dipterf: from the coastal region of Kenya Ralph E...1985 to 00-00-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A new species, Culex ( Culex ) litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the coastal region of Kenya 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Acute olfactory response of Culex mosquitoes to a human- and bird-derived attractant.

    PubMed

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Leal, Walter S

    2009-11-03

    West Nile virus, which is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes while feeding on birds and humans, has emerged as the dominant vector borne disease in North America. We have identified natural compounds from humans and birds, which are detected with extreme sensitivity by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). One of these semiochemicals, nonanal, dominates the odorant spectrum of pigeons, chickens, and humans from various ethnic backgrounds. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of all ORN types housed in different sensilla types on Cx. quinquefasciatus antennae. Here, we present a comprehensive map of all antennal ORNs coding natural ligands and their dose-response functions. Nonanal is detected by a large array of sensilla and is by far the most potent stimulus; thus, supporting the assumption that Cx. quinquefasciatus can smell humans and birds. Nonanal and CO(2) synergize, thus, leading to significantly higher catches of Culex mosquitoes in traps baited with binary than in those with individual lures.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  1. Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

    PubMed Central

    GARDNER, ALLISON M.; HAMER, GABRIEL L.; HINES, ALICIA M.; NEWMAN, CHRISTINA M.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; RUIZ, MARILYN O.

    2014-01-01

    Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of larvae in these habitats is well-documented, the influence of abiotic factors on the ecology of Culex larvae developing in them remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple abiotic factors and their interactions on abundance of Culex larvae in catch basins in the Chicago, IL, metropolitan area. Low precipitation and high mean daily temperature were associated with high larval abundance, whereas there was no correlation between catch basin depth or water depth and larval abundance. Rainfall was an especially strong predictor of presence or absence of larvae in the summer of 2010, a season with an unusually high precipitation. Regression tree methods were used to build a schematic decision tree model of the interactions among these factors. This practical, visual representation of key predictors of high larval production may be used by local mosquito abatement districts to target limited resources to treat catch basins when they are particularly likely to produce West Nile virus vectors. PMID:22493843

  2. Weather variability affects abundance of larval Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in storm water catch basins in suburban Chicago.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hines, Alicia M; Newman, Christina M; Walker, Edward D; Ruiz, Marilyn O

    2012-03-01

    Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36 degrees latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of larvae in these habitats is well-documented, the influence of abiotic factors on the ecology of Culex larvae developing in them remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple abiotic factors and their interactions on abundance of Culex larvae in catch basins in the Chicago, IL, metropolitan area. Low precipitation and high mean daily temperature were associated with high larval abundance, whereas there was no correlation between catch basin depth or water depth and larval abundance. Rainfall was an especially strong predictor of presence or absence of larvae in the summer of 2010, a season with an unusually high precipitation. Regression tree methods were used to build a schematic decision tree model of the interactions among these factors. This practical, visual representation of key predictors of high larval production may be used by local mosquito abatement districts to target limited resources to treat catch basins when they are particularly likely to produce West Nile virus vectors.

  3. Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens)

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, P.D.; Call, D.J.; Cox, D.A.; Liber, K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1999-02-01

    Rana pipiens larvae were exposed for 48 h in a flow-through system to clean water or five concentrations of the phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. Following this uptake period, the larvae were divided into four groups: one for immediate tissue residue analysis, a second for residue analysis following 48 h of depuration in clean water, and two for a 48-h exposure in clean water to ultraviolet (UV) light at two different levels. At the highest treatment, mean intensity was 8.12 {+-} 0.19 {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, whereas at a lower treatment the UVA intensity was 4.45 {+-} 0.05 {times} 10{sup 2} {micro}W/cm{sup 2}. Larval frogs bioaccumulated fluoranthene in direct proportion to the water exposure concentrations, with initial whole-body PAH concentrations of 1.48, 3.53, 4.85, 11.3, and 18.7 {micro}g/g at the five treatment levels. No mortality of the animals occurred during the 48-h uptake phase. When the frogs were placed in clean water, the fluoranthene was rapidly depurated, with up to 80% lost in 48 h. Exposure to UV light following fluoranthene exposure significantly enhanced toxicity of the PAH. Median time to death decreased as the product of UVA light intensity and fluoranthene body residue increased. For larval R. Pipiens, sufficient tissue residues of fluoranthene were bioaccumulated within 48 h, at water exposure concentrations in the range of 2 to 10 {micro}g/L, to be lethal when combined with a UVA exposure simulating a fraction of summertime, midday sunlight in northern latitudes.

  4. [Experimental observation of toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae].

    PubMed

    Li, Ju-Lin; Zhu, Guo-Ding; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Tang, Jian-Xia; Cao, Jun

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) wettable powder against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. The biological assay was applied to test the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) of Bti wettable powder against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. The LC50(s) of Bti wettable powder against Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens pallens and Anopheles sinensis larvae were 0.104, 0.160 microg/ml and 0.324 microg/ml, respectively; its biological potencies against them were 0.125, 0.192 IU/ml and 0.389 IU/ml, respectively. The LC50(s) of continuous contact of Bti wettable powder with An. sinensis stage III larvae for 1, 2 d and 3 d were 0.324, 0.092 microg/ml and 0.032 microg/ml, respectively, and its biological potencies were 0.389, 0.110 IU/ml and 0.038 IU/ml, respectively. The LC50(s) of the bacteria against An. sinensis stage I , II, III, IV were 0.024, 0.137, 0.324 microg/ml and 0.450 microg/ml, respectively, and the biological potencies were 0.029, 0.164, 0.389 IU/ml and 0.540 IU/ml, respectively. Bti wettable powder has a good toxicity to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae, especially for the latter two. It is better to apply the bacteria at the early stage of mosquito larvae.

  5. Redescription of the pupa of Culex salinarius Coquillett and comparison with Culex nigripalpus Theobald.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2006-09-01

    The pupa of Culex salinarius is redescribed with updated chaetotaxal nomenclature and a full illustration. The pupal chaetotaxy of Cx. salinarius and the similar species Culex nigripalpus is compared.

  6. Culex (Culex) declarator, a mosquito species new to Florida.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Shroyer, Donald A

    2004-09-01

    One specimen of a mosquito new to Florida, Culex declarator, was first found in 1998 in Indian River County. A 2nd specimen was collected in 2002. Beginning in September 2003, Cx. declarator adults were regularly encountered in routine mosquito surveillance sampling, with more than 300 specimens appearing in 45 collections. Prior to our find, the U.S. distrubution was thought to be restricted to south Texas. The full extent of this species' distribution in Florida has yet to be determined.

  7. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J

    2000-02-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

  8. Effects of warm winter temperature on the abundance and gonotrophic activity of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Thiemann, Tara; Barker, Christopher M; Lu, Helen; Carroll, Brian; Fang, Ying; Lothrop, Hugh D

    2010-03-01

    Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, and Cx. pipiens L. were collected during the warm winter of 2009 using dry ice-baited and gravid traps and walk-in red boxes positioned in desert, urban, and agricultural habitats in Riverside, Los Angeles, Kern, and Yolo Counties. Temperatures exceeded the preceding 50 yr averages in all locations for most of January, whereas rainfall was absent or below average. Abundance of Culex species in traps during January ranged from 83 to 671% of the prior 5 yr average in all locations. Few females collected resting were in diapause during January based on follicular measurements. Evidence for early season gonotrophic activity included the detection of freshly bloodfed, gravid, and parous females in resting collections, gravid oviposition site-seeking females in gravid female traps, and nulliparous and parous host-seeking females at dry ice-baited traps. Female Culex seemed to employ multiple overwintering strategies in California, including larval and adult quiescence, adult female diapause, and an intermediate situation with adult females collected with enlarged follicles, but without evident vitellogenesis. West Nile, St. Louis, or western equine encephalitis viruses were not detected in 198 pools of adults or 56 pools of adults reared from field-collected immatures collected during January and February 2009. Our preliminary data may provide insight into how climate change may extend the mosquito season in California.

  9. The monofactorial inheritance of resistance to dieldrin in larval and adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say*

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, J. T.; Hoskins, W. M.

    1964-01-01

    A susceptible and a resistant strain were isolated from an originally heterogeneous laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (= Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann) by use of discriminating concentrations of dieldrin on fourth-instar larvae. By cross-breeding, hybrids of intermediate susceptibility were obtained. By repeated cross-breeding and elimination of susceptibles the authors have shown that resistance to dieldrin is controlled by a single inheritable factor which is neither fully recessive nor dominant in the hybrid genotype, since the ratios of the LC50 values were 1:19:196. Cross-resistance was shown to lindane but not to malathion or to any of three carbamates. Similar tests were made with adult females exposed to papers impregnated with n-dioctyl phthalate as solvent to secure high concentrations of dieldrin. Resistance in this stage also was neither fully recessive nor dominant, but it can be calculated quantitatively only for the hydrid (approximately 15-fold) since longer exposure was required with the resistant genotype. Determination of dieldrin pick-up showed that this cannot account for the differences in susceptibility of the genotypes. Analysis of resistant females surviving exposure to dieldrin papers showed slow loss of dieldrin and thus added confirmation to the hypothesis that metabolism is not the controlling process in dieldrin-resistance. PMID:14278004

  10. Wing geometry of Culex coronator (Diptera: Culicidae) from South and Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Coronator Group encompasses Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Culex camposi Dyar, Culex covagarciai Forattini, Culex ousqua Dyar, Culex usquatissimus Dyar, Culex usquatus Dyar and Culex yojoae Strickman. Culex coronator has the largest geographic distribution, occurring in North, Central and South America. Moreover, it is a potential vector-borne mosquito species because females have been found naturally infected with several arboviruses, i.e., Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus. Considering the epidemiological importance of Cx. coronator, we investigated the wing shape diversity of Cx. coronator from South and Southeast Brazil, a method to preliminarily estimate population diversity. Methods Field-collected immature stages of seven populations from a large geographical area in Brazil were maintained in the laboratory to obtain both females and males linked with pupal and/or larval exuviae. For each individual female, 18 landmarks of left wings were marked and digitalized. After Procrustes superimposition, discriminant analysis of shape was employed to quantify wing shape variation among populations. The isometric estimator centroid size was calculated to assess the overall wing size and allometry. Results Wing shape was polymorphic among populations of Cx. coronator. However, dissimilarities among populations were higher than those observed within each population, suggesting populational differentiation in Cx. coronator. Morphological distances between populations were not correlated to geographical distances, indicating that other factors may act on wing shape and thus, determining microevolutionary patterns in Cx. coronator. Despite the population differentiation, intrapopulational wing shape variability was equivalent among all seven populations. Conclusion The wing variability found in Cx. coronator populations brings to light a new biological problem to be investigated: the population genetics of

  11. Molecular detection of Wolbachia pipientis in natural populations of mosquito vectors of Dirofilaria immitis from continental Portugal: first detection in Culex theileri.

    PubMed

    DE Pinho Mixão, V; Mendes, A M; Maurício, I L; Calado, M M; Novo, M T; Belo, S; Almeida, A P G

    2016-09-01

    Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) protects mosquitoes from infections with arboviruses and parasites. However, the effect of its co-infection on vector competence for Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the wild has not been investigated. This study aimed to screen vectors of D. immitis for wPip, to characterize these, and to investigate a possible association between the occurrence of W. pipientis and that of the nematode. The presence of W. pipientis was assessed in the five mosquito potential vectors of D. immitis in Portugal. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were sequenced, and wPip haplotypes were determined by PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results showed that wPip was detected in 61.5% of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) pools and 6.3% of Culex theileri pools. wPip 16s rRNA sequences found in Cx. theileri exactly match those from Cx. pipiens, confirming a mosquito origin, rather than a nematode origin, as some specimens were infected with D. immitis. Only wPip haplotype I was found. No association was found between the presence of wPip and D. immitis in mosquitoes and hence a role for this endosymbiont in influencing vectorial competence is yet to be identified. This study contributes to understanding of wPip distribution in mosquito populations and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, is the first report of natural infections by wPip in Cx. theileri.

  12. Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Fotakis, Emmanouil A; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Grigoraki, Linda; Tsiamantas, Alexandros; Kounadi, Stella; Georgiou, Loukas; Vontas, John

    2017-10-01

    Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications. We determined the mosquito species composition and population dynamics in areas of increased vulnerability to vector borne disease transmission, as well as investigated the resistance status of major nuisance and disease vectors to insecticides. High mosquito densities were recorded in Thessaloniki and Evros, with Aedes caspius, a nuisance species, Culex pipiens, a known vector of WNV and Anopheles hyrcanus a potential vector of malaria being among the most prevalent species. Both vector species populations reached their peak in late summer. Aedes albopictus was recorded at high densities in Thessaloniki, but not in Evros. Notably, Cx. pipiens hybrids, which show an opportunistic biting behavior and are suspected to be involved in the transmission of the WNV, were recorded in considerable numbers in Thessaloniki and Attica. Culex pipiens and An. hyrcanus, but not Ae. caspius mosquitoes, showed moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin. The presence of resistance in areas not exposed to vector control indicates that other factors could be selecting for resistance, i.e. pesticide applications for agriculture. Both L1014F and L101C kdr mutations were detected in Cx. pipiens populations. Anopheles hyrcanus resistance was not associated with mutations at the L1014 site. The Ace-1 mutations conferring insensitivity to organophosphates and carbamates were detected at low frequencies in all Cx. pipiens populations. Increased activity of P450s and

  13. Transmission of West Nile Virus by Culex quinquefasciatus Say Infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Miller, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV) Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV) from Guatemala. Methods and Findings CxFV-negative Culex quinquefasciatus and those infected with CxFV Izabal by intrathoracic inoculation were administered WNV-infectious blood meals. Infection, dissemination, and transmission of WNV were measured by plaque titration on Vero cells of individual mosquito bodies, legs, or saliva, respectively, two weeks following WNV exposure. Additional groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus were intrathoracically inoculated with WNV alone or WNV+CxFV Izabal simultaneously, and saliva collected nine days post inoculation. Growth of WNV in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells or Cx. quinquefasciatus was not inhibited by prior infection with CxFV Izabal. There was no significant difference in the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus for WNV between mosquitoes uninfected or infected with CxFV Izabal across multiple WNV blood meal titers and two colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus (p>0.05). However, significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus from Honduras that were co-inoculated simultaneously with both viruses transmitted WNV than those inoculated with WNV alone (p = 0.0014). Co-inoculated mosquitoes that transmitted WNV also contained CxFV in their saliva, whereas mosquitoes inoculated with CxFV alone did not contain virus in their saliva. Conclusions In the sequential infection experiments, prior infection with CxFV Izabal had no significant impact on WNV replication, infection, dissemination, or transmission by Cx. quinquefasciatus, however WNV transmission was enhanced in the Honduras colony when mosquitoes were inoculated simultaneously with both viruses

  14. Efficient induction of spawning of Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. Methods The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions. Results We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5–6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and

  15. Isolation and sequence analysis of Culex flavivirus from Culex interrogator and Culex quinquefasciatus in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Dorman, Karin S.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we reported a high prevalence of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. To determine whether other Culex spp. mosquitoes in this region are susceptible to natural CxFV infection, Cx. bahamensis (Dyar and Knab), Cx. coronator (Dyar and Knab), Cx. interrogator (Dyar and Knab), Cx. nigripalpus (Theobald) and Cx. opisthopus (Komp) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico were tested for CxFV. Two pools of Cx. interrogator were positive. The envelope protein genes of these isolates and 16 isolates from Cx. quinquefasciatus were sequenced and shown to have ≥99.2% nucleotide identity. These data suggest that there is limited genetic diversity among CxFV isolates in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. PMID:20379749

  16. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  17. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  18. Cutaneous transport of Ca2+ in the frog Rana pipiens: significance and specificity.

    PubMed

    Stiffler, D F; Eskandari, S; Dejbakhsh, S

    1997-04-01

    Rana pipiens were divided into four groups: controls; hypocalcemic frogs, depleted of salts by acclimation to deionized water; hypercalcemic frogs, calcium-loaded by the introduction of 40 mumol calcium gluconate; and frogs exposed to the potential competing ions Mg2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. All groups displayed calcium influx that was proportional to external [Ca2+]; however, the group acclimated to deionized water also displayed hypocalcemia (P < 0.025) and enhanced Ca2+ influx at higher (> 0.3 mM) external [Ca2+]. Ca2+ efflux was depressed in hypocalcemic frogs, and thus net Ca2+ flux shifted from net loss in control frogs to net uptake in hypocalcemic frogs. Hypocalcemia also resulted in increased skin Ca2+ deposits which may be related to a decreased Ca2+ (and other ions) permeability as a consequence of the acclimation to deionized water. Another group of frogs was Ca(2+)-loaded by injecting calcium gluconate: Sodium gluconate controls did not significantly alter Ca2+ fluxes. The frogs that received calcium gluconate treatments became hypercalcemic (P < 0.01) and did not display significant changes in calcium fluxes, nor did they show significant changes in skin calcium deposits. We conclude that hypocalcemia leads to regulatory responses that stimulate active Ca2+ transport in Rana pipiens skin and possibly inhibits cutaneous and renal efflux. We also conclude that hypercalcemia does not alter calcium fluxes across skin. The ions from Group IIA of the Periodic Table of Elements had little effect on Ca2+ fluxes at concentrations ranging from 0.5-4.0 mM; neither Sr2+ or Ba2+ affected Ca2+ influx. The only divalent ion tested that influenced Ca2+ was Mg2+, which significantly inhibited Ca2+ influx but only at 4.0 mM or eight times the external [Ca2+]. We conclude, therefore, that the Ca2+ transport mechanism is fairly specific for Ca2+ within Group IIA.

  19. Influence of the microencapsulated pheromone from aged infusion as an oviposition medium of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Mihou, Anastasia P; Koliopoulos, George; Couladouros, Elias A

    2009-04-01

    The main tendency for the control of West Nile virus vectors, without the presence of disease, is to perform integrated programs minimizing chemicals by using environmentally friendly substances which act as oviposition attractants such as oviposition pheromones and infusions. This is the first time that an aged infusion is combined with aged pheromone (microencapsulated). Initially, three common plants in Greece were evaluated as a potential oviposition medium: Oxalis pes-carpae, Jasminum polyanthum, and Avena barbata. All revealed an excellent oviposition attractancy which was more than 80%. O. pes-carpae was used for further investigation and attractancy over time was also studied. Finally, the combination of the synthetic pheromone (6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide) with the O. pes-carpae infusion revealed a synergistic effect only for the first day. This project was a first detection for the potential use of microencapsulated synthetic pheromone with infusion and results are discussed.

  20. The Effect of Laboratory Colonization on the Vector-Pathogen Interactions of Egyptian Culex pipiens and Rift Valley Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    basis in bioclimatic chambers at 26C lation by intramuscular injection of ketamine hy- with a relative humidity (RH) of 70-80% and a drochloride (100 mg...mosquitoes 5-8 days of age. The cage was kept sucrose solution were provil.d as a carbohydrate in a dark humid atmosphere in a bioclimatic source...females were maintained in virus used in these studies was isolated from the bioclimatic chambers at described conditions. To serum of a fatal human

  1. Effects of a Red Marker Dye on Aedes and Culex Larvae: Are There Implications for Operational Mosquito Control?

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Leisnham, Paul T; Williams, Gregory M; Klingler, Kim; Dow, Garrett W; Kirchoff, Nicole; Jin, Sophie; Delisi, Nicholas; Montenegro, Katherine; Faraji, Ary

    2015-12-01

    Marker dyes are often mixed with liquid insecticide formulations prior to field applications to accurately determine the characteristics and penetration of droplets into targeted habitats. We have been using FD&C Red 40 Granular DM food dye at the rate of 20 g/liter in liquid solutions of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) for area-wide larvicide applications against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The Bti and dye mix ratio has been recommended by pesticide manufacturers for testing under operational conditions, but no data exist on the effects of the dye itself on mosquito larvae. We tested the effects of the FD&C Red 40 food dye in laboratory bioassays against different strains of Ae. albopictus (New Jersey and Maryland) and Culex pipiens pipiens (Utah) at rates of 0.039 to 80.0 g/liter. We also conducted field application trials to measure dye concentrations up to 100 m downwind when mixed and applied according to manufacturer instructions. In laboratory bioassays, we found that mean survival in cups with dye were significantly different from the controls beginning at 10.0 g/liter for New Jersey Ae. albopictus and at 20.0 g/liter for Maryland Ae. albopictus and Utah Cx. p. pipiens. In field application trials, we recorded a maximum volume density of 1,152.8 nl/cm(2) and calculated the maximum concentration of dye at 9.09 × 10(-3) g/liter. Our results showed that although we detected greater effects of dye on Ae. albopictus in New Jersey experiments than Ae. albopictus in Maryland and Cx. p. pipiens from Utah, concentrations of the dye during operational applications were at least 1,100 times below concentrations that exhibited toxic effects for either species in the laboratory, suggesting that the dye will not interfere with accuracy of field bioassays. Our results conclusively demonstrate that the addition of the FD&C Red 40 marker dye does not alter the efficacy of the pesticide formulation by skewing results, but rather provides a valuable

  2. Studies of the genus Culex in Florida II. Redescription of the fourth instar of Culex nigripalpus.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2004-06-01

    The fourth instar of Culex nigripalpus is described in detail and completely illustrated for the 1st time as compared with previous descriptions of the larva of Cx. nigripalpus. Certain important features are shown in the figure.

  3. Chemicals of predatory mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) influence selection of oviposition site by Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Angelon, Kim A; Petranka, James W

    2002-04-01

    Ovipositing insects may avoid aquatic sites where there is high predation risk to their offspring, but the proximate mechanisms that mediate avoidance behavior are poorly resolved. We conducted an experiment to determine whether mosquitoes would reduce oviposition rates in pools containing chemicals of the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), a voracious predator that is widely employed to control mosquitoes. Experimental treatments consisted of outdoor pools that contained known concentrations of fish chemicals (low, medium, or high) or no fish chemicals (control). The pools were arranged in a randomized block design, and the number of mosquito larvae in each pool served as the response variable to estimate relative oviposition rate. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were the main colonizers of the pools. The mean number of larvae per pool differed among treatments (P = 0.026) and was about three times greater in control pools compared with those receiving medium and high concentrations of fish chemicals. Pairwise comparisons indicate that only medium and high treatments differed significantly from controls, suggesting that a threshold concentration exists below which mosquitoes cannot reliably detect predators. Our data suggest that the effectiveness of Gambusia affinis in controlling mosquitoes may be compromised if adult mosquitoes respond to fish stocking by shifting to nearby breeding sites that lack fish. We discuss issues conceming the use of Gambusia in biological control programs within the context of these new findings.

  4. Cytonuclear Epistasis Controls the Density of Symbiont Wolbachia pipientis in Nongonadal Tissues of Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kevin J; Glaser, Robert L

    2017-08-07

    Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host's reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause nonreproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts. Here, we measure the broad-sense heritability of Wolbachia density among families in field populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens, and show that densities in ovary and nongonadal tissues of females in the same family are not correlated, suggesting that Wolbachia density is determined by distinct mechanisms in the two tissues. Using introgression analysis between two different strains of the closely related species C. quinquefasciatus, we show that Wolbachia densities in ovary tissues are determined primarily by cytoplasmic genotype, while densities in nongonadal tissues are determined by both cytoplasmic and nuclear genotypes and their epistatic interactions. Quantitative-trait-locus mapping identified two major-effect quantitative-trait loci in the C. quinquefasciatus genome explaining a combined 23% of variance in Wolbachia density, specifically in nongonadal tissues. A better understanding of how Wolbachia density is regulated will provide insights into how Wolbachia density can vary spatiotemporally in insect populations, leading to changes in Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes such as viral pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Emerson, Glaser.

  5. Low genetic diversity in Wolbachia-Infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Almeida, Fábio de; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.

  6. Cytonuclear Epistasis Controls the Density of Symbiont Wolbachia pipientis in Nongonadal Tissues of Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Kevin J.; Glaser, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host’s reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause nonreproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts. Here, we measure the broad-sense heritability of Wolbachia density among families in field populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens, and show that densities in ovary and nongonadal tissues of females in the same family are not correlated, suggesting that Wolbachia density is determined by distinct mechanisms in the two tissues. Using introgression analysis between two different strains of the closely related species C. quinquefasciatus, we show that Wolbachia densities in ovary tissues are determined primarily by cytoplasmic genotype, while densities in nongonadal tissues are determined by both cytoplasmic and nuclear genotypes and their epistatic interactions. Quantitative-trait-locus mapping identified two major-effect quantitative-trait loci in the C. quinquefasciatus genome explaining a combined 23% of variance in Wolbachia density, specifically in nongonadal tissues. A better understanding of how Wolbachia density is regulated will provide insights into how Wolbachia density can vary spatiotemporally in insect populations, leading to changes in Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes such as viral pathogen resistance. PMID:28606944

  7. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-10-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles` development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels.

  8. Seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bethany G; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Eisen, Lars

    2009-11-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006-2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1600 m compared with plains areas <1600 m in Colorado's Front Range. Studies in the plains of northeastern Colorado in 2007 showed that seasonal patterns of abundance for Cx. tarsalis and Culex pipiens L. females differed in that Cx. tarsalis reached peak abundance in early July (mean of 328.9 females per trap night for 18 plains sites), whereas the peak for Cx. pipiens did not occur until late August (mean of 16.4 females per trap night). During June-September in 2007, which was a year of intense WNV activity in Colorado with 578 reported WNV disease cases, we recorded WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females from 16 of 18 sites in the plains. WNV infection rates in Cx. tarsalis females increased gradually from late June to peak in mid-August (overall maximum likelihood estimate for WNV infection rate of 8.29 per 1000 females for the plains sites in mid-August). No WNV-infected Culex mosquitoes were recorded from sites >1600 m. The vector index for abundance of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females for the plains sites combined exceeded 0.50 from mid-July to mid-August, with at least one site exceeding 1.00 from early July to late August. Finally, we found that abundance of Cx. tarsalis females and the vector index for infected females were strongly associated with weekly numbers of WNV disease cases with onset 4-7 wk later (female abundance) or 1-2 wk later (vector index).

  9. Redescription of the adults and new descriptions of the previously unknown immature stages of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi, 1865 (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Christian R; Reyes, Carolina; Rada, Viviana

    2015-05-05

    Male and female adults of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi are redescribed, and the 4th-instar larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time. Culex articularis is compared with other species of the subgenus Culex. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the female, male genitalia, 4th-instar larva, and pupa are also provided.

  10. Redescription of the pupa of Culex (Culex) declarator Dyar and Knab (Diptera, Culicidae), with amendments to key to the Culex pupae of the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2005-06-01

    The pupa of Culex declarator was partially described and illustrated by Lane. This species was recently discovered in Florida for the first time and a series of individual rearings have resulted in a number of pupae and an opportunity to redescribe it fully, with a complete illustration. Amendment to the key to the Culex pupae of the eastern United States is provided.

  11. Role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of Anopheles and Culex, human disease vectors in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France), we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus), Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds), larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence of immature mosquito

  12. Acid exposure is an immune disruptor in adult Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Vatnick, Itzick; Andrews, Jaime; Colombo, Matthew; Madhoun, Hareth; Rameswaran, Muthuramanan; Brodkin, Marc A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic environments are physiological stressors for amphibians. The objective of the present study was to document the effect of an acidic environment on innate immune system function under controlled experimental conditions in Rana pipiens. We developed an in vivo assay, by injecting a suspension of 1-microm fluorescent beads in fluid thioglycollate, to induce peritonitis. The number of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and their phagocytic activity did not increase with thioglycollate injection when frogs were exposed to pH 5.5 compared to when frogs were exposed to pH 7.0. An environment of pH 5.5 disrupted the inflammatory response of frogs compared to an environment of pH 7.0; at pH 5.5, more nonphagocytic leukocytes and fewer highly phagocytic leukocytes were found compared to those in frogs exposed to pH 7.0. Frogs stimulated by thioglycollate injection and exposed to pH 5.5 had a 50% increase in cells that did not exhibit phagocytosis and a 4- to 10-fold reduction in the number of highly phagocytic cells. This is evidence that acid exposure functions as an immune disruptor in adult R. pipiens under laboratory conditions.

  13. Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate.

    PubMed

    Noori, Navideh; Lockaby, B Graeme; Kalin, Latif

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose-response relationships between larval development and NO3 , NH4 , and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre-adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results showed that breeding sites with higher PO4 or NO3 concentrations had higher larval survival rates. High NO3 concentrations favor the development of male mosquitoes and suppress the development of female mosquitoes, but those adult females that do emerge develop faster in containers with high NO3 levels compared to the reference group. The addition of PO4 in the absence of nitrogen sources to the larval habitat slowed larval development, however, it took fewer days for larvae to reach the pupal stage in containers with combinations of NO3 and PO4 or NH4 and PO4 nutrients. Results from this study may bolster efforts to control WNV in urban landscapes by exploring water quality conditions of Culex larval habitats that produce adult mosquitoes.

  14. Culex genome is not just another genome for comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Labbé, Pierrick; Corbel, Vincent

    2012-03-30

    Formal publication of the Culex genome sequence has closed the human disease vector triangle by meeting the Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti genome sequences. Compared to these other mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus possesses many specific hallmark characteristics, and may thus provide different angles for research which ultimately leads to a practical solution for controlling the ever increasing burden of insect-vector-borne diseases around the globe. We argue the special importance of the cosmopolitan species- Culex genome sequence by invoking many interesting questions and the possible of potential of the Culex genome to answer those.

  15. Culex genome is not just another genome for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Formal publication of the Culex genome sequence has closed the human disease vector triangle by meeting the Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti genome sequences. Compared to these other mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus possesses many specific hallmark characteristics, and may thus provide different angles for research which ultimately leads to a practical solution for controlling the ever increasing burden of insect-vector-borne diseases around the globe. We argue the special importance of the cosmopolitan species- Culex genome sequence by invoking many interesting questions and the possible of potential of the Culex genome to answer those. PMID:22463777

  16. A generic weather-driven model to predict mosquito population dynamics applied to species of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes genera of southern France.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, P; Aubry-Kientz, M; Arnoux, S; Cailly, P; L'Ambert, G; Toty, C; Balenghien, T; Tran, A

    2015-06-01

    An accurate understanding and prediction of mosquito population dynamics are needed to identify areas where there is a high risk of mosquito-borne disease spread and persistence. Simulation tools are relevant for supporting decision-makers in the surveillance of vector populations, as models of vector population dynamics provide predictions of the greatest risk periods for vector abundance, which can be particularly helpful in areas with a highly variable environment. We present a generic weather-driven model of mosquito population dynamics, which was applied to one species of each of the genera Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes, located in the same area and thus affected by similar weather conditions. The predicted population dynamics of Anopheles hyrcanus, Culex pipiens, and Aedes caspius were not similar. An. hyrcanus was abundant in late summer. Cx. pipiens was less abundant but throughout the summer. The abundance of both species showed a single large peak with few variations between years. The population dynamics of Ae. caspius showed large intra- and inter-annual variations due to pulsed egg hatching. Predictions of the model were compared to longitudinal data on host-seeking adult females. Data were previously obtained using CDC-light traps baited with carbon dioxide dry ice in 2005 at two sites (Marais du Viguerat and Tour Carbonnière) in a favourable temperate wetland of southern France (Camargue). The observed and predicted periods of maximal abundance for An. hyrcanus and Cx. pipiens tallied very well. Pearson's coefficients for these two species were over 75% for both species. The model also reproduced the major trends in the intra-annual fluctuations of Ae. caspius population dynamics, with peaks occurring in early summer and following the autumn rainfall events. Few individuals of this species were trapped so the comparison of predicted and observed dynamics was not relevant. A global sensitivity analysis of the species-specific models enabled us to

  17. Dispersal of Adult Culex Mosquitoes in an Urban West Nile Virus Hotspot: A Mark-Capture Study Incorporating Stable Isotope Enrichment of Natural Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Donovan, Danielle J.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Krebs, Bethany L.; Gardner, Allison M.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brown, William M.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Newman, Christina M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Walker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a critical life history behavior for mosquitoes and is important for the spread of mosquito-borne disease. We implemented the first stable isotope mark-capture study to measure mosquito dispersal, focusing on Culex pipiens in southwest suburban Chicago, Illinois, a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. We enriched nine catch basins in 2010 and 2011 with 15N-potassium nitrate and detected dispersal of enriched adult females emerging from these catch basins using CDC light and gravid traps to distances as far as 3 km. We detected 12 isotopically enriched pools of mosquitoes out of 2,442 tested during the two years and calculated a mean dispersal distance of 1.15 km and maximum flight range of 2.48 km. According to a logistic distribution function, 90% of the female Culex mosquitoes stayed within 3 km of their larval habitat, which corresponds with the distance-limited genetic variation of WNV observed in this study region. This study provides new insights on the dispersal of the most important vector of WNV in the eastern United States and demonstrates the utility of stable isotope enrichment for studying the biology of mosquitoes in other disease systems. PMID:24676212

  18. Redescription of the pupa of Culex restuans and a comparison with Culex nigripalpus.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2007-06-01

    The pupa of Culex restuans is redescribed in detail with a chaetotaxal table and a full illustration. The chaetotaxy of the pupa of Cx. restuans is compared with that of Cx. nigripalpus, the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus in Florida.

  19. Emergence of resistance and resistance management in field populations of tropical Culex quinquefasciatus to the microbial control agent Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Mulla, Mir S; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Chomposri, Jakkrawarn; Su, Tianyun

    2003-03-01

    In recent years, highly potent mosquitocidal strains of the microbial agent Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph) have been isolated and developed for the control of mosquito larvae around the world. Laboratory selection experiments with the most active strains and their use in large-scale operational mosquito control programs resulted in the emergence of resistance in larvae of the Culex pipiens complex. This generated great concern among vector control agencies around the world, who feared reduced efficacy of this highly active larvicidal agent. To address this issue, the current studies were started to find practical strategies for controlling resistant mosquitoes and more importantly to develop resistance management strategies that would prevent or delay development of resistance. We initiated field studies in 3 low-income communities in Nonthaburi Province, Thailand. In 1 of the communities, larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus that were highly resistant (>125,000-fold) to Bsph strain 2362 were successfully controlled with applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with Bsph. To prevent or delay resistance to Bsph, 2 other sites were selected, 1 treated with Bsph 2362 alone and the other treated with a mixture of Bsph 2362 and Bti. Mosquitoes treated with Bsph 2362 alone showed some resistance by the 9th treatment and almost complete failure of control occurred by the 17th treatment. After 9 treatments with the mixture over a 9-month period at another site, no noticeable change in susceptibility to Bsph was detected. During this period, the site treated with Bsph alone required 19 treatments, whereas the site treated with mixtures took only 9 treatments because of slower resurgence of larvae at the site treated with the mixture than at the site treated with Bsph alone. This is the 1st field evidence for delay or prevention of resistance to microbial agents in larval Cx. quinquefasciatus by using mixtures of Bti and Bsph. Further

  20. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  1. Multiple Insecticide Resistances in the Disease Vector Culex p. Quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Milesi, Pascal; Makoundou, Patrick; Unal, Sandra; Zumbo, Betty; Atyame, Célestine; Darriet, Frédéric; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Thiria, Julien; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Iyaloo, Diana P.; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Labbé, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations

  2. Sensory transduction in dorsal cutaneous mechanoreceptors of the frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Watts, R E; French, A S

    1985-11-01

    Sensory transduction was studied in dorsal skin mechanoreceptors of the frog, Rana pipiens. The skin was clamped and stretched before being stimulated with the tip of a glass rod mounted on a servo-controlled loudspeaker. Afferent activity was recorded extracellularly from a dorsal cutaneous nerve. Three groups of sensory units could be identified by the size of their recorded action potentials and their response to mechanical stimuli. Action potential amplitudes for the three groups were: less than 50 microV (group I), 50-250 microV (group II) and greater than 300 microV (group III). Group II were selected for further study because of their amplitude and their resistance to fatigue. Three types of mechanical stimuli were used to examine the dynamic properties of group II receptors, steps, sinusoids, and band-limited random displacement. In each case the responses could be well fitted by a power-law model with a fractional exponent of time or frequency. Random stimulation of a large number of group II receptors showed considerable variability in their sensitivity and in their dynamic behavior, as measured by the fractional exponent of frequency. However, the distributions of these two parameters were both unimodal and strongly clustered around the modes, suggesting that the recordings were from a single class of receptors. Varying the temperature of the receptors had little effect on their sensitivity or dynamic properties. This is in contrast to findings on other mechanoreceptors. Doubling the potassium concentration in the bathing solution affected the dynamic properties of the receptors within 5 min but several distinct patterns of change in dynamic behavior were seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007.

    PubMed

    Seufi, Alaaeddeen M; Galal, Fatma H

    2010-03-11

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7%) in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2%) in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by > or = 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between human and entomological studies results in

  4. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7%) in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2%) in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between human and entomological

  5. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model). Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from

  6. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marilyn O; Chaves, Luis F; Hamer, Gabriel L; Sun, Ting; Brown, William M; Walker, Edward D; Haramis, Linn; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D

    2010-03-19

    Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model). Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from numerous sources across several years

  7. Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Zyzak, Michael; Loyless, Tom; Cope, Stanton; Wooster, Mark; Day, Jonathan F

    2002-06-01

    North Florida is a transition zone between widespread Culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal Culex salinarius populations to the north. Culex nigripalpus is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses in south Florida, while Cx. salinarius is a suspected New World vector of West Nile (WN) virus. Abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. Extensive SLE transmission has never been reported from north Florida, but sporadic WN transmission was reported there during the summer of 2001. The disparate flavivirus transmission patterns observed in north and south Florida may be due, in part, to the local geographical and seasonal distribution of Culex vectors. Here we report that from May 1991 to April 1994, Cx. salinarius was most commonly observed during the winter and spring in northeast Florida (Duval County), whereas Cx. nigripalpus was most abundant during the summer and autumn. An unusually mild spring in 1991 allowed Cx. nigripalpus to reproduce early in the year, resulting in a summer population that emerged more than 8 wks earlier than in 1992 and 1993. The 1991 Cx. nigripalpus population persisted through October, when SLE transmission was detected by sentinel chickens. Transmission of SLE was not detected in Duval County during 1992 or 1993. These data indicate that mild winter and spring conditions in north Florida may favor increased abundance and survival of Cx. nigripalpus in a region where this species is normally not abundant. A seasonal shift in population structure may increase the transmission risk of arboviruses for which Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector, including SLE, WN, and EEE.

  8. Recognition of Culex Bidens Dyar and Culex Interfor Dyar (Diptera: Culicidae) as Separate Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    male genitalia of these species are described and distinguished. Bram (1967) synonymized Culex (Cu7exJ interfor Dyar, 1928, with Cx. (Cux. J bidens...Dyar, 1922, on the basis of similarity in the male genitalia. The lectotype was the only male of interfor available to Bram, and he apparently...properly assess the status of interfor . In 1983 we notice !! that males of bidens collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina could be separated into two

  9. Modeling/GIS, Risk Assessment, Economic Impact: Seasonal Patterns for Entomological Measures of Risk for Exposure to Culex Vectors and West Nile Virus in Relation to Human Disease Cases in Northeastern Colorado

    PubMed Central

    BOLLING, BETHANY G.; BARKER, CHRISTOPHER M.; MOORE, CHESTER G.; PAPE, W. JOHN; EISEN, LARS

    2009-01-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006–2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1,600 m compared with plains areas <1,600 m in Colorado’s Front Range. Studies in the plains of northeastern Colorado in 2007 showed that seasonal patterns of abundance for Cx. tarsalis and Culex pipiens L. females differed in that Cx. tarsalis reached peak abundance in early July (mean of 328.9 females per trap night for 18 plains sites), whereas the peak for Cx. pipiens did not occur until late August (mean of 16.4 females per trap night). During June–September in 2007, which was a year of intense WNV activity in Colorado with 578 reported WNV disease cases, we recorded WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females from 16 of 18 sites in the plains. WNV infection rates in Cx. tarsalis females increased gradually from late June to peak in mid-August (overall maximum likelihood estimate for WNV infection rate of 8.29 per 1,000 females for the plains sites in mid-August). No WNV-infected Culex mosquitoes were recorded from sites >1,600 m. The vector index for abundance of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females for the plains sites combined exceeded 0.50 from mid-July to mid-August, with at least one site exceeding 1.00 from early July to late August. Finally, we found that abundance of Cx. tarsalis females and the vector index for infected females were strongly associated with weekly numbers of WNV disease cases with onset 4–7 wk later (female abundance) or 1–2 wk later (vector index). PMID:19960707

  10. Potential for North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine which biting insects should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus, Culex erythrothorax, Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tarsalis, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes vexans, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and ...

  11. Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Galindo 3 ABSTRACT. The adults of both sexes, pupa and 4th stage larva of CuZex (MeZanoconion) adamesi, a new species from Panama are described...Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) and several other arboviruses from wild caught adults of Culex (MeZanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and related species at...00-00-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  12. Stable, germ-line transformation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Allen, M L; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W; Levesque, C S

    2001-09-01

    A Hermes-based transposable element transformation system incorporating an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker was used to produce two transgenic lines of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The transformation frequency was approximately 12% and transformation of Culex was shown to be dependent on the presence of Hermes transposase. Injected Culex embryos were treated with four different heat shock regimes, two of which produced transformed individuals. These individuals were mated with wild-type mosquitoes and produced offspring which expressed the dominant EGFP gene in Mendelian ratios predicted for the stable integration of a gene at a single locus. The two transformed lines displayed distinct patterns of phenotypic expression, the expression of which has remained stable after fifteen generations. In these transgenic lines both the Hermes element and flanking plasmid DNA integrated into the Culex genome, as has been previously seen in Hermes-mediated transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti (L.). The high frequency of Culex transformation together with the dependence on the presence of Hermes transposase suggests that, as for Ae. aegypti, this mode of transposition into the germ-line genome occurs by an alternate mechanisms to the cut and paste type of transposition seen for this element in other insect species and in the somatic nuclei of mosquitoes. This is the first report of the genetic transformation of a species in the genus Culex and demonstrates that this medically important mosquito species can now, along with several other Culicine and Anopheline mosquito species, be genetically manipulated.

  13. Skin peptides protect juvenile leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) against chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Pask, James D; Cary, Tawnya L; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-08-01

    One issue of great concern for the scientific community is the continuing loss of diverse amphibian species on a global scale. Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing serious losses due to the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This pathogen colonizes the skin, leading to the disruption of ionic balance and eventual cardiac arrest. In many species, antimicrobial peptides secreted into the mucus are thought to contribute to protection against colonization by skin pathogens. Although it is generally thought that antimicrobial peptides are an important component of innate immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis, much of the current evidence relies on correlations between effective antimicrobial peptide defenses and species survival. There have been few studies to directly demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides play a role. Using the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, we show here that injection of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) brings about a long-term depletion of skin peptides (initial concentrations do not recover until after day 56). When peptide stores recovered, the renewed peptides were similar in composition to the initial peptides as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and in activity against B. dendrobatidis as determined by growth inhibition assays. Newly metamorphosed froglets depleted of their peptide stores and exposed to B. dendrobatidis died more rapidly than B. dendrobatidis-exposed froglets with their peptides intact. Thus, antimicrobial peptides in the skin mucus appear to provide some resistance to B. dendrobatidis infections, and it is important for biologists to recognize that this defense is especially important for newly metamorphosed frogs in which the adaptive immune system is still immature.

  14. Sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance documenting West Nile virus circulation in two Culex mosquito species indicating different transmission characteristics, Djibouti City, Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Spiesberger, Michael; Abbas, Babiker

    2012-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to investigate whether autochthonous WNV transmission occurs in the Djibouti City area, in how far, and which of, the endemic Culex mosquito species are involved in WNV circulation activity,and whether sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance (SSE-NRTS) may increase WNV detection sensitivity, mosquito vector monitoring was conducted from January 2010 to June 2012. Six monitoring locations, including two identified sentinel sites, considered most probable for potential anthroponotic and zoonotic virus circulation activity, have been continuously employed. Among the 20431 mosquitoes collected, 19069 (93.4%) were Cx. quinquefasciatus, and 1345 (6.6%) Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus. WNV lineage 2 circulation activity was detected between December 20th, 2010 and January 7th, 2011. Overall, 19 WNV RNA-positive mosquito pools were detected. Generally, urban environment-specific WNV-RNA circulation took place in Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus, whereas periurban and rural area-linked circulation was detected only in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Serological investigation data from 10 volunteers employed at the dislocated zoonotic WNV transmission sentinel site suggest that six persons (60%) had an acute, or recent, WNV infection. Results show that WNV should be considered endemic for Djibouti and sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance is an elegant and highly effective epidemiological tool. In Djibouti, the endemicity level, public health impact and transmission modes of vector-borne diseases in concordance with locally optimized monitoring and control regimen deserve further investigation.

  15. Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1998-06-01

    Bioactive compounds contained in the seed kernel and other parts of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) have been found to show insecticidal activities and other effects in many species of insects. These activities include antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression, male sterility, oviposition repellency, changes in biological fitness such as loss of flying ability, immunodepression, enzyme inhibition, splitting of biological rhythms, and so forth. We investigated the ovicidal effects of various formulations of azadrirachtin (AZ) against the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The formulations tested were wettable powder Azad WP10, emulsifiable concentrate Azad EC4.5, and technically pure AZ. The ovicidal activity of the test neem products was influenced by concentration of AZ, age of the egg rafts, and age of the neem preparations. Other factors such as formulation and mosquito species were also involved in the degree of ovicidal activity. When the egg rafts were deposited directly in fresh neem suspension and left there for 4 h before transfer to untreated water, 1 ppm of AZ produced almost 100% mortality in eggs. When egg rafts aged for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were exposed to 10 ppm neem suspensions for 36 h, the ovicidal activity was only attained in the egg rafts deposited directly (0 h old) in the neem suspension, not in those with ages of 4-24 h. On aging, depending on the formulations and mosquito species, the neem suspensions at 1 ppm completely lost ovicidal activity within 7-20 days. The egg rafts of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the test neem products than those of Cx. tarsalis. The formulated neem products were more persistent and effective than the technical AZ. The wettable powder (WP) formulation was slightly more persistent and effective than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The ovicidal activity of the neem products against mosquitoes from the current research clearly demonstrated

  16. Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas hydrophila in Minnesota frogs and tadpoles (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Hird, D W; Diesch, S L; McKinnell, R G; Gorham, E; Martin, F B; Meadows, C A; Gasiorowski, M

    1983-01-01

    In 222 Rana pipiens frogs and 34 tadpoles captured in and near Minnesota, Aeromonas hydrophila and 29 species of Enterobacteriaceae, including yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella arizonae, were isolated from intestines. The prevalence of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was lowest in frogs captured in early spring and highest in frogs captured in late summer. PMID:6607034

  17. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  18. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  19. Ionic currents underlying the action potential of Rana pipiens oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schlichter, L C

    1989-07-01

    Ionic currents in immature, ovulated Rana pipiens oocytes (metaphase I) were studied using the voltage-clamp technique. At this stage of maturity the oocyte can produce action potentials in response to depolarizing current or as an "off response" to hyperpolarizing current. Reducing external Na+ to 1/10 normal (choline substituted) eliminated the action potentials and both the negative-slope region and zero-crossing of the I-V relation. Reducing external Cl- to 1/10 or 1/100 normal (methanesulfonate substituted) lengthened the action potential. The outward current was reduced and a net inward current was revealed. By changing external Na+, Cl-, and K+ concentrations and using blocking agents (SITS, TEA), three voltage- and time-dependent currents were identified, INa, IK and ICl. The Na+ current activated at about 0 mV and reversed at very positive values which decreased during maturation. Inward Na+ current produced the upstroke of the action potential. During each voltage-clamp step the Na+ current activated slowly (seconds) and did not inactivate within many minutes. The Na+ current was not blocked by TTX at micromolar concentrations. The K+ current was present only in the youngest oocytes. Because IK was superimposed on a large leakage current, it appeared to reverse at the resting potential. When leakage currents were subtracted, the reversal potential for IK was more negative than -110 mV in Ringer's solution. IK was outwardly rectifying and strongly activated above -50 mV. The outward K+ current produced an after hyperpolarization at the end of each action potential. IK was blocked completely and reversibly by 20 mM external TEA. The Cl- current activated at about +10 mV and was outwardly rectifying. ICl was blocked completely and reversibly by 400 microM SITS added to the bathing medium. This current helped repolarize the membrane following an action potential in the youngest oocytes and was the only repolarizing current in more mature oocytes that had lost

  20. Culex (Melanoconion) panocossa from peninsular Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Blosser, Erik M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-03-01

    Culex (Melanoconion) panocossa is a suspected vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Central America. Prior to this report, Cx. panocossa was known from Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, southern Mexico, Panama), northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela) and the Greater Antilles (Cuba and Jamaica). Larvae (n=5) and adults (n=4286) of Cx. panocossa were collected at two locations near Homestead, FL, which indicates substantial established populations of this probable vector species in the continental US. Since larvae of Cx. panocossa are associated with Pistia spp. (water lettuce), the distribution of this mosquito is likely to expand in Florida, where water lettuce is a major invasive plant in freshwater ecosystems. The putative establishment of Cx. panocossa in Florida is of significant concern from a public health perspective, as its proliferation in developed areas could link historically sylvatic transmission foci of Everglades virus with populated centers such as the greater Miami Metropolitan area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  2. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus.

    PubMed

    Swathi, S; Murugananthan, G; Ghosh, S K

    2010-10-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).

  3. Catalog of the subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) for South America.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-10-07

    Species of Culex (Melanoconion) Theobald are recognized as vectors of arboviruses. The species of this subgenus pose a real taxonomic challenge. The current classification of the subgenus recognizes a total of 160 species divided in two major sections, Melanoconion and Spissipes; and several non-formal groupings within each section. We gathered bibliographic records of the subgenus in South America, with particular focus on the period of time after the publication of the Catalog by Pecor et al. (1992) until present time. This compilation included 139 species occurring in South American countries with all the relevant bibliographic sources, including the corresponding information for those medically important species.

  4. Biosystematics of Larval Movement of Central American Mosquitoes and its Use for Field Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    larvae of Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera, Culicidae) (Experimental studies on the dispersal of Bates, M. 1949. The natural history of mosquitoes...taxonomic groups appear to use one pattern of flexing exclusively or with few exceptions. Examples include Culex (Melanoconion) with sporadic irregular...flexing, Cx. ( Culex ) with sustained irregular flexing, Haemagogus with slow sinuous flexing and Anopheles with anopheline flexing. Other groups (e.g

  5. DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Scaife, Sarah; Alphey, Luke; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2013-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

  6. Larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activity of marine actinobacteria extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

    PubMed

    Karthik, L; Gaurav, K; Rao, K V Bhaskara; Rajakumar, G; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of crude extracts of marine actinobacteria on larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent assay with crude extracts of actinobacteria. Saccharomonospora spp. (LK-1), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (LK-2), and Streptomyces gedanensis (LK-3) were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, three strains were chosen for larvicidal activity. The marine actinobacterial extracts showed moderate to high larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm and the highest larval mortality was found in extract of LK-3 (LC(50) = 108.08 ppm and LC(90) = 609.15 ppm) against the larvae of C. gelidus and (LC(50) = 146.24 ppm and LC(90) = 762.69 ppm) against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus. Complete protections for 240 min were found in crude extract of LK-2 and LK-3 at 1,000 ppm, against mosquito bites of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. After 24-h treatment, mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Crude extracts of LK-1 and LK-3 showed no hatchability at 1,000 ppm against C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus.

  7. Mitochondrial COI gene as a tool in the taxonomy of mosquitoes Culex subgenus Melanoconion.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Emerson, Kevin J; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Greni, Susan; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features. The difficulty in reaching accurate species determinations when studying specimens of Culex (Melanoconion) has been extensively documented as a real limitation to expand knowledge of these insects. We tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene COI as a complementary tool in the taxonomy of Melanoconion. Using a data set of 120 COI sequences from Culex specimen captured in several localities in Brazil, the utility of COI barcodes for species delimitation is discussed through the evaluation of genetic divergences among specimens and the clustering patterns of species in three topologies obtained with Neighbor Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For all specimens included in this study a previous morphological examination was performed, and most of the taxonomical determinations were corroborated using the COI barcode. We generated COI sequences that belong to 48 species of Melanoconion, with a mean intraspecific K2P genetic divergence of 3%; and all interspecific divergence values higher than the intraspecific divergence values. This is the first comprehensive study of subgenus Melanoconion, with evidence of COI as a useful and accessible DNA barcode.

  8. ACTIVITY OF FREE AND CLAY-BOUND INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO, CULEX PIPIENS. (R826107)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Reduced productivity of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in parking area catch basins in the northeast Chicago metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Hulsebosch, Bridget; Buczek, Jennifer; Runde, Amy; Nasci, Roger

    2017-06-01

    From June to September, 2016, 100 catch basins in eight parking areas were monitored weekly for the presence of mosquito pupae in the operational area of the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (NSMAD) located just north of Chicago, IL, U.S.A. Weekly results from these basins were compared to weekly samples taken from residential street catch basins, the most common type of catch basin treated seasonally by the NSMAD with larvicides. Over the 17 study weeks, residential street basins had a mean rate of productivity (pupae per basin-visit) 12 times that of parking area catch basins. The two parking area sites with the highest mean rate of productivity were associated with county forest preserves. Productivity in both street and parking area basins was positively associated with the presence of three or more deciduous trees within 20 m of basins and if they were located directly adjacent to curbs. Alternatively, productivity was negatively associated with the proportion of impervious surface within 10 m of basins and weekly rainfall. Findings suggest that reduced catch basin larvicide applications may be appropriate in many parking area sites. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Summary of field trials in 1964-69 in Rangoon, Burma, of organophosphorus larvicides and oils against Culex pipiens fatigans larvae in polluted water

    PubMed Central

    Self, L. S.; Tun, M. M.

    1970-01-01

    In tests in Rangoon, Burma, of the larvicidal activity of various organophosphorus compounds against C. p. fatigans, it was found that the activity usually lasted much longer in septic tanks and pit latrines than in open drains. Dursban, Abate, fenthion and several other emulsifiable concentrates caused high larval mortality at a concentration of 0.05 ppm but 0.5 ppm was normally required to obtain a minimum of 1-2 weeks of complete larval control. For the desired residual activity, dosages about 40-400 times the laboratory LC95 values were normally required, depending on the compound used. The most effective formulation was Dursban emulsifiable concentrate, which, at a concentration of 0.5 ppm, was effective for 3, 7 and 12 weeks in concrete drains, pit latrines and septic tanks, respectively. Petroleum oils applied at rates of 25-40 US gal/ac (approx. 237 l/ha—380 l/ha) and a pyrethrum derivative at a concentration of 1.0 ppm were toxic to larvae but not highly residual. Some emulsifiable-concentrate/oil mixtures appeared to be outstandingly effective, although inconsistent results also occurred. Granular formulations were normally less effective than the emulsifiable concentrates. PMID:4253561

  11. ACTIVITY OF FREE AND CLAY-BOUND INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO, CULEX PIPIENS. (R826107)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus. PMID:28316896

  13. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  14. Behavioral response of Culex quinquefasciatus to DUET(TM) insecticide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DuetTM insecticide contains the active ingredients prallethrin, sumithrin, and piperonyl butoxide. The excitatory effects of prallethrin reportedly cause resting mosquitoes to take flight and contact more droplets, thus improving insecticide efficacy. This premise was tested with female Culex quin...

  15. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Brittany L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  16. Discovery of Culex (Neoculex) arizonensis in Texas (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Darsie, Richard F

    2003-03-01

    A population of Culex arizonensis was found in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Culberson County, TX. A new state record, this extends the range of this species eastward by 828 km. The essential diagnostic characters of the 4th-stage larva are given.

  17. Development of a Multiplexed Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Assay to Identify Common Members of the Subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Deus, Stephen; Williams, Martin; Savage, Harry M.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological differentiation of mosquitoes in the subgenera Culex (Culex) and Culex (Phenacomyia) in Guatemala is difficult, with reliable identification ensured only through examination of larval skins from individually reared specimens and associated male genitalia. We developed a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to identify common Cx. (Cux.) and Cx. (Phc.). Culex (Cux.) chidesteri, Cx. (Cux.) coronator, Cx. (Cux.) interrogator, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) nigripalpus/Cx. (Cux.) thriambus, and Cx. (Phc.) lactator were identified directly with a multiplexed primer cocktail comprising a conserved forward primer and specific reverse primers targeting ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Culex nigripalpus and Cx. thriambus were differentiated by restriction digest of homologous amplicons. The assay was developed and optimized using well-characterized specimens from Guatemala and the United States and field tested with unknown material from Guatemala. This assay will be a valuable tool for mosquito identification in entomological and arbovirus ecology studies in Guatemala. PMID:20682869

  18. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-01-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p < 0.05), but neither OP nor UV-B alone produced significant changes in body weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic

  19. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  20. Intragenomic variation in the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA of species of the genera Culex and Lutzia (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vesgueiro, Fabiana Tavares; Demari-Silva, Bruna; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2011-02-01

    Culex is the largest genus of Culicini and includes vectors of several arboviruses and filarial worms. Many species of Culex are morphologically similar, which makes their identification difficult, particularly when using female specimens. To aid evolutionary studies and species distinction, molecular techniques are often used. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from 16 species of the genus Culex and one of Lutzia were used to assess their genomic variability and to verify their applicability in the phylogenetic analysis of the group. The distance matrix (uncorrected p-distance) that was obtained revealed intragenomic and intraspecific variation. Because of the intragenomic variability, we selected ITS2 copies for use in distance analyses based on their secondary structures. Neighbour-joining topology was obtained with an uncorrected p-distance. Despite the heterogeneity observed, individuals of the same species were grouped together and correlated with the current, morphology-based classification, thereby showing that ITS2 is an appropriate marker to be used in the taxonomy of Culex.

  1. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Yacoob Syed; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Beula, Johanson Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa), Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg). Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value (0.055 6±0.010 3) µg/mL, (0.067 5±0.136 0) µg/mL and (0.066 1±0.007 6) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  3. Culex (Thaiomyia) Dispectus, A New Subgenus and Species from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-06-01

    more southern provinces. Included among the SEATO collections is an excellent series of a unique species of the genus Culex which represents a new...characteristics which unquestionably exclude it from other subgenera within the genus Culex , Foremost is the total absence of the pecten. Also, the...Reprinted from PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOL~GICXL Soc~~n OF WASHINGTON Vol. 68, No. 2, June 1966, pp. 73-77 Made in United States of America CULEX

  4. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Muñoz, Joaquín; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0–3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring. PMID:23823127

  5. Avian Plasmodium in Culex and Ochlerotatus Mosquitoes from Southern Spain: Effects of Season and Host-Feeding Source on Parasite Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Muñoz, Joaquín; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Haemosporidians, a group of vector-borne parasites that include Plasmodium, infect vertebrates including birds. Although mosquitoes are crucial elements in the transmission of avian malaria parasites, little is known of their ecology as vectors. We examined the presence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages in five mosquito species belonging to the genera Culex and Ochlerotatus to test for the effect of vector species, season and host-feeding source on the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. We analyzed 166 blood-fed individually and 5,579 unfed mosquitoes (grouped in 197 pools) from a locality in southern Spain. In all, 15 Plasmodium and two Haemoproteus lineages were identified on the basis of a fragment of 478 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Infection prevalence of blood parasites in unfed mosquitoes varied between species (range: 0-3.2%) and seasons. The feeding source was identified in 91 mosquitoes where 78% were identified as bird. We found that i) several Plasmodium lineages are shared among different Culex species and one Plasmodium lineage is shared between Culex and Ochlerotatus genera; ii) mosquitoes harboured Haemoproteus parasites; iii) pools of unfed females of mostly ornithophilic Culex species had a higher Plasmodium prevalence than the only mammophylic Culex species studied. However, the mammophylic Ochlerotatus caspius had in pool samples the greatest Plasmodium prevalence. This relative high prevalence may be determined by inter-specific differences in vector survival, susceptibility to infection but also the possibility that this species feeds on birds more frequently than previously thought. Finally, iv) infection rate of mosquitoes varies between seasons and reaches its maximum prevalence during autumn and minimum prevalence in spring.

  6. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    PubMed Central

    Kitvatanachai, S; Apiwathnasorn, C; Leemingsawat, S; Wongwit, W; Overgaard, HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 µg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 µg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques. PMID:23569727

  7. Culex coronator Dyar and Knab: a new Florida species record.

    PubMed

    Smith, John P; Walsh, Jimmy D; Cope, Eric H; Tennant, Richard A; Kozak, John A; Darsie, Richard F

    2006-06-01

    We report the first finding of Culex coronator Dyar and Knab in Florida, based on multiple adult collections from several locations in the western panhandle of Florida. GPS coordinates and habitat descriptions are given and disease implications are discussed. These records extend the known distribution of Cx. coronator from six other states (Arizona, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas), and from Mexico to Argentina.

  8. Prevalence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in an endangered population of northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. Results We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens, which is critically imperiled in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The prevalence of Bd initially increased and then remained constant over the last three years of the study. Young of the year emerging from breeding ponds in summer were rarely infected with Bd. Some individuals cleared their Bd infections and the return rate between infected and uninfected individuals was not significantly different. Conclusions The BC population of R. pipiens appears to have evolved a level of resistance that allows it to co-exist with Bd. However, this small population of R. pipiens remains vulnerable to extinction. PMID:20202208

  9. Scanning electron microscopic studies on egg surface morphology and morphometrics of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suman, D S; Shrivastava, A R; Parashar, B D; Pant, S C; Agrawal, O P; Prakash, Shri

    2008-12-01

    Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis and Bancroftian filariasis, respectively in India and South East Asian countries. In this paper, we are describing the surface morphology and morphometrics of the egg of C. tritaeniorhynchus in comparison with C. quinquefasciatus for the first time. The results indicated that eggs of both the species appears to be similar to great extent in surface morphology, however, morphometrics provide 56.81% demarking attributes out of 44 attributes at various significant levels (p < 0.05-0.001), i.e., egg length, width and ratio of length/width, attributes of micropylar apparatus including corolla, disc, mound, tubercles size, and length of tubercular rows in micropylar region, size and density of tubercles, exochorionic pore in conical-shaped regions of eggs, and size of tubercular wheel units. Structurally, the additional presence of large tubercles strengthens the micropylar region to bear various collapsing forces in these species.

  10. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Laurito, Magdalena; Ayala, Ana M; Almirón, Walter R; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters.

  11. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Almirón, Walter R.; Gardenal, Cristina N.

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters. PMID:28235083

  12. Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I DNA Can Successfully Identify Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Araki, A S; Maia, D A; Gil-Santana, H R; de Mello, C F; Martins, A de J; Alencar, J

    2016-12-22

    Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin 1980 and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum 1985 are two morphologically very similar species of the Pedroi subgroup of mosquitoes in the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion of the genus Culex L. 1758. We carried out an analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA variation between these two species. The recent observation of sympatric coexistence in a forested area of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) triggered the need to validate these two species previously identified based on morphology. We concluded that the COI is a useful tool for identification of Cx. pedroi and Cx. ribeirensis.

  13. Descriptions of Two New Species of Culex (Lophoceraomyia) with Notes on Three Other Species from the Papuan Subregion (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-25

    male of Culex jaudatrix Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) . Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 87: 382-90. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus Lophoceraomyia, in...J. Med. Ent. Vol. 10, no. 2: 212-216 25 April 1973 DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) WITH NOTES ON THREE OTHER SPECIES FROM...THE PAPUAN SUBREGION (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)l By Sunthorn Sirivanakard Abstract: Two new species, Culex (Lobhoceraomyia) sub- marginalis and C. (L

  14. Low levels of the herbicide atrazine alter sex ratios and reduce metamorphic success in Rana pipiens tadpoles raised in outdoor mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Valérie S; Carew, Amanda C; Pauli, Bruce D; Wade, Michael G; Cooke, Gerard M; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-04-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Tadpoles were exposed in outdoor mesocosms to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.8 microg/L of formulated ATZ from Gosner stage 27 (G27) to metamorphic climax (G42). Exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.5 microg/L) provided a positive control for induction of testicular oocytes in males. Endocrine-related gene expression and gonadal histopathology were examined at G42 and in a subset of premetamorphic G34 tadpoles that failed to metamorphose. Gonadal gross morphology revealed that the 1.8-microg/L ATZ treatment produced 20% more females compared with the control. Histologic analysis revealed that 22% of EE2-treated males had testicular oocytes, whereas none were observed in any animals from the control or either ATZ groups. ATZ increased brain estrogen receptor alpha mRNA to 2.5 times that of the control at premetamorphosis and altered liver levels of 5beta-reductase activity at metamorphosis. In contrast, brain aromatase mRNA level and activity did not change. ATZ treatments significantly reduced metamorphic success (number of animals reaching metamorphosis) without affecting body weight, snout-vent length, or age at metamorphosis. Gene expression analysis indicated that ATZ decreased the expression of deiodinase type 3 in the tail at premetamorphosis. Our study indicates that exposure to low concentrations of ATZ in experimental mesocosms alters gonadal differentiation and metamorphosis in developing R. pipiens.

  15. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  16. Amino acids in nectar enhance longevity of female Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culex mosquitoes feed on a wide range of nectars consisting of mostly carbohydrates and amino acids, however, little is known about the utilization and effects of these different carbohydrates and their accompanying amino acids on longevity. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared on high and low...

  17. Vector Competence of Culex neavei and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for Lineages 1, 2, Koutango and a Putative New Lineage of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Mawlouth; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WN virus) is one of the most widespread arbovirus and exhibits a great genetic diversity with 8 lineages, at least 4 (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. In West Africa, Culex neavei and Culex quinquefasciatus are considered as potential vectors for WN virus transmission in sylvatic or urban context. We analyzed the vector competence of these Culex species from Senegal for African lineages and envelope proteins sequences of viral strains used. We showed that lineage 1 is transmitted by both Culex mosquitoes, whereas the putative new lineage 8 is transmitted only by Cx. neavei. Our findings suggest that genetic variability can affect vector competence and depend on mosquito. However, when considering the infective life rate, the mosquito population seems to be inefficient for WN virus transmission in the field and could explain the low impact of WN virus in Africa. PMID:24567319

  18. Humane Anesthesia and Pain Management in Amphibian Limb Surgery of Rana pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Koustubhan, Punita; Kaplan, David L.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Adult Rana pipiens frogs are used as a model to investigate mechanisms of vertebrate organ regeneration, anti-tumor ribonucleases, zoological impacts of various pollutants, oncogenesis, neuroplasticity, and neurogenesis. In regenerative biology, the adult Rana pipiens frog is an important alternative to other frog models, such as Xenopus laevis, because it offers the opportunity to study and attempt to augment limb regeneration in an animal that spends significant time out of water and bears weight on its limbs. To elucidate regenerative processes, it is necessary to amputate the limb to study the processes associated with wound healing, blastema formation, and morphogenesis. Being able to revive the animal successfully with little or no side effects is paramount to these studies. Anesthesia and the effect it has on the frogs can vary based on the methods and post-operative care exercised during surgery. However, useful information is not readily available regarding current anesthesia methods or effective and humane analgesia use in amphibians. Amphibian patients are very sensitive to drug dosages, changes in temperature, humidity and water quality; here, special attention is given to these factors. This protocol establishes a humane anesthesia technique while maintaining physiological homeostasis during procedures in amphibians as well as a post-operative care plan addressing the clinical benefits of using analgesics in pain management. Suggestions for infection prevention are covered with a sample treatment plan to ensure that all of the animals have a positive outcome and all of the surgeries have reproducible results. PMID:23378649

  19. Status of RNAs, localized in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in the frogs Rana pipiens and Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kimberly; Boorech, Jamie L; Beckham, Yvonne M; Burns, Mary M; Elinson, Richard P

    2005-01-15

    Early development in the frog model, Xenopus laevis, is governed by RNAs, localized to the vegetal cortex of the oocyte. These RNAs include Xdazl RNA, which is involved in primordial germ cell formation, and VegT RNA, which specifies the mesoderm and endoderm. In order to determine whether orthologues of these RNAs are localized and have similar functions in other frogs, we cloned RpDazl and RpVegT from Rana pipiens, a frog that is phylogenetically distant from X. laevis. RNAs from both genes are localized to the vegetal cortex of the R. pipiens oocyte, indicating that the vegetal localization is likely the basal state. The animal location of EcVegT RNA in Eleutherodactylus coqui that we found previously (Beckham et al., 2003) is then a derived state, probably due to the great increase in egg size required for direct development of this species. To answer the question of function, we injected RpVegT or EcVegT RNAs into X. laevis embryos, and assayed animal caps for gene expression. Both of these RNAs induced the expression of endodermal, mesodermal, and organizer genes, showing that the function of RpVegT and EcVegT as meso-endodermal determinants is conserved in frogs. The RNA localizations and the function of VegT orthologues in germ layer specification may be synapomorphies for anuran amphibians.

  20. Vitellogenic cycles in laboratory-maintained females of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Smalley, K N; Nace, G W

    1983-05-01

    As a part of studies on the reproduction of laboratory maintained frogs, wild-caught Rana pipiens were ovulated and maintained at 22-27 degrees C for up to 18 months. Vitellogenic oocytes were periodically staged and counted, and a "maturity index" was calculated to assess the progress of the vitellogenic cycle. The initial cycle was similar to that of wild frogs except that the first oocytes to reach stage 5 (mature eggs) usually began to degenerate before later starting oocytes became mature. In addition, a second cycle began before the first was completed. After more than 1 year at room temperature, abnormal cycles were common. Ovaries of such animals contained very few mature eggs. Many of their oocytes were in early stages of vitellogenesis or, if pigmented, had begun to degenerate. These deficiencies were partially corrected in females placed in 4 degrees C for 4-6 weeks. The average number of mature eggs increased 15-fold and ovary weights more than doubled. Oviduct weights almost doubled. Although the rates of cooling, photoperiod, and nutritional status could be important influences, the results imply that cold treatment alone increases estrogen secretion. We suggest that low estrogen secretion may account for the reproductive deficiencies seen in R. pipiens cultured at room temperature.

  1. Apoptosis in the digestive tract of herbivorous Rana pipiens larvae and carnivorous Ceratophrys ornata larvae: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Jane C; Fry, Anne E; Colpitts, Katherine M; Faszewski, Ellen E

    2012-01-01

    The lifespan of herbivorous Rana pipiens larvae is ∼3 months, while that of carnivorous Ceratophrys ornata larvae is only about 2 weeks. During metamorphic climax, the larval gut shortens dramatically, especially in R. pipiens, and its luminal epithelium is replaced by adult-type epithelium. To determine when programmed cell death occurs during the metamorphic restructuring of the gut, we prepared cross-sections of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine from representative larval stages and from juvenile frogs of both species. The sections were incubated with monoclonal antibody against active caspase-3, one of the key enzymes in the apoptotic cascade. We observed apoptosis in some luminal epithelial cells in each of the three regions of the larval gastrointestinal tract of both species. However, apoptotic cells appeared earlier in larval stages of R. pipiens than C. ornata and few were seen in juvenile frogs of either species. The results demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis in the metamorphic remodeling of the gut of both R. pipiens larvae and C. ornata larvae. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Definition of species in the Culex sitiens subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H F; Kay, B H; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F; Hughes, J M

    2000-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a disease of major importance in Asia, which from 1995 has extended its range into the north of Australia. Culex annulirostris Skuse of the Culex sitiens subgroup of Culex was incriminated as the most likely mosquito vector. Because misidentifications previously have occurred within this subgroup, our paper defines electrophoretic methods to identify Culex specimens from Queensland and the Northern Territory in Australia and from Western Province in Papua New Guinea. In collections from 1996 to 1998 Culex sitiens Wiedemann, Cx. palpalis Taylor, and Cx. annulirostris comprised 93.1% of the total banded proboscis Culex mosquitoes collected; 6.9% remained unidentified to species by morphological or electrophoretic examination. The prevalence of Cx. palpalis was variable and appeared to be associated with below average rainfall during 1997. In Papua New Guinea, this species comprised up to 97.4% of banded proboscis Culex, with smaller numbers collected from the Torres Strait Islands and Cape York; none was collected from other Queensland localities. Cx. annulirostris was more prevalent during years of average or above average rainfall and was predominant in most localities, especially in the Torres Strait and Queensland. These data confirmed the problems in separating Cx. sitiens from Cx. palpalis and Cx. annulirostris using morphological characters.

  3. Nationwide distribution of Culex mosquitoes and associated habitat characteristics at residential areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Lim, Phaik Eem; Leong, Cherng Shii; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2012-09-01

    A standardized larval dipping method was used to determine the infestation rates of Culex and other species of mosquitoes in stagnant water at 20 residential areas. This study also examined the associations between Culex distribution and various habitat characteristics across all states in Malaysia. Identification of 7,848 specimens yielded 6 species dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (82.74%), followed by Cx. vishui (14.39%), Cx. gelidus (2.70%), Lutzia fuscanus (0.11%), Armigeres subalbatus (0.05%), and Anopheles separatus (0.01%). The Culex larvae occurred in stagnant water with pH ranging from 6.4 to 8.2; conductivity, 139.7 to 6635.2 micros/cm; salinity, 0.07 to 3.64 ppt; total dissolved solids, 0.09 to 4.27g/liter; and dissolved oxygen, 5.11 to 8.11 mg/liter. The mean number of Culex larvae was positively correlated with pH, conductivity, salinity, and total dissolved solids. In contrast, the elevation and dissolved oxygen were found negatively correlated with mean number of Culex larvae. This study documented baseline information on the habitat characteristics of Culex species for the 1st time at different residential areas in Malaysia. The findings of this study will be a timely reminder to local authorities that effective control measures should be monitored regularly in order to reduce the nuisance of these mosquitoes and the risks of disease transmission.

  4. RNA splicing in a new rhabdovirus from Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Tsuda, Yoshio; Yanase, Tohru; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2011-07-01

    Among members of the order Mononegavirales, RNA splicing events have been found only in the family Bornaviridae. Here, we report that a new rhabdovirus isolated from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus replicates in the nuclei of infected cells and requires RNA splicing for viral mRNA maturation. The virus, designated Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV), shares a similar genome organization with other rhabdoviruses, except for the presence of a putative intron in the coding region for the L protein. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicated that CTRV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, but it is yet to be assigned a genus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the CTRV virion is extremely elongated, unlike virions of rhabdoviruses, which are generally bullet shaped. Northern hybridization confirmed that a large transcript (approximately 6,500 nucleotides [nt]) from the CTRV L gene was present in the infected cells. Strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified the intron-exon boundaries and the 76-nt intron sequence, which contains the typical motif for eukaryotic spliceosomal intron-splice donor/acceptor sites (GU-AG), a predicted branch point, and a polypyrimidine tract. In situ hybridization exhibited that viral RNAs are primarily localized in the nucleus of infected cells, indicating that CTRV replicates in the nucleus and is allowed to utilize the host's nuclear splicing machinery. This is the first report of RNA splicing among the members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  5. Electrical Signs of New Membrane Production during Cleavage of Rana pipiens Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Donald J.

    1968-01-01

    Rana pipiens eggs dividing normally in diluted Ringer's solution show an increase in transmembrane potential inside negative, a decrease in resistance, and no change in total surface membrane capacitance at the appearance of a division furrow. Furrows of eggs in solutions with the tonicity of full Ringer develop partially, then regress so that the surface is again spherical. The potential and resistance changes are greater and substantial increases in capacitance occur when furrowing is so inhibited. It is proposed that the electrical changes at division are due to the introduction of new plasma membrane, between the blastomeres, having selective permeability to K and a low resistance compared to the outer spherical membrane. A narrow gap between blastomeres limits current flow through new membrane during normal division. A direct exposure of new membrane to the bathing medium when furrowing is disrupted results in larger changes in potential and resistance and permits the capacitance of new membrane to be detected. PMID:5691712

  6. Classification and distribution of large intestinal bacteria in nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    PubMed

    Banas, J A; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1988-09-01

    The large intestinal flora of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, was examined to determine whether differences existed between the nonhibernating and hibernating states of the animal and to determine the relative concentrations and proportions of potential frog pathogens. Hibernators had a logarithmic decrease of bacteria per milligram of intestine averaging one, and significantly greater proportions of facultative bacteria and psychrophiles relative to nonhibernators. The predominant anaerobic bacteria were gram-positive Clostridium species and gram-negative Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species. The predominant facultative bacteria were enterobacteria in nonhibernators but Pseudomonas species in hibernators. Many species of Pseudomonas are pathogenic for frogs, and thus the intestinal flora in hibernators may be a potential source of infectious disease.

  7. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  8. Occurrence of Culex (Culiciomyia) Spathifurca (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) in India--new country record.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Munirathinam, A

    1998-09-01

    Culex (Culiciomyia) spathifurca (Edwards) is recorded for the 1st time in India. Immature specimens of this species were collected from tree holes in a mangrove forest. Notes on the larval habitat are given.

  9. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thangaraj, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector. Methods The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis. spectrum, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 10 min. The different concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.312 mg/L silver nanoparticles were tested against the Culex larvae. Results The mortality rate of Agaricus bisporus biogenic nanoparticles against Culex larvae are 5 mg/L (100%), 2.5 mg/L (81%), 1.25 mg/L (62%), 0.625 mg/L (28%) and 0.312 mg/L (11%). Conclusions These results suggest that the synthesized biogenic AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for controlling Culex larvae.

  10. Multiple resistance of Culex vishnui Theobald against four major classes of insecticides in an agricultural area in Sekinchan, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, C S; Chen, C D; Low, V L; Karen-Chia, H M; Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-06-01

    The resistance status of riceland Culex vishnui against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Biochemical assays (ESTα, ESTβ, MFO and GST) were also conducted to detect the resistance levels. Throughout a 12-month study period, multiple insecticide resistance was observed in both larvae and adult Cx vishnui. Culex vishnui larvae exhibited low resistance against malathion, temephos and permethrin with resistance ratio (RR) values < 5. In adult bioassay, Cx. vishnui were highly resistant against all tested adulticides with 24h post-treatment mortality < 70%. Correlations between permethrin and malathion resistance, as well as between deltamethrin and cyfluthrin resistance were found in Cx. vishnui. The results indicated that mixed function oxidases activity of Cx. vishnui was the highest compared to ESTα, ESTβ and GST. Spearman rank-order analysis showed that ESTα, ESTβ and GST were involved in multiple resistances in Cx. vishnui. The findings of this study established a baseline of insecticide susceptibility and revealed the effects of agricultural insecticide pressure on the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia.

  11. Assessment of productivity of Culex spp. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in Wrocław (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawień, Piotr; Lonc, Elżbieta; Modelska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    In urban environments, catch basins serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. However, the use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. During seasonal summer investigations on mosquito species composition, their spatial and temporal distribution and the environmental characteristic of the breeding sites in the underground storm drain systems of the Wrocław urban area (SW Poland) were assessed from May to September in 2012-2013. The study was conducted in order to develop a rational strategy to control mosquito populations and prevent the potential human exposure to mosquito-transmitted pathogens. Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected and identified weekly from 100 regularly inspected street catch basins located in the town center. All existing and potential breeding habitats in the study area were recorded using a GPS receiver (Magellan MobileMapper CX) and transferred to the computer database. Collected data on the geographical location of inspected breeding places, water quality parameters in inspected catch basins, daily temperature, and precipitation were imposed on orthophotomap in ArcGIS (ESRI, USA). Water quality parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were measured by standard methods. Chemical water analysis of cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-)) were carried out using Waters Alliance high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) 2695 with 432 Conductivity Detector and 2998 Photodiode Array Detector, an IC-Pak Anion HR column (glauconate/borate eluent) and IC-Pak Cation M/D column (EDTA/HNO3 eluent). Over two seasonal studies and 3739 samplings in total, 3669 mosquito larvae and 274 pupae/1 dip (from 0 to 110 individuals/dip) were collected by dipper. Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Cx. torrentium (Martini) prevailed at all catch basins

  12. Effects of neem products containing azadirachtin on blood feeding, fecundity, and survivorship of Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1999-12-01

    When late 3rd or early 4th-instar larvae of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes were treated with sublethal dosages of neem insecticide until pupation, the blood-feeding activity of the resulting adults was essentially the same as that of untreated controls. In contrast, blood-feeding activity was suppressed when newly emerged adults were fed continuously on 10 parts per million (ppm) or 50 ppm azadirachtin (AZ) in 10% sucrose solution for seven days. Fecundity was also reduced by the various neem treatments. When late 3rd or early 4th-instar larvae were treated with 0.010 ppm AZ to pupation, the resultant females had a lower rate of oviposition than did the untreated controls after a full blood meal. When late instar larvae were treated at 0.005 ppm and 0.010 ppm AZ, the resultant females produced smaller egg rafts after a full blood meal, as compared to the controls, but egg viability was not affected. In newly emerged adults feeding continuously on 10 ppm and 50 ppm AZ in 10% sucrose for seven days (before blood feeding), the oviposition rate, size of egg raft, and hatching rate of the eggs after a full blood meal were all reduced. When newly blood-fed adults were fed continuously on 10 ppm and 50 ppm AZ in 10% sucrose for five days, their oviposition rate was lower than controls in most cases, but the egg raft size and viability of eggs were not affected. In freshly blood-fed females topically treated with AZ with 1 or 5 micrograms/female, the oviposition rate and size of egg rafts were generally reduced. The females receiving topical treatment laid eggs and their hatching was not affected. The longevity of adult females feeding continuously on 10 ppm and 50 ppm AZ in 10% sucrose solution after emergence was reduced, whereas, the longevity of males was only affected at the higher concentration.

  13. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    In the past decade, biochemical and physiological characteristics such as hepatic detoxifying system. DNA adducts, thyroid malfunction, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition have been used extensively as biomarkers for contaminant exposure. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 m corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD), and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD were not elevated at doses {le}0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05) but were significantly increased at doses {ge}2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activities of these four enzymes were 3 to 6.4 times those in the control groups. The increased activities were maintained for at least 4 weeks. Because of a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currently known environmental concentration, the authors suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  14. Mosquitoes LTR Retrotransposons: A Deeper View into the Genomic Sequence of Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Marsano, Renè Massimiliano; Leronni, Daniela; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Viggiano, Luigi; Tarasco, Eustachio; Caizzi, Ruggiero

    2012-01-01

    A set of 67 novel LTR-retrotransposon has been identified by in silico analyses of the Culex quinquefasciatus genome using the LTR_STRUC program. The phylogenetic analysis shows that 29 novel and putatively functional LTR-retrotransposons detected belong to the Ty3/gypsy group. Our results demonstrate that, by considering only families containing potentially autonomous LTR-retrotransposons, they account for about 1% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus. In previous studies it has been estimated that 29% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus is occupied by mobile genetic elements. The potential role of retrotransposon insertions strictly associated with host genes is described and discussed along with the possible origin of a retrotransposon with peculiar Primer Binding Site region. Finally, we report the presence of a group of 38 retrotransposons, carrying tandem repeated sequences but lacking coding potential, and apparently lacking “master copy” elements from which they could have originated. The features of the repetitive sequences found in these non-autonomous LTR retrotransposons are described, and their possible role discussed. These results integrate the existing data on the genomics of an important virus-borne disease vector. PMID:22383973

  15. Differential effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Derua, Yahya A; Kisinza, William N; Simonsen, Paul E

    2015-02-27

    Widespread and large scale use of ivermectin in humans and domestic animals can have unexpected effects on non-target organisms. As a search for a possible explanation for an observed longitudinal decline in density of anopheline vector mosquitoes, but not in Culex quinquefasciatus, in an area of north-eastern Tanzania which has been exposed to ivermectin mass drug administration, this study assessed and compared the effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Consenting adult volunteers were randomized into two groups to receive either ivermectin or placebo. Twenty four hours after treatment, one volunteer from each group was concurrently exposed to 50 laboratory reared An. gambiae on one arm and 50 laboratory reared Cx. quinquefasciatus on the other arm for 15-30 minutes. Engorged mosquitoes were maintained on 10% glucose solution for 12 days and observed for survival and fecundity. The experiment was repeated 15 times. Two days after the blood meals, nearly half (average 47.7% for the 15 experiments) of the blood fed An. gambiae in the ivermectin group had died while almost all in the placebo group were alive (97.2%), and the difference in survival between these two groups continued to widen on the following days. There was no clear effect of ivermectin on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which had high survival in both ivermectin and placebo group on day 2 (95.7% and 98.4%, respectively) as well as on the following days. Ivermectin completely inhibited egg laying in An. gambiae, while egg laying and subsequent development of immature stages appeared normal in the other three groups. Blood meals taken on ivermectin treated volunteers significantly reduced survival and halted fecundity of An. gambiae but had only limited or no effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus. The result suggests that widespread use of ivermectin may have contributed to the observed decline in density of An. gambiae, without similar decrease in Cx

  16. Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus Genotype NY99 by Culex salinarius and Genotypes NY99 and WN02 by Culex tarsalis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Cheng, Gong; Ferrandino, Francis J.; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Culex tarsalis is a superior horizontal and vertical vector of West Nile virus (WNV) compared with Culex salinarius. Culex salinarius transmitted WNV genotype NY99 (CT 2741-99 strain) horizontally to suckling mice at significantly lower rates than Cx. tarsalis on Days 8, 9, 10, and 12 post-infection, and Cx. salinarius transmitted WNV genotype NY99 to offspring at a lower vertical transmission infection rate than Cx. tarsalis. Culex tarsalis transmitted WNV genotypes NY99 and WN02 (CT S0084-08 strain) with equal efficiency. Daily percent horizontal transmission of genotype NY99 by Cx. tarsalis-infected per os and by intra-thoracic infection was not significantly different from daily transmission of genotype WN02 from Days 5–23 and Days 2–9 post-infection, respectively. Our findings do not support the previously published hypothesis that genotype NY99 was replaced in the New World by WN02 because of a shorter extrinsic incubat