Science.gov

Sample records for culicidae complex incongruence

  1. A Genome-Scale Investigation of Incongruence in Culicidae Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyu; Zhou, Xiaofan; Yang, Ding; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-11-25

    Comparison of individual gene trees in several recent phylogenomic studies from diverse lineages has revealed a surprising amount of topological conflict or incongruence, but we still know relatively little about its distribution across the tree of life. To further our understanding of incongruence, the factors that contribute to it and how it can be ameliorated, we examined its distribution in a clade of 20 Culicidae mosquito species through the reconstruction and analysis of the phylogenetic histories of 2,007 groups of orthologous genes. Levels of incongruence were generally low, the three exceptions being the internodes concerned with the branching of Anopheles christyi, with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as the already reported incongruence within the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Two of these incongruence events (A. gambiae species complex and A. christyi) are likely due to biological factors, whereas the third (subgenus Anopheles) is likely due to analytical factors. Similar to previous studies, the use of genes or internodes with high bootstrap support or internode certainty values, both of which were positively correlated with gene alignment length, substantially reduced the observed incongruence. However, the clade support values of the internodes concerned with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as within the A. gambiae species complex remained very low. Based on these results, we infer that the prevalence of incongruence in Culicidae mosquitoes is generally low, that it likely stems from both analytical and biological factors, and that it can be ameliorated through the selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal. More generally, selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal may be a general empirical solution for reducing incongruence and increasing the robustness of inference in phylogenomic studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology

  2. A Genome-Scale Investigation of Incongruence in Culicidae Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuyu; Zhou, Xiaofan; Yang, Ding; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of individual gene trees in several recent phylogenomic studies from diverse lineages has revealed a surprising amount of topological conflict or incongruence, but we still know relatively little about its distribution across the tree of life. To further our understanding of incongruence, the factors that contribute to it and how it can be ameliorated, we examined its distribution in a clade of 20 Culicidae mosquito species through the reconstruction and analysis of the phylogenetic histories of 2,007 groups of orthologous genes. Levels of incongruence were generally low, the three exceptions being the internodes concerned with the branching of Anopheles christyi, with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as the already reported incongruence within the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Two of these incongruence events (A. gambiae species complex and A. christyi) are likely due to biological factors, whereas the third (subgenus Anopheles) is likely due to analytical factors. Similar to previous studies, the use of genes or internodes with high bootstrap support or internode certainty values, both of which were positively correlated with gene alignment length, substantially reduced the observed incongruence. However, the clade support values of the internodes concerned with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as within the A. gambiae species complex remained very low. Based on these results, we infer that the prevalence of incongruence in Culicidae mosquitoes is generally low, that it likely stems from both analytical and biological factors, and that it can be ameliorated through the selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal. More generally, selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal may be a general empirical solution for reducing incongruence and increasing the robustness of inference in phylogenomic studies. PMID:26608059

  3. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    SYSTEMATICS Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified...J.M.,O.Pellmyr, J.N.Thompson, andR.G.Harrison. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae), based on nucleotide sequence variation in

  4. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    LEHR, M. A.; KILPATRICK, C. W.; WILKERSON, R. C.; CONN, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) diagnostic bands are one tool used to differentiate cryptic mosquito species in the Anopheles albitarsis Complex. Monophyly of four species (A. albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga, A. albitarsis B, A. deaneorum Rosa-Freitas, and A. marajoara Galvão & Damasceno) currently identified with the RAPD technique was assessed using sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses support monophyly for A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, and A. deaneorum. Anopheles marajoara, as identified by RAPD banding patterns, was either polyphyletic or paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic pattern and within-species genetic distances observed in A. marajoara suggest the existence of a previously unidentified species (species E) in northern Brazil and Venezuela. Diagnostic RAPD bands were unable to distinguish between A. marajoara and species E, probably because of the low number of correlated bands used to identify species and weaknesses of the RAPD technique, in particular, violations of the untested assumption of homology of comigrating bands. A. marajoara (even without species E) is paraphyletic with respect to A. deaneorum; if A. deaneorum is a separate species from A. marajoara, then A. marajoara may consist of two or more species in Amazonian Brazil. Based on mtDNA COI sequences, there are at least four phylogenetic species within the Albitarsis Complex: A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, A. marajoara, and species E; the species status of A. deaneorum is ambiguous. PMID:17082822

  5. Complex evolution in Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae): incongruence between plastid and nuclear GBSSI gene phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    The monophyly of tribe Arundinarieae (the temperate woody bamboos) has been unequivocally recovered in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. In a recent phylogenetic study, 10 major lineages in Arundinarieae were resolved based on eight non-coding plastid regions, which conflicted significantly with morphological classifications both at the subtribal and generic levels. Nevertheless, relationships among and within the 10 lineages remain unclear. In order to further unravel the evolutionary history of Arundinarieae, we used the nuclear GBSSI gene sequences along with those of eight plastid regions for phylogenetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on Chinese species. The results of the plastid analyses agreed with previous studies, whereas 13 primary clades revealed in the GBSSI phylogeny were better resolved at the generic level than the plastid phylogeny. Our analyses also revealed many inconsistencies between the plastid DNA and the nuclear GBSSI trees. These results implied that the nuclear genome and the plastid genome had different evolutionary trajectories. The patterns of incongruence suggested that lack of informative characters, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or hybridization (introgression) could be the causes. Seven putative hybrid species were hypothesized, four of which are discussed in detail on the basis of topological incongruence, chromosome numbers, morphology, and distribution patterns, and those taxa probably resulted from homoploid hybrid speciation. Overall, our study indicates that the tribe Arundinarieae has undergone a complex evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-08-20

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  8. Predictive Big Data Analytics: A Study of Parkinson's Disease Using Large, Complex, Heterogeneous, Incongruent, Multi-Source and Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D; Heavner, Ben; Tang, Ming; Glusman, Gustavo; Chard, Kyle; Darcy, Mike; Madduri, Ravi; Pa, Judy; Spino, Cathie; Kesselman, Carl; Foster, Ian; Deutsch, Eric W; Price, Nathan D; Van Horn, John D; Ames, Joseph; Clark, Kristi; Hood, Leroy; Hampstead, Benjamin M; Dauer, William; Toga, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    A unique archive of Big Data on Parkinson's Disease is collected, managed and disseminated by the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). The integration of such complex and heterogeneous Big Data from multiple sources offers unparalleled opportunities to study the early stages of prevalent neurodegenerative processes, track their progression and quickly identify the efficacies of alternative treatments. Many previous human and animal studies have examined the relationship of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk to trauma, genetics, environment, co-morbidities, or life style. The defining characteristics of Big Data-large size, incongruency, incompleteness, complexity, multiplicity of scales, and heterogeneity of information-generating sources-all pose challenges to the classical techniques for data management, processing, visualization and interpretation. We propose, implement, test and validate complementary model-based and model-free approaches for PD classification and prediction. To explore PD risk using Big Data methodology, we jointly processed complex PPMI imaging, genetics, clinical and demographic data. Collective representation of the multi-source data facilitates the aggregation and harmonization of complex data elements. This enables joint modeling of the complete data, leading to the development of Big Data analytics, predictive synthesis, and statistical validation. Using heterogeneous PPMI data, we developed a comprehensive protocol for end-to-end data characterization, manipulation, processing, cleaning, analysis and validation. Specifically, we (i) introduce methods for rebalancing imbalanced cohorts, (ii) utilize a wide spectrum of classification methods to generate consistent and powerful phenotypic predictions, and (iii) generate reproducible machine-learning based classification that enables the reporting of model parameters and diagnostic forecasting based on new data. We evaluated several complementary model-based predictive approaches

  9. Vector Competence of Peruvian Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) for a Subtype IIIC Strain in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Complex Isolated from Mosquitoes Captured in Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408

  10. Spatial Variation in Host Feeding Patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, T. C.; LEMENAGER, D. A.; KLUH, S.; CARROLL, B. D.; LOTHROP, H. D.; REISEN, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV. PMID:22897051

  11. Phylogeography of the neotropical Anopheles triannulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) supports deep structure and complex patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular phylogenetic relationships and population structure of the species of the Anopheles triannulatus complex: Anopheles triannulatus s.s., Anopheles halophylus and the putative species Anopheles triannulatus C were investigated. Methods The mitochondrial COI gene, the nuclear white gene and rDNA ITS2 of samples that include the known geographic distribution of these taxa were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony and Maximum likelihood approaches. Results Each data set analyzed septely yielded a different topology but none provided evidence for the seption of An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C, consistent with the hypothesis that the two are undergoing incipient speciation. The phylogenetic analyses of the white gene found three main clades, whereas the statistical parsimony network detected only a single metapopulation of Anopheles triannulatus s.l. Seven COI lineages were detected by phylogenetic and network analysis. In contrast, the network, but not the phylogenetic analyses, strongly supported three ITS2 groups. Combined data analyses provided the best resolution of the trees, with two major clades, Amazonian (clade I) and trans-Andean + Amazon Delta (clade II). Clade I consists of multiple subclades: An. halophylus + An. triannulatus C; trans-Andean Venezuela; central Amazonia + central Bolivia; Atlantic coastal lowland; and Amazon delta. Clade II includes three subclades: Panama; cis-Andean Colombia; and cis-Venezuela. The Amazon delta specimens are in both clades, likely indicating local sympatry. Spatial and molecular variance analyses detected nine groups, corroborating some of subclades obtained in the combined data analysis. Conclusion Combination of the three molecular markers provided the best resolution for differentiation within An. triannulatus s.s. and An. halophylus and C. The latest two species seem to be very closely related and the analyses performed were

  12. Phylogeography of the neotropical Anopheles triannulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) supports deep structure and complex patterns.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marta; Bickersmith, Sara; Harlow, Wesley; Hildebrandt, Jessica; McKeon, Sascha N; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes; Loaiza, Jose R; Ruiz, Freddy; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Sallum, Maria A M; Bergo, Eduardo S; Fritz, Gary N; Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne M; Juri, Maria J Dantur; Rangel, Yadira; Póvoa, Marinete M; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina A; Correa, Margarita M; Conn, Jan E

    2013-02-22

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships and population structure of the species of the Anopheles triannulatus complex: Anopheles triannulatus s.s., Anopheles halophylus and the putative species Anopheles triannulatus C were investigated. The mitochondrial COI gene, the nuclear white gene and rDNA ITS2 of samples that include the known geographic distribution of these taxa were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony and Maximum likelihood approaches. Each data set analyzed septely yielded a different topology but none provided evidence for the seption of An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C, consistent with the hypothesis that the two are undergoing incipient speciation. The phylogenetic analyses of the white gene found three main clades, whereas the statistical parsimony network detected only a single metapopulation of Anopheles triannulatus s.l. Seven COI lineages were detected by phylogenetic and network analysis. In contrast, the network, but not the phylogenetic analyses, strongly supported three ITS2 groups. Combined data analyses provided the best resolution of the trees, with two major clades, Amazonian (clade I) and trans-Andean + Amazon Delta (clade II). Clade I consists of multiple subclades: An. halophylus + An. triannulatus C; trans-Andean Venezuela; central Amazonia + central Bolivia; Atlantic coastal lowland; and Amazon delta. Clade II includes three subclades: Panama; cis-Andean Colombia; and cis-Venezuela. The Amazon delta specimens are in both clades, likely indicating local sympatry. Spatial and molecular variance analyses detected nine groups, corroborating some of subclades obtained in the combined data analysis. Combination of the three molecular markers provided the best resolution for differentiation within An. triannulatus s.s. and An. halophylus and C. The latest two species seem to be very closely related and the analyses performed were not conclusive regarding species

  13. Predictive Big Data Analytics: A Study of Parkinson’s Disease Using Large, Complex, Heterogeneous, Incongruent, Multi-Source and Incomplete Observations

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Heavner, Ben; Tang, Ming; Glusman, Gustavo; Chard, Kyle; Darcy, Mike; Madduri, Ravi; Pa, Judy; Spino, Cathie; Kesselman, Carl; Foster, Ian; Deutsch, Eric W.; Price, Nathan D.; Van Horn, John D.; Ames, Joseph; Clark, Kristi; Hood, Leroy; Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Dauer, William; Toga, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Background A unique archive of Big Data on Parkinson’s Disease is collected, managed and disseminated by the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). The integration of such complex and heterogeneous Big Data from multiple sources offers unparalleled opportunities to study the early stages of prevalent neurodegenerative processes, track their progression and quickly identify the efficacies of alternative treatments. Many previous human and animal studies have examined the relationship of Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk to trauma, genetics, environment, co-morbidities, or life style. The defining characteristics of Big Data–large size, incongruency, incompleteness, complexity, multiplicity of scales, and heterogeneity of information-generating sources–all pose challenges to the classical techniques for data management, processing, visualization and interpretation. We propose, implement, test and validate complementary model-based and model-free approaches for PD classification and prediction. To explore PD risk using Big Data methodology, we jointly processed complex PPMI imaging, genetics, clinical and demographic data. Methods and Findings Collective representation of the multi-source data facilitates the aggregation and harmonization of complex data elements. This enables joint modeling of the complete data, leading to the development of Big Data analytics, predictive synthesis, and statistical validation. Using heterogeneous PPMI data, we developed a comprehensive protocol for end-to-end data characterization, manipulation, processing, cleaning, analysis and validation. Specifically, we (i) introduce methods for rebalancing imbalanced cohorts, (ii) utilize a wide spectrum of classification methods to generate consistent and powerful phenotypic predictions, and (iii) generate reproducible machine-learning based classification that enables the reporting of model parameters and diagnostic forecasting based on new data. We evaluated several

  14. Evolution of Mitochondrial and Ribosomal Gene Sequences in Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae): Implications for Phylogeny Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315-319. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP (Phylogeny inference package), ver- sion 3.5. Department of Genetics, University of...disease vectors (Diptera, Culicidae): Impact of molecular biology and cladistic analysis. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 351-369. Peyton, E. L

  15. Incongruent sputtering in metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langell, M. A.

    1987-11-01

    Preferential sputtering has been observed for NiO(100) and CoO(100) under low fluxes of 2 keV Ar +, with oxygen/metal sputtering yields a strong function of substrate temperature. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to follow the chemical and compositional nature of the surface for substrates prepared and characterized under UHV. Using O/M AES ratios as a measure of oxygen content, congruent sputtering was found for the oxides at 300 K for fluences of up to 10 17 Ar +/cm 2 and threshold temperatures for sputter reduction were observed at 350 K and 500 K for NiO and CoO, respectively. The relatively close thresholds for NiO and CoO sputter reduction argue against current thermal sputtering theory which predicts incongruent sputtering through oxygen vaporization. The temperature dependence of the O/M sputtering yields indicates that metal oxide sputtering is far more complex than current theory is able to describe. XPS data show evidence that adsorbed oxygen species, distinct from lattice oxygen, have formed on surfaces which have undergone sputter reduction and these species are postulated to play a role in the sputtering mechanism. MnO(100) crystals show no evidence for preferential sputtering for substrate temperature of up to 1000 K.

  16. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  17. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  18. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  19. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  20. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  1. A newly recognized species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Carreno, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Brochero, Helena H L; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mosquito species from eastern Colombia belonging to the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex. We provisionally name this taxon An. albitarsis species "F." Until now, the only members of the Albitarsis Complex recorded from north of the Amazon River have been An. marajoara and a putative phylogenetic species, An. albitarsis "E." As with the other largely monomorphic species in the complex, we were able to detect its presence using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2) and partial white gene sequences. Unlike An. marajoara, but in common with other species in the complex, An. albitarsis F lacks the white gene fourth intron. This species is sympatric with An. marajoara in a malaria-endemic area in Puerto Carreño, Vichada Department, Colombia. It could be an important current and/or historical vector of human malaria parasites at this locality and, depending on its actual distribution, elsewhere in Colombia and Venezuela.

  2. Intron Retention Identifies a Malaria Vector within the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Albitaris Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-09

    example, Anophe- les (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara Galvg, o and Damasceno (Linthicum, 1988) is the principal malaria vector in northeastern Amazonia ... Amazonia , from other members of the An. albitarsis complex. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  3. The molecular and morphological variations of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, H; Sadraei, J; Moosa-Kazemi, S H; Baniani, N Akbari; Nowruzi, F

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic status of Culex pipiens is well-known as many years with such a wide variety of morphological and biological characteristics. These changes have been the subject of extensive investigation by many researchers. There are a little information about the morphology and molecular data of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran. The taxonomic status of the complex is very important because of medical and veterinary importance and wide distribution in the country. This study was carried out in 11 areas in Iran using dipping technique from April 2009 to October 2010. Molecular study was carried out using primers F1457 as forward and B1256 as reverse, which amplified Ace.2 gene and performed PCR-RFLP using ScaI restriction enzyme. Culex quinquefasciatus found in south to central areas of Iran and reported as sympatric with Cx. pipiens in the central regions. Culex pipiens distributed in many areas of the country. Sequencing alignment of Ace.2 gene of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens showed 6.5% variation in 46bp, especially in intron locus of gene. Culex pipiens complex from Iran are located in two separate clades with sister branches using phylogenetic sequencing tree. The male genitalia found as the most reliable diagnostic characters for identification of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran that confirmed by amplify the Ace.2 gene in the samples but we recommended the use of sequencing PCR products of microsatellite loci and COI gene in future study.

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Albitarsis Species Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    WILKERSON, RICHARD C.; FOSTER, PETER G.; LI, CONG; SALLUM, MARIA ANICE MUREB

    2006-01-01

    A phylogeny was reconstructed for four species belonging to the Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex using partial sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) genes and the ribosomal DNA ITS2 and D2 expansion region of the 28S subunit. The basis for initial characterization of each member of the complex was by correlated random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) markers. Analyses were carried out with and without an outgroup (An.(Nys.) argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy) by using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. A total evidence approach without the outgroup, using separate models for “fast” (COI and ND4 position 3) and “slow” (rDNA ITS2 and D2, and COI and ND4 position 1) partitions, gave the best supported topology, showing close relationships of An. albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga to An. albitarsis B and An. marajoara Galvão & Damasceno to An. deaneorum Rosa-Freitas. Analyses with the outgroup included showed poorer support, possibly because of a long branch attraction effect caused by a divergent outgroup, which caused one of the An. marajoara specimens to cluster with An. deaneorum in some analyses. The relationship of the above-mentioned result to a separately proposed hypothesis suggesting a fifth species in the complex is discussed. PMID:18079976

  5. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) In Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Hossein; Sadraei, Javid; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Abolghasemi, Esmail; Solimani, Hassan; Jaffari Nodoshan, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran. Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hamedan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5. Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefasciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens. Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran. PMID:27308288

  6. Population Genetic and Admixture Analyses of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in California, United States

    PubMed Central

    Kothera, Linda; Nelms, Brittany M.; Reisen, William K.; Savage, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to genetically characterize 19 Culex pipiens complex populations from California. Two populations showed characteristics of earlier genetic bottlenecks. The overall FST value and a neighbor-joining tree suggested moderate amounts of genetic differentiation. Analyses using Structure indicated K = 4 genetic clusters: Cx. pipiens form pipiens L., Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl, and a group of genetically similar individuals of hybrid origin. A Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components indicated that the latter group is a mixture of the other three taxa, with form pipiens and form molestus contributing somewhat more ancestry than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Characterization of 56 morphologically autogenous individuals classified most as Cx. pipiens form molestus, and none as Cx. pipiens form pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus. Comparison of California microsatellite data with those of Cx. pipiens pallens Coquillett from Japan indicated the latter does not contribute significantly to genotypes in California. PMID:23958909

  7. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    PubMed

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  8. Ecological Distribution and CQ11 Genetic Structure of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Severini, Francesco; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Minelli, Giada; Bongiorno, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Arnoldi, Daniele; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Romi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are considered to be involved in the transmission of a range of pathogens, including West Nile virus (WNV). Although its taxonomic status is still debated, the complex includes species, both globally distributed or with a more limited distribution, morphologically similar and characterised by different physiological and behavioural traits, which affect their ability as vectors. In many European countries, Cx. pipiens and its sibling species Culex torrentium occur in sympatry, exhibiting similar bionomic and morphological characters, but only Cx. pipiens appears to play a vector role in WNV transmission. This species consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can interbreed when in sympatry, and their hybrids can act as WNV-bridge vectors, due to intermediate ecological features. Considering the yearly WNV outbreaks since 2008 and given the morphological difficulties in recognising species and biotypes, our aim was to molecularly identify and characterised Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium in Italy, using recently developed molecular assays. Culex torrentium was not detected; as in other European countries, the pipiens and molestus biotypes were widely found in sympatry with hybrids in most environments. The UPGMA cluster analysis applied to CQ11 genotypic frequencies mainly revealed two groups of Cx. pipiens populations that differed in ecological features. The high propensity of the molestus biotype to exist in hypogean environments, where the habitat’s physical characteristics hinder and preclude the gene flow, was shown. These results confirmed the CQ11 assay as a reliable diagnostic method, consistent with the ecological and physiological aspects of the populations analysed. Since the assessment of the actual role of three biotypes in the WNV circulation remains a crucial point to be elucidated, this extensive molecular screening of Cx. pipiens populations can provide new insights into the ecology of the species

  9. Characterization of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Colorado, USA Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Kothera, Linda; Godsey, Marvin S.; Doyle, Michael S.; Savage, Harry M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes such as those in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of disease. This study was conducted to genetically characterize Cx. pipiens complex populations in the state of Colorado, USA, and to determine the number of genetic clusters represented by the data. Thirteen populations located among four major river basins were sampled (n = 597 individuals) using a panel of 14 microsatellites. The lowest-elevation sites had the highest Expected Heterozygosity (HE) values (range 0.54–0.65). AMOVA results indicated the presence of statistically significant amounts of variation within each level when populations were analyzed as one group or when they were grouped either by river basin or by their position on the east or west side of the Rocky Mountains. Most pairwise FST values were significant via permutation test (range 0–0.10), with the highest values from comparisons with Lamar, in southeast CO. A neighbor joining tree based on Cavalli–Sforza and Edwards’s chord distances was consistent with the geographic locations of populations, as well as with the AMOVA results. There was a significant isolation by distance effect, and the cluster analysis resolved five groups. Individuals were also assayed with an additional microsatellite marker, Cxpq78, proposed to be monomorphic in Cx. pipiens but polymorphic in the closely related but biologically distinct species Cx. quinquefasciatus. Low frequencies (≤3%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles for this marker were noted, and mostly confined to populations along the Interstate 25 corridor. Pueblo was distinct in that it had 10% Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles, mostly of one allele size. The degree of population genetic structure observed in this study is in contrast with that of Cx. tarsalis, the other major vector of WNV in the western U.S., and likely reflects the two species’ different dispersal strategies. PMID:23094068

  10. Localized breeding of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) along the River Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, C; Bøgh, C; Clarke, S E; Jawara, M; Thomas, C J; Lindsay, S W

    2003-08-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the major larval habitats of the Anopheles gambiae (Giles) complex in rural Gambia. Mosquito larvae and pupae were sampled along transects and in specific habitats in the central region of the country during the rainy seasons of 1996 and 1997. The sampling showed that the major breeding sites were located on the flooded alluvial soils bordering the river. The largest numbers of larvae were found during September, one month after the peak rains. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of specimens showed that Anopheles melas (Theobald) was the dominant species in the flooded areas (81.5%), followed by A. gambiae sensu stricto (Giles) (18.0%) and A. arabiensis (Patton) (0.5%). By sampling in specific habitats it was evident that A. arabiensis was mainly breeding in rain-fed rice fields along the edge of the alluvial soils. Anopheles melas and A. gambiae s.s. often coexisted but whereas A. melas were found in water with a salinity of up to 72% sea water (25.2 g NaCl l(-1)), A. gambiae s.s. only occurred in water with up to 30% sea water (10.5 g NaCl l(-1)). Anopheles melas larvae were found in association with plant communities dominated by sedges and grasses (Eleocharis sp., Paspalum sp., Sporobolus sp.) and sea-purslane Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) and the presence of cattle hoof prints, whereas A. gambiae s.s. larvae mainly occurred in association with Paspalum sp. and Eleocharis sp. The study showed that even during the peak rainy season, breeding of the A. gambiae complex is almost entirely restricted to the extensive alluvial areas along the river.

  11. Characterization of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Colorado, USA using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Kothera, Linda; Godsey, Marvin S; Doyle, Michael S; Savage, Harry M

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes such as those in the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of disease. This study was conducted to genetically characterize Cx. pipiens complex populations in the state of Colorado, USA, and to determine the number of genetic clusters represented by the data. Thirteen populations located among four major river basins were sampled (n = 597 individuals) using a panel of 14 microsatellites. The lowest-elevation sites had the highest Expected Heterozygosity (H(E)) values (range 0.54-0.65). AMOVA results indicated the presence of statistically significant amounts of variation within each level when populations were analyzed as one group or when they were grouped either by river basin or by their position on the east or west side of the Rocky Mountains. Most pairwise F(ST) values were significant via permutation test (range 0-0.10), with the highest values from comparisons with Lamar, in southeast CO. A neighbor joining tree based on Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards's chord distances was consistent with the geographic locations of populations, as well as with the AMOVA results. There was a significant isolation by distance effect, and the cluster analysis resolved five groups. Individuals were also assayed with an additional microsatellite marker, Cxpq78, proposed to be monomorphic in Cx. pipiens but polymorphic in the closely related but biologically distinct species Cx. quinquefasciatus. Low frequencies (≤3%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles for this marker were noted, and mostly confined to populations along the Interstate 25 corridor. Pueblo was distinct in that it had 10% Cx. quinquefasciatus alleles, mostly of one allele size. The degree of population genetic structure observed in this study is in contrast with that of Cx. tarsalis, the other major vector of WNV in the western U.S., and likely reflects the two species' different dispersal strategies.

  12. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incongruity, incongruity resolution, and mental states: The measure and modification of situational awareness and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1993-01-01

    The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.

  14. Perceptual Incongruence Influences Bistability and Cortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Tong, Frank; Hagoort, Peter; van Ee, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry). Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A) were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict. PMID:19333385

  15. Empathic features of absorption and incongruence.

    PubMed

    Wickramasekera, Ian E

    2007-07-01

    A study was undertaken to examine whether empathy could be related to absorption and incongruence (repressive coping). The participants were 71 graduate students who completed measures of empathy, absorption, and incongruence (repressive coping). The results confirmed a previous finding that empathy appears positively related to absorption (r = .42, p < .001). The results also suggest that affective components of empathy are inversely related to repressive coping (r = -.29, p < .05) while cognitive components are positively related to the social desirability aspects of incongruence (r = .31, p < .01). The findings are collectively discussed in terms of the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis of Hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001), the Four-factor theory of Repressive Coping (Eysenck, 1997), Incongruence (Rogers, 1957), and the High Risk Model of Threat Perception (I. E. Wickramasekera I, 1998).

  16. Stress and Incongruity Theory: Effects of Crowding,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    performance, satisfaction, incongruity, dissonance, consistency, information search t!/ IjYAISTRACT (Continuea rover ** side It noc*Ofean d identify by...regulation of social contact. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, in press. Berlyne, D. E. Novelty and curiosity as

  17. Causes, consequences and solutions of phylogenetic incongruence.

    PubMed

    Som, Anup

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is used to recover the evolutionary history of species, genes or proteins. Understanding phylogenetic relationships between organisms is a prerequisite of almost any evolutionary study, as contemporary species all share a common history through their ancestry. Moreover, it is important because of its wide applications that include understanding genome organization, epidemiological investigations, predicting protein functions, and deciding the genes to be analyzed in comparative studies. Despite immense progress in recent years, phylogenetic reconstruction involves many challenges that create uncertainty with respect to the true evolutionary relationships of the species or genes analyzed. One of the most notable difficulties is the widespread occurrence of incongruence among methods and also among individual genes or different genomic regions. Presence of widespread incongruence inhibits successful revealing of evolutionary relationships and applications of phylogenetic analysis. In this article, I concisely review the effect of various factors that cause incongruence in molecular phylogenies, the advances in the field that resolved some factors, and explore unresolved factors that cause incongruence along with possible ways for tackling them. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Incongruence between cladistic and taxonomic systems.

    PubMed

    Grant, Verne

    2003-09-01

    Cladistic and taxonomic treatments of the same plant group usually exhibit a mixture of congruences and incongruences. The question arises in the case of the incongruences as to which version is right and which is wrong. Many cladists believe that cladistics is a superior approach and gives the best results. There are several conceptual and methodological differences between cladistics and taxonomy that cause incongruence. One important conceptual difference is the use of different criteria for grouping: order of branching vs. similarity and difference (clades vs. taxa). Another is the policy regarding paraphyletic groups: to ban them in cladistics but ignore the ban in taxonomy. These two differences automatically lead to some incongruences. One approach is not right and the other wrong; each is operating by its own standards. However, when cladists apply the paraphyly rule to a taxonomic system and conclude that it needs revision to eliminate paraphyly, as cladists often do, they are judging the taxonomic system by a wrong standard. Several differences between the two schools in the use and handling of characters can also cause incongruence. First consider phenetic characters. Taxonomy uses a very wide range of these, whereas phenetic cladistics sets restrictions on the selection of characters, which deprive it of potentially useful evidence. Taxonomic systems generally rest on a broader empirical foundation than phenetic cladistic systems. Next, consider molecular cladistics, which is the leader in the use of DNA evidence. Two sources of incongruence between molecular cladistics and taxonomic systems can come into play here. First, the molecular evidence used in cladistics comes mainly from cytoplasmic organelles, whereas taxonomic systems are based on characters that are determined mainly by the chromosomal genome. More generally, the database in a molecular cladogram is, in itself, too narrow to serve as a foundation for an organismic classification. In cases

  19. Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-10-01

    In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities.

  20. The Systematics of Culex vishnui Complex in Southeast Asia with the Diagnosis of Three Common Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Mosquito Systematics voz. 7(l) 1975 69 The Systematics of Culex vishnui Complex in Southeast Asia with the Diagnosis of Three Common Species...litis virus and related arboviruses. In studies on virus isolation, labora- tory transmission of arboviruses and feeding behavior, problems are...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1975 to 00-00-1975 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Systematics of Culex vishnui Complex in Southeast Asia with the

  1. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive

  2. A Molecular Phylogeny of Anopheles Annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: The Most Species-Rich Anopheline Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-27

    myxomatosis to con- trol rabbits (Fenner and RatcliVe, 1965). Chris Green used data from cross-matings and the band- ing pattern of polytene chromosomes to...most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxo- matosis among rabbits . In this, the Wrst...Maximum parsimony; Sibling species; Species complex; Myxomatosis ; DNA barcoding; Australia; Papua New Guinea; ITS2; COI; COII; EF-11. Introduction

  3. PCR identification of five species from the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, Maria-Larisa; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Pavel, Ionuţ; Sulesco, Tatiana; Miron, Liviu

    2015-06-01

    The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have been incriminated for the transmission of the malaria in Europe, which was endemic until the middle of the century. The global warming and the intensification of the intercontinental travel constitute a risk of the re-emergence of the malaria in Europe, given the presence of the Anopheles vectors. The study has attempted the identification by using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex from the North-eastern area of Romania from the city of Iaşi. In total there have been identified by using the PCR amplifying the ITS2 sequence of the ribosomal DNA, 217 specimens belonging to the complex of A. maculipennis among which: 58 A. atroparvus, 18 A. melanoon, 2 A. labranchiae, 52 A. maculipennis and 87 A. messeae. The ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal DNA have been compared to those of the species belonging to the A. maculipennis available in GenBank. The Species A. labranchiae is reported for the first time in Romania, being identified in the larval stage IV. The adaptation of a new species to the climatic conditions present in the North-eastern Romania, confirms the phenomenon of global warming and also the intensification of the travelling. As a result of the analysis of the A. labranchiae sequence, this one corresponds to the extent of 96% to the species from Italy, registered in GenBank, given the fact that a high number of the inhabitants of the municipality of Iaşi are working in this country.

  4. Dichotomous electrophoretic taxonomic key for identification of sibling species A, B, and C of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Narang, S K; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A

    1989-03-01

    Samples of 17 populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say from Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, New York, and New Jersey were analyzed for genetic variability at 33 enzyme loci. Statistical analysis of electromorph frequency distributions indicated that sympatric sibling (morphologically indistinguishable) species occurred in about 59% of the populations tested. The association of polytene chromosome and electrophoretic patterns of individual field-collected females confirmed species-specific diagnostic allozymes, which were useful in identifying sibling species A, B, and C and in estimating the proportions of each species at the 17 collection sites. A dichotomous electrophoretic key is presented for the identification of sibling species of the An. quadrimaculatus complex. The electrophoretic method is better than the ovarian polytene chromosome method, because mosquitoes of both sexes and females irrespective of their gonotrophic condition can be identified.

  5. Addressing cultural incongruities of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Pacquiao, D

    2001-01-01

    Shared meanings and socially constructed realities have great significance to individuals and families facing critical illness, pain, suffering, or death. Actions are often based on the context of the professional and dominant societal culture. The concept of Advance Directives is consistent with the dominant value orientation in the American culture of self-reliance and individualism, which places a high premium on self-determination and control of one's own destiny. However, this value is not always consistent with the dominant cultural views of particular sick or dying individuals. Thus, at a time when individuals and their families need the most support, institutionalized care often creates incongruities and meaninglessness.

  6. [Effects of structure of self-knowledge on mood-incongruent effect].

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Michiko

    2006-08-01

    Some people recall more positive memories in negative moods than in neutral moods, which is called mood-incongruent effect. Although previous research suggested that structure of self-knowledge influences mood-incongruent effect (Sakaki, 2004), it is possible that motivation for mood-regulation mediates relation between structure of self-knowledge and mood-incongruent effect. The present study aimed at exploring this possibility by using self-complexity. In Study 1, participants with higher self-complexity, whose self-knowledge has more self-aspects with a higher level of differentiation, recalled more positive memories in negative moods (compared to neutral moods) than participants with lower self-complexity, whose self-knowledge has a fewer self-aspects with larger overlap. Study 1 also revealed that these effects hold even when the motivation for mood-regulation was partialed out. Study 2 examined mood-incongruent effect under positive moods, in which participants are unlikely motivated to alter their moods, and it was found that participants with higher self-complexity recalled more negative memories in positive moods (compared to neutral moods) than participants with lower self-complexity.

  7. A scalable and flexible approach for investigating the genomic landscapes of phylogenetic incongruence.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Arjun B; Mullikin, James C; Green, Eric D

    2013-03-01

    Analyses of DNA sequence datasets have repeatedly revealed inconsistencies in phylogenetic trees derived with different data. This is termed phylogenetic incongruence, and may arise from a methodological failure of the inference process or from biological processes, such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and introgression. To better understand patterns of incongruence, we developed a method (PartFinder) that uses likelihood ratios applied to sliding windows for visualizing tree-support changes across genome-sequence alignments, allowing the comparative examination of complex phylogenetic scenarios among many species. As a pilot, we used PartFinder to investigate incongruence in the Homo-Pan-Gorilla group as well as Platyrrhini using high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-derived sequences as well as assembled whole-genome shotgun sequences. Our simulations verified the sensitivity of PartFinder, and our results were comparable to other studies of the Homo-Pan-Gorilla group. Analyses of the whole-genome alignments reveal significant associations between support for the accepted species relationship and specific characteristics of the genomic regions, such as GC-content, alignment score, exon content, and conservation. Finally, we analyzed sequence data generated for five platyrrhine species, and found incongruence that suggests a polytomy within Cebidae, in particular. Together, these studies demonstrate the utility of PartFinder for investigating the patterns of phylogenetic incongruence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Supplement use in sport: is there a potentially dangerous incongruence between rationale and practice?

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2007-01-01

    Background Supplement use by athletes is complex and research supports the alarming notion of misinformed decisions regarding supplements. Hypothesis A frequent divergence between the type of supplements chosen by athletes and the rationale dictating the supplement use is hypothesized. Thus, a potentially dangerous incongruence may exist between rationale and practice. Testing the hypothesis In the continued absence of reliable data on supplement use, an alternative approach of studying the reasons underlying supplement use in athletes is proposed to determine whether there is an incongruence between rationale and practice. Existing data from large scale national surveys can be used to investigate this incongruence. Implications of the hypothesis In this report, analyses of distinctive patterns between the use and rationale for use of supplements among athletes are recommended to explore this potentially dangerous phenomenon. PMID:17535442

  9. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    PubMed

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  10. Object recognition in congruent and incongruent natural scenes: a life-span study.

    PubMed

    Rémy, F; Saint-Aubert, L; Bacon-Macé, N; Vayssière, N; Barbeau, E; Fabre-Thorpe, M

    2013-10-18

    Efficient processing of our complex visual environment is essential and many daily visual tasks rely on accurate and fast object recognition. It is therefore important to evaluate how object recognition performance evolves during the course of adulthood. Surprisingly, this ability has not yet been investigated in the aged population, although several neuroimaging studies have reported altered activity in high-level visual ventral regions when elderly subjects process natural stimuli. In the present study, color photographs of various objects embedded in contextual scenes were used to assess object categorization performance in 97 participants aged from 20 to 91. Objects were either animals or pieces of furniture, embedded in either congruent or incongruent contexts. In every age group, subjects showed reduced categorization performance, both in terms of accuracy and speed, when objects were seen in incongruent vs. congruent contexts. In subjects over 60 years old, object categorization was greatly slowed down when compared to young and middle-aged subjects. Moreover, subjects over 75 years old evidenced a significant decrease in categorization accuracy when objects were seen in incongruent contexts. This indicates that incongruence of the scene may be particularly disturbing in late adulthood, therefore impairing object recognition. Our results suggest that daily visual processing of complex natural environments may be less efficient with age, which might impact performance in everyday visual tasks.

  11. The Incongruency Advantage for Environmental Sounds Presented in Natural Auditory Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Gygi, Brian; Shafiro, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    The effect of context on the identification of common environmental sounds (e.g., dogs barking or cars honking) was tested by embedding them in familiar auditory background scenes (street ambience, restaurants). Initial results with subjects trained on both the scenes and the sounds to be identified showed a significant advantage of about 5 percentage points better accuracy for sounds that were contextually incongruous with the background scene (e.g., a rooster crowing in a hospital). Further studies with naïve (untrained) listeners showed that this Incongruency Advantage (IA) is level-dependent: there is no advantage for incongruent sounds lower than a Sound/Scene ratio (So/Sc) of −7.5 dB, but there is about 5 percentage points better accuracy for sounds with greater So/Sc. Testing a new group of trained listeners on a larger corpus of sounds and scenes showed that the effect is robust and not confined to specific stimulus set. Modeling using spectral-temporal measures showed that neither analyses based on acoustic features, nor semantic assessments of sound-scene congruency can account for this difference, indicating the Incongruency Advantage is a complex effect, possibly arising from the sensitivity of the auditory system to new and unexpected events, under particular listening conditions. PMID:21355664

  12. Neuroelectric Correlates of Pragmatic Emotional Incongruence Processing: Empathy Matters.

    PubMed

    Dozolme, Dorian; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2015-01-01

    The emotions people feel can be simulated internally based on emotional situational contexts. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral and neuroelectric effects of seeing an unexpected emotional facial expression. We investigated the correct answer rate, response times and Event-Related Potential (ERP) effects during an incongruence paradigm between emotional faces and sentential contexts allowing emotional inferences. Most of the 36 healthy participants were recruited from a larger population (1 463 subjects), based on their scores on the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ). Regression analyses were conducted on these ratings using EQ factors as predictors (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity and social skills). Recognition of pragmatic emotional incongruence was less accurate (P < .05) and slower (P < .05) than recognition of congruence. The incongruence effect on response times was inversely predicted by social skills. A significant N400 incongruence effect was found at the centro-parietal (P < .001) and centro-posterior midline (P < .01) electrodes. Cognitive empathy predicted the incongruence effect in the left occipital region, in the N400 time window. Finally, incongruence effects were also found on the LPP wave, in frontal midline and dorso-frontal regions, (P < .05), with no modulation by empathy. Processing pragmatic emotional incongruence is more cognitively demanding than congruence (as reflected by both behavioral and ERP data). This processing shows modulation by personality factors at the behavioral (through self-reported social skills) and neuroelectric levels (through self-reported cognitive empathy).

  13. Neuroelectric Correlates of Pragmatic Emotional Incongruence Processing: Empathy Matters

    PubMed Central

    Dozolme, Dorian; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2015-01-01

    The emotions people feel can be simulated internally based on emotional situational contexts. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral and neuroelectric effects of seeing an unexpected emotional facial expression. We investigated the correct answer rate, response times and Event-Related Potential (ERP) effects during an incongruence paradigm between emotional faces and sentential contexts allowing emotional inferences. Most of the 36 healthy participants were recruited from a larger population (1 463 subjects), based on their scores on the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ). Regression analyses were conducted on these ratings using EQ factors as predictors (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity and social skills). Recognition of pragmatic emotional incongruence was less accurate (P < .05) and slower (P < .05) than recognition of congruence. The incongruence effect on response times was inversely predicted by social skills. A significant N400 incongruence effect was found at the centro-parietal (P < .001) and centro-posterior midline (P < .01) electrodes. Cognitive empathy predicted the incongruence effect in the left occipital region, in the N400 time window. Finally, incongruence effects were also found on the LPP wave, in frontal midline and dorso-frontal regions, (P < .05), with no modulation by empathy. Processing pragmatic emotional incongruence is more cognitively demanding than congruence (as reflected by both behavioral and ERP data). This processing shows modulation by personality factors at the behavioral (through self-reported social skills) and neuroelectric levels (through self-reported cognitive empathy). PMID:26067672

  14. Neural substrates of incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hempelmann, Christian F; Huber, Oswald; Zysset, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the present paper analyzes the neural correlates of processing and appreciating incongruity-resolution and nonsense cartoons. Furthermore, the relation between experience seeking and these neural substrates was investigated as this personality characteristic is known to influence humor appreciation. In the processing of incongruity-resolution stimuli the incongruity of the joke is largely resolvable, whereas in nonsense stimuli it is only partially resolvable and more incongruity remains. The anterior medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral superior frontal gyri and temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ) show more activation during processing of incongruity-resolution than of nonsense cartoons. These differences indicate that processing of incongruity-resolution cartoons requires more integration of multi-sensory information and coherence building, as well as more mental manipulation and organization of information. In addition, less self-reference might be established in nonsense cartoons as it is more absurd and more often deals with impossible situations. Higher experience-seeking scores correlate with increased activation in prefrontal, posterior temporal regions and the hippocampus. This might be due to a more intense exploration of the humorous stimuli as experience seekers tend to search novel mental stimulation. Furthermore, experience seeking was positively associated with brain reactivity towards processing nonsense in contrast to incongruity-resolution stimuli, which is in line with behavioral studies that showed a preference for nonsense humor by experience seekers.

  15. Incongruence of mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees in the Carabid beetles Ohomopterus.

    PubMed

    Sota, T; Vogler, A P

    2001-02-01

    We studied the molecular phylogeny of the carabid subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus), using two mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (16SrRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) and three nuclear DNA regions (wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and an anonymous locus). We revisited the previously reported incongruence between the distribution of mtDNA markers and morphologically defined species (Su et al., 1996; J. Mol. Evol. 43:662-671), which those authors attributed to "type switching", a concerted change in many morphological characters that results in the repeated evolution of a particular morphological type. Our mtDNA gene tree obtained from 44 individuals representing all 15 currently recognized species of Ohomopterus revealed that haplotypes isolated from individuals of a single "species" were frequently separated into distant clades, confirming the previous report. The three nuclear markers generally conformed better-with the morphologically defined species than did the mitochondrial markers. The phylogenetic signal in mtDNA and nuclear DNA data differed strongly, and these two partitions were significantly incongruent with each other according to the incongruence length difference test of Farris et al. (1994; Cladistics 10:315-320), although the three nuclear partitions were not homogeneous either. Our results did not support the type-switching hypothesis that had been proposed to fit the morphological data to the mitochondrial gene tree: The incongruence of the mtDNA tree with other nuclear markers indicates that the mtDNA-based tree does not reflect species history any better than the morphological data do. Incongruence of gene trees in Ohomopterus may have been promoted by the complex processes of geographic isolation and hybridization in the Japanese Archipelago that have led to occasional gene flow and recombination between separated entities. The occurrence of reticulate patterns in this group is intriguing, because species of Ohomopterus exhibit

  16. Deep phylogenetic incongruence in the angiosperm clade Rosidae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Zhu, Xinyu; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of large data sets can help resolve difficult nodes in the tree of life and also reveal complex evolutionary histories. The placement of the Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales (COM) clade within Rosidae remains one of the most confounding phylogenetic questions in angiosperms, with previous analyses placing it with either Fabidae or Malvidae. To elucidate the position of COM, we assembled multi-gene matrices of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences, as well as large single- and multi-copy nuclear gene data sets. Analyses of multi-gene data sets demonstrate conflict between the chloroplast and both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets, and the results are robust to various character-coding and data-exclusion treatments. Analyses of single- and multi-copy nuclear loci indicate that most loci support the placement of COM with Malvidae, fewer loci support COM with Fabidae, and almost no loci support COM outside a clade of Fabidae and Malvidae. Although incomplete lineage sorting and ancient introgressive hybridization remain as plausible explanations for the conflict among loci, more complete sampling is necessary to evaluate these hypotheses fully. Our results emphasize the importance of genomic data sets for revealing deep incongruence and complex patterns of evolution.

  17. Tree disagreement: measuring and testing incongruence in phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Planet, Paul J

    2006-02-01

    The branching patterns of phylogenetic trees often disagree even when they have been constructed using different portions of the same data. This phylogenetic discord (incongruence) can be explained by real differences in evolutionary process or history, but also may be due simply to random chance or sampling error. Techniques for measuring and testing the significance of phylogenetic incongruence are used widely in systematic biology, and are necessary when considering genome-scale datasets composed of multiple genes that may or may not have different histories. They are also applicable wherever tree algorithms are used for ordering and interpreting data (e.g., DNA microarrays). Here, I review the different incongruence tests and use them to test the phylogenetic discord of a potentially mobile genetic element (the widespread colonization Island) in the gamma-proteobacteria. I then consider how incongruence tests may be used as a starting point for phylogenetic analysis that accounts for horizontal transfer and duplication events as explanations for homoplasy.

  18. Review of the literature: elbow incongruity in the dog.

    PubMed

    Samoy, Y; Van Ryssen, B; Gielen, I; Walschot, N; van Bree, H

    2006-01-01

    Elbow incongruity is the term to describe bad alignment of the joint surfaces of the elbow. Two features illustrate incongruity of the elbow: an abnormal shape of the ulnar trochlear notch and a step between the radius and ulna, caused by either a short radius or a short ulna. It has been suggested that both an elliptical notch, and a step, can cause increased local pressure within the joint, resulting in loose fragments at different locations: ununited anconeal process (UAP), fragmented coronoid process (FCP), osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral condyle (OCD). These lesions are grouped under the term 'elbow dysplasia' and are the most frequent causes of front leg lameness in the dog. Although several radiographic features to diagnose incongruity have been described, the 'scoring' of incongruity is subjective because there is currently no objective method to measure the degree of incongruity. Because superimposition is avoided, CT is suggested as a standard technique to measure incongruity. Arthroscopy on the other hand, allows the direct visualisation of the intra-articular structures and their abnormalities. Information on both techniques are still relatively new. Several surgical techniques have been proposed to restore joint congruity; the one most frequently used is an ulnar osteotomy. But because of possible complications, other techniques are being developed. Reports evaluating the results of the different techniques are not yet available.

  19. Resolving phylogenetic incongruence to articulate homology and phenotypic evolution: a case study from Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Erik J.; Baldwin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Modern morphology-based systematics, including questions of incongruence with molecular data, emphasizes analysis over similarity criteria to assess homology. Yet detailed examination of a few key characters, using new tools and processes such as computerized, three-dimensional ultrastructural reconstruction of cell complexes, can resolve apparent incongruence by re-examining primary homologies. In nematodes of Tylenchomorpha, a parasitic feeding phenotype is thus reconciled with immediate free-living outgroups. Closer inspection of morphology reveals phenotypes congruent with molecular-based phylogeny and points to a new locus of homology in mouthparts. In nematode models, the study of individually homologous cells reveals a conserved modality of evolution among dissimilar feeding apparati adapted to divergent lifestyles. Conservatism of cellular components, consistent with that of other body systems, allows meaningful comparative morphology in difficult groups of microscopic organisms. The advent of phylogenomics is synergistic with morphology in systematics, providing an honest test of homology in the evolution of phenotype. PMID:20106846

  20. Disconfirming (Double Bind) Effects of Incongruent Multi-Channel Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda; And Others

    In an experiment designed to explore the immediate disconfirming effects of strong and mild incongruent messages and the impact of certain contextual constraints on disconfirming effects, 192 male undergraduates evaluated videotaped examples of strong and mild sarcasm and joking and the complementary congruent forms of straightforward positive and…

  1. Audiovisual Perception of Congruent and Incongruent Dutch Front Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenier, Bea; Duyne, Jurriaan Y.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory perception of vowels in background noise is enhanced when combined with visually perceived speech features. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the influence of visual cues on vowel perception extends to incongruent vowels, in a manner similar to the McGurk effect observed with consonants. Method:…

  2. Audiovisual Perception of Congruent and Incongruent Dutch Front Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenier, Bea; Duyne, Jurriaan Y.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory perception of vowels in background noise is enhanced when combined with visually perceived speech features. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the influence of visual cues on vowel perception extends to incongruent vowels, in a manner similar to the McGurk effect observed with consonants. Method:…

  3. Generalizability Theory and Experimental Design: Incongruity between Analysis and Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Kenneth D.

    1984-01-01

    In behavior research using cognitive and affective measures, there is often incongruity between the statistical analysis employed and the intended inference. This paper argues that incorporating items as levels of a random facet via generalizability theory allows the statistical examination of the inferential question in the desired universe of…

  4. Phylogenetic incongruence in the Drosophila melanogaster species group

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Pool, John E.; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster and its close relatives are used extensively in comparative biology. Despite the importance of phylogenetic information for such studies, relationships between some melanogaster species group members are unclear due to conflicting phylogenetic signals at different loci. In this study, we use twelve nuclear loci (eleven coding and one non-coding) to assess the degree of phylogenetic incongruence in this model system. We focus on two nodes: (1) The node joining the D. erecta-D. orena, D. melanogaster-D. simulans, and D. yakuba-D. teissieri lineages, and (2) The node joining the lineages leading to the melanogaster, takahashii, and eugracilis subgroups. We find limited evidence for incongruence at the first node; our data, as well as those of several previous studies, strongly support monophyly of a clade consisting of D. erecta-D. orena and D. yakuba-D. teissieri. By contrast, using likelihood based tests of congruence, we find robust evidence for topological incongruence at the second node. Different loci support different relationships among the melanogaster, takahashii and eugracilis subgroups, and the observed incongruence is not easily attributable to homoplasy, non-equilibrium base composition, or positive selection on a subset of loci. We argue that lineage sorting in the common ancestor of these three subgroups is the most plausible explanation for our observations. Such lineage sorting may lead to biased estimation of tree topology and evolutionary rates, and may confound inferences of positive selection. PMID:17071113

  5. Phylogenetic incongruence arising from fragmented speciation in enteric bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Retchless, Adam C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among species are often assumed to be fundamentally unambiguous, where genes within a genome are thought to evolve in concert and phylogenetic incongruence between individual orthologs is attributed to idiosyncrasies in their evolution. We have identified substantial incongruence between the phylogenies of orthologous genes in Escherichia, Salmonella, and Citrobacter, or E. coli, E. fergusonii, and E. albertii. The source of incongruence was inferred to be recombination, because individual genes support conflicting topology more robustly than expected from stochastic sequence homoplasies. Clustering of phylogenetically informative sites on the genome indicated that the regions of recombination extended over several kilobases. Analysis of phylogenetically distant taxa resulted in consensus among individual gene phylogenies, suggesting that recombination is not ongoing; instead, conflicting relationships among genes in descendent taxa reflect recombination among their ancestors. Incongruence could have resulted from random assortment of ancestral polymorphisms if species were instantly created from the division of a recombining population. However, the estimated branch lengths in alternative phylogenies would require ancestral populations with far more diversity than is found in extant populations. Rather, these and previous data collectively suggest that genome-wide recombination rates decreased gradually, with variation in rate among loci, leading to pluralistic relationships among their descendent taxa. PMID:20534528

  6. Lifestyle incongruity, social integration, and immune function in Samoan adolescents.

    PubMed

    McDade, T W

    2001-11-01

    The health consequences of rapid cultural and economic change have been explored for adults in a range of low-income countries, but comparable research in children and adolescents is currently lacking. Concurrently, the immunosuppressive effects of psychosocial stress have been documented in Western populations, but have yet to be considered in cross-cultural contexts. This study uses lifestyle incongruity (inconsistency between a household's material style of life and its socioeconomic status) as a model of culture change and stress, and considers its impact on immune function in a sample of 230 10-20 year-olds from (Western) Samoa. Anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial data were collected, as well as finger prick blood spot samples for analysis of C-reactive protein (marker of infection) and antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus (marker of cell-mediated immune function). Controlling for potential confounders, adolescents from households with a material style of life that exceeds its socioeconomic status have reduced cell-mediated immune function, indicating an increased burden of psychosocial stress. Social relationships moderate this effect: lifestyle incongruity stress is pronounced among adolescents with a high degree of social integration, and absent in adolescents with low social integration. This finding is counter to the buffering role of social support reported in previous applications of lifestyle incongruity to adults, and suggests that the moderating role of social integration may be unique to adolescents. The potential utility of the lifestyle incongruity model for future cross-cultural studies of child and adolescent stress is discussed.

  7. Infant Perception of Incongruent Shapes in Cast Shadows

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A cast shadow occurs when an object blocks the light from an illumination and projects a dark region onto a surface. Previous studies have reported that adults are slower to identify an object when the object has an incongruent cast shadow than when it has a congruent cast shadow (Castiello, 2001). Here, we used the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to examine whether 5- to 8-month-old infants could detect the relationship between object shapes and cast shadows. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to detect incongruency between objects and cast shadows. Results showed that 7- to 8-month olds could detect incongruence between the object shapes and the cast shadows, whereas 5- to 6-month olds did not. Yet, our control experiment showed that infants could not detect this incongruence from stimuli in which a white outline had been added to the original cast shadow to decrease the possibility of it being perceived as a cast shadow (Experiment 2). The results of these experiments demonstrate that 7- to 8-month olds responded to the congruence of cast shadows and to consistent contrast polarity between the cast shadow and its background. PMID:28299167

  8. Semantic processing in children and adults: incongruity and the N400.

    PubMed

    Benau, Erik M; Morris, Joanna; Couperus, J W

    2011-06-01

    Semantic processing in 10-year-old children and adults was examined using event related potentials (ERPs). The N400 component, an index of semantic processing, was studied in relation to sentences that ended with congruent, moderately incongruent, or strongly incongruent words. N400 amplitude in adults corresponded to levels of semantic incongruity with the greatest amplitude occurring to strongly incongruent sentences at all midline electrodes. In contrast, children's N400s were greater for both moderately and strongly incongruent sentences but did not differ between these levels of incongruity. This finding suggests that semantic processing may differ in adults and children.

  9. Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification of gender identity-related conditions over time, and indicate how these changes were associated with the changes in conceptualization. A diagnosis of 'transsexualism' appeared first in DSM-III in 1980. This version also included a childhood diagnosis: gender identity disorder of childhood. As research about gender incongruence/gender dysphoria increased, the terminology, placement and criteria were reviewed in successive versions of the DSM. Changes in various aspects of the diagnosis, however, were not only based on research. Social and political factors contributed to the conceptualization of gender incongruence/gender dysphoria as well.

  10. ERPs of metaphoric, literal, and incongruous semantic processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iakimova, Galina; Passerieux, Christine; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Hardy-Bayle, Marie-Christine

    2005-07-01

    The ability of schizophrenia patients to access metaphorical meaning was studied on the basis of psycholinguistic models of metaphor processing. ERPs were recorded from 20 schizophrenic and 20 control participants who were asked to read metaphorical, literal, and incongruous sentences and to judge their meaningfulness. In all participants, incongruous endings to sentences evoked the most negative N400 amplitude, whereas literal endings evoked more negative N400 amplitude than metaphorical ones, consistent with the direct model of metaphor processing. Although the patients had ERPs patterns that were similar to controls, they exhibited a more negative N400 amplitude for all sentences, LPC amplitude reduction, and latency delay in both components. The results suggest that schizophrenics have no specific anomalies in accessing the meaning of metaphors but are less efficient in integrating the semantic context of all sentences--both figurative and literal.

  11. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  12. Phenotypic variation among Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: horizontal and vertical transmission of West Nile virus, diapause potential, autogeny, and host selection.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Brittany M; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause.

  13. N400 to lexical ambiguity and semantic incongruity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean

    2010-02-01

    Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant-meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts that schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and displayed generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England, UK.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Victor A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Prosser, Sean W J; Weland, Chris; Westcott, David G; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-08-15

    Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (An. maculipennis s.l.), identify the vertebrate hosts of field-caught blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. , and to test for the presence of myxoma virus (Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus) in specimens found to have fed on the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. were collected from resting sites at Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and September 2013. Hosts that An. maculipennis s.l. had fed on were determined by a PCR-sequencing approach based on the partial amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes were then identified to species by sequencing a region of the internal transcribed spacer-2. DNA extracts from all mosquitoes identified as having fed on rabbits were subsequently screened using PCR for the presence of myxoma virus. A total of 94 blood-fed Anopheles maculipennis s.l. were collected, of which 43 (46%) provided positive blood-meal identification results. Thirty-six of these specimens were identified as Anopheles atroparvus, which had fed on rabbit (n = 33, 92%) and cattle (n = 3, 8%). Seven mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles messeae, which had fed on cattle (n = 6, 86%) and dog (n = 1, 14%). Of the 33 An. atroparvus that contained rabbit blood, nine (27%) were positive for myxoma virus. Results demonstrate that a single DNA extract from a blood-fed mosquito can be successfully used for molecular identification of members of the An. maculipennis complex, blood

  15. Audiovisual congruency and incongruency effects on auditory intensity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoli; Li, Xuan; Ge, Xiaoli; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-01-01

    This study used a S1-S2 matching paradigm to investigate the influences of visual (size) change on auditory intensity discrimination. Behavioral results showed that subjects made more errors and spent more time to discriminate change in auditory intensity when it was accompanied by an incongruent visual change, while the performance for congruent audiovisual stimuli was better especially if there is a change in auditory stimuli. Event-related potential difference waves revealed that audiovisual interactions for multimodal mismatched information processing activated the right frontal and left centro-parietal cortices around 300-400 ms post S1-onset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Carvajal, Juan C.; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between the recording and playback room did affect distance perception. Consequently, the external perception of virtual sounds depends on the degree of congruency between the acoustical features of the environment and the stimuli.

  17. Daily life evidence of environment-incongruent emotion in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Amy H.; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Starr, Jessica N.; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have recently hypothesized that negative emotion in positive situations may be one mechanism for understanding emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia. Using ecological momentary assessment, we examined the relationship between emotion experience and environmental context in the daily lives of participants with and without schizophrenia. Participants with (n = 47) and without schizophrenia (n = 41) were provided a cellular telephone and called four times a day for one week. During each call participants rated their emotion experiences, described their current activities, and rated enjoyment from those activities. In line with previous research, participants with schizophrenia reported higher negative emotion overall relative to participants without schizophrenia, but equivalent levels of positive emotion and activity enjoyment. In line with the environment-incongruent negative emotion hypothesis, participants with schizophrenia evidenced a weaker relationship between reported enjoyment of current activities and current negative emotion compared to participants without schizophrenia. In addition, lower neurocognition predicted this weak relationship between negative emotion and context in the schizophrenia group. These findings provide ecologically valid support for environment-incongruent negative emotion in schizophrenia, and suggest that people with schizophrenia with more impaired neurocognition may have more difficulties regulating negative emotion. PMID:25124684

  18. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Carvajal, Juan C.; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between the recording and playback room did affect distance perception. Consequently, the external perception of virtual sounds depends on the degree of congruency between the acoustical features of the environment and the stimuli. PMID:27853290

  19. Multigenic phylogeny and analysis of tree incongruences in Triticeae (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Introgressive events (e.g., hybridization, gene flow, horizontal gene transfer) and incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms are a challenge for phylogenetic analyses since different genes may exhibit conflicting genealogical histories. Grasses of the Triticeae tribe provide a particularly striking example of incongruence among gene trees. Previous phylogenies, mostly inferred with one gene, are in conflict for several taxon positions. Therefore, obtaining a resolved picture of relationships among genera and species of this tribe has been a challenging task. Here, we obtain the most comprehensive molecular dataset to date in Triticeae, including one chloroplastic and 26 nuclear genes. We aim to test whether it is possible to infer phylogenetic relationships in the face of (potentially) large-scale introgressive events and/or incomplete lineage sorting; to identify parts of the evolutionary history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner; and to decipher the biological causes of gene-tree conflicts in this tribe. Results We obtain resolved phylogenetic hypotheses using the supermatrix and Bayesian Concordance Factors (BCF) approaches despite numerous incongruences among gene trees. These phylogenies suggest the existence of 4-5 major clades within Triticeae, with Psathyrostachys and Hordeum being the deepest genera. In addition, we construct a multigenic network that highlights parts of the Triticeae history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner. Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium and genera of clade V, grouping Secale, Taeniatherum, Triticum and Aegilops, have evolved in a reticulated manner. Their relationships are thus better represented by the multigenic network than by the supermatrix or BCF trees. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that gene-tree incongruences increase with genetic distance and are greater in telomeric than centromeric genes. Together, our results suggest that recombination is the main factor decoupling gene trees from

  20. Multigenic phylogeny and analysis of tree incongruences in Triticeae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan S; Scornavacca, Céline; Cenci, Alberto; Guilhaumon, Claire; Santoni, Sylvain; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Ranwez, Vincent; Glémin, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2011-06-24

    Introgressive events (e.g., hybridization, gene flow, horizontal gene transfer) and incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms are a challenge for phylogenetic analyses since different genes may exhibit conflicting genealogical histories. Grasses of the Triticeae tribe provide a particularly striking example of incongruence among gene trees. Previous phylogenies, mostly inferred with one gene, are in conflict for several taxon positions. Therefore, obtaining a resolved picture of relationships among genera and species of this tribe has been a challenging task. Here, we obtain the most comprehensive molecular dataset to date in Triticeae, including one chloroplastic and 26 nuclear genes. We aim to test whether it is possible to infer phylogenetic relationships in the face of (potentially) large-scale introgressive events and/or incomplete lineage sorting; to identify parts of the evolutionary history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner; and to decipher the biological causes of gene-tree conflicts in this tribe. We obtain resolved phylogenetic hypotheses using the supermatrix and Bayesian Concordance Factors (BCF) approaches despite numerous incongruences among gene trees. These phylogenies suggest the existence of 4-5 major clades within Triticeae, with Psathyrostachys and Hordeum being the deepest genera. In addition, we construct a multigenic network that highlights parts of the Triticeae history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner. Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium and genera of clade V, grouping Secale, Taeniatherum, Triticum and Aegilops, have evolved in a reticulated manner. Their relationships are thus better represented by the multigenic network than by the supermatrix or BCF trees. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that gene-tree incongruences increase with genetic distance and are greater in telomeric than centromeric genes. Together, our results suggest that recombination is the main factor decoupling gene trees from multigenic trees. Our

  1. How Many Genes are Needed to Resolve Phylogenetic Incongruence?

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bin; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The question how many genes are needed to resolve phylogenetic incongruence has been investigated at various taxonomic levels, yet few studies have investigated the minimum required numbers of selected genes based on single-gene tree performance at the genus level or lower. We conducted resampling analyses by compiling transcriptome-based single-copy nuclear gene sequences of 11 species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae) to investigate the minimum numbers of both random and selected genes needed to resolve the phylogeny. Only 8 of the 26 selected genes were sufficient for full resolution, while 175 genes were needed if all 830 random genes were used. Our results provided a baseline for future sampling strategies of gene numbers in molecular phylogenetic studies of speciose taxa. The gene selection strategies based on single-gene tree performance are strongly recommended in phylogenic analyses. PMID:26309387

  2. How Many Genes are Needed to Resolve Phylogenetic Incongruence?

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The question how many genes are needed to resolve phylogenetic incongruence has been investigated at various taxonomic levels, yet few studies have investigated the minimum required numbers of selected genes based on single-gene tree performance at the genus level or lower. We conducted resampling analyses by compiling transcriptome-based single-copy nuclear gene sequences of 11 species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae) to investigate the minimum numbers of both random and selected genes needed to resolve the phylogeny. Only 8 of the 26 selected genes were sufficient for full resolution, while 175 genes were needed if all 830 random genes were used. Our results provided a baseline for future sampling strategies of gene numbers in molecular phylogenetic studies of speciose taxa. The gene selection strategies based on single-gene tree performance are strongly recommended in phylogenic analyses.

  3. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction.

  4. The rapid distraction of attentional resources toward the source of incongruent stimulus input during multisensory conflict

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Todisco, Alexandra E.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audiovisual conflict paradigm with a sensory probe in the task-irrelevant modality (vision) to gauge the attentional allocation to that modality. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as subjects attended to and discriminated spoken auditory letters while ignoring simultaneous bilateral visual letter stimuli that were either fully congruent, fully incongruent, or partially incongruent (one side incongruent, one congruent) with the auditory stimulation. Half of the audiovisual letter stimuli were followed 500-700 ms later by a bilateral visual probe stimulus. As expected, ERPs to the audiovisual stimuli showed an incongruency ERP effect (fully incongruent versus fully congruent) of an enhanced, centrally distributed, negative-polarity wave starting ~250 ms. More critically here, the sensory ERP components to the visual probes were larger when they followed fully incongruent versus fully congruent multisensory stimuli, with these enhancements greatest on fully incongruent trials with the slowest response times. In addition, on the slowest-response partially incongruent trials, the P2 sensory component to the visual probes was larger contralateral to the preceding incongruent visual stimulus. These data suggest that, in response to conflicting multisensory stimulus input, the initial cognitive effect is a capture of attention by the incongruent irrelevant-modality input, pulling neural processing resources toward that modality, resulting in rapid enhancement, rather than rapid suppression, of that input. PMID:23249355

  5. Undescribed Setae in Larvae of Culicidae (Diptera)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-01

    ABSTRACT. An unnamed pair of setae (two pairs in some species groups) on the larval cervical membrane in all genera of Culicidae examined is des- cribed...ventrolat- era1 seta was noted on the cervical membrane by the senior author. Further research confirmed its presence in all culicid genera for...referred to them as cervical hairs and recorded their length and branching in third and fourth stage larvae of the four Aedes species he studied

  6. Semantic Processing in Children and Adults: Incongruity and the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benau, Erik M.; Morris, Joanna; Couperus, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic processing in 10-year-old children and adults was examined using event related potentials (ERPs). The N400 component, an index of semantic processing, was studied in relation to sentences that ended with congruent, moderately incongruent, or strongly incongruent words. N400 amplitude in adults corresponded to levels of semantic…

  7. The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

  8. Semantic Processing in Children and Adults: Incongruity and the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benau, Erik M.; Morris, Joanna; Couperus, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic processing in 10-year-old children and adults was examined using event related potentials (ERPs). The N400 component, an index of semantic processing, was studied in relation to sentences that ended with congruent, moderately incongruent, or strongly incongruent words. N400 amplitude in adults corresponded to levels of semantic…

  9. Dysesthesia symptoms produced by sensorimotor incongruence in healthy volunteers: an electroencephalogram study

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Osamu; Osumi, Michihiro; Kodama, Takayuki; Morioka, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pathological pain such as phantom limb pain is caused by sensorimotor incongruence. Several studies with healthy participants have clearly indicated that dysesthesia, which is similar to pathological pain, is caused by incongruence between proprioception and/or motor intention and visual feedback. It is not clear to what extent dysesthesia may be caused by incongruence between motor intention and visual feedback or by incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback. The aim of this study was to clarify the neurophysiology of these factors by analyzing electroencephalograms (EEGs). Methods In total, 18 healthy participants were recruited for this study. Participants were asked to perform repetitive flexion/extension exercises with their elbows in a congruent/incongruent position while viewing the activity in a mirror. EEGs were performed to determine cortical activation during sensorimotor congruence and incongruence. Results In the high-frequency alpha band (10–12 Hz), numeric rating scale scores of a feeling of peculiarity were significantly correlated with event-related desynchronization/synchronization under the incongruence and proprioception conditions associated with motor intention and visual feedback (right inferior parietal region; r=−0.63, P<0.01) and between proprioception and visual feedback (right temporoparietal region; r=−0.49 and r=−0.50, P<0.05). In these brain regions, there was a region in which incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback and between motor intention and visual feedback caused an increase in activity. Conclusion The present findings suggest that neural mechanisms of dysesthesia are caused by incongruence between proprioception associated with motor intention and visual feedback and, in particular, are a result of incongruence between proprioception only and visual feedback. PMID:27994482

  10. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  11. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Cellia) dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Southeast Asian Leucosphyrus Group. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 82: 319–328. Baimai... Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 38: 79–89. Kirnowardoyo, S. 1985. Status of Anopheles malaria vectors in Indonesia. The...world, Supplement II (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 65: 117–140. Stone, A.; J. E. Scanlon; D. L

  12. Sensory incongruence leading to hand disownership modulates somatosensory cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuru, Naofumi; Hashizume, Akira; Nakamura, Daichi; Endo, Yuuki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Yuge, Louis

    2014-09-01

    The sense of body ownership is based on integration of multimodal sensory information, including tactile sensation, proprioception, and vision. Distorted body ownership contributes to the development of chronic pain syndromes and possibly symptoms of psychiatric disease. However, the effects of disownership on cortical processing of somatosensory information are unknown. In the present study, we created a "disownership" condition in healthy individuals by manipulating the visual information indicating the location of the subject's own left hand using a mirror box and examined the influence of this disownership on cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the left index finger using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The event-related magnetic field in the right primary somatosensory cortex at approximately 50 msec (M50) after stimulus was enhanced under the disownership condition. The present results suggest that M50 reflects a cortical incongruence detection mechanism involving integration of sensory inputs from visual and proprioceptive systems. This signal may be valuable for future studies of the mechanisms underlying sense of body ownership and the role that disrupted sense of ownership has in neurological disease.

  13. Caregivers' incongruence: emotional strain in caring for persons with stroke.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Linda L; Thompson, Teresa L; Govoni, Amy L; Steiner, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the dimensions of new family caregivers' emotional strain in caring for persons with stroke. Seventy-three caregivers who were new to that role participated in an interview every 2 weeks for a year as part of a NIH project. Of these caregivers, 36 participants were randomly assigned and had access to a Web-based intervention and its e-mail discussion. In this secondary data analysis, 2,148 e-mail discussion messages plus 2,455 narrative interview entries were used to examine dimensions of caregivers' emotional strain. Rigorous content analysis was applied to these data. The majority of these caregivers were white women with an average of 55 years who cared for spouses. Three themes emerged from these data: (1) being worried, (2) running on empty, and (3) losing self. Caregivers worried about themselves and their care recipient, sharing feelings of being just "plain tired." The caregivers felt that their lives were lost to giving care. They described in detail the emotional strain that they felt, as they took on new roles in caring for the person with stroke. This study informs nurses about new family caregivers' emotional strain, or incongruence in Friedemann's terms, from their viewpoint and provides direction for supportive education interactions. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  14. Caregivers’ Incongruence: Emotional Strain in Caring for Persons with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Linda. L.; Thompson, Teresa L.; Govoni, Amy L.; Steiner, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with stroke who were new to that role participated in an interview every two weeks for a year as part of a NIH project. Of these caregivers, 36 participants were randomly assigned and had access to a web-based intervention and its email discussion. In this secondary data analysis guided by Friedemann’s framework, 2148 email discussion messages plus 2455 narrative interview entries were used to examine dimensions of caregivers’ emotional strain in caring for persons with stroke. Rigorous content analysis was applied to these data. Three themes emerged: 1) being worried, 2) running on empty, and 3) losing self. Caregivers worried about themselves and their care recipient, sharing feelings of being just “plain tired.” They felt that their lives were lost to giving care. This study informs nurses about caregivers’ emotional strain, or incongruence in Friedemann’s terms, from their viewpoint and provides direction for supportive education interactions. PMID:22949279

  15. Incongruence between nurses' and patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Julie; O'Connell, Beverly

    2009-06-01

    To explore nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and nurses' perceptions of patients' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation. Within the context of a broadening appreciation of the benefits of rehabilitation, interest in the nature of rehabilitation is growing. Some believe that rehabilitation services do not adequately meet the needs of patients. Others are interested in the readiness of patients to participate in rehabilitation. Qualitative. Grounded theory using data collected during interviews with nurses in five inpatient rehabilitation units and during observation of the nurses' everyday practice. According to nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation units, there is a marked incongruence between nurses' understandings and expectations of rehabilitation and what they perceive patients to understand and expect. Given these different understandings, an important nursing role is the education of patients about the nature of rehabilitation and how to optimise their rehabilitation. Before patients are transferred to rehabilitation, the purpose and nature of rehabilitation, in particular the roles of patients and nurses, needs to be explained to them. The understandings of rehabilitation that nurses in this study possessed provide a framework for the design of education materials and orientation programmes that inform patients (and their families) about rehabilitation. In addition, reinforcement of the differences between acute care and rehabilitation will assist patients new to rehabilitation to understand the central role that they themselves can play in their recovery.

  16. Inferring Kangaroo Phylogeny from Incongruent Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew J.; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C.; Gibb, Gillian C.; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression. PMID:23451266

  17. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C; Gibb, Gillian C; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  18. Belief incongruence and the intention-behavior gap in persons with at-risk alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Sophie; Gaertner, Beate; Schnuerer, Inga; Haberecht, Katja; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2015-09-01

    When intentions are expressed, e.g., when filling in a health questionnaire, people may have unrealistic beliefs towards behavior change resulting in strong intentions to change. These may fail to correspond to reality when the behavior actually should be performed. Belief incongruence was tested as a possible source of the intention-behavior gap. The study sample consisted of 433 job agency clients with at-risk alcohol use (64% men, mean age=30.6 (SD=11.6) years). Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, intention, and alcohol use were assessed at baseline and three months later. The influence of belief incongruence on the intention-behavior gap was examined using latent interaction models. The gap between stated intentions and at-risk alcohol use three months later was larger when the according normative beliefs were incongruent (total effect: b=-0.44, p<0.05 for persons with congruent beliefs vs. b=-0.06, p>0.10 for persons with incongruent beliefs). When controlling for the mediating effect of changes in intentions, the association between belief incongruence and intention-behavior gap was attenuated (direct effect: b=-0.56, p<0.01 for persons with congruent beliefs vs. b=-0.28, p<0.05 for persons with incongruent beliefs). Neither behavioral belief incongruence nor control belief incongruence was significantly associated with the intention-behavior gap. Normative belief incongruence may contribute to the gap between intentions to adhere to recommended drinking limits and subsequent at-risk alcohol use. Focusing on the reduction of misperceptions about drinking norms could help to increase the proportion of persons who succeed in translating their intentions into behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain waves associated with musical incongruities differ for musicians and non-musicians.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Faïta, F; Requin, J

    1994-02-28

    Musicians and non-musicians were presented with short musical phrases that were either selected from the classical musical repertoire or composed for the experiment. The phrases terminated either in a congruous or a 'harmonically', 'melodically', or 'rhythmically' incongruous note. The brain waves produced by the end-notes differed greatly between musicians and non-musicians, and as a function of the subject's familiarity with the melodies and the type of incongruity. The timing of these brain waves revealed that musicians are faster than non-musicians in detecting incongruities. This study provides further neurophysiological evidence concerning the mechanisms underlying music perception and the differences between musical and linguistic processing.

  20. Resolving incongruence: Species of hybrid origin in Columnea (Gesneriaceae).

    PubMed

    Smith, James F; Clark, John L; Amaya-Márquez, Marisol; Marín-Gómez, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets. Discrepancies between data partitions may result from several factors including poor support, incomplete lineage sorting, or hybridization. A phylogenetic analysis of species in Columnea (Gesneriaceae) indicated significant incongruencies between the cpDNA and nrDNA datasets. Tests that examined whether one or both of the datasets had the phylogenetic signal to reject the topology of the alternate dataset (Shimodaira and Hasegawa [SH] and approximately unbiased [AU] tests) indicated significant differences between the topologies. Splitstree analyses also showed that there was support for the placement of the discrepant taxa in both datasets and that the combined data placed the putative hybrid species in an intermediate position between the two datasets. The genealogical sorting index (GSI) implied that coalescence in nrDNA had occurred in all species where more than a single individual had been sampled, but the GSI value was lower for the cpDNA of most of the putative hybrids, implying that these regions have not yet coalesced in these lineages despite being haploid. The JML test that evaluates simulated species pairwise distances against observed distances also implies that observed nrDNA data generate shorter distances than simulated data, implying hybridization. It is most likely that C. gigantifolia, C. rubriacuta, and C. sp. nov. represent a lineage from a hybrid ancestor

  1. Accessing Information in Memory-Based Impression Judgments: Incongruity versus Negativity in Retrieval Selectivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    cognitive searzh for information in memory-based per- son judgments is explored by examining an incongruity hypothesis and a negativity hypothesis. The...Accessing Information in Memory-Based Impression Judgments: Incongruity Vs Negativity in Retrieval Selectivity Recent social cognition research has...recently or decide to hire someone based on memory of a job interview. Such judgments depend on how people organize, search, and access the cognitive

  2. A neurophysiological signature of motivational incongruence: EEG changes related to insufficient goal satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Stein, Maria; Egenolf, Yvonne; Dierks, Thomas; Caspar, Franz; Koenig, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Human behavior and psychological functioning is motivated and guided by individual goals. Motivational incongruence refers to states of insufficient goal satisfaction and is tightly related to psychological problems and even psychopathology. In the present study, individual levels of motivational incongruence were assessed with the incongruence-questionnaire (INC) in a healthy sample. In addition, multi-channel resting-state EEG was measured. Individual variations of EEG synchronization and spectral power were related to individual levels of motivational incongruence. For significant correlations, the relation to intracerebral sources of electrical brain activity was investigated with sLORETA. The results indicate that, even in a healthy sample with rather low degrees of motivational incongruence, this insufficient goal satisfaction is related to consistent changes in resting state brain activity. Upper Alpha band attenuation seems to be most indicative of increased levels of motivational incongruence. This is reflected not only in significantly reduced functional connectivity, but also in changes regarding the level of brain activation, as indicated by significant effects in the spectral power and LORETA analyses. Results are related to research investigating the upper Alpha band and are discussed in the framework of Grawe's consistency theory.

  3. The Stroop incongruity effect: Congruity relationship reaches beyond the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Hatukai, Tatiana; Algom, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Stroop objects are defined by the existence of a logical relationship, congruity or incongruity, between their constituent dimensions. The Stroop effect is the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent stimuli with respect to one of these dimensions. However, the pair of Stroop generating dimensions does not exhaust all dimensions of the object. In this study, we examined performance with respect to a third non-Stroop dimension of an otherwise Stroop object, a dimension that is unrelated to those generating the Stroop effect. We witnessed a reversal of the usual Stroop pattern with respect to the third dimension, the Incongruity Effect. Performance was superior with Stroop-incongruent stimuli despite the fact that congruity was defined with respect to another pair of dimensions. In 8 experiments, we first documented the Incongruity Effect and then tested possible explanations. We conclude that the best account is associated with the notion that Stroop-incongruent stimuli engender negative affect that people strive to swiftly terminate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Post-conflict slowing after incongruent stimuli: from general to conflict-specific.

    PubMed

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2017-05-01

    Encountering a cognitive conflict not only slows current performance, but it can also affect subsequent performance, in particular when the conflict is induced with bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two different tasks) or with incongruent trials (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two response alternatives). The post-conflict slowing following bivalent stimuli, called "bivalency effect", affects all subsequent stimuli, irrespective of whether the subsequent stimuli share relevant features with the conflict stimuli. To date, it is unknown whether the conflict induced by incongruent stimuli results in a similar post-conflict slowing. To investigate this, we performed six experiments in which participants switched between two tasks. In one task, incongruent stimuli appeared occasionally; in the other task, stimuli shared no feature with the incongruent trials. The results showed an initial performance slowing that affected all tasks after incongruent trials. On further trials, however, the slowing only affected the task sharing features with the conflict stimuli. Therefore, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is first general and then becomes conflict-specific across trials. These findings are discussed within current task switching and cognitive control accounts.

  5. Exploring physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns: Learning from incongruent communication.

    PubMed

    Gorawara-Bhat, R; Hafskjold, L; Gulbrandsen, P; Eide, H

    2017-11-01

    Explore physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns in consultations with older-patients. Two teams independently coded a sample of Norwegian consultations (n=24) on verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication using VR-CoDES and NDEPT instruments. Consultations exploring older-patients' verbal emotional expressions were labeled 'Acknowledging of patients' emotional expressions', and 'Distancing from patients' emotional expressions.' Based on type and extent of nonverbal expressiveness, consultations were labeled 'Affective' and 'Prescriptive.' Congruency of verbal and nonverbal communication was assessed and categorized into four types. Incongruent consultations were qualitatively analyzed. Types 1 and 2 consultations were described as 'Congruent,' i.e. both verbal and nonverbal behaviors facilitate or inhibit emotional expressions. Types 3 and 4 were considered 'Incongruent,' i.e. verbal inhibits, but nonverbal facilitates emotional expressions or vice versa. Type 3 incongruent encounters occurred most often when it was challenging to meet patients' needs. Frequently physicians' display incongruent behavior in challenging situations. Older patients' may perceive this as either alleviating or increasing distress, depending on their needs. Type 3 consultations may shed light on reasons for physicians' incongruent behavior; therefore, independent measurement and analyses of verbal and nonverbal communication are recommended. Older-patients' perceptions of incongruent communication should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520) reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%), creatine (36.1%), whey protein (30.6%), iron (29.8%), caffeine (23.8%), and ginseng (8.3%) for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%), doctors' advice (24.2%), enhancing endurance (20.0%), ability to train longer (13.3%), and provided by the governing body (3.8%). Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ < .7). The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, χ2 = 49.14, p < .001; ϕ = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, χ2 = 97.08, p < .001; ϕ = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, χ2 = 97.82, p < .001; ϕ = .434, p < .001). Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements

  7. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  8. [The integration of spatial frequency-based information in scene perception: evidence from spatially incongruent images].

    PubMed

    Kihara, Ken; Takeda, Yuji

    2011-10-01

    Humans can recognize a complex natural scene even when it appears only briefly. The rapid recognition of natural scenes is accomplished by parallel processing of information based on multiple spatial frequencies and integration of this information. Previous studies have revealed the time course of integration of frequency-based information. However, it is still unclear how frequency-based information is integrated. There are two possible levels for the integration: One involves spatial integration of images and constructs a unified image, and the other entails semantic integration associated with the scene context level irrespective of spatial arrangements. We investigated the categorization accuracy of the low + high-pass images, in which a left-right mirror reversed low-pass image was superimposed on a nonreversed high-pass image or vice versa. In this context, the low+high-pass images were semantically integrable but spatially incongruent. The results indicated that accuracy of the low+high-pass images did not exceed the expected accuracy level estimated from separate presentations. This finding suggests that frequency-based information can be integrated spatially.

  9. Pictorial Keys for the Identification of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Associated With Dengue Virus Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-03

    a new species (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 88(4), 634–649. Huang, Y.M. (1990) The subgenus Stegomyia...mosquitoes of the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 103(1), 1–53. Huang, Y.M. and Ward...female of Aedes (Finlaya) niveus (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- ton, 100(4), 824–827. Knight, K.L

  10. The psychophysics of comic: Effects of incongruity in causality and animacy.

    PubMed

    Parovel, Giulia; Guidi, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    According to several theories of humour (see Berger, 2012; Martin, 2007), incongruity - i.e., the presence of two incompatible meanings in the same situation - is a crucial condition for an event being evaluated as comical. The aim of this research was to test with psychophysical methods the role of incongruity in visual perception by manipulating the causal paradigm (Michotte, 1946/1963) to get a comic effect. We ran three experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the role of speed ratio between the first and the second movement, and the effect of animacy cues (i.e. frog-like and jumping-like trajectories) in the second movement; in Experiment 2, we manipulated the temporal delay between the movements to explore the relationship between perceptual causal contingencies and comic impressions; in Experiment 3, we compared the strength of the comic impressions arising from incongruent trajectories based on animacy cues with those arising from incongruent trajectories not based on animacy cues (bouncing and rotating) in the second part of the causal event. General findings showed that the paradoxical juxtaposition of a living behaviour in the perceptual causal paradigm is a powerful factor in eliciting comic appreciations, coherently with the Bergsonian perspective in particular (Bergson, 2003), and with incongruity theories in general.

  11. Norming the odd: creation, norming, and validation of a stimulus set for the study of incongruities across music and language.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Cara R; Waterman, Mitch G; Morrison, Catriona M

    2012-03-01

    Research into similarities between music and language processing is currently experiencing a strong renewed interest. Recent methodological advances have led to neuroimaging studies presenting striking similarities between neural patterns associated with the processing of music and language--notably, in the study of participants' responses to elements that are incongruous with their musical or linguistic context. Responding to a call for greater systematicity by leading researchers in the field of music and language psychology, this article describes the creation, selection, and validation of a set of auditory stimuli in which both congruence and resolution were manipulated in equivalent ways across harmony, rhythm, semantics, and syntax. Three conditions were created by changing the contexts preceding and following musical and linguistic incongruities originally used for effect by authors and composers: Stimuli in the incongruous-resolved condition reproduced the original incongruity and resolution into the same context; stimuli in the incongruous-unresolved condition reproduced the incongruity but continued postincongruity with a new context dictated by the incongruity; and stimuli in the congruous condition presented the same element of interest, but the entire context was adapted to match it so that it was no longer incongruous. The manipulations described in this article rendered unrecognizable the original incongruities from which the stimuli were adapted, while maintaining ecological validity. The norming procedure and validation study resulted in a significant increase in perceived oddity from congruous to incongruous-resolved and from incongruous-resolved to incongruous-unresolved in all four components of music and language, making this set of stimuli a theoretically grounded and empirically validated resource for this growing area of research.

  12. Does incongruence of lexicosemantic and prosodic information cause discernible cognitive conflict?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    We are often required to interpret discordant emotional signals. Whereas equivalent cognitive paradigms cause noticeable conflict via their behavioral and psychophysiological effects, the same may not necessarily be true for discordant emotions. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rates (HRs) were measured during a classic Stroop task and one in which the emotions conveyed by lexicosemantic content and prosody were congruent or incongruent. The participants' task was to identify the emotion conveyed by lexicosemantic content or prosody. No relationship was observed between HR and congruence. SCR was higher during incongruent than during congruent conditions of the experimental task (as well as in the classic Stroop task), but no difference in SCR was observed in a comparison between congruence effects during lexicosemantic emotion identification and those during prosodic emotion identification. It is concluded that incongruence between lexicosemantic and prosodic emotion does cause notable cognitive conflict. Functional neuroanatomic implications are discussed.

  13. Phylogenetic incongruence inferred with two mitochondrial genes in Mepraia spp. and Triatoma eratyrusiformis(Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Solari, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely used to clarify phylogenetic relationships among and within species, and to determine population structure. Due to the linked nature of mtDNA genes it is expected that different genes will show similar results. Phylogenetic incongruence using mtDNA genes may result from processes such as heteroplasmy, nuclear integration of mitochondrial genes, polymerase errors, contamination, and recombination. In this study we used sequences from two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) from the wild vectors of Chagas disease, Triatoma eratyrusiformis and Mepraia species to test for topological congruence. The results showed some cases of phylogenetic incongruence due to misplacement of four haplotypes of four individuals. We discuss the possible causes of such incongruence and suggest that the explanation is an intra-individual variation likely due to heteroplasmy. This phenomenon is an independent evidence of common ancestry between these taxa. PMID:26500444

  14. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-04-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M(age)=10.81 years, SD=1.05). On average, relationships were less favorable for the Moroccan-Dutch students only. However, the effects of ethnic incongruence were most pronounced among students with strong perceived inattention/hyperactivity and among teachers endorsing lower levels of multiculturalism (the view that different cultures deserve equal treatment). Results support the notion that ethnically incongruent relationships may be perceived as less favorable than ethnically congruent ones due to cultural misunderstandings and intergroup bias. Practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do metrical incongruities disrupt semantic processing in modern Chinese? An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the relationship between prosody and semantic processing in the written form of modern Chinese by analysing behavioural data and event-related potential data. By manipulating the number of noun syllables in verb-objection, we compare the dynamic neural mechanisms of the structure bisyllabic verb (V2)+monosyllabic noun (N1) (i.e. V2+N1) with V2+N1 (N2, bisyllabic noun). In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern V2+N1 is considered to be a metrical incongruity, whereas V2+N2 is considered to be a metrical congruity. For example, the verb yunshu (to transport) can be followed by liangshi (cereals). However, if yunshu is followed by liang (cereals), yunshu liang is usually considered to be metrically incongruous. This paper shows that (i) V2+N1 elicited more negative amplitudes than V2+N2 in the 90-170 ms and 450-500 ms windows, which indicates that metrical incongruities affect semantic processing in Chinese, and (ii) the acceptance rate for V2+N1 is significantly lower than that of V2+N2, which implies that metrical incongruities disrupt semantic processing in modern Chinese. These results are in agreement with previous studies. This is the first study to find that metrical incongruities disrupt semantic processing in Chinese. This study provides convergent evidence that metrical congruities facilitate semantic processing, whereas metrical incongruities disrupt semantic processing. Video abstract available (Supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A340).

  16. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  17. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential

    PubMed Central

    Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression. PMID:27736931

  18. Dealing with dissonance: responding to an incongruent test result in a new media environment.

    PubMed

    Vraga, Emily K

    2011-11-01

    In a new media environment replete with opportunities to test and express political identity, this study examines how people respond when confronted with a political test result that contradicts their partisan affiliation. An incongruent test result should produce motivated processing, but only when individuals do not dismiss the incongruent result will they experience dissonance and alter their social identification. Using a series of experiments, the results of this study supported these hypotheses. Implications of these findings for political psychology and message response are discussed.

  19. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  20. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Diptera Ð Culicidae). Guayaquil Univ., Guayaquil, Ecuador. Levi-Castillo, R. 1945. Los anofelinos de la Republica del Ecuador, vol. 1: 1Ð172. Artes ...BritishMuseumNatural History, Lon- don, England. Vargas, L., and A. Martinez Palacios. 1956. Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion. Secretaria

  1. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  2. Low motivational incongruence predicts successful EEG resting-state neurofeedback performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-12-20

    Neurofeedback is becoming increasingly sophisticated and widespread, although predictors of successful performance still remain scarce. Here, we explored the possible predictive value of psychological factors and report the results obtained from a neurofeedback training study designed to enhance the self-regulation of spontaneous EEG microstates of a particular type (microstate class D). Specifically, we were interested in life satisfaction (including motivational incongruence), body awareness, personality and trait anxiety. These variables were quantified with questionnaires before neurofeedback. Individual neurofeedback success was established by means of linear mixed models that accounted for the amount of observed target state (microstate class D contribution) as a function of time and training condition: baseline, training and transfer (results shown in Diaz Hernandez et al.). We found a series of significant negative correlations between motivational incongruence and mean percentage increase of microstate D during the condition transfer, across-sessions (36% of common variance) and mean percentage increase of microstate D during the condition training, within-session (42% of common variance). There were no significant correlations related to other questionnaires, besides a trend in a sub-scale of the Life Satisfaction questionnaire. We conclude that motivational incongruence may be a potential predictor for neurofeedback success, at least in the current protocol. The finding may be explained by the interfering effect on neurofeedback performance produced by incompatible simultaneously active psychological processes, which are indirectly measured by the Motivational Incongruence questionnaire. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…

  4. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Semantic Incongruity Processing by People with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Howard; Sharma, Simeran; Wheelwright, Sally; Barrett, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a physiological measure of impaired use of context could be obtained in people with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). The experimental paradigm employed was the use of electroencephalography to measure the detection of semantic incongruity within written sentences, as indexed by an N400 event-related…

  5. Case Management of the Gender Incongruity Syndrome in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higham, Eileen

    1976-01-01

    Evidence from both normal and incongruous gender differentiation shows that a rehabilitative rather than a curative approach may be an effect form of treatment for some gender transpositions. The approach to gender disturbances is consonant with the American Psychiatric Association's discontinuance of defining all homosexuality as a disease.…

  6. The Performance of the Mantel-Haenszel DIF Statistic When Comparison Group Distributions Are Incongruent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The functioning of two population-based Mantel-Haenszel (MH) common-odds ratios was compared. One ratio is conditioned on the observed test score, while the other is conditioned on a latent trait or true ability score. When the comparison group distributions are incongruent or nonoverlapping to some degree, the observed score represents different…

  7. Case Management of the Gender Incongruity Syndrome in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higham, Eileen

    1976-01-01

    Evidence from both normal and incongruous gender differentiation shows that a rehabilitative rather than a curative approach may be an effect form of treatment for some gender transpositions. The approach to gender disturbances is consonant with the American Psychiatric Association's discontinuance of defining all homosexuality as a disease.…

  8. Ethnic Incongruence and the Student-Teacher Relationship: The Perspective of Ethnic Majority Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-01-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M[subscript age] = 10.81 years, SD = 1.05).…

  9. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…

  10. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  11. The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-08-21

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

  12. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout

    PubMed Central

    DeFreese, J. D.; Mihalik, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Context Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. Objective To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Patients or Other Participants Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Main Outcome Measure(s) Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Results Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P < .001), workload incongruence (β = .12, P < .05), and social support (β = −.25, P < .001) predicted global AT burnout. Negative social interactions trended toward significance (β = .12, P = .055). Our findings suggest that stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked

  13. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    PubMed

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P < .001), workload incongruence (β = .12, P < .05), and social support (β = -.25, P < .001) predicted global AT burnout. Negative social interactions trended toward significance (β = .12, P = .055). Our findings suggest that stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be

  14. Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Savage, Harry M; Anderson, Michael; Gordon, Emily; McMillen, Larry; Colton, Leah; Delorey, Mark; Sutherland, Genevieve; Aspen, Stephen; Charnetzky, Dawn; Burkhalter, Kristen; Godsey, Marvin

    2008-03-01

    Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July to December 2002, by using chicken-baited can traps (CT) at four ecologically different sites in Shelby County, TN. Host-seeking height was assessed by CT placed at elevations of 3.1, 4.6, and 7.6 m during one 24-h period per month. Host-seeking activity was assessed by paired CT placed at an elevation of 4.6 m. Can traps were sampled at one 10-h daytime interval and at seven 2-h intervals during the evening, night, and morning. Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes accounted for 87.1% of collected mosquitoes. Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 11.9% of specimens. The average number of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected per 24-h CT period from July to September was lowest at a rural middle income site (1.7), intermediate at an urban middle income site (11.3), and highest at an urban low income site (47.4). Can traps at the forested site failed to collect Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. From July to September at urban sites, Culex pipiens pipiens L. was the rarest of the three complex members accounting for 11.1-25.6% of specimens. At the rural site, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say was the rarest member of the complex. Cx. p. pipiens was not collected after September. Mean abundance of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes was higher in traps at 7.6 m than in traps at 4.6 m. Abundances at 3.1 m were intermediate and not significantly different from abundances at the other heights. Initiation of host-seeking activity was associated with the end of civil twilight and activity occurred over an extended nighttime period lasting 8-10 h. All 11 WNV-positive mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected from urban sites in traps placed at elevations of 4.6 and 7.6 m. Infection rates were marginally nonsignificant by height. Infection rates, host

  15. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  16. Complexity in Dioryctria zimmermani Species Group: Incongruence Between Species Limits and Molecular Diversity

    Treesearch

    Amanda D. Roe; Daniel R. Miller; Susan J. Weller

    2011-01-01

    Dioryctria (Zeller 1846) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) moths, commonlyknown as coneworms, are a group of important coniferous pests. InterspeciÞc overlap of molecular, morphological, and behavioral traits has made identiÞcation and delimitation of these species problematic, impeding their management and control. In particular, delimitation of members of the...

  17. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity for beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy.

    PubMed

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Meyer, Brian; Eppich, William; Corley, Nathan; Petterson, Stephanie

    2002-04-01

    Pleasantness and intensity ratings of beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy were assessed. Past research has shown that the violation of food expectancies, e.g., color, taste, temperature, leads to more negative evaluations of food. Thus, it was hypothesized that beverages sampled from a container incongruent with expectancy, e.g., beer from a coffee cup, would be rated less favorably than the same beverage sampled from a container congruent with expectancy, e.g., beer from a beer bottle. 61 participants evaluated three beverages (beer, orange juice, and hot chocolate) in three containers (bottle, glass, and cup) using 11-point rating scales for pleasantness and intensity. Analysis indicated beverages were rated as significantly more pleasant in containers congruent with expectancy, as well as rated more intense when presented in bottles. These results further address the effects of violating expectations on producing negative hedonic evaluations.

  18. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  19. Differentiating facial incongruity and flatness in schizophrenia, using structured light camera data.

    PubMed

    Tron, Talia; Peled, Abraham; Grinsphoon, Alexander; Weinshall, Daphna

    2016-08-01

    Incongruity between emotional experience and its outwardly expression is one of the prominent symptoms in schizophrenia. Though widely reported and used in clinical evaluation, this symptom is inadequately defined in the literature and may be confused with mere affect flattening. In this study we used structured-light depth camera and dedicated software to automatically measure facial activity of schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals during an emotionally evocative task. We defined novel measures for the congruence of emotional experience and emotional expression and for Flat Affect, compared them between patients and controls, and examined their consistency with clinical evaluation. We found incongruity in schizophrenia to be manifested in a less specific range of facial expressions in response to similar emotional stimuli, while the emotional experience remains intact. Our study also suggests that when taking into consideration affect flatness, no contextually inappropriate facial expressions are evident.

  20. Measurements of right / left hemisphere activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during incongruent Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Fukuhara, Michihiro; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Miki, Mitsunori; Yoshimi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The human brain automatically processes information at multiple sites when recognizing various types of information at the same time, such as color, shape, etc. Cognitive conflict may occur when conflicting information is recognized at the same time. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is often used to examine the brain activity associated with this phenomenon. To examine activation of the visual system, we measured brain activity in the right / left hemispheres during cognitive conflict in the Stroop test. Consistent with the results reported previously by Ehlis, the brain activity in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere was increased during the incongruent task. The brain activity also increased in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the right hemisphere during the incongruent task. These results indicated that fNIRS can be used to detect brain activity in the inferior-frontal gyrus of the right / left hemispheres during the Stroop test.

  1. Task and sex modulate the brain response to emotional incongruity in Asian listeners.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Lui, Ming; Maess, Burkhard; Escoffier, Nicolas; Chan, Mandy; Penney, Trevor B

    2006-08-01

    In order to recognize banter or sarcasm in social interactions, listeners must integrate verbal and vocal emotional expressions. Here, we investigated event-related potential correlates of this integration in Asian listeners. We presented emotional words spoken with congruous or incongruous emotional prosody. When listeners classified word meaning as positive or negative and ignored prosody, incongruous trials elicited a larger late positivity than congruous trials in women but not in men. Sex differences were absent when listeners evaluated the congruence between word meaning and emotional prosody. The similarity of these results to those obtained in Western listeners suggests that sex differences in emotional speech processing depend on attentional focus and may reflect culturally independent mechanisms.

  2. Possibility of incongruous interface behavior of In on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, K. K.; Lindau, I.

    1985-11-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the Schottky-barrier formation of In on n- and p-type GaAs(110) interfaces. Our result is different from that reported by R. R. Daniels et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2(2), 831 (1984)]. It is suggested that this incongruous behavior of In on GaAs(110) is due to the kinetics of interface defect formation. Various experimental details which may affect the kinetics are also discussed.

  3. Molecular variation and phylogeny of the Anopheles minimus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) inhabiting Southeast Asian countries, based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and 2, and the 28S D3 sequences.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Kyoko; Takagi, Masahiro; Tsuda, Yoshio; Tuno, Nobuko

    2003-12-01

    Anopheles minimus (Theobald) is one of the most important vectors of human malaria in Southeast Asia. Morphological studies now have revealed five sibling species as its complex, designated as species A to E. The present study investigated the genetic divergence among An. minimus populations from four countries (Japan, China, Thailand and Indonesia), based on the DNA sequences data of the D3 (the third domain of the 28S ribosomal gene) and ITS2 (the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal gene) is reported. The D3 and ITS2 phylogenetic trees, and the electrophoretic profile of ITS1 (the first internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal gene) indicated that our An. minimus populations are comprised of three groups: the Japanese population as group I, the population from Guangxi Province of China (GX population) as group II, and others, as group III. The results showed the morphological similarity of group III and GX with the species complex A and B, respectively. It is interesting that both two species A (YN population) and species B (GX) occur in China, and that both species, An. minimus species A (LB-95 population) and the closer population An. flavirostris (Ludlow) (LB-00 population) appeared to be present on the Lombok Island of Indonesia, although in far separated localities. Moreover, this molecular evidence confirms the previous suggestion that the population from the Ishigaki Island of Japan should be classified as a new genetic status species E.

  4. The negative cascade of incongruent generative study-test processing in memory and metacomprehension.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ayanna Kim; McDaniel, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    Previous research suggests that when participants engage in generative study activities, the processing of text is enhanced and improvements in memory and metacomprehension result. However, few studies have investigated the influence of processes required by the testing situation or the interaction between encoding and retrieval processes on metacomprehension accuracy. The present experiments examine whether the congruency of processes generated during study and required at retrieval affect memory, metacomprehension, and control processes. Study orientation and test type were congruent (i.e., letter-reinsertion: detailed test), incongruent (i.e., letter-reinsertion: conceptual test), or neutral (i.e., read: conceptual test). After generative study, but before testing, participants made metacomprehension predictions for previously studied texts. Controlled strategy selection was measured in Experiment 2. When processes at study and test were congruent, cued recall performance and metacomprehension predictions were more accurate than when study and test were incongruent. For incongruent conditions, metacomprehension predictions were no better than chance; thus, controlled strategy selection was based on inaccurate metacomprehension, thereby further penalizing memory performance relative to congruent conditions. These findings extend a transfer-appropriate processing framework to metacomprehension.

  5. A finite element exploration of cartilage stress near an articular incongruity during unstable motion.

    PubMed

    Goreham-Voss, Curtis M; McKinley, Todd O; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Both instability and residual articular incongruity are implicated in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) following intra-articular fracture, but currently no information exists regarding cartilage stresses for unstable residual incongruities. In this study, a transversely isotropic poroelastic cartilage finite element model was implemented and validated within physiologically relevant loading ranges. This material model was then used to simulate the loading of cartilage during stable and unstable motion accompanying a step-off incongruity residual from intra-articular fracture, using load data from previous cadaver tests of ankle instability. Peak solid-phase stresses and fluid pressure were found to increase markedly in the presence of instability. Solid-phase transients of normal stress increased from 2.00 to 13.8 MPa/s for stable compared to unstable motion, and tangential stress transients increased from 17.1 to 118.1 MPa/s. Corresponding fluid pressure transients increased from 15.1 to 117.9 MPa/s for unstable motion. In the most rapidly loaded sections of cartilage, the fluid was found to carry nearly all of the normal load, with the pressurization of the fluid resulting in high solid matrix tangential stresses.

  6. Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Galindo 3 ABSTRACT. The adults of both sexes, pupa and 4th stage larva of CuZex (MeZanoconion) adamesi, a new species from Panama are described...Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) and several other arboviruses from wild caught adults of Culex (MeZanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and related species at...00-00-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  7. A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These

  8. The Impact of Incongruous Lake Temperatures on Regional Climate Extremes Downscaled from the CMIP5 Archive Using the WRF Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of incongruous lake temperatures is demonstrated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to downscale global climate fields. Unrealistic lake temperatures prescribed by the default WRF configuration cause obvious biases near the lakes and also affect pre...

  9. The Impact of Incongruous Lake Temperatures on Regional Climate Extremes Downscaled from the CMIP5 Archive Using the WRF Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of incongruous lake temperatures is demonstrated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to downscale global climate fields. Unrealistic lake temperatures prescribed by the default WRF configuration cause obvious biases near the lakes and also affect pre...

  10. Mesoscale Approach to Feldspar Dissolution: Quantification of Dissolution Incongruency Based on Al/Si Ordering State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Min, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of aluminosilicates is important for understanding natural and anthropogenic carbon cycles. The total mass of atmospheric CO2 is regulated by the weathering of silicate minerals, and the fate of geologically sequestered CO2 is affected by the interactions between brine, sandstone, caprock, and CO2, which is initiated by mineral dissolution. It has been shown through both experimental and ab initio studies that the dissolution/weathering reactivities of Al and Si in the matrix of an aluminosilicate can be different under many conditions. A subsequent observation is that the release rates of Al and Si, both from the same mineral, may not be stoichiometric when compared to the bulk chemistry of the mineral. For a very long time, the relationship between mineral dissolution incongruency and mineral crystallographic properties remain largely qualitative and descriptive. Here we study the dissolution incongruency of feldspars, the most abundant aluminosilicate on earth. Mineral dissolution experiments for a series of alkali feldspars (albite, anorthoclase, sanidine, and microcline) and plagioclases (oligoclase, andesine, labradorite, bytownite, and anorthite) were conducted at pH 1.68 under ambient conditions. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and water chemistry analysis (ICP-MS) are combined to examine the effect of Al/Si ordering on mineral dissolution. Our analysis based on a C1 structure model shows that the incongruency, stemming from the different reactivities of Al-O-Si and Si-O-Si linkages in feldspar's framework, is quantifiable and closely related to the Al/Si ordering state of a feldspar. Our results also suggest that the more random the Al/Si distribution of a mineral, the greater the dissolution incongruency. Our results have significant implications for understanding water-rock interactions. First, when studying the effect of water chemistry on water-rock interaction, smaller

  11. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society* Clinical Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Gooren, Louis; Hannema, Sabine E; Meyer, Walter J; Murad, M Hassan; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Safer, Joshua D; Tangpricha, Vin; T'Sjoen, Guy G

    2017-09-13

    To update the "Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline," published by the Endocrine Society in 2009. The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of nine experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The task force commissioned two systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Group meetings, conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees, members and cosponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of the guidelines. Gender affirmation is multidisciplinary treatment in which endocrinologists play an important role. Gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons seek and/or are referred to endocrinologists to develop the physical characteristics of the affirmed gender. They require a safe and effective hormone regimen that will (1) suppress endogenous sex hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/gonadal sex and (2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's affirmed gender. Hormone treatment is not recommended for prepubertal gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons. Those clinicians who recommend gender-affirming endocrine treatments-appropriately trained diagnosing clinicians (required), a mental health provider for adolescents (required) and mental health professional for adults (recommended)-should be knowledgeable about the diagnostic criteria and criteria for gender-affirming treatment, have sufficient training and experience in assessing psychopathology, and be willing to participate in the ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition. We recommend treating gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent

  12. Consequences of incongruency in diurnally varying resources for seedlings of Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Cavender-Bares, J M; Voss, P B; Bazzaz, F A

    1998-09-01

    The incongruency of diurnally varying resources essential to plants may detrimentally affect plants early in their development as indicated by reduced water use efficiency and carbon gain. Typical diurnal patterns of light and CO(2) availability in a midsized temperate herbaceous or forest gap were simulated in specially designed growth chambers. A sinusoidally varying CO(2) treatment (400 ppm minimum, 800 ppm maximum) approximated the diurnal cycle of CO(2) at the soil surface, while a steady-state CO(2) treatment (600 ppm) with the same average CO(2 )concentration provided a control. Crossed with these two CO(2) treatments were two light regimes, one with 3 h of high light (850 μmol·m·s) in the morning (west side of a gap), and the other with 3 h of high light in the afternoon (east side). All treatments received baseline low light (55 μmol·m·s) for 14 h during the day. Rumex crispus was selected as a model species because of its rosette leaves, which grow close to the ground where diurnal CO(2 )variation is greatest. The relative timing of diurnal variations in light and CO(2) significantly affected seedling water use efficiency, carbon gain, and morphology. Total biomass, photosynthetic rates, daily integrated carbon, water use efficiency, and leaf area were enhanced by morning exposure to high light. Seedlings that were exposed to peak values of light and CO(2) incongruently, i.e., those plants receiving intense afternoon light with diurnally varying CO(2), were detrimentally affected relative to control plants receiving intense afternoon light with steady-state CO(2). The results of this experiment indicate that the incongruent availability of required resources-such as light and CO(2)-can detrimentally affect performance relative to when resources are congruent. These contrasting resource regimes can occur on the east and west side of gaps.

  13. Anger expression and lifestyle incongruity interactions on blood pressure in Samoan adults.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Asaf; McGarvey, Stephen T; Viali, Satupaitea

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on psychosocial stress and blood pressure (BP) in adult Samoans identified the separate influences of lifestyle incongruity and anger expression within the context of societal modernization. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the interactions between lifestyle incongruity and anger expression on BP in 376 men and women 25-65 years of age from Samoa. Participants were randomly selected from nine villages. Body mass index (BMI) and BP were measured by standard techniques. Anger expression was measured with an adapted version of the Spielberger Inventory. Material lifestyle was assessed by inventory of household items, exposure to news media, and off-island travel. Occupation and education lifestyle incongruities were calculated by subtracting the standardized lifestyle scale from the standardized occupation and education scales, respectively. Two-factor analysis of variance models with interactions were estimated within specific subgroups, with age- and BMI-adjusted BP as outcomes. In women <40 years of age with a material lifestyle relatively lower than their educational rank, anger suppression is associated with higher adjusted systolic BP. In young men whose material lifestyle is relatively lower than their occupational rank, those who report frequent experiences of Samoan culture-specific anger feelings have higher adjusted diastolic BP. We hypothesize that among young women, the higher BP may be due to stress arising from both a normative proscription against emotional expression, and a mismatch between their relatively higher educational level and lower material lifestyle. For young men, higher BP levels may be attributed to expected donations of earnings to the extended family that exceed their own material lifestyle, in combination with more frequent Samoan-specific feelings of anger.

  14. Neural activity patterns evoked by a spouse's incongruent emotional reactions when recalling marriage-relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, Rachel Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one's own and an intimate partner's subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioral responsiveness to a spouse's positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver's satisfaction with the relationship. Thus, we used fMRI to scan older long-term married female perceivers while they judged either their spouse's or a stranger's affect, based on incongruent nonverbal and verbal cues. The verbal cues were selected to evoke strongly polarized affective responses. Higher perceiver marital satisfaction predicted greater neural processing of the spouse's (rather than the strangers) nonverbal cues. Nevertheless, across all perceivers, greater neural processing of a spouse's (rather than a stranger's) nonverbal behavior was reliably observed only when the behavior was positive and the context was negative. The spouse's positive (rather than negative) nonverbal behavior evoked greater activity in putative mirror neuron areas, such as the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This effect was related to a stronger inhibitory influence of cognitive control areas on mirror system activity in response to a spouse's negative nonverbal cues, an effect that strengthened with increasing perceiver marital satisfaction. Our valence-asymmetric findings imply that neurobehavioral responsiveness to a close other's emotions may depend, at least partly, on cognitive control resources, which are used to support the perceiver's interpersonal goals (here, goals that are relevant to relationship stability).

  15. Diminished Medial Prefrontal Activity behind Autistic Social Judgments of Incongruent Information

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Abe, Osamu; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Aoki, Yuta; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawakubo, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Kato, Nobumasa; Kano, Yukiko; Miyashita, Yasushi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD) male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC), and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information. PMID:22745788

  16. A New Species, Culex (Culex) Litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the Coastal Region of Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    with existing keys and descriptions. Further study revealed that this species is closely related to Culex ( Culex ) antennatus (Becker), differing...254 Mosquito S.ystematics Vol. 17(3) 1985 A new species, Culicidae), Culex (Cu7ex) 7itwakae (Dipterf: from the coastal region of Kenya Ralph E...1985 to 00-00-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A new species, Culex ( Culex ) litwakae (Diptera: Culicidae), from the coastal region of Kenya 5a. CONTRACT

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure-Activity Relationship of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure- Activity Relationship of...deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using theK...corresponding C12:0 and C12:1 homologues. KEYWORDS fatty acid, biting deterrence, repellent, structure-activity relationship, Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes transmit

  18. Perceptual incongruity and social interaction as determinants of infants' reaction to novel persons.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D J; Hillman, D; Grice, D

    1975-12-01

    To investigate the contrary position of perceptual incongruity and social interaction theories regarding birth order and reactions to novel persons within the first year of life, novel persons were presented to 96 first and later borns 8 and 12 months of age. Because firstborns, exposed to more positive social interaction within the family within the first year of life, were more positive towards strangers than were the later borns, the authors concluded that by the end of the first year of life the nature of the infant's social interaction within the family, rather than the number of perceptual encounters, is the major determinant of infants' reaction to novel persons in their enviornment.

  19. Phylogeny of the moss class Polytrichopsida (BRYOPHYTA): Generic-level structure and incongruent gene trees.

    PubMed

    Bell, Neil E; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of an extensive new molecular dataset for the moss class Polytrichopsida provides convincing support for many traditionally recognised genera and identifies higher level phylogenetic structure with a strong geographic component. A large apical clade that is most diverse in the northern hemisphere is subtended by a grade of southern temperate and tropical genera, while the earliest diverging lineages have widely separated relictual distributions. However, there is strongly supported topological incongruence between the nuclear 18S rRNA gene tree and the chloroplast and mitochondrial data for the positions of some taxa and notably for the status of Pogonatum. While Pogonatum is unambiguously paraphyletic in the 18S tree, it is well supported as monophyletic by the combined chloroplast and mitochondrial data, this being corroborated by several distinctive morphological synapomorphies and a 51-53 bp deletion in the rps4-trnS spacer. We explore various reticulate historical processes and methodological issues as possible explanations for incongruence, and suggest that either (1) the 18S topology is an artefact created by convergence of substitutions at specific sites due to functional and/or molecular-structural constraints not accounted for by the model, or (2) the incongruence is a product of ancient hybridization events. Under the latter scenario, incongruent topologies for Pogonatum are parsimoniously explained if Polytrichum (including Polytrichastrum sect. Aporotheca) is ultimately descended from a hybridization event involving an extinct maternal taxon derived from the branch ancestral to the combined Pogonatum/Polytrichum s.l. clade, and a paternal taxon belonging to (or ancestral to) the apical Pogonatum group to which the majority of extant species belong. Numerous novel relationships of taxonomic and evolutionary significance are supported. Notably, both Polytrichastrum and Oligotrichum are polyphyletic. While Polytrichastrum sect. Aporotheca is

  20. Incongruence among mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear gene trees in Pinus subgenus Strobus (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kiyomi; Suwa, Atsushi; Sawada, Kei'ichi; Kato, Toshihide; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    Introgression has been considered to be one of main factors leading to phylogenetic incongruence among different datasets at lower taxonomic levels. In the plants of Pinaceae, the mtDNA, cpDNA, and nuclear DNA (nrDNA) may have different evolutionary histories through introgression because they are inherited maternally, paternally and biparentally, respectively. We compared mtDNA, cpDNA, and two low-copy nrDNA phylogenetic trees in the genus Pinus subgenus Strobus, in order to detect unknown past introgression events in this group. nrDNA trees were mostly congruent with the cpDNA tree, and supported the recent sectional and subsectional classification system. In contrast, mtDNA trees split the members of sect. Quinquefoliae into two groups that were not observed in the other gene trees. The factors constituting incongruence may be divided into the following two categories: the different splits within subsect. Strobus, and the non-monophyly of subsect. Gerardianae. The former was hypothesized to have been caused by the past introgression of cpDNA, mtDNA or both between Eurasian and North American species through Beringia. The latter was likely caused by the chimeric structure of the mtDNA sequence of P. bungeana, which might have originated through past hybridization, or through a horizontal transfer event and subsequent recombination.

  1. An experimental study of incongruent dissolution of CaCO3 under analogue glacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillen, Max R.; Fairchild, Ian J.

    This paper addresses the nature of incongruent dissolution of calcite in glacial settings using an experimental approach. Various CaCO3 samples were comminuted using two contrasting techniques (dry machine-milling, and hand-grinding of an ice water mixture) and dissolved to calcite saturation in both high-pCO2 (10-2 atm) and low-pCO2 (10-3.5 = atmospheric) conditions. Ion yields of Ca, Mg and Sr were determined at the end of the experiments. Leachates displayed enhancement of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca by a factor of 1.3 8.3 compared with bulk solid carbonate. Lower Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios under higher-pCO2 conditions reflect the percentage dissolution of the carbonate, not the pCO2 per se. The experimental results imply that reported natural incongruent dissolution is readily reproducible in the laboratory and is primarily dependent on the water/rock ratio. Quantitative analysis of new and previous results suggests that the effect relates to the most reactive 0.15 0.25% of the sample, equating volumetrically to the outer few lattice layers, and it is interpreted as an anomalous leaching behaviour of calcite surfaces freshly exposed by crushing. This phenomenon could serve as an index of the relative efficiencies of fragmenting and dissolutional processes in glacial environments.

  2. Incongruence between Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Phylogenies in Pedicularis Section Cyathophora (Orobanchaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Bin; Huang, Pan-Hui; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Pedicularis section Cyathophora is a monophyletic group characterized by perfoliate leaf and/or bract bases at each node. This section comprises four series, corresponding to four general corolla types of Pedicularis, i.e. toothless, toothed, beaked and long-tubed corollas. In this study, we aim to reconstruct a comprehensive phylogeny of section Cyathophora, and compare phylogenetic incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast datasets. Sixty-seven accessions belonging to section Cyathophora and 9 species for other Pedicularis were sampled, and one nuclear gene (nrITS) and four chloroplast genes (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses show that the topologies and networks inferred from nrITS and the concatenated chloroplast datasets were incongruent, and the nrITS phylogenies and network agreed with the morphology-based taxonomy to some degree. The chloroplast genome of two Sichuan samples of P. cyathophylloides (E4 and E5) may show introgression from an ancestor of P. cyathophylla. Neither the nrITS dataset nor the concatenated chloroplast dataset were able to adequately resolve relationships among species in the series Reges; this is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression/hybridization. The nrITS phylogeny indicates the beakless (toothed and toothless) and beaked galeas may have evolved independently within section Cyathophora, and the chloroplast phylogeny reveals that the long corolla tube with beaked galea is derived from the short one. PMID:24069353

  3. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in the brain, we studied event-related potentials to feedback stimuli that combined performance feedback with emotional facial expressions. We focused on the VPP (face processing) and N400 (incongruence processing). More maternal use of love withdrawal was related to more positive VPP amplitudes, larger effects of the emotional facial expression on VPP amplitude, and more negative N400 responses to incongruent combinations of feedback and facial expressions. Our findings suggest a heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and greater sensitivity to incongruence between feedback and facial expression in individuals who experienced more love withdrawal.

  4. What the Primary Care Pediatrician Needs to Know About Gender Incongruence and Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Klink, Daniel; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2016-12-01

    The recognition and acknowledgment that gender identity and birth-assigned sex may be incongruent in children and adolescents have evolved in recent decades. Transgender care for children and adolescents has developed and is now more widely available. Controversies exist, however, around clinical management of gender dysphoria and gender incongruence in children and adolescents. Clinical guidelines are consensus based and research evidence is limited. Puberty suppression as part of clinical management has become a valuable element of adolescent transgender care, but long-term evidence of success is limited. These uncertainties should be weighed against the risk of harming a transgender adolescent when medical intervention is denied.

  5. EFG growth and optical properties of incongruent-melting Ga3+:GIG single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Nai Feng; Wang, Chun Nan; Wei, Qing Ke; Liu, Xiao Feng; Hu, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Shu Kun; Chen, Jian Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Ga-doped Gd3Fe5O12 (GIG) single-crystals with various doping concentration were successfully grown by the edge-defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. XRD pattern and SEM micrographs confirm that the as-grown crystal is in the single GIG phase with good crystal quality. The success of growing Ga:GIG crystal by using EFG method provide a new way to grow the single crystal of the incongruent melting compound. The magnetic parameters such as the Curie temperature Tc, the saturation magnetization Ms, the magnetic coercivity Hc, the magnetic saturation field Hs, the Faraday rotation angle of as-grown crystals were measured. After as-grown crystal was annealed at 800 °C in oxygen atmosphere, the optical transmittance can be significantly enhanced. The reason for the change of the saturation magnetization Ms before and after annealing is also discussed.

  6. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    PubMed

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed.

  7. Correlates and Consequences of Parent–Teen Incongruence in Reports of Teens’ Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents’ and adolescents’ reports of teens’ sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents’ subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens’ lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents’ reports. Parents’ accurate knowledge of their teens’ sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens’ subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents’ expectations about teens’ sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens’ subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents’ expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent–teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged. PMID:19431037

  8. Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens' sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2010-07-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.

  9. Depression diagnoses following the identification of bipolar disorder: costly incongruent diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented that the symptoms of bipolar disorder are often mistaken for unipolar depression prior to a patient's first bipolar diagnosis. The assumption has been that once a patient receives a bipolar diagnosis they will no longer be given a misdiagnosis of depression. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess the rate of subsequent unipolar depression diagnosis in individuals with a history of bipolar disorder and 2) to assess the increased cost associated with this potential misdiagnosis. Methods This study utilized a retrospective cohort design using administrative claims data from 2002 and 2003. Patient inclusion criteria for the study were 1) at least 2 bipolar diagnoses in 2002, 2) continuous enrollment during 2002 and 2003, 3) a pharmacy benefit, and 4) age 18 to 64. Patients with at least 2 unipolar depression diagnoses in 2003 were categorized as having an incongruent diagnosis of unipolar depression. We used propensity scoring to control for selection bias. Utilization was evaluated using negative binomial models. We evaluated cost differences between patient cohorts using generalized linear models. Results Of the 7981 patients who met all inclusion criteria for the analysis, 17.5% (1400) had an incongruent depression diagnosis (IDD). After controlling for background differences, individuals who received an IDD had higher rates of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric utilization and cost, on average, an additional $1641 per year compared to individuals without an IDD. Conclusions A strikingly high proportion of bipolar patients are given the differential diagnosis of unipolar depression after being identified as having bipolar disorder. Individuals with an IDD had increased acute psychiatric care services, suggesting higher levels of relapses, and were at risk for inappropriate treatment, as antidepressant therapy without a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication is contraindicated in bipolar disorder. Further

  10. The impact of semantically congruent and incongruent visual information on auditory object recognition across development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhiannon L; Nardini, Marko; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-10-01

    The ability to use different sensory signals in conjunction confers numerous advantages on perception. Multisensory perception in adults is influenced by factors beyond low-level stimulus properties such as semantic congruency. Sensitivity to semantic relations has been shown to emerge early in development; however, less is known about whether implementation of these associations changes with development or whether development in the representations themselves might modulate their influence. Here, we used a Stroop-like paradigm that requires participants to identify an auditory stimulus while ignoring a visual stimulus. Prior research shows that in adults visual distractors have more impact on processing of auditory objects than vice versa; however, this pattern appears to be inverted early in development. We found that children from 8years of age (and adults) gain a speed advantage from semantically congruent visual information and are disadvantaged by semantically incongruent visual information. At 6years of age, children gain a speed advantage for semantically congruent visual information but are not disadvantaged by semantically incongruent visual information (as compared with semantically unrelated visual information). Both children and adults were influenced by associations between auditory and visual stimuli, which they had been exposed to on only 12 occasions during the learning phase of the study. Adults showed a significant speed advantage over children for well-established associations but showed no such advantage for newly acquired pairings. This suggests that the influence of semantic associations on multisensory processing does not change with age but rather these associations become more robust and, in turn, more influential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  12. Person-Organization Incongruence as a Predictor of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, and Heterosexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelman, Kristie L.; Walls, N. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 124 incoming social work graduate students, we examined whether levels of perceived incongruence with social work values and the perceived culture of a graduate social work program significantly correlate with social psychological constructs. The social psychological constructs are associated with maintenance and support for…

  13. Person-Organization Incongruence as a Predictor of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, and Heterosexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelman, Kristie L.; Walls, N. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 124 incoming social work graduate students, we examined whether levels of perceived incongruence with social work values and the perceived culture of a graduate social work program significantly correlate with social psychological constructs. The social psychological constructs are associated with maintenance and support for…

  14. To Resolve or Not To Resolve, that Is the Question: The Dual-Path Model of Incongruity Resolution and Absurd Verbal Humor by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ru H; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chan, Yu C; Wu, Ching-Lin; Li, Ping; Cho, Shu L; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that the humor comprehension processing involves incongruity detection and resolution and then induces a feeling of amusement. However, this three-stage model of humor processing does not apply to absurd humor (so-called nonsense humor). Absurd humor contains an unresolvable incongruity but can still induce a feeling of mirth. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural mechanisms of absurd humor. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the neural substrates associated with the complete resolution of incongruity resolution humor and partial resolution of absurd humor. Based on the fMRI data, we propose a dual-path model of incongruity resolution and absurd verbal humor. According to this model, the detection and resolution for the incongruity of incongruity resolution humor activate brain regions involved in the temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ) implicated in the integration of multiple information and precuneus, likely to be involved in the ability of perspective taking. The appreciation of incongruity resolution humor activates regions the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), implicated in autobiographic or event memory retrieval, and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), implying the funny feeling. By contrast, the partial resolution of absurd humor elicits greater activation in the fusiform gyrus which have been implicated in word processing, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the process of incongruity resolution and superior temporal gyrus (STG) for the pragmatic awareness.

  15. To Resolve or Not To Resolve, that Is the Question: The Dual-Path Model of Incongruity Resolution and Absurd Verbal Humor by fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ru H.; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chan, Yu C.; Wu, Ching-Lin; Li, Ping; Cho, Shu L.; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that the humor comprehension processing involves incongruity detection and resolution and then induces a feeling of amusement. However, this three-stage model of humor processing does not apply to absurd humor (so-called nonsense humor). Absurd humor contains an unresolvable incongruity but can still induce a feeling of mirth. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural mechanisms of absurd humor. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the neural substrates associated with the complete resolution of incongruity resolution humor and partial resolution of absurd humor. Based on the fMRI data, we propose a dual-path model of incongruity resolution and absurd verbal humor. According to this model, the detection and resolution for the incongruity of incongruity resolution humor activate brain regions involved in the temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ) implicated in the integration of multiple information and precuneus, likely to be involved in the ability of perspective taking. The appreciation of incongruity resolution humor activates regions the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), implicated in autobiographic or event memory retrieval, and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), implying the funny feeling. By contrast, the partial resolution of absurd humor elicits greater activation in the fusiform gyrus which have been implicated in word processing, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the process of incongruity resolution and superior temporal gyrus (STG) for the pragmatic awareness. PMID:28484402

  16. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    PubMed Central

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  17. A priori assumptions about characters as a cause of incongruence between molecular and morphological hypotheses of primate interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Tornow, Matthew A; Skelton, Randall R

    2012-01-01

    When molecules and morphology produce incongruent hypotheses of primate interrelationships, the data are typically viewed as incompatible, and molecular hypotheses are often considered to be better indicators of phylogenetic history. However, it has been demonstrated that the choice of which taxa to include in cladistic analysis as well as assumptions about character weighting, character state transformation order, and outgroup choice all influence hypotheses of relationships and may positively influence tree topology, so that relationships between extant taxa are consistent with those found using molecular data. Thus, the source of incongruence between morphological and molecular trees may lie not in the morphological data themselves but in assumptions surrounding the ways characters evolve and their impact on cladistic analysis. In this study, we investigate the role that assumptions about character polarity and transformation order play in creating incongruence between primate phylogenies based on morphological data and those supported by multiple lines of molecular data. By releasing constraints imposed on published morphological analyses of primates from disparate clades and subjecting those data to parsimony analysis, we test the hypothesis that incongruence between morphology and molecules results from inherent flaws in morphological data. To quantify the difference between incongruent trees, we introduce a new method called branch slide distance (BSD). BSD mitigates many of the limitations attributed to other tree comparison methods, thus allowing for a more accurate measure of topological similarity. We find that releasing a priori constraints on character behavior often produces trees that are consistent with molecular trees. Case studies are presented that illustrate how congruence between molecules and unconstrained morphological data may provide insight into issues of polarity, transformation order, homology, and homoplasy.

  18. An exploratory study of positive and incongruent communication in young children with type 1 diabetes and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, V; Atkinson, L; Bayrami, L; Noyes, K; Payne, A; Kelnar, C

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in young children. However, they are overlooked in treatment adherence and intervention research despite evidence that parents often experience difficulty securing their treatment cooperation, especially with the diet. We investigated positive and incongruent (i.e. the co-occurrence of contradictory verbal and non-verbal messages) communication in the mother-child dyad and their association with child adjustment and dietary adherence outcomes. Participants were 23 6- to 8-year-old children with type 1 diabetes and their mothers. We conducted dietary adherence interviews with mothers and performed nutritional analyses to assess children's consumption of extrinsic sugars (e.g. confectionary). Mothers completed a standardized assessment of child psychological adjustment. Mothers and children engaged in a videotaped problem-solving task related to the dietary regimen, with maternal and child utterances and non-verbal behaviours analysed for positive dyadic and incongruent communication. Positive dyadic communication correlated with lower levels of child incongruent communication, fewer behavioural problems and better overall adjustment. Higher levels of maternal and child incongruent communication correlated with more behavioural and emotional problems and poorer overall adjustment. Higher levels of maternal incongruent communication correlated with poorer dietary adherence. Results converged to form a conceptually and empirically coherent pattern in that behavioural indices of poorer communication in both mother and child consistently correlated with poorer child adjustment outcomes. This study shows that specific features of dyadic, child and maternal communication could be targeted in developmentally sensitive interventions to promote positive communication in the home management of type 1 diabetes care for young children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Semantics, Syntax or Neither? A Case for Resolution in the Interpretation of N500 and P600 Responses to Harmonic Incongruities

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, Cara R.; Morrison, Catriona M.; Waterman, Mitch G.; MacGregor, Lucy J.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of notes and chords which are harmonically incongruous with their context has been shown to elicit two distinct late ERP effects. These effects strongly resemble two effects associated with the processing of linguistic incongruities: a P600, resembling a typical response to syntactic incongruities in language, and an N500, evocative of the N400, which is typically elicited in response to semantic incongruities in language. Despite the robustness of these two patterns in the musical incongruity literature, no consensus has yet been reached as to the reasons for the existence of two distinct responses to harmonic incongruities. This study was the first to use behavioural and ERP data to test two possible explanations for the existence of these two patterns: the musicianship of listeners, and the resolved or unresolved nature of the harmonic incongruities. Results showed that harmonically incongruous notes and chords elicited a late positivity similar to the P600 when they were embedded within sequences which started and ended in the same key (harmonically resolved). The notes and chords which indicated that there would be no return to the original key (leaving the piece harmonically unresolved) were associated with a further P600 in musicians, but with a negativity resembling the N500 in non-musicians. We suggest that the late positivity reflects the conscious perception of a specific element as being incongruous with its context and the efforts of musicians to integrate the harmonic incongruity into its local context as a result of their analytic listening style, while the late negativity reflects the detection of the absence of resolution in non-musicians as a result of their holistic listening style. PMID:24223704

  20. The Cretaceous Fossil Burmaculex antiquus Confirmed as the Earliest Known Lineage of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-15

    A second female of mid-Cretaceous Burmaculex antiquus Borkent & Grimaldi, preserved in 99 myo Burmese amber, and the oldest known member of the Culicidae, is described in detail. Although generally opaque and distorted, some character states are added or refined. The discovery of well-developed scales on the legs shows that this feature must now be considered a synapomorphy of both the fossil and all extant members of the family. Previously described synapomorphies and further interpretation here confirm the phylogenetic position of this fossil as the sister group to extant and all known fossil Culicidae. It is placed in the new subfamily Burmaculicinae.

  1. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28

  2. Face or body? Oxytocin improves perception of emotions from facial expressions in incongruent emotional body context.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Aviezer, Hillel; Goldstein, Pavel; Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2013-11-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been repeatedly reported to play an essential role in the regulation of social cognition in humans in general, and specifically in enhancing the recognition of emotions from facial expressions. The later was assessed in different paradigms that rely primarily on isolated and decontextualized emotional faces. However, recent evidence has indicated that the perception of basic facial expressions is not context invariant and can be categorically altered by context, especially body context, at early perceptual levels. Body context has a strong effect on our perception of emotional expressions, especially when the actual target face and the contextually expected face are perceptually similar. To examine whether and how OT affects emotion recognition, we investigated the role of OT in categorizing facial expressions in incongruent body contexts. Our results show that in the combined process of deciphering emotions from facial expressions and from context, OT gives an advantage to the face. This advantage is most evident when the target face and the contextually expected face are perceptually similar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Status incongruity in Samoan youth: a biocultural analysis of culture change, stress, and immune function.

    PubMed

    McDade, Thomas W

    2002-06-01

    In Samoa, the presence of a matai title in the family has historically been a valued source of social status. However, as the process of Westernization continues, new sources of social status are emerging. This study explores the degree to which new and old markers of social status agree--or disagree--and the consequences they have for the experience of stress in 329 Samoan adolescents. The study integrates cultural and biological methods and data, and measures an aspect of immune function (antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus) as a biomarker of psychosocial stress. Results indicate that status "incongruent" adolescents experience significantly more stress (indicated by reduced immune function), and that emerging markers of social status are becoming inextricably linked to "traditional" markers in such a way that discordance between them is a significant source of stress. This study proposes new conceptual models for future studies of culture change and suggests that biomarkers may represent ethnographic tools that can provide insight into hidden cultural dynamics and the experience of stress.

  4. Tackling student binge drinking: Pairing incongruent messages and measures reduces alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Russell R C; Lawton, Rebecca; Pals, Elisah; O'Connor, Daryl B; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2015-09-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a persistent problem in Northern European cultures. Across a 2-week period, we tested the effect of varying message frames, message types, and response measures, in reducing alcohol consumption. Three hundred and twenty-three respondents were allocated to a 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (message type: health vs. social) × 2 (response type: engaging vs. refraining) mixed design. Binge drinking and units consumed were measured at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 weeks later). Participants read (following Time 1) a gain- or loss-framed message on binging emphasizing either social or health consequences and answered engaging in or refraining from drinking attitude measures. No main effects were identified. The key finding was that gain-framed messages, when used in conjunction with engage response measures (an incongruous pairing), were highly effective in reducing alcohol consumption 2 weeks later compared with the other message frame/response measure combinations. We suggest that for prevention behaviours, gain-framed messages, when paired with engage response measures, initiate an inconsistency resolution process. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of message frame and response type when seeking to reduce alcohol consumption using persuasive health messages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Fine-scale phylogeographic congruence despite demographic incongruence in two low-mobility saproxylic springtails.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Simmons, Chris S; Hillis, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Evolutionary trajectories of codistributed taxa with comparable ecological preferences and dispersal abilities may be similarly impacted by historical landscape-level processes. Species' responses to changes in a shared biogeographic landscape may be purely concerted, completely independent, or classified as falling within an intermediate part of the continuum bounded by these two extremes. With sufficient molecular data, temporal contrasts of congruence among taxa with respect to these responses can be made. Such contrasts provide insights into the relative influence of ancient versus more recent climatic (and other) impacts on genetic structuring. Using phylogenetic, allele frequency, and genotypic data from two low-mobility, rotting-log-adapted (saproxylic) springtail species (Collembola) from an isolated 100-km-long section of the Great Dividing Range in southeastern Australia, we tested the concerted-response hypothesis over three timescales. Tests of phylogeographic, demographic, and contemporary population-genetic congruence were performed using an integrative approach that draws on both direct (pattern-based) and indirect (scenario-based) analyses. Our data revealed a general pattern of broad-scale similarities in species' responses to the interaction between Pleistocene climatic cycles and landscape setting, overlaid with some species-specific differences on local geographic and more recent temporal scales. This general pattern of phylogeographic congruence was accompanied by evidence for contemporaneous demographic incongruence indicating that, even at relatively small spatial scales, biogeographic context can exert an overarching influence on genetic structuring.

  6. Incongruous larvae and the origin of some invertebrate life-histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, D. I.

    It is postulated that some groups of animals have hybrid life-histories, with the larva originating in a different evolutionary line from that which produced the adult. Later the two developmental phases came together to form parts of the same life-history, and only after this synthesis did the larva and adult evolve as products of the same genome. This theory is put forward to try to explain apparent contradictions between the affinities of some larvae and those of their corresponding adults. Examples of groups showing such incongruity are (1) the Dromioidea (Crustacea, Decapoda), (2) the Echinodermata, in its relationships with other phyla and at all taxonomic levels within the phylum, and (3) the Annelida, Echiura, Sipuncula and Mollusca, all of which contain species with trocophore larvae. The theory also seeks to explain forms of metamorphosis in which most larval structures are discarded. It is suggested that these anomalies have all resulted from occasional transfers of the genetic material to dictate a larval form from one species to a distantly related or unrelated one. Heterosperm fertilisation is considered as a possible mechanism, leading to the expression of paternal genes specifying the larval form followed by the expression of maternal genes specifying later development. The theory that different phases in the life-history of a species or group might have different evolutionary geneaologies has profound implications for phylogeny and classification at all taxonomic levels.

  7. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  8. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  9. Experimental and natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus by California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Brittany M; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Carroll, Brian D; Macedo, Paula; Kluh, Susanne; Reisen, William K

    2013-03-01

    Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, the primary summer vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), also may serve as overwintering reservoir hosts. Detection of WN viral RNA from larvae hatched from eggs deposited by infected females during late summer and fall may provide evidence for the vertical passage of WNV to overwintering cohorts. To determine whether vertical transmission to the overwintering generation occurs in populations of Culex mosquitoes throughout California, larvae from naturally infected females were tested by family for WN viral RNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during August through October 2011. Viral RNA was detected in 34 of 934 Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Cx. pipiens complex females that laid viable egg rafts. From these egg rafts, first-instar larvae from nine families tested positive, yielding an overall field vertical transmission rate of 26% (n = 34). To determine whether the WNV may be lost transtadially during development to the adult stage, first-instar larvae and adult progeny from experimentally infected Cx. pipiens complex females were assessed for the presence and quantity of WN viral RNA. Most (approximately 75%) WNV infections were lost from positive families during larval development to the adult stage. In field and laboratory studies, only infected mothers with mean cycle threshold scores < or = 20 vertically transmitted WNV to larval progeny, adult progeny, or both. In summary, vertical transmission of WNV was detected repeatedly in naturally infected Culex mosquitoes collected throughout California during late summer and fall, with females having high titered infections capable of passing WNV onto their progeny destined for overwintering.

  10. N400 incongruity effect in an episodic memory task reveals different strategies for handling irrelevant contextual information for Japanese than European Canadians.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takahiko; Russell, Matthew J; Chen, Yvonne Y; Hioki, Koichi; Caplan, Jeremy B

    2014-01-01

    East Asians/Asian Americans show a greater N400 effect due to semantic incongruity between foreground objects and background contexts than European Americans (Goto, Ando, Huang, Yee, & Lewis, 2010). Using analytic attention instructions, we asked Japanese and European Canadians to judge, and later, remember, target animals that were paired with task-irrelevant original (congruent), or novel (incongruent) contexts. We asked: (1) whether the N400 also shows an episodic incongruity effect, due to retrieved contexts conflicting with later-shown novel contexts; and (2) whether the incongruity effect would be more related to performance for Japanese, who have been shown to have more difficulty ignoring such contextual information. Both groups exhibited episodic incongruity effects on the N400, with Japanese showing more typical N400 topographies. However, incongruent-trial accuracy was related to reduction of N400s only for the Japanese. Thus, we found that the N400 can reflect episodic incongruity which poses a greater challenge to Japanese than European Canadians.

  11. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito

  12. Descriptions of Two New Species of Culex (Lophoceraomyia) with Notes on Three Other Species from the Papuan Subregion (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-25

    male of Culex jaudatrix Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) . Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 87: 382-90. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus Lophoceraomyia, in...J. Med. Ent. Vol. 10, no. 2: 212-216 25 April 1973 DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) WITH NOTES ON THREE OTHER SPECIES FROM...THE PAPUAN SUBREGION (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)l By Sunthorn Sirivanakard Abstract: Two new species, Culex (Lobhoceraomyia) sub- marginalis and C. (L

  13. A Redescription of the Holotype Male of Aedes (Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-01

    A REDESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE MALE OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) TONGAE EDWARDS WITH A NOTE ON TWO TOPOTYPIC FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) YIAU-MIN...Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) ‘v2 YIAU-MIN HUANG, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington

  14. A Causal Inference Model Explains Perception of the McGurk Effect and Other Incongruent Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Audiovisual speech integration combines information from auditory speech (talker’s voice) and visual speech (talker’s mouth movements) to improve perceptual accuracy. However, if the auditory and visual speech emanate from different talkers, integration decreases accuracy. Therefore, a key step in audiovisual speech perception is deciding whether auditory and visual speech have the same source, a process known as causal inference. A well-known illusion, the McGurk Effect, consists of incongruent audiovisual syllables, such as auditory “ba” + visual “ga” (AbaVga), that are integrated to produce a fused percept (“da”). This illusion raises two fundamental questions: first, given the incongruence between the auditory and visual syllables in the McGurk stimulus, why are they integrated; and second, why does the McGurk effect not occur for other, very similar syllables (e.g., AgaVba). We describe a simplified model of causal inference in multisensory speech perception (CIMS) that predicts the perception of arbitrary combinations of auditory and visual speech. We applied this model to behavioral data collected from 60 subjects perceiving both McGurk and non-McGurk incongruent speech stimuli. The CIMS model successfully predicted both the audiovisual integration observed for McGurk stimuli and the lack of integration observed for non-McGurk stimuli. An identical model without causal inference failed to accurately predict perception for either form of incongruent speech. The CIMS model uses causal inference to provide a computational framework for studying how the brain performs one of its most important tasks, integrating auditory and visual speech cues to allow us to communicate with others. PMID:28207734

  15. N400-like semantic incongruity effect in 19-month-olds: processing known words in picture contexts.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D

    2004-10-01

    To understand mechanisms of early language acquisition, it is important to know whether the child's brain acts in an adult-like manner when processing words in meaningful contexts. The N400, a negative component in the eventrelated potential (ERP) of adults, is a sensitive index of semantic processing reflecting neural mechanisms of semantic integration into context. In the present study, we investigated whether the mechanisms indexed by the N400 are already working during early language acquisition. While 19-month-olds were looking at sequentially presented pictures, they were acoustically presented with words that were either congruous or incongruous to the picture content. The ERP averaged across the group of 55 children revealed an N400-like semantic incongruity effect in addition to an early phonological-lexical priming effect. The results suggest that both lexical expectations facilitating early phonological processing and mechanisms of semantic priming facilitating integration into semantic context are already present in 19-month-olds. The child's specific comprehension abilities are reflected in strength, latency, and hemispheric differences of the semantic incongruity effect. Spatio-temporal differences in that effect, thus, indicate changes in the organization of brain activity correlated with the child's behavioral development.

  16. Emotion recognition from congruent and incongruent emotional expressions and situational cues in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tell, Dina; Davidson, Denise

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the emotion recognition abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children were compared. When facial expressions and situational cues of emotion were congruent, accuracy in recognizing emotions was good for both children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. When presented with facial expressions incongruent with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder relied more on facial cues than situational cues, whereas typically developing children relied more on situational cues. The exception was fear. When presented with incongruent information (i.e. a smiling boy surrounded by a swarm of bees), most children based their response on the situation and indicated that the boy felt scared. While the majority of typically developing children commented on the disparity between facial expressions and situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder did not mention the conflicting cues. Although typically developing children were more accurate in recognizing emotion with situational cues, children with autism spectrum disorder were still adequate at identifying emotion from situational cues alone. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder show an understanding of simple emotions in prototypical situations, but may prefer facial expressions when facial expressions and situational cues are incongruent. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  17. Erratic rates of molecular evolution and incongruence of fossil and molecular divergence time estimates in Ostracoda (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Tinn, Oive; Oakley, Todd H

    2008-07-01

    Dating evolutionary origins of taxa is essential for understanding rates and timing of evolutionary events, often inciting intense debate when molecular estimates differ from first fossil appearances. For numerous reasons, ostracods present a challenging case study of rates of evolution and congruence of fossil and molecular divergence time estimates. On the one hand, ostracods have one of the densest fossil records of any metazoan group. However, taxonomy of fossil ostracods is controversial, owing at least in part to homoplasy of carapaces, the most commonly fossilized part. In addition, rates of evolution are variable in ostracods. Here, we report evidence of extreme variation in the rate of molecular evolution in different ostracod groups. This rate is significantly elevated in Halocyprid ostracods, a widespread planktonic group, consistent with previous observations that planktonic groups show elevated rates of molecular evolution. At the same time, the rate of molecular evolution is slow in the lineage leading to Manawa staceyi, a relict species that we estimate diverged approximately 500 million years ago from its closest known living relative. We also report multiple cases of significant incongruence between fossil and molecular estimates of divergence times in Ostracoda. Although relaxed clock methods improve the congruence of fossil and molecular divergence estimates over strict clock models, incongruence is present regardless of method. We hypothesize that this observed incongruence is driven largely by problems with taxonomy of fossil Ostracoda. Our results illustrate the difficulty in consistently estimating lineage divergence times, even in the presence of a voluminous fossil record.

  18. An Incongruent Reality: The N400 in Relation to Psychosis and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Felicia; Foti, Dan; Kotov, Roman; Perlman, Greg; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments and delusions are hallmarks of schizophrenia, and are thought to be due in part to abnormalities in semantic priming. The N400, a neural measure of semantic processing, is found to be reduced in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if individuals with other psychoses (e.g., mood disorders or substance abuse with psychotic features) also show this impairment, and whether N400 reduction relates to real-world functioning and recovery. Methods Eighty-nine individuals from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, a longitudinal study of first-admission psychosis, and 35 healthy adults were assessed using matched, related, and unrelated picture-word pairs to elicit the N400. Patients' real-world functioning, symptomatology, and recovery were tracked since first hospitalization; EEG assessment was completed during year 15 of the study. Results Participants with schizophrenia had slower reaction times and reduced N400 to semantically incongruent stimuli relative to healthy participants. Schizophrenia and other psychoses did not differ on N400, suggesting that N400 abnormalities characterize psychosis broadly. When grouped by recovery status, patients who remained ill had a significantly blunted N400, while those who recovered did not differ from healthy adults. Few patients with schizophrenia achieved recovery; therefore recovery results are limited to the other psychosis group. Furthermore, reduced N400 and increased reaction times correlated with greater psychotic symptoms, worse global assessment of functioning scores, unemployment, and impaired social functioning. Conclusions Abnormalities in the N400 are not specific to schizophrenia; in addition, the N400 may be a useful neural correlate of recovery and real-world functioning across psychotic disorders. PMID:25449716

  19. Steady state responses to temporally congruent and incongruent auditory and vibrotactile amplitude modulated stimulation.

    PubMed

    Budd, Timothy W; Timora, Justin R

    2013-09-01

    Recent research suggests that multisensory integration may occur at an early phase in sensory processing and within cortical regions traditionally though to be exclusively unisensory. Evidence from perceptual and electrophysiological studies indicate that the cross modal temporal correspondence of multisensory stimuli plays a fundamental role in the cortical integration of information across separate sensory modalities. Further, oscillatory neural activity in sensory cortices may provide the principle mechanism whereby sensory information from separate modalities is integrated. In the present study we aimed to extend this prior research by using the steady-state EEG response (SSR) to examine whether variations in the cross-modality temporal correspondence of amplitude modulated auditory and vibrotactile stimulation are apparent in SSR activity to multisensory stimulation. To achieve this we varied the cross-modal congruence of modulation rate for passively and simultaneously presented amplitude modulated auditory and vibrotactile stimuli. In order to maximise the SSR response in both modalities 21 and 40 Hz modulation rates were selected. Consistent with prior SSR studies, the present results showed clear evidence of phase-locking for EEG frequencies corresponding to the modulation rate of auditory and vibrotactile stimulation. As also found previously, the optimal modulation rate for SSR activity differed according to the modality, being greater at 40 Hz for auditory responses and greater at 21 Hz for vibrotactile responses. Despite consistent and reliable changes in SSR activity with manipulations of modulation rate within modality, the present study failed to provide strong evidence of multisensory interactions in SSR activity for temporally congruent, relative to incongruent, cross modal conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the role of attention as a possible factor in reconciling inconsistencies in SSR studies of multisensory integration. Crown

  20. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  1. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    PubMed

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  2. Toxicity of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) and Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) leaf extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...

  3. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Cleandson Ferreira; SILVA, Alex Chavier; RODRIGUES, Raquel Andrade; de JESUS, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; BORGES, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state. PMID:26200963

  4. List of anopheline species with published illustrations and/or descriptions of eggs (Diptera: Culicidae: Anophelinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species of the mosquito subfamily Anophelinae with published illustrations and/or morphological descriptions of the egg stage are listed with their literature citations. Species of the subfamily have the egg stage better known than those in most tribes of family Culicidae....

  5. Youths' imitation and de-identification from parents: a process associated with parent-youth cultural incongruence in Mexican-American families.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Cultural adaptation and parent-youth cultural incongruence have strong implications for individuals' social adaptation and family dynamics. This study highlighted adolescents' active role in parent-youth cultural incongruence through their decision to imitate or de-identify from parents, parent-youth warmth, and demographic similarities. Longitudinal data, spanning 8 years, from 246 Mexican-American families (mothers, fathers, and an early adolescent child), were used to address two study goals. The first goal was to link parent-youth relationship qualities and demographic similarities (i.e., gender, immigration status) at Wave 1 to adolescents' imitation and de-identification from parents at Wave 2. Findings revealed that adolescents who reported more parent-youth warmth reported more imitation and less de-identification. Also, adolescents who belonged to U.S.-raised dyads reported less de-identification. The second goal tested adolescents' reports of imitation and de-identification as predictors of parent-youth cultural incongruence in Mexican and Anglo cultural orientations at Wave 3. Results indicated that more imitation was associated with less mother-youth Anglo incongruence and that more de-identification was associated with more father-youth Anglo and Mexican incongruence. The unique relationship dynamics of mother-youth and father-youth dyads and the implications for intervention programming focused on reducing cultural incongruence and increasing family cohesion are discussed.

  6. Youths’ Imitation and De-identification from Parents: A Process Associated with Parent–Youth Cultural Incongruence in Mexican-American Families

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural adaptation and parent–youth cultural incongruence have strong implications for individuals’ social adaptation and family dynamics. This study highlighted adolescents’ active role in parent–youth cultural incongruence through their decision to imitate or de-identify from parents, parent–youth warmth, and demographic similarities. Longitudinal data, spanning 8 years, from 246 Mexican-American families (mothers, fathers, and an early adolescent child), were used to address two study goals. The first goal was to link parent–youth relationship qualities and demographic similarities (i.e., gender, immigration status) at Wave 1 to adolescents’ imitation and de-identification from parents at Wave 2. Findings revealed that adolescents who reported more parent–youth warmth reported more imitation and less de-identification. Also, adolescents who belonged to U.S.-raised dyads reported less de-identification. The second goal tested adolescents’ reports of imitation and de-identification as predictors of parent–youth cultural incongruence in Mexican and Anglo cultural orientations at Wave 3. Results indicated that more imitation was associated with less mother–youth Anglo incongruence and that more de-identification was associated with more father–youth Anglo and Mexican incongruence. The unique relationship dynamics of mother– youth and father–youth dyads and the implications for intervention programming focused on reducing cultural incongruence and increasing family cohesion are discussed. PMID:24531867

  7. Amphibole incongruent melting under Lithospheric Mantle conditions in spinel peridotites from Balaton area, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Abart, Rainer; Bizimis, Michel

    2017-04-01

    inclusions in second generation clinopyroxene within the melt pockets. Evidently the melt pockets represent amphibole, which have been incongruently molten. The necessary heat for the amphibole breakdown was derived from the host basalt. The estimated time for diffusive Ca exchange between matrix olivine and olivine overgrowth in contact with the melt pockets is very short, ranging between 21 and 200 days, indicating that amphibole breakdown took place immediately before or during the xenolith entrainment in the alkali basalt.

  8. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P < 0.05). Compared with matching ending-words idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further

  9. Selecting Question-Specific Genes to Reduce Incongruence in Phylogenomics: A Case Study of Jawed Vertebrate Backbone Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Yun; Liang, Dan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Incongruence between different phylogenomic analyses is the main challenge faced by phylogeneticists in the genomic era. To reduce incongruence, phylogenomic studies normally adopt some data filtering approaches, such as reducing missing data or using slowly evolving genes, to improve the signal quality of data. Here, we assembled a phylogenomic data set of 58 jawed vertebrate taxa and 4682 genes to investigate the backbone phylogeny of jawed vertebrates under both concatenation and coalescent-based frameworks. To evaluate the efficiency of extracting phylogenetic signals among different data filtering methods, we chose six highly intractable internodes within the backbone phylogeny of jawed vertebrates as our test questions. We found that our phylogenomic data set exhibits substantial conflicting signal among genes for these questions. Our analyses showed that non-specific data sets that are generated without bias toward specific questions are not sufficient to produce consistent results when there are several difficult nodes within a phylogeny. Moreover, phylogenetic accuracy based on non-specific data is considerably influenced by the size of data and the choice of tree inference methods. To address such incongruences, we selected genes that resolve a given internode but not the entire phylogeny. Notably, not only can this strategy yield correct relationships for the question, but it also reduces inconsistency associated with data sizes and inference methods. Our study highlights the importance of gene selection in phylogenomic analyses, suggesting that simply using a large amount of data cannot guarantee correct results. Constructing question-specific data sets may be more powerful for resolving problematic nodes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neural activity patterns evoked by a spouse’s incongruent emotional reactions when recalling marriage-relevant experiences

    PubMed Central

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one’s own and an intimate partner’s subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioural responsiveness to a spouse’s positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver’s satisfaction with the relationship. Thus, we used fMRI to scan older long-term married female perceivers while they judged either their spouse’s or a stranger’s affect, based on incongruent nonverbal and verbal cues. The verbal cues were selected to evoke strongly polarized affective responses. Higher perceiver marital satisfaction predicted greater neural processing of the spouse’s (rather than the strangers) nonverbal cues. Nevertheless, across all perceivers, greater neural processing of a spouse’s (rather than a stranger’s) nonverbal behavior was reliably observed only when the behavior was positive and the context was negative. The spouse’s positive (rather than negative) nonverbal behaviour evoked greater activity in putative mirror neuron areas, such as the bilateral IPL. This effect was related to a stronger inhibitory influence of cognitive control areas on mirror system activity in response to a spouse’s negative nonverbal cues, an effect that strengthened with increasing perceiver marital satisfaction. Our valence-asymmetric findings imply that neurobehavioral responsiveness to a close other’s emotions may depend, at least partly, on cognitive control resources, which are used to support the perceiver’s interpersonal goals (here, goals that are relevant to relationship stability). PMID:26219536

  11. Role of the precuneus in the detection of incongruency between tactile and visual texture information: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Okamoto, Yuko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-11-01

    Visual clues as to the physical substance of manufactured objects can be misleading. For example, a plastic ring can appear to be made of gold. However, we can avoid misidentifying an object׳s substance by comparing visual and tactile information. As compared to the spatial properties of an object (e.g., orientation), however, little information regarding physical object properties (material properties) is shared between vision and touch. How can such different kinds of information be compared in the brain? One possibility is that the visuo-tactile comparison of material information is mediated by associations that are previously learned between the two modalities. Previous studies suggest that a cortical network involving the medial temporal lobe and precuneus plays a critical role in the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether these brain regions are involved in the visuo-tactile comparison of material properties. The stimuli consisted of surfaces in which an oriented plastic bar was placed on a background texture. Twenty-two healthy participants determined whether the orientations of visually- and tactually-presented bar stimuli were congruent in the orientation conditions, and whether visually- and tactually-presented background textures were congruent in the texture conditions. The texture conditions revealed greater activation of the fusiform gyrus, medial temporal lobe and lateral prefrontal cortex compared with the orientation conditions. In the texture conditions, the precuneus showed greater response to incongruent stimuli than to congruent stimuli. This incongruency effect was greater for the texture conditions than for the orientation conditions. These results suggest that the precuneus is involved in detecting incongruency between tactile and visual texture information in concert with the medial temporal lobe, which is tightly linked with long-term memory. Copyright

  12. Effects of congruent and incongruent visual cues on speech perception and brain activity in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo; Chang, Sun O; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-03-01

    While deafness-induced plasticity has been investigated in the visual and auditory domains, not much is known about language processing in audiovisual multimodal environments for patients with restored hearing via cochlear implant (CI) devices. Here, we examined the effect of agreeing or conflicting visual inputs on auditory processing in deaf patients equipped with degraded artificial hearing. Ten post-lingually deafened CI users with good performance, along with matched control subjects, underwent H 2 (15) O-positron emission tomography scans while carrying out a behavioral task requiring the extraction of speech information from unimodal auditory stimuli, bimodal audiovisual congruent stimuli, and incongruent stimuli. Regardless of congruency, the control subjects demonstrated activation of the auditory and visual sensory cortices, as well as the superior temporal sulcus, the classical multisensory integration area, indicating a bottom-up multisensory processing strategy. Compared to CI users, the control subjects exhibited activation of the right ventral premotor-supramarginal pathway. In contrast, CI users activated primarily the visual cortices more in the congruent audiovisual condition than in the null condition. In addition, compared to controls, CI users displayed an activation focus in the right amygdala for congruent audiovisual stimuli. The most notable difference between the two groups was an activation focus in the left inferior frontal gyrus in CI users confronted with incongruent audiovisual stimuli, suggesting top-down cognitive modulation for audiovisual conflict. Correlation analysis revealed that good speech performance was positively correlated with right amygdala activity for the congruent condition, but negatively correlated with bilateral visual cortices regardless of congruency. Taken together these results suggest that for multimodal inputs, cochlear implant users are more vision-reliant when processing congruent stimuli and are disturbed

  13. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  14. Paedomorphosis in the scolopendrid centipede genus Asanada (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) explains incongruence between morphological and molecular data sets.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-04-02

    The morphological characters of members of the scolopendrid genus Asanada Meinert, 1886 are reviewed. A number of these characters are only seen in embryonic or early adolescent stadia in other scolopendrids. This suggests that the centipedes of this genus are paedomorphic. Support for this thesis is provided by the very rare appearance (in only three specimens) of some otherwise "adult" characters. This paedomorphosis, in all probability neoteny, may account for the recently described incongruence between morphological and molecular data with respect to the position of the genus seen in cladistic analyses.

  15. DNA barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2007-01-01

    Species identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characteristics remains often difficult in field-collected mosquito specimens in vector-borne disease surveillance programs. The use of DNA barcodes has been proposed recently as a tool for identification of the species in many diverse groups of animals. However, the efficacy of this tool for mosquitoes remains unexplored. Hence, a study was undertaken to construct DNA barcodes for several species of mosquitoes prevalent in India, which included major vector species. In total, 111 specimens of mosquitoes belonging to 15 genera, morphologically identified to be 63 species, were used. This number also included multiple specimens for 22 species. DNA barcode approach based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene sequences could identify 62 species among these, in confirmation with the conventional taxonomy. However, two closely related species, Ochlerotatus portonovoensis (Tiwari & Hiriyan) and Ochlerotatus wardi (Reinert) could not be identified as separate species based on DNA barcode approach, their lineages indicating negligible genetic divergence (Kimura two-parameter genetic distance = 0.0043).

  16. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Harbach, Ralph E

    2016-10-22

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. To better control the vectors that transmit the agents of disease, and hence the diseases they cause, and to appreciate the diversity of the family Culicidae, it is important to have an up-to-date list of the species present in the country. Original records were collected from a literature review to compile a list of the species recorded in Bangladesh. Records for 123 species were collected, although some species had only a single record. This is an increase of ten species over the most recent complete list, compiled nearly 30 years ago. Collection records of three additional species are included here: Anopheles pseudowillmori, Armigeres malayi and Mimomyia luzonensis. While this work constitutes the most complete list of mosquito species collected in Bangladesh, further work is needed to refine this list and understand the distributions of those species within the country. Improved morphological and molecular methods of identification will allow the refinement of this list in years to come.

  17. Hydrated Salts: Dehydration, Dissolution, and Incongruent Melting In Terrestrial Evaporites and at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Dougherty, A.; Feldman, W.; Hogenboom, D.; Marion, G.; McCarthy, C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.

    2004-12-01

    -volume data applied to the mineralogies and chemistries observed or inferred from spacecraft data. Dehydration and/or open-system incongruent dissolution of Mg-Fe-Ca-sulfate hydrates can explain both the microkarstic and decimeter-scale polygonal structures observed by the Opportunity rover. Close analogs of these inferred processes and observed features are common in terrestrial evaporite sequences. Considering scenarios for minimized excursions from current climate, we attribute the structures either to dehydration or dissolution etching by cryogenic acid brines-- or both operating in tandem or in sequence. These processes operating at low rates may remain active even as Opportunity observes the layered/laminated rock sequence. Inclusion on future spacecraft of simple soil pH measurements would do much to resolve questions of possible present-day activity of acidic brine films. Because many salt dehydration steps occur at temperatures far below the melting point of ice, future differential scanning calorimetry/thermal analysis must consider very small increments of heating in the 200-400 K temperature range if we are to understand adequately the composition and hydration states of Martian salts.

  18. An fMRI approach to particularize the frontoparietal network for visuomotor action monitoring: Detection of incongruence between test subjects' actions and resulting perceptions.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Knut; Heekeren, Karsten; Schnitker, Ralf; Daumann, Jörg; Weber, Jochen; Hesselmann, Volker; Möller-Hartmann, Walter; Thron, Armin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary theories of motor control assume that motor actions underlie a supervisory control system which utilizes reafferent sensory feedbacks of actions for comparison with the original motor programs. The functional network of visuomotor action monitoring is considered to include inferior parietal, lateral and medial prefrontal cortices. To study both sustained monitoring for visuomotor incongruence and the actual detection of incongruence, we used a hybrid fMRI epoch-/event-related design. The basic experimental task was a continuous motor task, comprising a simple racing game. Within certain blocks of this task, incongruence was artificially generated by intermittent takeover of control over the car by the computer. Fifteen male subjects were instructed to monitor for incongruence between their own and the observed actions in order to abstain from their own action whenever the computer took over control. As a result of both sustained monitoring and actual detection of visuomotor incongruence, the rostral inferior parietal lobule displayed a BOLD signal increase. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited two different activation patterns. Dorsolateral (BA 9/46) and medial/cingulate (BA 8, BA 32) areas of the PFC displayed a greater increase of activation in sustained monitoring, while ventrolateral PFC showed greater event-related activation for the actual detection of visuomotor incongruence. Our results suggest that the rostral inferior parietal lobule is specifically involved in the reafferent comparison of the test subjects' own actions and visually perceived actions. Different activation patterns of the PFC may reflect different frontoparietal networks for sustained action monitoring and actual detection of reafferent incongruence.

  19. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Wen, Ya-Chien; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task) or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker’s identity (the voice-semantic task). Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker’s identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500–600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes. PMID:26347638

  20. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Wen, Ya-Chien; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task) or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker's identity (the voice-semantic task). Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker's identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500-600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes.

  1. Lifestyle incongruity, stress and immune function in indigenous Siberians: the health impacts of rapid social and economic change.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Mark V; Snodgrass, James J; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Tarskaya, Larissa A; Ivanov, Kiundiul I; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Alekseev, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of economic and cultural change on immune function and psychosocial stress in an indigenous Siberian population. We examined Epstein-Barr virus antibodies (EBV), an indirect biomarker of cell-mediated immune function, in venous whole blood samples collected from 143 Yakut (Sakha) herders (45 men and 98 women) in six communities using a cross-sectional study design. We modeled economic change through the analysis of lifestyle incongruity (LI), calculated as the disparity between socioeconomic status and material lifestyle, computed with two orthogonal scales: market and subsistence lifestyle. EBV antibody level was significantly negatively associated with both a market and a subsistence lifestyle, indicating higher cell-mediated immune function associated with higher material lifestyle scores. In contrast, LI was significantly positively associated with EBV antibodies indicating lower immune function, and suggesting higher psychosocial stress, among individuals with economic status in excess of material lifestyle. Individuals with lower incongruity scores (i.e., economic status at parity with material resources, or with material resources in excess of economic status) had significantly lower EBV antibodies. The findings suggest significant health impacts of changes in material well-being and shifting status and prestige markers on health during the transition to a market economy in Siberia. The findings also suggest that relative, as opposed to absolute, level of economic status or material wealth is more strongly related to stress in the Siberian context.

  2. Motivational Incongruence and Well-Being at the Workplace: Person-Job Fit, Job Burnout, and Physical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Job, Veronika; Schulze, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Person–environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives) and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics) were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97), using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions toward preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being. PMID:27570513

  3. Motivational Incongruence and Well-Being at the Workplace: Person-Job Fit, Job Burnout, and Physical Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Job, Veronika; Schulze, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Person-environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives) and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics) were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97), using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions toward preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being.

  4. Identification of Hybrids in Potamogeton: Incongruence between Plastid and ITS Regions Solved by a Novel Barcoding Marker PHYB

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Tian-lei; Guo, You-hao; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Potamogeton is one of the most difficult groups to clarify in aquatic plants, which has an extensive range of interspecific morphological and ecological diversity. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is prevalent for phylogenetic analysis in plants. However, most researches demonstrate that ITS has a high percentage of homoplasy in phylogenetic datasets. In this study, eighteen materials were collected in Potamogeton from China and incongruence was shown between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. To solve the discrepancy, we employed a novel barcode PHYB to improve resolution and accuracy of the phylogenetic relationships. The PHYB phylogeny successfully resolved the incongruence between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. In addition, six hybrids were confirmed using PHYB, including P. compressus × P. pusillus, P. octandrus × P. oxyphyllus, P. gramineus × P. lucens, P. distinctus × P. natans, P. distinctus × P. wrightii, and S. pectinata × S. amblyophylla. Whereas, only one hybrid was identified (P. compressus × P. pusillus) by ITS, indicating that ITS homoplasy was present in Potamogeton and ITS was completely homogenized to one parental lineage. Thus, ITS might have limited utility for phylogenetic relationships in Potamogeton. It is recommended that a three-locus combination of chloroplast DNA gene, ITS and PHYB is potential to effectively reveal more robust phylogenetic relationships and species identification. PMID:27855191

  5. Linear increases in BOLD response associated with increasing proportion of incongruent trials across time in a colour Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2010-05-01

    Selective attention is popularly assessed with colour Stroop tasks in which participants name the ink colour of colour words, whilst resisting interference from the natural tendency to read the words. Prior studies hinted that the key brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) may vary their degree of involvement, dependent on attentional demand. This study aimed to determine whether a parametrically varied increase in attentional demand resulted in linearly increased activity in these regions, and/or whether additional regions would be recruited during high attentional demand. Twenty-eight healthy young adults underwent fMRI whilst naming the font colour of colour words. Linear increases in BOLD response were assessed with increasing percentage incongruent trials per block (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%). Whilst ACC activation increased linearly according to incongruity level, dlPFC activity appeared constant. Together with behavioural evidence of reduced Stroop interference, these data support a load-dependent conflict-related response in ACC, but not dlPFC.

  6. Identification of Hybrids in Potamogeton: Incongruence between Plastid and ITS Regions Solved by a Novel Barcoding Marker PHYB.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Tian-Lei; Guo, You-Hao; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Potamogeton is one of the most difficult groups to clarify in aquatic plants, which has an extensive range of interspecific morphological and ecological diversity. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is prevalent for phylogenetic analysis in plants. However, most researches demonstrate that ITS has a high percentage of homoplasy in phylogenetic datasets. In this study, eighteen materials were collected in Potamogeton from China and incongruence was shown between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. To solve the discrepancy, we employed a novel barcode PHYB to improve resolution and accuracy of the phylogenetic relationships. The PHYB phylogeny successfully resolved the incongruence between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. In addition, six hybrids were confirmed using PHYB, including P. compressus × P. pusillus, P. octandrus × P. oxyphyllus, P. gramineus × P. lucens, P. distinctus × P. natans, P. distinctus × P. wrightii, and S. pectinata × S. amblyophylla. Whereas, only one hybrid was identified (P. compressus × P. pusillus) by ITS, indicating that ITS homoplasy was present in Potamogeton and ITS was completely homogenized to one parental lineage. Thus, ITS might have limited utility for phylogenetic relationships in Potamogeton. It is recommended that a three-locus combination of chloroplast DNA gene, ITS and PHYB is potential to effectively reveal more robust phylogenetic relationships and species identification.

  7. Second Supplement to "A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World" (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and

  8. Six New Species of the Culex (Lophoceraomyia) Mammilifer Group from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-03-01

    608 and 412 pp. CoIIess, D. H. 1965. The genus Culex , subgenus LophoceraomyM, in Malaya (Diptera: Culicidae). Jour. ;Med. Ent. 2: 261-307. ...SIX NEW SPECIES OF THE CULEX (LOPHOCERAOMYIA) MAMMILIF-ER GROUP FROM THAILAND ( DIPTERA: CULICIDAIZ)~ F~ALPH A. BRAM and MANOP RAT~TAN- South...of de Cukr subgenus Lophoceraomyiu in any area of South East Asia was that of Colless ( 1965). This study described 14 new species, revalidated

  9. Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de

  10. Aedes (Stegomyia) Bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), The Yellow Fever Virus Vector in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 23, no. 2: 196-200 31 March 1986 AEDES (STEGOLMYIA) BROMELIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE), THE YELLOW FEVER VIRUS VECTOR IN EAST...lilii, and Ae. bromeliae). The species from which Mahaffy, Had- dow, and others isolated yellow fever virus , and which is the most common and...and western Africa but is less prevalent than Ae. bromeliae, and no females have been recorded as biting man. Literature refer- ences to Ae

  11. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  12. Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    Theobald) are herein des- cribed for the first time. Aedes vexans (Meigen) is the only other species in the subgenus Aedimorphus which has the eggs ...1972 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1972 to 00-00-1972 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus...ANSI Std Z39-18 60 Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)l John F. Reinert* Department of

  13. [Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2008-12-01

    To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA). A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens), followed by the periurban (10,987) and then the forest environment (5,572). There were collected 30 species in the urban habitat, 32 in the periurban and 33 in the forest. The most dominant species were: Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus in the urban and periurban areas, and Culex ocellatus in the forest. There was no difference in the frequency of mosquitoes in bromeliads in the different environments studied using ANOVA (F=0.5564; p=0.5769). The diversity of immature mosquitoes was greater in the forest and similar in the urban and periurban environments. The specific composition of Culicidae mosquitoes in ground bromeliads was greatly diversified and higher in those located in the forest environment. Cx. (Mcx.) pleuristriatus and Cx. ocellatus were the dominant species.

  14. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  15. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  17. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Bouman, Walter P; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of 'Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood' (GIAA). A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium) (1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of) transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of 'Gender Incongruence' and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of 'Transsexualism'. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on "psychiatric disorders", many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives) and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly defined and easy

  19. Coetzeemyia, a new subgenus of Aedes, and a Redescription of the Holotype Female of Aedes (Coetzeemyia) fryeri (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-06

    Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 97, 1–16. Edwards, F.W. (1917) Notes on Culicidae, with descriptions of new species...Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B), 32, 165–170. McIntosh, B.M., Weinbren, M.P., Worth, C.B. & Kokernot, R.H. (1962...the Entomological Society of Washington , 46, 205–225. Theobald, F.V. (1912) No. V.– Diptera, Culicidae. Transactions Linnean Society of London (2), 15

  20. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  1. Letter to the editor: Characterization of a Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 from India showing incongruence in its phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Baranwal, Virendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Jain, Rakesh K; Sawant, Sanjay D; Singh, Sanjay K

    2012-08-01

    Survey conducted during 2010-2011 in the vineyards of Nashik and Pune regions of India revealed the association of an Ampelovirus antigenically related to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) with seven cultivars of grapevine. Upon sequencing of the coat protein (CP) and partial heat shock protein 70 homologue (HSP70h) genes of GLRaV-3 present in the cultivar Cabernet Souvignon showed distinct grouping behaviour. It clustered in group 2 and group 1 on the basis of CP and HSP70h sequences, respectively. Incongruent clustering pattern observed on the basis of two genomic regions suggest that GLRaV-3 is a distinct isolate from India.

  2. Incongruity between affinity patterns based on mandibular and lower dental dimensions following the transition to agriculture in the Near East, Anatolia and Europe.

    PubMed

    Pinhasi, Ron; Eshed, Vered; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that malocclusion is linked with urbanisation, it remains unclear as to whether its high prevalence began 8,000 years earlier concomitant with the transition to agriculture. Here we investigate the extent to which patterns of affinity (i.e., among-population distances), based on mandibular form and dental dimensions, respectively, match across Epipalaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic samples from the Near East/Anatolia and Europe. Analyses were conducted using morphological distance matrices reflecting dental and mandibular form for the same 292 individuals across 21 archaeological populations. Thereafter, statistical analyses were undertaken on four sample aggregates defined on the basis of their subsistence strategy, geography, and chronology to test for potential differences in dental and mandibular form across and within groups. Results show a clear separation based on mandibular morphology between European hunter-gatherers, European farmers, and Near Eastern transitional farmers and semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers. In contrast, the dental dimensions show no such pattern and no clear association between the position of samples and their temporal or geographic attributes. Although later farming groups have, on average, smaller teeth and mandibles, shape analyses show that the mandibles of farmers are not simply size-reduced versions of earlier hunter-gatherer mandibles. Instead, it appears that mandibular form underwent a complex series of shape changes commensurate with the transition to agriculture that are not reflected in affinity patterns based on dental dimensions. In the case of hunter-gatherers there is a correlation between inter-individual mandibular and dental distances, suggesting an equilibrium between these two closely associated morphological units. However, in the case of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers and farming groups, no such correlation was found, suggesting that the incongruity between dental and mandibular

  3. Incongruity between Affinity Patterns Based on Mandibular and Lower Dental Dimensions following the Transition to Agriculture in the Near East, Anatolia and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pinhasi, Ron; Eshed, Vered; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that malocclusion is linked with urbanisation, it remains unclear as to whether its high prevalence began 8,000 years earlier concomitant with the transition to agriculture. Here we investigate the extent to which patterns of affinity (i.e., among-population distances), based on mandibular form and dental dimensions, respectively, match across Epipalaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic samples from the Near East/Anatolia and Europe. Analyses were conducted using morphological distance matrices reflecting dental and mandibular form for the same 292 individuals across 21 archaeological populations. Thereafter, statistical analyses were undertaken on four sample aggregates defined on the basis of their subsistence strategy, geography, and chronology to test for potential differences in dental and mandibular form across and within groups. Results show a clear separation based on mandibular morphology between European hunter-gatherers, European farmers, and Near Eastern transitional farmers and semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers. In contrast, the dental dimensions show no such pattern and no clear association between the position of samples and their temporal or geographic attributes. Although later farming groups have, on average, smaller teeth and mandibles, shape analyses show that the mandibles of farmers are not simply size-reduced versions of earlier hunter-gatherer mandibles. Instead, it appears that mandibular form underwent a complex series of shape changes commensurate with the transition to agriculture that are not reflected in affinity patterns based on dental dimensions. In the case of hunter-gatherers there is a correlation between inter-individual mandibular and dental distances, suggesting an equilibrium between these two closely associated morphological units. However, in the case of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers and farming groups, no such correlation was found, suggesting that the incongruity between dental and mandibular

  4. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    PubMed Central

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect. PMID:25018740

  5. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  6. Congruence-Incongruence Patterns in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Couples’ Genetic Determinist Beliefs and Perceived Control over Genes: Implications for Clinical and Public Health Genomic Communication

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hong, Soo Jung; Worthington, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Genomics makes possible the isolation of multiple genes as co-factors that increase, but do not determine, risk for many adult-onset medical conditions, including alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Those diagnosed with an adult-onset medical condition, such as AATD, are often married and make decisions about testing and care as a couple. We examined genetic essentialist and threat beliefs, focusing on beliefs about the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility and severity, as well as perceptions of control related to genes and health for married couples (N =59), in which one spouse has been tested for genetic mutations associated with AATD. The intraclass correlation for spouses’ beliefs about genetic essentialism was strong and statistically significant, but the associations for their other beliefs were not. Incongruence between AATD participants and their spouses regarding genes’ influence on disease severity directly related to incongruent perceptions of control and genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. Results revealed an inverse relationship to AATD participants’ perceptions of behavioral control and a direct relationship to their beliefs about genes’ influence on disease severity. This suggests a pattern of incongruence in which AATD participants have low levels of perceived control over genes’ influence on health and high levels of perceived genetic influence on disease severity compared to spouses. With public health communication efforts lagging behind the science of genomics, insights regarding the congruence or incongruence associated with married couples’ beliefs about genes’ influence on disease afford pathways to guide clinical and public health communication about genomics. PMID:25413221

  7. Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptomatology among Mexican and Mexican American Students in the U.S.: Examining Associations with Cultural Incongruity and Intragroup Marginalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Castillo, Linda G.; Castro, Yessenia; de Dios, Marcel A.; Roncancio, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of intragroup marginalization and cultural incongruity with acculturative stress and depressive symptoms among 155 undergraduate U.S. college students of Mexican heritage. Findings indicate that perceived interpersonal distancing by the family (intragroup marginalization) and perceived lack of cultural fit between…

  8. Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptomatology among Mexican and Mexican American Students in the U.S.: Examining Associations with Cultural Incongruity and Intragroup Marginalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Castillo, Linda G.; Castro, Yessenia; de Dios, Marcel A.; Roncancio, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of intragroup marginalization and cultural incongruity with acculturative stress and depressive symptoms among 155 undergraduate U.S. college students of Mexican heritage. Findings indicate that perceived interpersonal distancing by the family (intragroup marginalization) and perceived lack of cultural fit between…

  9. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  10. Occurrence of Two Types of Gynandromorphism in a Sibling Series of Aedes (Stegomyia) Craggi (Barraud) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    reference is not available. The information is from Chellappah (1965). a Pinger (1972) reported it as an intersex . communication). It is a...Gyn- andromorphism in an African mosquito (Dip- tera: Culicidae) J. Ent. Sot. S. Africa 24(1): 214-215. Pinger, R. R., Jr. 1972. An intersex of

  11. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY 0 IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) oAnnual Report Terry L. Erwin July...APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE Annual Report INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO July 1981 to June 1982 MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS

  12. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tatiani C; Bourke, Brian P; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2012-02-16

    The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced

  13. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Incongruent abstract stimulus-response bindings result in response interference: FMRI and EEG evidence from visual object classification priming.

    PubMed

    Horner, Aidan J; Henson, Richard N

    2012-03-01

    Stimulus repetition often leads to facilitated processing, resulting in neural decreases (repetition suppression) and faster RTs (repetition priming). Such repetition-related effects have been attributed to the facilitation of repeated cognitive processes and/or the retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. Although previous research has dissociated these two forms of learning, their interaction in the brain is not fully understood. Utilizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of fMRI and EEG, respectively, we examined a long-lag classification priming paradigm that required response repetitions or reversals at multiple levels of response representation. We found a repetition effect in occipital/temporal cortex (fMRI) that was time-locked to stimulus onset (EEG) and robust to switches in response, together with a repetition effect in inferior pFC (fMRI) that was time-locked to response onset (EEG) and sensitive to switches in response. The response-sensitive effect occurred even when changing from object names (words) to object pictures between repetitions, suggesting that S-R bindings can code abstract representations of stimuli. Most importantly, we found evidence for interference effects when incongruent S-R bindings were retrieved, with increased neural activity in inferior pFC, demonstrating that retrieval of S-R bindings can result in facilitation or interference, depending on the congruency of response between repetitions.

  15. A preliminary phylogeny of the 'didymocarpoid Gesneriaceae' based on three molecular data sets: Incongruence with available tribal classifications.

    PubMed

    Möller, Michael; Pfosser, Martin; Jang, Chang-Gee; Mayer, Veronika; Clark, Alexandra; Hollingsworth, Michelle L; Barfuss, Michael H J; Wang, Yin-Zheng; Kiehn, Michael; Weber, Anton

    2009-05-01

    The 'didymocarpoid Gesneriaceae' (traditional subfam. Cyrtandroideae excluding Epithemateae) are the largest group of Old World Gesneriaceae, comprising 85 genera and 1800 species. We attempt to resolve their hitherto poorly understood generic relationships using three molecular markers on 145 species, of which 128 belong to didymocarpoid Gesneriaceae. Our analyses demonstrate that consistent topological relationships can be retrieved from data sets with missing data using subsamples and different combinations of gene sequences. We show that all available classifications in Old World Gesneriaceae are artificial and do not reflect natural relationships. At the base of the didymocarpoids are grades of clades comprising isolated genera and small groups from Asia and Europe. These are followed by a clade comprising the African and Madagascan genera. The remaining clades represent the advanced Asiatic and Malesian genera. They include a major group with mostly twisted capsules. The much larger group of remaining genera comprises exclusively genera with straight capsules and the huge genus Cyrtandra with indehiscent fruits. Several genera such as Briggsia, Henckelia, and Chirita are not monophyletic; Chirita is even distributed throughout five clades. This degree of incongruence between molecular phylogenies, traditional classifications, and generic delimitations indicates the problems with classifications based on, sometimes a single, morphological characters.

  16. Topological incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast DNA trees suggesting hybridization in the urophyllum group of the genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yuriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-04-01

    We performed phylogenetic analyses of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group based on nucleotide sequences of two nuclear genes, FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) and AGAMOUS (AG), and three segments of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), rbcL-accD, trnK intron, and trnC-rpoB spacer. The FLO/LFY and AG sequences turned out to be phylogenetically more informative at the intrageneric level than the cpDNA sequences. Congruence among these gene trees, inferred by a maximum-likelihood (ML) method, demonstrated that topologies were partially incongruent between the nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogenies. The nuclear DNA sequence data supported a monophyletic relation of F. statice, F. gilesii, and F. jinshaense, whereas the former two species formed another monophyletic relation with the F. capillatum-F. gracilipes-F. gracilipedoides-F. rubifolium clade excluding F. jinshaense in the synthetic cpDNA phylogeny. In addition, two divergent sequences of FLO/LFY were found in F. rubifolium (tetraploid). One of these was sister to F. gracilipedoides and another was sister to F. statice, and a monophyletic relation of these two genes was rejected by a bootstrap analysis. These results suggest that hybridization may have occurred during diversification of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group, and that F. rubifolium is possibly allotetraploid species.

  17. Memory and disgust: Effects of appearance-congruent and appearance-incongruent information on source memory for food.

    PubMed

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study was stimulated by previous findings showing that people preferentially remember person descriptions that violate appearance-based first impressions. Given that until now all studies used faces as stimuli, these findings can be explained by referring to a content-specific module for social information processing that facilitates social orientation within groups via stereotyping and counter-stereotyping. The present study tests whether the same results can be obtained with fitness-relevant stimuli from another domain--pictures of disgusting-looking or tasty-looking food, paired with tasty and disgusting descriptions. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, guessing and source memory. There was an old-new recognition advantage for disgusting-looking food. People had a strong tendency towards guessing that disgusting-looking food had been previously associated with a disgusting description. Source memory was enhanced for descriptions that disconfirmed these negative, appearance-based impressions. These findings parallel the results from the social domain. Heuristic processing of stimuli based on visual appearance may be complemented by intensified processing of incongruent information that invalidates these first impressions.

  18. Three New Species of the Genus Tripteroides, Subgenus Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-12-01

    Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2672 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Sur- geon General. 2 Immediate publication...Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Southeast Asia Mosquito Project,Smithsonian Institution,Washington,DC,20560 8

  19. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    collected in light traps and dog-baited traps. Mosq. News 33:39-41. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1949. Pupae of the anopheline mosquitoes of the north- eastern...United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. de Entomol. 20:509-30. Darsie , R. F., Jr . 1973. A record of changes in mosquito taxonomy in the United States...of America, 1955-1972. Mosq. Syst. 5:187-93. 60 Darsie , R. F., Jr ., D. MacCreary, and L. A. Stearns. 1951. An annotated list of the mosquitoes of

  20. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    PubMed

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  1. Reinvestigation of the olivine-spinel transformation in Ni2SiO4 and the incongruent melting of Ni2SiO4 olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.-B.

    1974-01-01

    The olivine-spinel transformation and the melting behavior of Ni2SiO4 were investigated over the PT ranges of 20-40 kbar, 650-1200 C, and 5-13 kbar, 1600-1700 C, respectively. It was confirmed that Ni2SiO4 olivine melts incongruently at high pressures and that it is a stable phase until melting occurs. The PT slope of the incongruent melting curve is approximately 105 bars/deg. The olivine-spinel transformation curve was shown to be a reversible univariant curve, and could be expressed by the linear equation P(bars) equals 23,300 + 11.8 x T(deg C). The transformation curve determined by Akimoto et al. (1965) is nearly parallel to that of the present work, but lies at pressures about 12% lower.

  2. How does the brain mediate interpretation of incongruent auditory emotions? The neural response to prosody in the presence of conflicting lexico-semantic cues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    We frequently encounter conflicting emotion cues. This study examined how the neural response to emotional prosody differed in the presence of congruent and incongruent lexico-semantic cues. Two hypotheses were assessed: (i) decoding emotional prosody with conflicting lexico-semantic cues would activate brain regions associated with cognitive conflict (anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) or (ii) the increased attentional load of incongruent cues would modulate the activity of regions that decode emotional prosody (right lateral temporal cortex). While the participants indicated the emotion conveyed by prosody, functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired on a 3T scanner using blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast. Using SPM5, the response to congruent cues was contrasted with that to emotional prosody alone, as was the response to incongruent lexico-semantic cues (for the 'cognitive conflict' hypothesis). The right lateral temporal lobe region of interest analyses examined modulation of activity in this brain region between these two contrasts (for the 'prosody cortex' hypothesis). Dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity was not observed, and neither was attentional modulation of activity in right lateral temporal cortex activity. However, decoding emotional prosody with incongruent lexico-semantic cues was strongly associated with left inferior frontal gyrus activity. This specialist form of conflict is therefore not processed by the brain using the same neural resources as non-affective cognitive conflict and neither can it be handled by associated sensory cortex alone. The recruitment of inferior frontal cortex may indicate increased semantic processing demands but other contributory functions of this region should be explored.

  3. Morphologic Features of the Recipient Heart in Patients Having Cardiac Transplantation and Analysis of the Congruence or Incongruence Between the Clinical and Morphologic Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William C.; Roberts, Carey Camille; Ko, Jong Mi; Filardo, Giovanni; Capehart, John Edward; Hall, Shelley Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac transplantation (CT) has been one of the great medical advances of the last nearly 50 years. We studied the explanted hearts of 314 patients having CT at Baylor University Medical Center Dallas from 1993 to 2012, and compared the morphologic diagnoses to the clinical diagnoses before CT. Among the 314 patients the morphologic and clinical diagnoses were congruent in 272 (87%) and incongruent in 42 (13%). Most of the incongruity occurred among the 166 patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (non-IC) (36/166 [22%]), and of that group the major incongruity occurred among the patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (7/17 [41%]), non-compaction left ventricular cardiomyopathy (NCLVC) (3/3 [100%]), mononuclear myocarditis (3/3 [100%]), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) (4/4 [100%]), and cardiac sarcoidosis (8/8 [100%]). The phrase “non-IC” is a general term that includes several subsets of cardiac diseases and simply means “insignificant narrowing of 1 or more of the epicardial coronary arteries,” but it does not specify the specific cause of the heart failure leading to CT. A number of cardiac illustrations are provided to demonstrate the morphologic variability occurring among the patients with IC and non-IC. PMID:25181314

  4. Arthroscopic treatment of fragmented coronoid process with severe elbow incongruity. Long-term follow-up in eight Bernese Mountain Dogs.

    PubMed

    Samoy, Y C A; de Bakker, E; Van Vynckt, D; Coppieters, E; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment results of fragmented coronoid process (FCP) in joints with a radio-ulnar step greater than 3 mm. Treatment of these patients only consisted of fragment removal, without correction of the incongruity. The eight Bernese Mountain Dogs (11 joints) included in this study showed obvious clinical signs of elbow disease and were diagnosed with severe elbow incongruity and concomitant FCP in the time period from 1999-2003. At that time, elbow radiography, computed tomography, and arthroscopy were performed. The mean follow-up period was 5.6 years. The follow-up consisted of a telephone questionnaire combined with a clinical and radiographic re-evaluation at our clinic. The questionnaire revealed that all dogs were either free of lameness or only lame following heavy exercise. One dog sporadically required medication after heavy exercise. The owner satisfaction rate was 100%. The clinical re-evaluation did not reveal any signs of pain or lameness in all cases. Range-of- motion was decreased in nine of the 11 elbows. Radiographs revealed an increase in severity of osteoarthritis in every case.In this case series, arthroscopic fragment removal without treatment of incongruity was demonstrated to be a valuable treatment option and may provide a satisfactory long-term outcome.

  5. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; De Cuypere, Griet; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC). This study aimed to: 1) collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2) see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3) compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4) determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the United Kingdom (UK). Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9%) was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4%) thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%). Furthermore, most participants (76.1%) did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall) or as a Z-code (the majority response

  6. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Bouman, Walter P; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; De Cuypere, Griet; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC). This study aimed to: 1) collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2) see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3) compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4) determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the United Kingdom (UK). Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9%) was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4%) thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%). Furthermore, most participants (76.1%) did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall) or as a Z-code (the majority response

  7. Non-LTR R2 Element Evolutionary Patterns: Phylogenetic Incongruences, Rapid Radiation and the Maintenance of Multiple Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850–600 Million years ago) placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host’s 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the “library” model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework. PMID:23451148

  8. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  9. The Proposed ICD-11 Gender Incongruence of Childhood Diagnosis: A World Professional Association for Transgender Health Membership Survey.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sam; De Cuypere, Griet; Green, Jamison; Kane, Robert; Knudson, Gail

    2016-10-01

    ICD-11 (the eleventh edition of the World Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) is due for approval in 2018. For transgender health care, the most important proposals for ICD-11 are as follows: (1) the five ICD-10 diagnoses (most notably Transsexualism and Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood) currently in Chapter 5 (Mental and Behavioural Disorders) will be replaced by two Gender Incongruence diagnoses, one of Adolescence and Adulthood and the other of Childhood (GIC), and (2) these two diagnoses will be located in a new chapter provisionally named Conditions Related to Sexual Health. Debate on the GIC proposal has focused on whether there should be a diagnosis for young children exploring their identity and has drawn on a number of arguments for and against the proposal. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health conducted a survey to examine members' views concerning the GIC proposal, as well as an alternative framework employing non-pathologizing Z Codes. The survey was completed by 241 (32.6 %) out of 740 members. Findings indicated an even split among members regarding the GIC proposal (51.0 % [n = 123] opposing and 47.7 % [n = 115] supporting the proposal). However, non-US members were overall opposed to the proposal (63.9 % [n = 46] opposing, 36.1 % [n = 26] supporting). Across the sample as a whole, and among those expressing a view about Z Codes, there was substantial support for their use in healthcare provision for children with gender issues (35.7 % [n = 86] of the sample supporting vs. 8.3 % [n = 20] rejecting).

  10. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    PubMed

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  11. Alternating gender incongruity: a new neuropsychiatric syndrome providing insight into the dynamic plasticity of brain-sex.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2012-05-01

    Between the two extreme ends of human sexuality - male and female - lie a poorly understood and poorly studied spectrum of ambiguously defined sexual identities that are very much a part of the human condition but defy rigid classification. "Bigender" is a recently formed sub-category of transgenderism, describing individuals who experience a blending or alternation of gender states. While recognized nominally by the APA, no scientific work to our knowledge has addressed this fascinating condition, or proposed any physiological basis for it. In addition, the alternation aspect has not been proposed as a nosological entity distinct from blending. We present descriptive data suggesting that many bigender individuals experience an involuntary switching of gender states without any amnesia for either state. In addition, similar to transsexual individuals, the majority of bigender individuals experience phantom breasts or genitalia corresponding to the non-biologic gender when they are in a trans-gender state. Finally, our survey found decreased lateralization of handedness in the bigender community. These observations suggest a biologic basis of bigenderism and lead us to propose a novel gender condition, "alternating gender incongruity" (AGI). We hypothesize that AGI may be related to an unusual degree or depth of hemispheric switching and corresponding callosal suppression of sex appropriate body maps in parietal cortex- possibly the superior parietal lobule- and its reciprocal connections with the insula and hypothalamus. This is based on two lines of reasoning. First, bigender individuals in our survey sample reported an elevated rate of bipolar disorder, which has been linked to slowed hemispheric switching. We hypothesize that tracking the nasal cycle, rate of binocular rivalry, and other markers of hemispheric switching will reveal a physiological basis for AGI individuals' subjective reports of gender switches. Switching may also trigger hormonal cascades

  12. Descriptions of Zavortinkius, a New Subgenus of Aedes, and the Eleven Included Species from the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    entomology studies -XVII. Biosystematics of Kenknightia, a new subgenus of the mosquito genus Aedes Meigen from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae...subgenus, Zavortinkius, in genus Aedes is described and includes 11 species of which four are new (Ae. brunhesi, Ae. geofioyi, Ae. huangae and Ae...Brygooi, Longipalpis and Monetus) based on features of the adults, female and male genitalia, pupae and fourth-instar larvae. Keys to adults, pupae

  13. Redescription of Four Oriental Species of Culex (Culiciomyia) and the Description of a New Species from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    fauna of Southeast Asia - II. The genus Culex in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) Z(1): 1-296. 1967b...illustrated. A new species, C. harrisoni, from Thailand is rec- ognized. During the preliminary study of the CuZex material from Southeast Asia and...these spe- cies so that they will be readily recognized by other workers studying the Or- iental fauna. The descriptions of bahri, viridiventer and

  14. Effects of Different Pyrethroids on Landing Behavior of Female Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) MIRIAM F. COOPERBAND1 AND SANDRA A. ALLAN Center for Medical, Agricultural and...genera, Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were tested for facultative landing and resting behavior on...which justify the use of alternative terminology. The term “locomotive stimulant” is offered as an acceptable alternative. KEY WORDS insect behavior

  15. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    AND RESURRECTION FROM SYNONYMY WITH ANOPHELES (NYSSORHYNCHUS) OSWALDOI (PERYASSU) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) CARMEN FLORES -MENDOZA, E. L. PEYTON, RICHARD C...Amazonas, Brazil, specimen 1629, 15-VIII-1998, C. Flores -Mendoza coil., deposited at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil...Hygiene, Monographic Series 18. 1948. Notas sobre a distribui•fio e a biologia dos anofelinos das Regi6es Nordestina e Amaz6n- ica do Brasil

  16. Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus by Strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    AD-A281 335 0 Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephaliti Vi 4 by Strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynch &1j (Diptera: Culicidae...co m •strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus isolated from Ae. albopictus collected in Polk...County, Florida. Both species became infected with and transmitted EEE virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had _been inoculated with EEE

  17. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The

  18. Potential Distribution of Two Species in the Medically Important Anopheles minimus Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    digital geospa- tial data layers summarizing environmental variation . Georeferenced mosquito point occurrence data are available from the literature or...and Harbach et al. (2007) named An. mini- mus C as An. harrisoni Harbach and Manguin. Differ- ences in phenology between An. minimus and An. harrisoni...ation in fewer, independent dimensions. The Þrst 15 PCs explained 95% of the overall variation in the 59 original environmental parameters (Peterson

  19. Intragenomic rDNA ITS2 Variation in the Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-07

    in 3"f 15 ,,>tal clon••. ~I and I’d..,,,,. mol. and fmtal•• ir!<nown. Onl)’ ,·..iabl."’•••••’" .he,,,,,,,. Single mUI.tion. Ihal a!’P""’a1 only onc

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Species Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Insti- tution, National Museum ofNatural History (NMNH) and the Faculdade de Saude Publica , Universidade de Sao Paulo (FSP-USP). DNA voucher...Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saude Publica . Unive~idadede 5:w Paulo. Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715. 01246-904. Sdo Paulo. SP, Brazil. morphological

  1. Measurement of flight tone differentiates among members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brogdon, W G

    1998-09-01

    Through digital sampling and resampling at 5,000 and 20,000 Hz of amplified mosquito flight sound, baseline separation was observed for flight tone frequency distributions of male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. arabiensis Patton, An. merus Donitz, and An. melas Theobald. Males of the 4 species showed flight tones considerably higher than females. Up to 7 harmonics were measured for each species. Close correspondence for each individual mosquito of the means of the flight tone harmonics (corrected for harmonic number) demonstrated the accuracy and precision of the method. These data indicate that flight tone differences have been subjected to selection and may act as an isolating mechanism for mating or serve some other behavioral purpose in these mosquitoes. Individuals and swarms of sympatric species were distinguished from each other for both males and females, but the allopatric species, An. merus and An. melas, were indistinguishable.

  2. Ribosomal DNA ITS2 Sequences Differentiate Six Species in the Anopheles crucians Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    of many copies per cell ( Gerbi 1985). The rel- ative homogeneity of this gene family is, like others, thought to be maintained by a variety of...located on different chromosomes (Arnheim 1983, Gerbi 1985, Tautz et al. 1988). Inmosquitoes, each transcriptional unit ismade upof anexternal transcribed...amplicon ( Gerbi 1985, Muller and Eckert 1989, Thweatt and Li 1990, Wesson et al. 1992, Paske- witz et al. 1993). In Anopheles mosquitoes, the ITS2

  3. Karyotype Differentiation of Three Anopheline Taxa in the Balabacensis Complex of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    1971) altered by the addition of Genetica 57, 81-86 (1981). 0016-6707/81:572-00811 $1.20. 1~ Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. Printed in The...F.M.S. 3 I: I-520. Swanson. C. P.. 1965. Cytology and cytogenetics. pp. 477 499. London: MacMillan Co. White, M. J. D., 1973. Animal cytology and

  4. Aedes (Stegomyia) simpsoni Complex in the Ethiopian Region with Lectotype Designation for simpsoni (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    and Dr. H. da Cunha Ramos, Cadeira de Entomologia, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal; the South African material from Dr. C...Museum. Special thanks are given to Mr. Young T. Sohn for preparing the drawings and to Mrs. Sharon G. Harrison for typing the manuscript for offset

  5. Integrating age in the detection and mapping of incongruous patches in coffee (Coffea arabica) plantations using multi-temporal Landsat 8 NDVI anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemura, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The development of cost-effective, reliable and easy to implement crop condition monitoring methods is urgently required for perennial tree crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica), as they are grown over large areas and represent long term and higher levels of investment. These monitoring methods are useful in identifying farm areas that experience poor crop growth, pest infestation, diseases outbreaks and/or to monitor response to management interventions. This study compares field level coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies and age-adjusted coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies in identifying and mapping incongruous patches across perennial coffee plantations. To achieve this objective, we first derived deviation of coffee pixels from the global coffee mean NDVI and LSWI values of nine sequential Landsat 8 OLI image scenes. We then evaluated the influence of coffee age class (young, mature and old) on Landsat-scale NDVI and LSWI values using a one-way ANOVA and since results showed significant differences, we adjusted NDVI and LSWI anomalies for age-class. We then used the cumulative inverse distribution function (α ≤ 0.05) to identify fields and within field areas with excessive deviation of NDVI and LSWI from the global and the age-expected mean for each of the Landsat 8 OLI scene dates spanning three seasons. Results from accuracy assessment indicated that it was possible to separate incongruous and healthy patches using these anomalies and that using NDVI performed better than using LSWI for both global and age-adjusted mean anomalies. Using the age-adjusted anomalies performed better in separating incongruous and healthy patches than using the global mean for both NDVI (Overall accuracy = 80.9% and 68.1% respectively) and for LSWI (Overall accuracy = 68.1% and 48.9% respectively). When applied to other Landsat 8 OLI scenes, the results showed that the proportions of coffee fields that were modelled incongruent decreased with time for the young age category and

  6. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    PubMed

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, Kyanne R; Cook, Shelley; Bertone, Matthew A; Harbach, Ralph E; Wiegmann, Brian M; Besansky, Nora J

    2009-12-22

    Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. Results We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Conclusions Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes. PMID:20028549

  9. Introduction and establishment of the exotic mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Dekoninck, W; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2009-11-01

    The establishment of the potential vector species Aedes (Finlaya) japonicusjaponicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Belgium is reported. The species was most likely introduced through the international trade in used tires. It was first collected in 2002 on the premises of a second-hand tire company and was sampled using different sampling methods in the two consecutive years (2003-2004). It was only in 2007 and 2008, during a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK), that its presence as adults and larvae at the above-mentioned site and at another tire company in the area was confirmed based on morphological and molecular identification. This discovery is the first record for Belgium of an exotic mosquito species that established successfully and raises the question on the need for monitoring and control. Considering the accompanying species found during the surveys, we also report here the first observation of Culex (Maillotia) hortensis hortensis (Ficalbi) in Belgium.

  10. A standard cytogenetic photomap for the mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae): application for physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Sharakhova, Maria V; Xia, Ai; McAlister, Sarah I; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2006-09-01

    To facilitate physical genome mapping, we have developed a new cytogenetic photomap for Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae), an important malaria vector in Asia. The high-resolution images of the ovarian polytene chromosomes have been straightened and divided by numbered divisions and lettered subdivisions. The exact chromosomal locations of eight DNA probes have been determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Using the DNA sequences, we have established correspondence between chromosomal arms among An. stephensi, Anopheles gambiae (Patton), and Anopheles funestus (Giles). The results support previous cytogenetic observations of arm translocations taking place during diversification of the species. To make the cytogenetic map useful for population genetics studies, we have indicated the chromosomal positions for the breakpoints of 19 polymorphic inversions.

  11. Pupal dimensions as predictors of adult size in fitness studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M

    2008-03-01

    Adult body size is a central life history character in mosquito fitness studies. I evaluated the predictive values of pupal cephalothorax length, cephalothorax width, and wet weight for adult size (wing length) of male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Cephalothorax length was the most consistent and accurate predictor of adult size. Width of the cephalothorax and wet weight were more variable, and they significantly decreased shortly before adult emergence. I propose that cephalothorax length could be used as a proxy for adult size to test how physical and biological factors such as resource-limited environments and competition affect mosquito fitness with the advantage that the specimen does not need to be killed.

  12. Culicinae (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in chabahar county, sistan and baluchistan province, southeastern iran.

    PubMed

    Moosa-Kazemi, Sh; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. THREE GENERA AND ELEVEN SPECIES OF THE SUBFAMILY CULICINAE (DIPTERA: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. THE COLLECTED SPECIES INCLUDED: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  13. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported.

  15. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22808369

  16. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-09-14

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The phylogenetic relationships of known mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongliang; Li, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Hengduan; Luo, Peng; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-10-12

    The known mosquito mitogenomes, containing a total of 34 species, which belong to five genera, were collected from GenBank, and the practicality and effectiveness of the variation in the complete mitochondrial DNA genome and portions of mitochondrial COI gene were assessed to reconstruct the phylogeny of mosquitoes. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian (BI) methods. It is concluded that: (1) Both mitogenomes and COI gene support the monophly of following taxa: Subgenus Nyssorhynchus, Subgenus Cellia, Anopheles albitarsis complex, Anopheles gambiae complex, and Anopheles punctulatus group; (2) Genus Aedes is not monophyletic relative to Ochlerotatus vigilax; (3) The mitogenome results indicate a close relationship between Anopheles epiroticus and Anopheles gambiae complex, Anopheles dirus complex and Anopheles punctulatus group, respectively; (4) The Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) within phylogenetic tree reconstructed by mitogenomes is higher than COI tree. The results show that phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using the mitogenomes were more similar to those based on morphological data.

  18. Comparative pathogenomic characterization of a non-invasive serotype M71 strain Streptococcus pyogenes NS53 reveals incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Li, Yang; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2017-07-31

    The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections. We propose that this incongruence could result from recombination within the emm gene locus, or, alternatively, selection has been against those genetic alterations. Combined with the inability to select for CovS switching, a process is indicated whereby NS53 has been pre-adapted to specific host niches selecting against variations in CovS and many other genes. This may allow the strain to attain successful colonization and long-term survival. A balance between genetic variations and fitness may exist for this bacterium to form a stabilized genome optimized for survival in specific host environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites reveals incongruence in the molecular variation and taxonomic limits of the Pilosocereus aurisetus group (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Evandro M; Perez, Manolo F; Téo, Mariana F; Zappi, Daniela C; Taylor, Nigel P; Machado, Marlon C

    2012-09-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus group contains eight cactus species restricted to xeric habitats in eastern and central Brazil that have an archipelago-like distribution. In this study, 5-11 microsatellite markers previously designed for Pilosocereus machrisii were evaluated for cross-amplification and polymorphisms in ten populations from six species of the P. aurisetus group. The genotypic information was subsequently used to investigate the genetic relationships between the individuals, populations, and species analyzed. Only the Pmac101 locus failed to amplify in all of the six analyzed species, resulting in an 88 % success rate. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 12, and the most successfully amplified loci showed at least one population with a larger number of alleles than were reported in the source species. The population relationships revealed clear genetic clustering in a neighbor-joining tree that was partially incongruent with the taxonomic limits between the P. aurisetus and P. machrisii species, a fact which parallels the problematic taxonomy of the P. aurisetus group. A Bayesian clustering analysis of the individual genotypes confirmed the observed taxonomic incongruence. These microsatellite markers provide a valuable resource for facilitating large-scale genetic studies on population structures, systematics and evolutionary history in this group.

  20. Bionomic Aspects of the Anopheles subpictus Species Complex in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jude, Pavillupillai J.; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) functions as a secondary malaria vector to Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sri Lanka. The taxon A. subpictus is reported to exist as a species complex comprising four sibling species (A–D) that can be differentiated through polytene chromosome banding patterns and stage-specific morphometric traits in India. Based on the morphological characteristics described for the Indian Subpictus Complex, the presence of all four sibling species has been described in Sri Lanka. As sibling species show distinct bio-ecological characteristics that are important for devising appropriate vector control measures, a study was carried out in six districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The results confirm the presence of all four sibling species, with species C predominating in inland areas and species B in coastal areas. Species C and D were indoor-resting and indoor-feeding, while species B was outdoor-resting with no significant preference for indoor- or outdoor-resting. Species B showed distinct morphological variation in the ornamentation of wings and palpi. Blood meal analysis revealed that species B, C, and D can feed on humans as well as cattle. The differential bio-ecological traits shown by the members of the Subpictus Complex are important for developing appropriate vector control measures in Sri Lanka. PMID:25205254

  1. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Contributions of the American EntomoIogicaI Institute Volume 1’7, Number 3, 1980 MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY STUDIES - XII. A REVISION OF THE AEDES...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Terminalia ........................ Pupae .............................. Fourth Stage Larvae ...................... DESCRIPTIONS, BIONOMICS, AND

  2. Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) ABBAS ALI,1,2 NURHAYAT TABANCA,1 GULMIRA OZEK,3...deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti. KEY WORDS Echinophora lamondiana, biting deterrent, repellent, larvicide, mosquito Introduction Mosquitoes ...of human morbidity and mortality in environments where appropriate medical resources are not available. The primary method of mosquito control relies

  3. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  4. A New Subgenus of Wyeomyia (Diptera: Culicidae), with the Reclassification and Redescription of Wyeomyia (Davismyia) Arborea, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) Tarsata and Sabethes (Sabethes) Carrilloi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Sabethes) carriLLoi sp. n. de Venezuela. Bo!. Dir. Malariol. Saneamiento Ambiental 18:199- 204. Ward, RA 1984. Second supplement to "A catalog of the mosquitoes of the world" (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- 270.

  5. Mosquito Information Management Project (MIMP): Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    4 MOSQUITO INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROJECT (MIMP): *APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE I INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO...1983 to August 1984 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDI- 6 EFRIGOG EOTNME * CALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) .v PEnRMN OG

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of brain activity associated with audio-visually congruent and incongruent speech and the McGurk Effect.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Hillel; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2015-11-01

    Spatio-temporal distributions of cortical activity to audio-visual presentations of meaningless vowel-consonant-vowels and the effects of audio-visual congruence/incongruence, with emphasis on the McGurk effect, were studied. The McGurk effect occurs when a clearly audible syllable with one consonant, is presented simultaneously with a visual presentation of a face articulating a syllable with a different consonant and the resulting percept is a syllable with a consonant other than the auditorily presented one. Twenty subjects listened to pairs of audio-visually congruent or incongruent utterances and indicated whether pair members were the same or not. Source current densities of event-related potentials to the first utterance in the pair were estimated and effects of stimulus-response combinations, brain area, hemisphere, and clarity of visual articulation were assessed. Auditory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and middle temporal cortex were the most consistently involved areas across experimental conditions. Early (<200 msec) processing of the consonant was overall prominent in the left hemisphere, except right hemisphere prominence in superior parietal cortex and secondary visual cortex. Clarity of visual articulation impacted activity in secondary visual cortex and Wernicke's area. McGurk perception was associated with decreased activity in primary and secondary auditory cortices and Wernicke's area before 100 msec, increased activity around 100 msec which decreased again around 180 msec. Activity in Broca's area was unaffected by McGurk perception and was only increased to congruent audio-visual stimuli 30-70 msec following consonant onset. The results suggest left hemisphere prominence in the effects of stimulus and response conditions on eight brain areas involved in dynamically distributed parallel processing of audio-visual integration. Initially (30-70 msec) subcortical contributions to auditory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and middle temporal

  7. Malaria transmission and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire): implications for vector control.

    PubMed

    Girod, Romain; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Pages, Frederic

    2006-09-01

    An important vector control program is ongoing to lower the risk of malaria transmission in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). However, some autochthonous malaria cases are regularly suspected. An entomological survey was conducted in June 2004 in the camp to assess malaria transmission and evaluate the pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance of the malaria vectors. The average mosquito biting rate was 178.0 bites per person per night. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) complex and the Anopheles funestus group were collected. An. gambiae s.s. molecular form M was the only species of the An. gambiae complex present. The average number of An. gambiae bites was approximately 44.3 per person per night. The circumsporozoite index was 0.38% and the entomological inoculation rate estimated to be 1.2 infective bites per week for the study period. The kdr and ace1 gene frequencies in the An. gambiae population were 0.70 and 0.15, respectively. Personnel living in the French barracks of Port-Bouët are thus at high risk of being bitten by parasite-infected mosquitoes. Such an entomological inoculation rate, usually found in African peri-urban environments, was unexpected considering the extensive effort deployed to control mosquitoes in the camp. Insecticide resistance could explain the inefficacy of the vector control program but the spraying strategy is also questionable.

  8. Culicidae (Diptera) community structure, spatial and temporal distribution in three environments of the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Stein, Marina; Santana, Mirta; Galindo, Liliana María; Etchepare, Eduardo; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the composition of the Culicidae community in three environments with different degrees of anthropic disturbance in the province of Chaco. The nonparametric richness estimator ACE was calculated to measure the completeness of the sampling in each environment, and the diversity of each environment (α-diversity) were estimated. The composition, abundance and uniformity of species from the different environments were compared by means of range-species curves. β-diversity was measured as species complementarity, which allowed us to know the degree of dissimilarity among the environments. The synanthropic index was estimated, identifying urban environment (synanthropic) species, eusynanthropic species, and wild species. The influence of climatic factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on the monthly and annual variations of the identified mosquito species was analysed using multilevel Poisson models with over-dispersion. The wild environment showed higher diversity and the semi-urban environment higher species richness. Despite having lower S and abundance, the urban environment showed greater diversity than semi-urban environment, although it also showed lower completeness, which means S could increase. Anthropogenic disturbance can lead to the elimination and/or modification or substitution of habitats, with the subsequent loss of richness in the more sensitive species of Culicidae fauna, although the conditions are also favourable for the settling of opportunistic and exotic species well-adjusted to disturbed environments. Most of the species abundances were positively influenced by the analysed climatic variables. The study area showed a rich Culicidae fauna of public health significance, with a risk of pathogen transmission, suggesting the need of further studies and the febrile and entomological surveillance.

  9. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs top-down regulation of Stroop incongruity as revealed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rickenbacher, Elizabeth; Azma, Sheeva; Artsy, Elinor

    2012-02-01

    Functional neuroanatomy of executive functions has been delineated in a large number of neuroimaging studies using conflict-inducing tasks. The neural basis of alcohol's effects on cognitive control is poorly understood despite the evidence of impaired ability to evaluate competing demands and to inhibit maladaptive responses. To investigate the effects of moderate intoxication, healthy social drinkers participated in both alcohol (0.60 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions while being scanned using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A modified four-color Stroop task combined reading and color naming and used manual responses. Twenty subjects (10 women) were instructed to press a button corresponding to the font color except when a word was written in gray in which case they had to respond to the meaning of the word. Alcohol increased reaction times and a tendency to make more errors on incongruent trials. Behavioral indices of alcohol-induced premature responding correlated with the current drinking levels and impulsivity traits, suggesting an interaction between alcohol effects and personality predispositions. A distributed frontoparietal cortical network was activated by incongruity. However, moderate alcohol inebriation selectively attenuated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during both high-conflict trials and erroneous responses, indicating vulnerability of the regulative function subserved by the ACC. By disrupting top-down, strategic processing, alcohol may interfere with goal-directed behavior, resulting in poor self control. The present results support models proposing that alcohol-induced prefrontal impairments diminish inhibitory control and are modulated by dispositional risk factors and levels of alcohol consumption.

  10. Free energy of formation of a crystal nucleus in incongruent solidification: Implication for modeling the crystallization of aqueous nitric acid droplets in polar stratospheric clouds.

    PubMed

    Djikaev, Yuri S; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2017-04-07

    Using the formalism of classical thermodynamics in the framework of the classical nucleation theory, we derive an expression for the reversible work W* of formation of a binary crystal nucleus in a liquid binary solution of non-stoichiometric composition (incongruent crystallization). Applied to the crystallization of aqueous nitric acid droplets, the new expression more adequately takes account of the effects of nitric acid vapor compared to the conventional expression of MacKenzie, Kulmala, Laaksonen, and Vesala (MKLV) [J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102, 19729 (1997)]. The predictions of both MKLV and modified expressions for the average liquid-solid interfacial tension σ(ls) of nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) crystals are compared by using existing experimental data on the incongruent crystallization of aqueous nitric acid droplets of composition relevant to polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). The predictions for σ(ls) based on the MKLV expression are higher by about 5% compared to predictions based on our modified expression. This results in similar differences between the predictions of both expressions for the solid-vapor interfacial tension σ(sv) of NAD crystal nuclei. The latter can be obtained by using the method based on the analysis of experimental data on crystal nucleation rates in aqueous nitric acid droplets; it exploits the dominance of the surface-stimulated mode of crystal nucleation in small droplets and its negligibility in large ones. Applying that method to existing experimental data, our expression for the free energy of formation provides an estimate for σ(sv) of NAD in the range ≈92 dyn/cm to ≈100 dyn/cm, while the MKLV expression predicts it in the range ≈95 dyn/cm to ≈105 dyn/cm. The predictions of both expressions for W* become identical for the case of congruent crystallization; this was also demonstrated by applying our method for determining σ(sv) to the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate crystals in PSC droplets of

  11. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  12. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  13. 16S rRNA gene sequences from bacteria associated with adult Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2008-01-01

    The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.

  14. Restoration of Verrallina to Generic Rank in Tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) and Descriptions of the Genus and Three Included Subgenera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    the study of culicine mosquitoes of Hainan, south China. Indian J. Malariol. 12:109-l 12. Darsie , R. F., Jr . and S. P. Pradhan. 1990. The mosquitoes...of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosq. Syst. 22:69- 130. Darsie , R. F., Jr ., S. P. Pradhan and R. G. Vaidya. 1991. Notes on...the mosquitoes of Nepal I. New country records and revised Aedes keys (Diptera, Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 23:39-49. Darsie , R. F., Jr ., S. P. Pradhan

  15. Effects of Wolbachia on fitness of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fábio de; Moura, Alexandre S; Cardoso, André F; Winter, Carlos E; Bijovsky, A Tania; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2011-12-01

    Wolbachia are α-proteobacteria that were first reported in Culex pipiens mosquitoes early in the twentieth century. Since then, the effect of Wolbachia on their host's reproduction has drawn attention and has been increasingly investigated. Given the extreme complexity of this interaction, new study cases are welcomed to enhance its understanding. The present work addressed the influence of Wolbachia on Cx. quinquefasciatus, the cosmopolitan member of the Cx. pipiens complex. Samples of a Cx. quinquefasciatus colony (wPip(+)) originated from individuals naturally infected by Wolbachiapipientis B strain, were cured with tetracycline, yielding a Wolbachia-free colony (wPip(-)). Both the presence of bacteria and the efficiency of bacterial elimination were checked by PCR of the wsp gene. Total reproductive unidirectional incompatibility occurred when wPip(-) females were crossed with wPip(+) males, whereas the other three types of reciprocal crosses were viable. Reproductive aspects were also comparatively evaluated between colonies. Concerning oviposition time during the first gonotrophic cycle, wPip(+) females developed and laid eggs earlier than did wPip(-) females. Reproductive fitness was higher among wPip(-) than wPip(+) females regarding the following parameters: fertility: egg rafts/fed females; fecundity: eggs/raft, and viability: larvae/eggs. Conversely, longevity of wPip(-) females was lower. Summarising, although the infected mosquitoes have the advantage of a higher longevity, they have lower reproductive fitness. Our results are partly distinct from all other reports on Aedes and Culex mosquitoes previously published.

  16. Multilocus Phylogeography and Species Delimitation in the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki: Incongruence among Data Sets and Methods.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Shawn R; Brown, Ashley D; Converse, Paul E; Highton, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs) to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity. Rates of evolution for each locus were inferred using the multidistribute package, and time calibrated gene trees and species trees were inferred using BEAST 2 and *BEAST 2, respectively. Because the parameter space relevant for species delimitation is large and complex, and all methods make simplifying assumptions that may lead them to fail, we conducted an array of analyses. Our assumption was that strongly supported species would be congruent across methods. Putative species were first delimited using a Bayesian implementation of the GMYC model (bGMYC), Geneland, and Brownie. We then validated these species using the genealogical sorting index and BPP. We found substantial phylogeographic diversity using mtDNA, including four divergent clades and an inferred common ancestor at 14.9 myr (95% HPD: 10.8-19.7 myr). By contrast, this diversity was not corroborated by nuclear sequence data, which exhibited low levels of variation and weak phylogeographic structure. Species trees estimated a far younger root than did the mtDNA data, closer to 1.0 myr old. Mutually exclusive putative species were identified by the different approaches. Possible causes of data set discordance, and the problem of species delimitation in complexes with high levels of population structure and

  17. Multilocus Phylogeography and Species Delimitation in the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki: Incongruence among Data Sets and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Shawn R.; Brown, Ashley D.; Converse, Paul E.; Highton, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs) to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity. Rates of evolution for each locus were inferred using the multidistribute package, and time calibrated gene trees and species trees were inferred using BEAST 2 and *BEAST 2, respectively. Because the parameter space relevant for species delimitation is large and complex, and all methods make simplifying assumptions that may lead them to fail, we conducted an array of analyses. Our assumption was that strongly supported species would be congruent across methods. Putative species were first delimited using a Bayesian implementation of the GMYC model (bGMYC), Geneland, and Brownie. We then validated these species using the genealogical sorting index and BPP. We found substantial phylogeographic diversity using mtDNA, including four divergent clades and an inferred common ancestor at 14.9 myr (95% HPD: 10.8–19.7 myr). By contrast, this diversity was not corroborated by nuclear sequence data, which exhibited low levels of variation and weak phylogeographic structure. Species trees estimated a far younger root than did the mtDNA data, closer to 1.0 myr old. Mutually exclusive putative species were identified by the different approaches. Possible causes of data set discordance, and the problem of species delimitation in complexes with high levels of population structure and

  18. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective.

  19. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  1. Naive and conditioned responses of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) to flower odors.

    PubMed

    Jhumur, Umma Salma; Dötterl, Stefan; Jürgens, Andreas

    2006-11-01

    Flower odors are important signals for chemical communication between plants and flower visitors. Here, we studied the naive responses of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskal 1775 (Diptera: Culicidae) to typical flower odors and assessed the learning capacity of mosquitoes to floral volatiles. The odor compounds used in the bioassay, phenyl acetaldehyde, veratrole, and 2-methoxyphenol, are typically found in the floral odor of Silene otites (L.) Wibel, a plant that is pollinated by nectar-drinking mosquitoes and moths, and/or in other closely related Silene species. Wind tunnel bioassays with a mixture of these compounds revealed that attraction of mosquitoes to odors was positively correlated with time passed since the last feeding. In single component bioassays, mosquitoes showed strong innate responses to phenyl acetaldehyde and only moderate or weak responses to veratrole and 2-methoxyphenol. Furthermore, in comparison with naive mosquitoes, conditioned mosquitoes were significantly more attracted to the mixture and single volatiles. These results indicate that naive mosquitoes are effectively attracted by appropriate floral scent compounds and that learning can increase the attractiveness of these compounds.

  2. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2016-08-25

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.

  3. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  4. Host use and seasonality of Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Blosser, Erik M; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2016-12-01

    Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period. Culex iolambdis (1109 males, 3072 females) constituted more than half (56.76%) of all mosquitoes sampled (24 species) and was active year-round. Unfed females and gravid females of Cx. iolambdis were significantly more abundant in mangrove habitat, while males and blood-fed females were not. PCR-based bloodmeal analysis of 305 females revealed that Cx. iolambdis has very wide host breadth, feeding on birds (37.0% overall), reptiles (26.6%), amphibians (23.3%) and mammals (13.1%). Green heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts. Bloodmeals from different host classes varied significantly with season, suggesting that Cx. iolambdis may play a role in the amplification and epidemic transmission of zoonotic arboviruses affecting human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida, USA, a New State and Country Record.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Blosser, Erik M

    2017-05-01

    Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is a tropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) found throughout most of the American Tropics, from eastern Mexico through Argentina, including several Caribbean islands. Larvae are typically associated with bodies of water with dense growths of aquatic vegetation, particularly Pistia stratiotes L., water lettuce. Adult females feed predominantly on the blood of birds and seek hosts in forest canopies. Aedeomyia squamipennis is considered an important vector of Gamboa virus and avian malaria, and is also suspected of transmitting Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Collections from Florida City, FL, near the southern tip of the Florida peninsula, yielded larvae, adult males, and females of Ad. squamipennis, constituting a new genus and species record for Florida and the United States. The widespread availability of larval habitat and suitable hosts in Florida will likely lead to expansion of Ad. squamipennis in Florida, and perhaps into neighboring states. In South America, Ad. squamipennis is found as far south as Buenos Aires, Argentina, at ∼35° S latitude, which is equivalent in N latitude to coastal North Carolina. The northern limit of expansion of Ad. squamipennis in North America will likely be limited by winter temperatures and availability of larval habitat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Considerations for accurate identification of adult Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in field studies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Laura C; Poulson, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and behavior of different mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) is essential for identifying their role in disease transmission cycles and public health risk. Two species of Culex mosquitoes in the northeastern United States, Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald, have been implicated in enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). Despite the difficulty of differentiating these two species as adults, many public health workers and vector biologists collecting adults in the field separate these species based on external morphology. This approach is often used rather than examination of dissected male genitalia or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics due to time or cost constraints. We evaluated the reliability of seven published morphological characters to differentiate adults of these species by comparing blindly scored morphology with PCR-based confirmations. Our study demonstrates that morphological identification of Cx. pipiens is marginal and often not reliable for Cx. restuans. We also examined error rates with molecular-based approaches. DNA samples were contaminated with as little as one leg from another species. We conclude that to fully understand the respective roles of Culex species in the epidemiology of WNV and other pathogens, more attention should be paid to these considerations for accurate species identification.

  7. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  8. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  9. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  10. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  11. Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots

    PubMed Central

    Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J.; Vulule, J.; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.

    2014-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them. PMID:17294916

  12. Molecular Characterization of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by Using rDNA-ITS2.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2016-07-22

    Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.

  13. Identification of person and quantification of human DNA recovered from mosquitoes (Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Curic, Goran; Hercog, Rajna; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Wagner, Jasenka

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Culicidae) are widespread insects and can be important in forensic context as a source of human DNA. In order to establish the quantity of human DNA in mosquitoes' gut after different post-feeding interval and for how long after taking a bloodmeal the human donor could be identified, 174 blood-engorged mosquitoes (subfamily Anophelinae and Culicinae) were captured, kept alive and sacrificed at 8h intervals. Human DNA was amplified using forensic PCR kits (Identifiler, MiniFiler, and Quantifiler). A full DNA profiles were obtained from all Culicinae mosquitoes (74/74) up to 48 h and profiling was successful up to 88 h after a bloodmeal. Duration of post-feeding interval had a significant negative effect on the possibility of obtaining a full profile (p<0.001), and logistic regression found that the probability of obtaining the full profile is 15.5% less for every 8h increase in post-feeding interval. Culicinae mosquitoes are a suitable source of human DNA for forensic STR kits more than three days after a bloodmeal. Human DNA recovered from mosquito can be used for matching purposes and could be useful in revealing spatial and temporal relation of events that took place at the crime scene. Therefore, mosquitoes at the crime scene, dead or alive, could be a valuable piece of forensic evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of a Miniaturized Funnel Trap for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, R.; Kluchinsky, T.; Lewis, M.; Claborn, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. These traps are generally ≥15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. Recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for Ae. aegypti in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. To sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a miniaturized funnel trap was necessary. This project describes the use of a smaller funnel trap for sampling larval populations. The effects of larval instar (third and fourth) and population density on trap efficacy also are examined. The trap detected larval presence 83% of the time at a larval density of 0.011 larvae per cm2 and 100% of the time at densities ≥0.022 larvae per cm2. There was a significant trend of increasing percentage of recaptured larvae with higher larval population densities. Although the miniaturized funnel trap is less sensitive at detecting larval presence in low population densities, it may be useful for sampling aquatic environments with restricted access or shallow water, particularly in domestic septic tanks. PMID:21175077

  15. Sampling outdoor, resting Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya with clay pots.

    PubMed

    Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E

    2007-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.

  16. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    PubMed

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081

  18. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [Life cycle of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) under uncontrolled conditions].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Myriam Janeth; Moncada, Ligia Inés

    2004-12-01

    Aspects of the growth and development were described for immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae), an antropophilic mosquito species found frequently in Bogotá, Colombia. Two experiments were carried out during January-February and September-October of 2001 under ambient environmental conditions. Oviposition occured 5-8 days after blood ingestion. Females laid eggs in plastic containers filled with pooled water with high organic material content. The number of eggs per raft varied between 152 and 203. For the 2 trials, the hatch rate was 50% and 75%. The asynchronous egg hatch, the short duration of the pupal stage (11% of the total development time, and the high efficiency of adult emergence from the pupal stage (98.6%) were noted. In general, these development times were shorter compared to those reported by other authors. Moreover, the high percentages of hatch (83.6%), pupation (86.6%) and emergence (98.6%) under the average temperature conditions of 14.8 degrees C and 15.1 degrees C, and average relative humidity of 72.5% and 74.1%, respectively) demonstrated adaptation of C. quinquefasciatus to Bogotá's cool, high altitude environment. These characteristics, together with its vectorial capacity and the resistance to chemical control methods, could make this species become a risk for the health of human populations.

  20. A biosecurity response to Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Holder, Peter; George, Sherly; Disbury, Mark; Singe, Monica; Kean, John M; McFadden, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    A biosecurity response was triggered by the detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Port of Auckland, New Zealand. Ae. albopictus does not occur in New Zealand and is the most significant mosquito threat to this country. The possibility that a founding population had established, resulted in a large-scale biosecurity surveillance and control program. The response was initiated in early March 2007 and completed by mid-May 2007. No further exotic mosquitoes were detected. The response surveillance program consisted of larval habitat surveys and high density ovi- and light trapping. It was coordinated with a habitat modification and S-methoprene treatment control program. The response policies were guided by analysis of surveillance and quality assurance data, population modeling, and trace-back activities. Mosquito habitat and activity close to port were both more abundant than expected, particularly in storm water drain sumps. Sumps are difficult to treat, and during the response some modification was required to the surveillance program and the control regime. We were assured of the absence or eradication of any Ae. albopictus population, as a result of nil detection from surveillance, backed up by four overlapping rounds of insecticide treatment of habitat. This work highlights the importance of port surveillance and may serve as a guide for responses for future urban mosquito incursions.

  1. Olfactory responses of female Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in a dual-choice olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Mboera, L E; Knols, B G; Takken, W; Huisman, P W

    1998-12-01

    Olfactory responses of individual female (n = 1010) Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) to various odor stimuli were studied in a dual-choice olfactometer. Responses (i.e., the number of mosquitoes entering either of both olfactometer ports) were studied towards clean conditioned air (control), human foot skin emanations (collected on worn stockings), carbon dioxide (4.5% in clean air), moistened air, and various combinations thereof. Skin emanations were significantly more attractive (chi 2 = 23.0, p < 0.001) than clean stockings (control). The mosquito was also significantly more attracted (chi 2 = 7.7, p < 0.01) to skin emanations than to a clean stocking to which water (an equivalent of that absorbed by a worn stocking) was added. A moistened (1 g H2O) clean stocking, however, was slightly more attractive than a dry stocking (chi 2 = 6, p < 0.025). Carbon dioxide (4.5%) did not elicit higher responses than clean air, and no synergistic effect was observed in combination with skin emanations. With the aim of developing an odor-baited trap, our results indicate that Cx. quinquefasciatus responds well to human body odors which can be collected on polyamide materials.

  2. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  3. Mosquitocidal properties of nereistoxin against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan

    2011-10-01

    Emergence of resistance among mosquitoes is a recent problem. Safe and eco-friendly agents from biological origins are the need of the hour. Nereistoxin, a naturally occurring substance, was first isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda and stored in the freezer. In the present study, the toxicity of nereistoxin was evaluated against vector mosquitoes. The larvicidal, ovicidal and adulticidal activities of nereistoxin were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The nereistoxin was inversely proportional to the concentration and directly proportional to the mosquitoes. The larvicidal activity after 24 h LC(50) value was observed at 0.467, 0.535 and 0.601 ppm for A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The ovicidal activity after 120 h zero percentage of egg hatchability was observed at a concentration of 0.8 ppm for A. stephensi and 1.0 ppm for A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The results of the adulticidal activity after 24 h LD(50) value were observed at 0.022, 0.028 and 0.034 ppm for A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The extracted nereistoxin was characterized and identified by ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopic methods and high pressure liquid chromatography. These results clearly reveal that the nereistoxin served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and adulticidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  4. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  5. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Wormington, Jillian D; Juliano, Steven A

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD.

  6. Molecular ecological analysis of planktonic bacterial communities in constructed wetlands invaded by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Popko, David A; Han, Suk-Kyun; Lanoil, Brian; Walton, William E

    2006-11-01

    The succession of the planktonic bacterial community during the colonization by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes of 0.1-ha treatment wetlands was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methodology. Relationships between apparent bacterial diversity and ecological factors (water quality, total bacterial counts, and immature mosquito abundance) were determined during a 1-mo flooding period. Analysis of DGGE banding patterns indicated that days postflooding and temporal changes in water quality were the primary and secondary determinants, respectively, of diversity in bacterial communities. Lower levels of diversity were associated with later postflood stages and increases in ammoniacal nitrogen concentration and total bacterial counts. Diversity was therefore most similar for bacteria present on the same sampling date at wetland locations with similar flooding regimes and water quality, suggesting that wastewater input was the driving force shaping bacterial communities. Comparatively small changes in bacterial diversity were connected to natural processes as water flowed through the wetlands. Greater immature mosquito abundance coincided with less diverse communities composed of greater total numbers of bacteria. Five individual DGGE bands were directly associated with fluctuations in mosquito production, and an additional 16 bands were associated with hydrological aspects of the environment during the rise and fall of mosquito populations. A marked decline in mosquito numbers 21 d after inundation may have masked associations of bacterial communities and mosquito recruitment into the sparsely vegetated wetlands. DGGE was an effective tool for the characterization of bacteria in mosquito habitat in our study, and its potential application in mosquito ecology is discussed.

  7. Diversity of Mosquito Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E. C.; Costa Neto, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study based on ecological parameters represented by diversity and richness indices applied in a community of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuanã, Melgaço municipality, state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8 m, 16 m, and 30 m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16 m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuanã. PMID:22997514

  8. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826

  9. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  10. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  11. Assessing the Susceptibility Status of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Dirofilariasis Focus, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ataie, Abolfazl; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Vatandoost, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshi, Hasan; Anjomruz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by WHO for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern Iran. Methods: Mosquito larval and adult collections were carried out using different methods provided by WHO including dipping and hand catch techniques. The susceptibility level was assessed to DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%. Results: Totally, 749 adults and 5060 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected comprising seven species of adult and larvae, including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, Culex hortensis, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiaerolata. Frequency of larvae and adults of An. maculipennis was very low, so susceptibility tests on this species did not performed. Results showed that Cx. theileri, Cs. longiaerolata and Cx. pipiens were resistant to DDT 4%, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, and propoxur 0.1% whereas found tolerant to deltamethrin 0.05% and malathion 5%. The LT50 and LT90 values for five insecticides were calculated. Conclusion: We suggest the same study in different parts of the world to obtain the data due to bionomic and susceptibility status of dirofilariasis vectors. This information will help the health authorities for monitoring and evaluation of control measures. PMID:26114140

  12. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  14. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses.

  15. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  16. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  17. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  18. Is homoplasy or lineage sorting the source of incongruent mtdna and nuclear gene trees in the stiff-tailed ducks (Nomonyx-Oxyura)?

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kevin; Sorenson, Michael

    2005-02-01

    DNA sequences would yield a fully resolved gene tree. A short internode separating O. leucocephala from (O. australis, O. maccoa) in the best mtDNA tree combined with long terminal branches and substantial rate variation among nucleotide sites allowed the small number of changes occurring on the internode to be obscured by homoplasy in a significant portion of simulated data sets. Although most nuclear loci were uninformative, two loci supported a resolution of the Old World clade (O. maccoa, O. leucocephala) that is incongruent with the best mtDNA tree. Thus, incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA trees may be due to random sorting of ancestral lineages during the short internode, homoplasy in the mtDNA data, or both. The Oxyura trichotomy represents a difficult though likely common problem in molecular systematics. Given a short internode, the mtDNA tree has a greater chance of being congruent with the history of speciation because its effective population size (N(e)) is one-quarter that of any nuclear locus, but its resolution is more likely to be obscured by homoplasy. In contrast, gene trees for more slowly evolving nuclear loci will be difficult to resolve due to a lack of substitutions during the internode, and when resolved are more likely to be incongruent with the species history due to the stochastic effects of lineage sorting. We suggest that researchers consider first whether independent gene trees are adequately resolved and then whether those trees are congruent with the species history. In the case of Oxyura, the answer to both questions may be no. Complete mtDNA sequences combined with data from a very large number of nuclear loci may be the only way to resolve such trichotomies.

  19. Larvicidal Efficacy of Different Plant Parts of Railway Creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F = 5.71, df = 2, P < 0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F = 8.83, df = 1, P < 0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract

  20. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  1. Processing of audiovisually congruent and incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of Specific Language Impairment: a behavioral and event-related potentials study

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we examined perception of both audiovisually congruent and audiovisually incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults. In the first experiment, all participants watched videos of a talker articulating syllables ‘ba,’ ‘da,’ and ‘ga’ under three conditions – audiovisual (AV), auditory only (A), and visual only (V). The amplitude of the N1 (but not of the P2) event-related component elicited in the AV condition was significantly reduced compared to the N1 amplitude measured from the sum of the A and V conditions in all groups of participants. Because N1 attenuation to AV speech is thought to index the degree to which facial movements predict the onset of the auditory signal, our findings suggest that this aspect of audiovisual speech perception is mature by mid-childhood and is normal in the H-SLI children. In the second experiment, participants watched videos of audivisually incongruent syllables created to elicit the so-called McGurk illusion (with an auditory ‘pa’ dubbed onto a visual articulation of ‘ka,’ and the expectant perception being that of 'ta' if audiovisual integration took place). As a group, H-SLI children were significantly more likely than either TD children or adults to hear the McGurk syllable as ‘pa’ (in agreement with its auditory component) than as ‘ka’ (in agreement with its visual component), suggesting that susceptibility to the McGurk illusion is reduced in at least some children with a history of SLI. Taken together, the results of the two experiments argue against global audiovisual integration

  2. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of ‘Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood’ (GIAA). A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium) (1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of) transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of ‘Gender Incongruence’ and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of ‘Transsexualism’. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on “psychiatric disorders”, many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives) and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly

  3. Processing of audiovisually congruent and incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of specific language impairment: a behavioral and event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we examined perception of both audiovisually congruent and audiovisually incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults. In the first experiment, all participants watched videos of a talker articulating syllables 'ba', 'da', and 'ga' under three conditions - audiovisual (AV), auditory only (A), and visual only (V). The amplitude of the N1 (but not of the P2) event-related component elicited in the AV condition was significantly reduced compared to the N1 amplitude measured from the sum of the A and V conditions in all groups of participants. Because N1 attenuation to AV speech is thought to index the degree to which facial movements predict the onset of the auditory signal, our findings suggest that this aspect of audiovisual speech perception is mature by mid-childhood and is normal in the H-SLI children. In the second experiment, participants watched videos of audivisually incongruent syllables created to elicit the so-called McGurk illusion (with an auditory 'pa' dubbed onto a visual articulation of 'ka', and the expectant perception being that of 'ta' if audiovisual integration took place). As a group, H-SLI children were significantly more likely than either TD children or adults to hear the McGurk syllable as 'pa' (in agreement with its auditory component) than as 'ka' (in agreement with its visual component), suggesting that susceptibility to the McGurk illusion is reduced in at least some children with a history of SLI. Taken together, the results of the two experiments argue against global audiovisual integration impairment in children with a

  4. Neurophysiological evidence for whole form retrieval of complex derived words: a mismatch negativity study

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Complex words can be seen as combinations of elementary units, decomposable into stems and affixes according to morphological rules. Alternatively, complex forms may be stored as single lexical entries and accessed as whole forms. This study uses an event-related potential brain response capable of indexing both whole-form retrieval and combinatorial processing, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), to investigate early brain activity elicited by morphologically complex derived words in German. We presented complex words consisting of stems “sicher” (secure), or “sauber” (clean) combined with abstract nominalizing derivational affixes -heit or -keit, to form either congruent derived words: “Sicherheit” (security) and “Sauberkeit” (cleanliness), or incongruent derived pseudowords: *“Sicherkeit”, and *“Sauberheit”. Using this orthogonal design, it was possible to record brain responses for -heit and -keit in both congruent and incongruent contexts, therefore balancing acoustic variance. Previous research has shown that incongruent combinations of symbols elicit a stronger MMN than congruent combinations, but that single words or constructions stored as whole forms elicit a stronger MMN than pseudowords or non-existent constructions. We found that congruent derived words elicited a stronger MMN than incongruent derived words, beginning about 150 ms after perception of the critical morpheme. This pattern of results is consistent with whole-form storage of morphologically complex derived words as lexical units, or mini-constructions. Using distributed source localization methods, the MMN enhancement for well-formed derivationally complex words appeared to be most prominent in the left inferior anterior-temporal, bilateral superior parietal and bilateral post-central, supra-marginal areas. In addition, neurophysiological results reflected the frequency of derived forms, thus providing further converging evidence for whole form storage and against a

  5. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

  6. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative

  7. Abundance and diversity of human-biting flies (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Simuliidae) around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, northwestern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, M V; Brodskaya, N K; Haarto, A; Kuusela, K; Schäfer, M; Zverev, V

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient.

  8. Substantial incongruence among the morphology, taxonomy, and molecular phylogeny of the land snails Aegista, Landouria, Trishoplita, and Pseudobuliminus (Pulmonata: Bradybaenidae) occurring in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takahiro; Kameda, Yuichi; Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of molecular phylogeny have revealed that phenotypically identified taxa do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. Such taxa often are not evolutionary significant and are misleading in describing and evaluating biological diversity. Herein, we investigated the molecular phylogeny of the East Asian bradybaenid land snail genera Aegista, Landouria, Trishoplita, and Pseudobuliminus to test whether morphology and current taxonomy reflect phylogenetic relationships. Our results document extensive parallel evolution and substantial incongruence between taxonomy and molecular phylogeny. Species with an elongated turret shell evolved independently five times, and hair-like ornamentation of the shell was independently gained or lost in a number of lineages. Although genital anatomy reveals phylogenetic conservatism to some extent, love dart and dart-related organs were lost independently at least three times in these genera. Accordingly, classification of these genera based on morphological traits did not reflect phylogenetic relationships, and, overall, these genera except for a few species should be tentatively assigned to a single genus as Aegista. The present findings suggest that radical revision is required for the taxonomy of bradybaenid land snails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incongruent Abstract Stimulus–Response Bindings Result in Response Interference: fMRI and EEG Evidence from Visual Object Classification Priming

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Aidan J.; Henson, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus repetition often leads to facilitated processing, resulting in neural decreases (repetition suppression) and faster RTs (repetition priming). Such repetition-related effects have been attributed to the facilitation of repeated cognitive processes and/or the retrieval of previously encoded stimulus–response (S-R) bindings. Although previous research has dissociated these two forms of learning, their interaction in the brain is not fully understood. Utilizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of fMRI and EEG, respectively, we examined a long-lag classification priming paradigm that required response repetitions or reversals at multiple levels of response representation. We found a repetition effect in occipital/temporal cortex (fMRI) that was time-locked to stimulus onset (EEG) and robust to switches in response, together with a repetition effect in inferior pFC (fMRI) that was time-locked to response onset (EEG) and sensitive to switches in response. The response-sensitive effect occurred even when changing from object names (words) to object pictures between repetitions, suggesting that S-R bindings can code abstract representations of stimuli. Most importantly, we found evidence for interference effects when incongruent S-R bindings were retrieved, with increased neural activity in inferior pFC, demonstrating that retrieval of S-R bindings can result in facilitation or interference, depending on the congruency of response between repetitions. PMID:22066586

  10. Age-related effects on event-related brain potentials in a congruence/incongruence judgment color-word Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Zurrón, Montserrat; Lindín, Mónica; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We examined the event-related brain potentials elicited by color-word stimuli in a Stroop task in which healthy participants (young and old) had to judge whether the meaning and the color of the stimulus were congruent or incongruent. The Stroop effect occurred in both age groups, with longer reaction times in the older group than in the young group for both types of stimuli, but no difference in the number of errors made by either group. Although the N2 and P3b latencies were longer in the older than in the younger group, there were no differences between groups in the latencies of earlier event-related potential components, and therefore the age-related processing slowing is not generalized. The frontal P150 amplitude was larger, and the parietal P3b amplitude was smaller, in the older than in the younger group. Furthermore, the P3b amplitude was maximal at frontal locations in older participants and at parietal locations in young participants. The age-related increase in perceptual resources and the posterior-to-anterior shift in older adults support adaptive reorganization of the neural networks involved in the processing of this Stroop-type task. PMID:24987369

  11. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    BANGOURA and A. LORAND. 1979. Isolements d’arbovirus au Senegal oriental a partir de moustiques (1972-1977) et notes sur l’epidemiologie des virus...Dengue 2 au Senegal oriental: Une poussee epizootioque en milieu selvatique; isolements du virus a partir de moustiques et d’un singe et...neoafticanus une nouvelle espece de moustique capturee au Senegal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae). Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 16

  12. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    toprotect and enhance survival of Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae . KEY WORDS heat shock, Aedes aegypti, gene expression, larvae, development Temperatures...MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/GENOMICS Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock...how heat shock proteins are developmentally expressed in mosquitoes, we subjected Þrst instar larvae, 16-h old pupae and female of Aedes aegypti (L

  13. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ, 1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON, 1 CARL W. DOUD, 1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...and Marine Corps Public Health Center, Navy Bureau of Med- icine and Surgery, Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. 1 ...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and

  14. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  15. [Culicidae of medical-veterinary importance in natural breeding sites located in three areas of Camagüey province in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Diéguez Fernández, Lorenzo; Vásquez Capote, Raisa; Mentor Sarría, Vivian Engracia; Díaz Martínez, Ireté; Fimia Duarte, Rigoberto

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem at present; it affects almost half of the population from over 100 countries and poses a high risk of reintroduction in Cuba. To identify the Culicidae species present in natural breeding sites located in three areas of Camagüey municipality, particularly anopheles. Larval inspections were carried out in 66 natural breeding sites of Anopheles almimanus located in three areas of Camagüey municipality from May to June 2010, according the World Health Organization methodology. The preferential breeding sites of Anopheles albimanus and the association of this species with other Culicidae were ascertained. Presence of Culicidae in 28.78% of inspected breeding sites, being Anopheles albimanus the prevailing one with 63.51%. This species was captured together with Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex erraticus, Culex corniger, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora howardii and Ochlerottatus scapularis, in low polluted water bodies such as lagoons (58.34%) and streams (25%), and in others more polluted such as ditches (8.33%) and narrow trails (8.33%). The existence of species of medical and veterinary importance, particularly Anopheles albimanus, in the studied areas calls for constant monitoring of these species in order to draw up integrated strategies focused on the biological fight, and the involvement of the community in this process to help in preventing the emergence of cases or epidemic outbreaks of imported malaria.

  16. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management. PMID:28922900

  17. Detritus Type Alters the Outcome of Interspecific Competition Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    MURRELL, EBONY G.; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (λ’) was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti λ’ was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field. PMID:18533429

  18. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.

  19. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  20. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Detritus type alters the outcome of interspecific competition between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A

    2008-05-01

    Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (lambda') was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti lambda' was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field.

  2. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Temporal and geographic patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) production in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Amy C; Gray, Kenneth; Getis, Arthur; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Focks, Dana; Watts, Douglas; Stancil, Jeffrey D; Olson, James G; Blair, Patrick; Scott, Thomas W

    2004-11-01

    Large-scale longitudinal cohort studies are necessary to characterize temporal and geographic variation in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) production patterns and to develop targeted dengue control strategies that will reduce disease. We carried out pupal/demographic surveys in a circuit of approximately 6,000 houses, 10 separate times, between January 1999 and August 2002 in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We quantified the number of containers positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and/or pupae, containers holding pupae, and the absolute number of pupae by 4-mo sampling circuits and spatially by geographic area by using a geographic information system developed for the city. A total of 289,941 water-holding containers were characterized, of which 7.3% were positive for Ae. aegypti. Temporal and geographic variations were detected for all variables examined, and the relative importance of different container types for production of Ae. aegypti was calculated. Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae were detected in 64 types of containers. Consistent production patterns were observed for the lid status (lids: 32% wet containers, 2% pupal production), container location (outdoor: 43% wet containers, 85% pupal production), and method by which the container was filled with water (rain filled: 15% wet containers, 88.3% pupal production); these patterns were consistent temporally and geographically. We describe a new container category (nontraditional) that includes transient puddles, which were rare but capable of producing large numbers of pupae. Because of high variable pupal counts, four container categories (large tank, medium storage, miscellaneous, and nontraditional) should be targeted in addition to outdoor rain-filled containers that are not covered by a lid. The utility of targeted Ae. aegypti control is discussed, as well as the ability to achieve control objectives based on published but untested threshold values.

  4. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  5. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, D A

    2008-07-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  6. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  7. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  8. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-09-06

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  9. Mitochondrial genomes and comparative analyses of Culex camposi, Culex coronator, Culex usquatus and Culex usquatissimus (Diptera:Culicidae), members of the coronator group.

    PubMed

    Demari-Silva, Bruna; Foster, Peter G; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Bergo, Eduardo S; Sanabani, Sabri S; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2015-10-21

    The Coronator Group currently encompasses six morphologically similar species (Culex camposi Dyar, Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex covagarciai Forattini, Culex usquatus Dyar, Culex usquatissimus Dyar, and Culex ousqua Dyar). Culex coronator has been incriminated as a potential vector of West Nile Virus (WNV), Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV), and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). The complete mitochondrial genome of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi was sequenced, annotated, and analyzed to provide genetic information about these species. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi varied from 15,573 base pairs in Cx. usquatus to 15,576 in Cx. coronator. They contained 37 genes (13 protein-encoding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and the AT-rich control region. Comparative analyses of the 37 genes demonstrated the mitochondrial genomes to be composed of variable and conserved genes. Despite the small size, the ATP8, ATP6 plus NADH5 protein-encoding genes were polymorphic, whereas tRNAs and rRNAs were conserved. The control region contained some poly-T stretch. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree corroborated that both the Coronator Group and the Culex pipens complex are monophyletic taxa. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx. usquatissimus and Cx. camposi share the same gene composition and arrangement features that match to those reported for most Culicidae species. They are composed of the same 37 genes and the AT-rich control region, which contains poly-T stretches that may be involved in the functional role of the mitochondrial genome. Taken together, results of the dN/dS ratios, the sliding window analyses and the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses suggest that ATP6, ATP8 and NADH5 are promising genes to be employed in phylogenetic studies involving species of the Coronator Group, and probably other species groups of the subgenus Culex

  10. Characterization of a new Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)-Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) symbiotic association generated by artificial transfer of the wPip strain from Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Lampazzi, Elena; Bellini, Romeo; Dobson, Stephen L

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont inducing various effects in insects and other invertebrate hosts that facilitate the invasion of naive host populations. One of the effects is a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) through which females are effectively sterilized when they mate with males harboring a different Wolbachia strain. The repeated mass release of cytoplasmically incompatible males can be a tool to suppress insect populations. Here, we attempt to infect an Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) strain, artificially deprived of the natural Wolbachia infection, with a new Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Further experiments were designed to study the effects of the new infection on Ae. albopictus fitness and evaluate key parameters that affect infection dynamics, including CI level and maternal inheritance. Using embryonic microinjection, the new Wolbachia strain was successfully established in Ae. albopictus. Crosses demonstrated a pattern of bidirectional CI between naturally infected and transinfected individuals. Specifically, egg hatch was essentially absent (i.e., CI was very high) in all crosses between the transinfected males and females with a different infection status. Furthermore, naturally infected Ae. albopictus males were incompatible with the transinfected females. Maternal inheritance was close to 100%. Moreover, the new infection did not affect immature and adult survivorship, but it significantly reduced female fecundity and egg hatch rate. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of the new Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia symbiotic association as a suitable system for the study and development of CI-based strategies for suppressing populations of this important pest and disease vector.

  11. Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Flavia Corvello; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; da Silva, Onilda Santos; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio A; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 μg/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 μg/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 ± 0.04 and 0.56 ± 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.

  12. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  13. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  14. Incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear data in the freshwater mussel genus Cyprogenia (Bivalvia: Unionidae) and its impact on species delineation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jer Pin; Harris, John L; Roe, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Accurately identifying species is a crucial step for developing conservation strategies for freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled faunas in North America. This study uses genetic data to re-examine species delineation in the genus Cyprogenia. Historically, Cyprogenia found west of the Mississippi River have been ascribed to Cyprogenia aberti (Conrad 1850), and those east of the Mississippi River were classified as Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque 1820). Previous studies using mitochondrial DNA sequences indicated that C. aberti and C. stegaria were not reciprocally monophyletic groups, suggesting the need for systematic revision. We generated a novel dataset consisting of 10 microsatellite loci and combined it with sequence data from the mitochondrial ND1 gene for 223 Cyprogenia specimens. Bayesian analysis of the ND1 nucleotide sequences identified two divergent clades that differ by 15.9%. Members of these two clades occur sympatrically across most sampling locations. In contrast, microsatellite genotypes support recognition of three allopatric clusters defined by major hydrologic basins. The divergent mitochondrial lineages are highly correlated with the color of the conglutinate lures used by mussels to attract and infest host fishes, and tests for selection at the ND1 locus were positive. We infer that the incongruence between mtDNA and microsatellite data in Cyprogenia may be the result of a combination of incomplete lineage sorting and balancing selection on lure color. Our results provide further evidence that mitochondrial markers are not always neutral with respect to selection, and highlight the potential problems of relying on a single-locus-marker for delineating species.

  15. Genetic and ecological data provide incongruent interpretations of population structure and dispersal in naturally subdivided populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura).

    PubMed

    Fedy, B C; Martin, K; Ritland, C; Young, J

    2008-04-01

    The dispersal of individuals among populations affects the demographic and adaptive trajectories of animal populations and is fundamental to understanding population dynamics. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are a high elevation grouse species that live year-round in patchily distributed alpine areas in western North America. We investigated the patterns of dispersal and identified barriers to gene flow for a threatened subspecies (L. l. saxatilis) endemic to Vancouver Island, Canada. Connectivity among seven sites was examined using nine microsatellite loci (n = 133 individuals, H(O) = 0.62, mean number of alleles = 10) and direct movement observations using radio-telemetry (n = 118 individuals). Average movement distances of individuals measured by radio-telemetry were 0.63-3.23 km and considerably less than the shortest distance between sampling sites (18 km). Furthermore, despite extensive radio-telemetry data, movement was never observed between any of the seven sampling sites. In contrast, genetic results (STRUCTURE, TESS) showed connectivity among most of the seven sampling sites and suggested that genetic variation is best explained by two clusters of individuals which separated the South sampling site from all other areas of Vancouver Island. Analysis of molecular data also showed a generally consistent pattern of isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.11, P < 0.01) with large areas of unsuitable low elevation habitat possibly acting as barriers to gene flow. Despite the naturally subdivided distribution of populations, white-tailed ptarmigan do not fit well into any common definition of a metapopulation. We conclude the incongruities between the genetic and radio-telemetry data are best explained by episodic dispersal patterns. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of combining genetic and ecological data in understanding patterns of dispersal and population structure.

  16. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  17. Incongruent Bodies: Teaching while Leaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa Jean

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her experience, hired seven years ago by a CUNY school, The College of Staten Island (CSI). She expresses that although incredibly challenging, that first year taught her an invaluable lesson. It was through these embodied experiences that she now understands the teacher's body, her body, creates a…

  18. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Rajakumar, G; Santhoshkumar, T; Marimuthu, S; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-09-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The acetone

  19. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Abdul Rahuman, A; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present investigations were made to evaluate the repellent, ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent potential of leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, Andrographis paniculata, Cocculus hirsutus, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae). The hexane extract of A. lineata was more effective in exhibiting the repellent action against the mosquito as compared with A. marmelos extract. Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane extract of A. lineata at 500 ppm against An. subpictus bites. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. No hatchability was observed with hexane and chloroform extracts of A. lineata, A. paniculata and hexane extract of T. erecta were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 93.07, 93.95, 98.03, 90.43, 92.63, 81.53, 94.81, 97.50, 97.26, 92.22, 82.85 and 72.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 62.03, 53.64, 73.47, 59.05, 57.95, 48.17, 62.22, 72.99, 75.48, 67.77, 40.57 and 52.11 at 31.25 ppm in hexane and chloroform extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, E. prostrata and T. erecta, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results clearly reveal that the hexane extract of A. lineata, served as a

  20. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  1. Phylogenetics of Anthyllis (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Loteae): Partial incongruence between nuclear and plastid markers, a long branch problem and implications for morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Degtjareva, Galina V; Valiejo-Roman, Carmen M; Samigullin, Tahir H; Guara-Requena, Miguel; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2012-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Anthyllis (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Loteae) were investigated using data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and three plastid regions (psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, petB-petD region and rps16 intron). Bayesian and maximum parsimony (MP) analysis of a concatenated plastid dataset recovered well-resolved trees that are topologically similar, with many clades supported by unique indels. MP and Bayesian analyses of the ITS sequence data recovered trees that have several well-supported topological differences, both among analyses, and to trees inferred from the plastid data. The most substantial of these concerns A. vulneraria and A. lemanniana, whose placement in the parsimony analysis of the ITS data appears to be due to a strong long-branch effect. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ITS1 spacer showed a strong bias towards transitions in A. vulneraria and A. lemanniana, many of which were also characteristic of certain outgroup taxa. This may contribute to the conflicting placement of this clade in the MP tree for the ITS data. Additional conflicts between the plastid and ITS trees were more taxonomically focused. These differences may reflect the occurrence of reticulate evolution between closely related species, including a possible hybrid origin for A. hystrix. The patterns of incongruence between the plastid and the ITS data seem to correlate with taxon ranks. All of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Anthyllis (incl. Hymenocarpos). Although they are often taxonomically associated with Anthyllis, the genera Dorycnopsis and Tripodion are shown here to be more closely related to other genera of Loteae. We infer up to six major clades in Anthyllis that are morphologically well-characterized, and which could be recognized as sections. Four of these agree with various morphology-based classifications, while the other two are novel. We reconstruct the evolution of

  2. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  3. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  4. Identification of genes involved in pyrethroid-, propoxur-, and dichlorvos- insecticides resistance in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-xiao; Guo, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ying-mei; Dong, Yan-de; Xing, Dan; Yan, Ting; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Heng-duan; Zhao, Tong-yan

    2016-05-01

    Culex pipiens pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus are important vectors of many diseases, such as West Nile fever and lymphatic filariasis. The widespread use of insecticides to control these disease vectors and other insect pests has led to insecticide resistance becoming common in these species. In this study, high throughout Illumina sequencing was used to identify hundreds of Cx. p. pallens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus genes that were differentially expressed in response to insecticide exposure. The identification of these genes is a vital first step for more detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Species-richness of the Anopheles annulipes Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Revealed by Tree and Model-Based Allozyme Clustering Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    tlats at Merbein, VIC predominantly fed on rab- bits despite the rabbit population having been deci- mated by myxomatosis . As Merbein is near Mildura, VIC...ormyxomatosis in rabbits . We aimed to establish how many species occurred among specimens from 61 sites throughout Australia, scored for 32 putative...important vector of myxomatosis in many areas of Australia (Fenner & Ratcliffe. 1965; Parer & Korn, 1989), and a number of other arboviruses have been

  6. [Organization of studies of the "gnus" complex of bloodsucking dipterans (Diptera: Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae) by Yu. S. Balashov].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S G

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives a historical account of investigations of mosquitoes, black flies and horseflies carried out by the staff of the Laboratory of Parasitology, Zoological Institute RAS, supervised by a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof Yu. S. Balashov, during 1979-1994. The research team of the laboratory explored the local fauna, relative abundance, seasonal dynamics, diurnal activity, longevity of a mass flight activity, annual fluctuations of the number, and age content of populations of various mosquito, black fly and horsefly species in the territory of Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov Provinces. Attack peculiarities of various horse fly species were studied with the use of individual labeling.

  7. Culicidae community composition and temporal dynamics in Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2015-01-01

    A temporal observational study was conducted of the Culicidae fauna in a remnant area of Atlantic Forest within a private reserve (Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve-REGUA) presenting typical vegetation cover of dense rain forest, with some patches recovering a floristic composition similar to that of the original community. Research was carried out to analyze the influence of climatic factors (mean monthly temperature, rainfall, and air relative humidity) on the temporal dynamics of the mosquito communities that occur in the reserve. The completeness of the mosquito inventory was assessed with individual-based rarefaction-extrapolation curves. Differences in species composition between sites and months were tested with PERMANOVA. True diversities of orders 0, 1, and 2 (effective numbers) were estimated and compared between sites, months, and years. Multiple stepwise regressions were used to assess relationships between climatic variables, measures of diversity, and abundances of the most common species. There were significant interactive effects between year and site on measures of diversity. However, diversity estimates showed little variation among months, and these were weakly correlated with climatic variables. Abundances of the most common species were significantly related to temperature or relative humidity, but not rainfall. The presence of mosquito species known to be vectors of human diseases combined with an intermittent flow of visitors to the study area suggests there is a risk of disease transmission that warrants further monitoring.

  8. Early history of laboratory breeding of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) focusing on the origins and use of selected strains.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Goro

    2010-11-01

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), is well recognized for its extensive adaptation to diverse ecological conditions and for genetic variation. Recognizing the importance of strain variation of this mosquito, researchers have established a large number of laboratory strains. Some of the popular strains have been used for research for years in many laboratories around the world. However, the exact origins of many of these strains are unknown. In this review, publications and archival records were examined to report the early laboratory mosquito rearing practices around the world and to identify the origins of selected strains. The records showed that inter-laboratory sharing of strains was already underway in the early part of the 20th century because of the ease of breeding Ae. aegypti and of sending eggs by mail. It also was found that the four strains established in major U.S. institutions by the mid-1930s, including the "ROCK" (short for Rockefeller) strain, had been derived from Cuba, Nigeria, Philippines, or Puerto Rico, all known for a long history of transmission of yellow fever virus or dengue virus rather than from North America. The strains used for research in Europe were primarily derived from West Africa, but strains of Asian, Caribbean, and South American origins also were used for comparative experiments among geographic strains. Neglected issues related to strain designation and original source identification in scientific publications were found and their relevance to current research is discussed.

  9. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  10. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  11. Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

    PubMed Central

    GARDNER, ALLISON M.; HAMER, GABRIEL L.; HINES, ALICIA M.; NEWMAN, CHRISTINA M.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; RUIZ, MARILYN O.

    2014-01-01

    Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of larvae in these habitats is well-documented, the influence of abiotic factors on the ecology of Culex larvae developing in them remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple abiotic factors and their interactions on abundance of Culex larvae in catch basins in the Chicago, IL, metropolitan area. Low precipitation and high mean daily temperature were associated with high larval abundance, whereas there was no correlation between catch basin depth or water depth and larval abundance. Rainfall was an especially strong predictor of presence or absence of larvae in the summer of 2010, a season with an unusually high precipitation. Regression tree methods were used to build a schematic decision tree model of the interactions among these factors. This practical, visual representation of key predictors of high larval production may be used by local mosquito abatement districts to target limited resources to treat catch basins when they are particularly likely to produce West Nile virus vectors. PMID:22493843

  12. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-12-01

    The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5-1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens.

  13. Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krtinić, B; Ludoški, J; Milankov, V

    2015-02-01

    Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens ('rural') and molestus ('urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of 'urban' and 'rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third- and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

  14. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marina; Zalazar, Laura; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almeida, Francisco Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco. PMID:23903970

  15. Culicidae Community Composition and Temporal Dynamics in Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Santos- Mallet, Jacenir R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    A temporal observational study was conducted of the Culicidae fauna in a remnant area of Atlantic Forest within a private reserve (Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve-REGUA) presenting typical vegetation cover of dense rain forest, with some patches recovering a floristic composition similar to that of the original community. Research was carried out to analyze the influence of climatic factors (mean monthly temperature, rainfall, and air relative humidity) on the temporal dynamics of the mosquito communities that occur in the reserve. The completeness of the mosquito inventory was assessed with individual-based rarefaction-extrapolation curves. Differences in species composition between sites and months were tested with PERMANOVA. True diversities of orders 0, 1, and 2 (effective numbers) were estimated and compared between sites, months, and years. Multiple stepwise regressions were used to assess relationships between climatic variables, measures of diversity, and abundances of the most common species. There were significant interactive effects between year and site on measures of diversity. However, diversity estimates showed little variation among months, and these were weakly correlated with climatic variables. Abundances of the most common species were significantly related to temperature or relative humidity, but not rainfall. The presence of mosquito species known to be vectors of human diseases combined with an intermittent flow of visitors to the study area suggests there is a risk of disease transmission that warrants further monitoring. PMID:25815724

  16. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Application Site and Mosquito Age Influences Malathion- and Permethrin-Induced Mortality in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Kaufman, Phillip E; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Gezan, Salvador A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2017-09-06

    Concentrations of malathion and permethrin typical in droplets generated from ultra-low-volume and low-volume applications used to control mosquito populations were evaluated for efficacy against multiple-aged Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), using a topical bioassay. Although insecticide droplets will impinge on many exoskeletal body regions and a range of ages of mosquitoes in a population, traditional mosquito topical bioassays focus pesticide application to the mesothoracic pleural or dorsal regions across an average mosquito age (e.g., 3-7 d). Our results document nonuniform insecticide sensitivity across body regions at ages not previously assessed in mosquitoes (teneral and 14-d old). We expect our findings to influence the topical bioassay process, illustrating the difference in mosquito body regions and ages that ultimately may explain insecticide effectiveness wherever droplets impinge upon the mosquito body during field control applications. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Weather variability affects abundance of larval Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in storm water catch basins in suburban Chicago.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hines, Alicia M; Newman, Christina M; Walker, Edward D; Ruiz, Marilyn O

    2012-03-01

    Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36 degrees latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of larvae in these habitats is well-documented, the influence of abiotic factors on the ecology of Culex larvae developing in them remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple abiotic factors and their interactions on abundance of Culex larvae in catch basins in the Chicago, IL, metropolitan area. Low precipitation and high mean daily temperature were associated with high larval abundance, whereas there was no correlation between catch basin depth or water depth and larval abundance. Rainfall was an especially strong predictor of presence or absence of larvae in the summer of 2010, a season with an unusually high precipitation. Regression tree methods were used to build a schematic decision tree model of the interactions among these factors. This practical, visual representation of key predictors of high larval production may be used by local mosquito abatement districts to target limited resources to treat catch basins when they are particularly likely to produce West Nile virus vectors.

  19. Selection of insensitive acetylcholinesterase as a resistance mechanism in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bisset, Juan; Rodríguez, María M; Fernández, Ditter

    2006-11-01

    A sample of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, with a high level of propoxur resistance compared with the reference susceptible Rockefeller strain (12.60 x at the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] and 18.08 at the 90% lethal concentration [LC90]), with a 4.3% frequency of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) frequency, was subjected to propoxur selection for 13 successive generations to increase the frequency of this resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti. High resistance to propoxur was developed during this selection (41.73-fold), and the frequency of insensitive AChE mechanism was increased 13.25-fold. Other mechanisms (overproduced esterases, glutathione transferases, or monooxygenases) were not detected in the propoxur-selected strain. The selection of an insensitive AChE resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti has important implications and will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and molecular characterization of the ace gene mutation(s) associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  20. Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Saussurea lappa roots against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; He, Qing; Chu, Sha Sha; Wang, Cheng Fang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from roots of Saussurea lappa (Compositae) and the isolated constituents against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of S. lappa roots was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 39 components of the essential oil of S. lappa roots were identified. The essential oil has higher content of (79.80%) of sesquiterpenoids than monoterpenoids (13.25%). The principal compounds in S. lappa essential oil were dehydrocostus lactone (46.75%), costunolide (9.26%), 8-cedren-13-ol (5.06%), and α-curcumene (4.33%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide were isolated from S. lappa essential oil. Dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide exhibited strong larvicidal activity against A. albopictus with LC(50) values of 2.34 and 3.26 μg/ml, respectively, while the essential oil had an LC(50) value of 12.41 μg/ml. The result indicated that the essential oil of S. lappa and the two isolated constituents have potential for use in control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  1. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  2. Evaluation of four sampling techniques for surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.

  3. Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) as predators of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) in field experiments and in laboratory tests of prey preference.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, E; Landin, J; Jackson, M; Svensson, C

    2003-06-01

    Field experiments were performed in artificial ponds to evaluate how the density of predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) would affect the population levels of mosquito larvae (Culicidae). Mosquitoes colonizing the ponds were predominantly species of the genus Culex. In 2000, most of the dytiscids colonizing the ponds were small (Hydroporus spp.), and these predators had no impact on the size of larval mosquito populations, not even in ponds with added dytiscids. In 2001, larger beetles (Ilybius, Rhantus, and Agabus spp.) were more common, and there were significantly fewer mosquito larvae in ponds with the highest numbers of dytiscids. There was a negative correlation between numbers of diving beetles in the ponds and the mean body length of mosquito larvae. In neither year could dytiscid densities be maintained above a certain level owing to emigration. In laboratory tests, there were marked differences between three common dytiscid species in regard to preferences for Daphnia and Culex species as prey: Colymbetes paykulli Erichson chose mosquito larvae more often, whereas both Ilybius ater (De Geer) and I. fuliginosus (Fabricius) preferred Daphnia spp. All of the tested dytiscids consumed large numbers of prey. Since some dytiscid species can efficiently decrease populations of mosquito larvae, they are probably important in the natural control of these dipterans.

  4. Weather factors influencing the population dynamics of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Po Plain Valley, Italy (1997-2011).

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Fariselli, Piero; Maccagnani, Bettina; Angelini, Paola; Calzolari, Mattia; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-04-01

    The impact of weather variables on Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) population dynamics in the Po Valley, Northern Italy, a densely populated region containing the largest industrial and agricultural areas in Italy, was investigated. Monitoring of mosquitoes was carried out by using CO(2)-baited traps without light, collecting data weekly from 1700 to 0900 hours during the period May-September, from 1997 to 2011. Daily minimum, average, and maximum relative humidity; daily minimum, maximum, and average temperature; rainfall; and hydroclimatic balance (rainfall-potential evapotranspiration) were obtained from three weather stations within the surveillance zone. The average population dynamic trend over the 15-yr period showed a bell-shaped curve with a major peak in June and a secondary peak at the end of August in the rural areas, whereas bimodality was not evidenced in the urban areas. The correlation analyses showed that the mosquito seasonal population and the population in the period of maximum West Nile virus circulation (August-September) was mostly affected by the relative humidity registered from March to July, particularly in May, and, to a lower extent, also by hydroclimatic balance registered in April-July, and by the rainfall occurred in June-July. In addition, the rate of increase of the population during the spring months influenced the development of the mosquito population of the following months.

  5. Processes affecting Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and abundance: inference through statistical modeling and risk maps in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Gürtler, R E

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the processes that affect Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) may serve as a starting point to create and/or improve vector control strategies. For this purpose, we performed statistical modeling of three entomological surveys conducted in Clorinda City, northern Argentina. Previous 'basic' models of presence or absence of larvae and/or pupae (infestation) and the number of pupae in infested containers (productivity), mainly based on physical characteristics of containers, were expanded to include variables selected a priori reflecting water use practices, vector-related context factors, the history of chemical control, and climate. Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion. In total, 5,431 water-holding containers were inspected and 12,369 Ae. aegypti pupae collected from 963 positive containers. Large tanks were the most productive container type. Variables reflecting every putative process considered, except for history of chemical control, were selected in the best models obtained for infestation and productivity. The associations found were very strong, particularly in the case of infestation. Water use practices and vector-related context factors were the most important ones, as evidenced by their impact on Akaike's Information Criterion scores of the infestation model. Risk maps based on empirical data and model predictions showed a heterogeneous distribution of entomological risk. An integrated vector control strategy is recommended, aiming at community participation for healthier water use practices and targeting large tanks for key elements such as lid status, water addition frequency and water use.

  6. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent.

  7. Effects of inorganic nitrogen enrichment on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and the associated aquatic community in constructed treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Chan, Karrie; Walton, William E

    2005-09-01

    Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) is a significant component of municipal and agricultural wastewaters, and nitrogen reduction is an important use of constructed treatment wetlands. The effects of ammonium nitrogen enrichment on resources of larval mosquitoes, larval mosquito abundance, adult mosquito production, and the abundance of related wetland organisms were examined in 0.1-ha replicate treatment wetlands. The hypothesis of a bottom-up effect induced by ammonium addition was not supported by bacterial abundance, mean bacterial cell size, or algal biomass in the water column. There was, however, a significant negative correlation between bacterial cell length and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) larval abundance 1 wk later in wetlands enriched with ammonium nitrogen. Larval mosquito (Culex spp.) abundance in southern California wetlands enriched with NH4-N (mean approximately equal to 3 mg/liter) was significantly greater than in control wetlands at ambient nitrogen levels (8.3 mg NO3-N/liter, 0.1 mg NH4-N/liter). Adult mosquito production was nine-fold greater and chironomid larvae were significantly more abundant in wetlands enriched with NH4-N than in controls but other censused taxa exhibited no significant trends. Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard), abundance was significantly reduced in enriched wetlands, but other potential mosquito predators were not significantly affected by ammonium enrichment.

  8. Long-lasting effects of a Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis experimental tablet formulation for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Gemma; Hernandez, Johana; Velez, Jose G; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-10-01

    Dengue is a growing public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. At present, the only method of controlling or preventing the disease is to eliminate its vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In the current study, an experimental larvicide tablet formulation XL-47 based on Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) and containing 4.8% of technical powder was developed. This formulation was evaluated against Ae. aegypti in three different sets of experiments, under field-simulated conditions: two experiments were indoors and under partial sunlight exposure and one experiment was outdoors with sunlight exposure. Larvae were added throughout the experiment two times per week, and the residual larvicidal activity was recorded daily. Pupal formation was reduced in the containers with Bti by > 80% in relation to the containers without treatment for 12 wk; to our knowledge, this is the longest period of control reported for a Bti tablet formulation outdoors under sunlight exposure. Moreover, samples from the top, middle, and bottom of the water column were collected to perform bacterial plate counts and toxicity assays. The Bti population and the active ingredient of the tablet formulation remained mainly at the bottom of the containers and mosquito larvae reached the formulation by diving and shredding the tablet's material. In conclusion, the experimental tablet formulation XL-47 showed an inhibition of pupal formation that lasted for long periods under sunlight exposure.

  9. Vacant lots: productive sites for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other nonresidential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011-June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and nonresidential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets or sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures than residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. In addition, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality, and physical location in the environment.

  10. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  11. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Infestation and Container Productivity Measured Using Pupal and Stegomyia Indices in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, F. M.; Espinosa, M. O.; Weinberg, D.; Coto, H. D.; Gaspe, M. S.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with ≈2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65–84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline. PMID:19769052

  12. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  13. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01). However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  14. Parathelohania iranica sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae) infecting malaria mosquito Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae): Ultrastructure and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Effat

    2017-04-01

    Microsporidia are common pathogens of insects and sometimes are considered as a candidate in the biological control of mosquitoes. Recently a microsporidium infection was discovered in Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, in Iran. The responsible agent belonged to the genus Parathelohania (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae). This study has been carried out to identify its identity at the species level. Fresh infected larvae were collected from the type locality, Kiar district, in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province, at the central western of Iran. Superficial and the internal ultrastructure of the recovered spores were explored by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Molecular techniques were also employed to amplify parts of its ssu rDNA. The obtained data were compared with the available information of congener species and other closely related microsporidia to elucidate evolutionary relationship. A small apical depression and two posterolateral ridges extending backward from a pear shaped anterior body mass were notable under scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed 3 broad and 3-4 narrow coils in the either side of spores, respectively. The sequence of a 1062 nucleotide fragment of ssu rDNA was determined by means of PCR technique. This study indicates that the microsporidium infecting An. superpictus differs from other previously described species in the genus Parathelohania. It means that the microsporidium infecting An. superpictus is a new species and hereby it is called Parathelohania iranica. Further work is necessary to clarify its life cycle and probable value in the biological control of mosquitoes.

  15. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control.

  16. The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yamany, Abeer S; Adham, Fatma K

    2014-08-01

    The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied under laboratory conditions, the energy for the physiological activities for both male and female mosquitoes is provided largely by their reserves during larval stage and affected by adult diets. Two groups of larvae (A, B) were reared at 27 ± 3 degrees C, 70-80% R.H. and DL. 12: 12. Group (A) with 200 larvae (high larval diet) and Group (B) with 600 larvae (low larval diet). Ae. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Highest longevity was observed in large females fed water + 10% sucrose solution (29.571 ± 0.415 days) while the lowest one was (1.3 ± 0.132 days) in starved small females. Large females have significantly (P < 0.001) higher fecundity than smaller females, regardless of whether the females were provided 10% sucrose solution or not (524 ± 0.203 eggs/group 159.714 ± 0.1997 eggs/group), respectively. The addition of 10% sucrose solution significantly (P < 0.001) increase the fecundity regardless of whether large or small females (657.9 ± 0.2198 eggs/group, 242.429 ± 0.119 eggs/group), respectively.

  17. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen-treated nets in sterilizing and shortening the longevity of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazunori; Nakada, Kazuhide; Ishiwatari, Takao; Miyaguchi, Jun'ichi; Shono, Yoshinori; Lucas, John R; Mito, Nobuaki

    2012-09-01

    Pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have become a serious threat for malaria control, and bed nets that reduce the development of resistance are urgently needed. Here, we tested the effects of bed nets treated with the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen against adult female Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Noninsecticidal nets made of 195 denier monofilament polyethylene with a mesh size of 75 holes per square inch (equivalent to the Olyset Net) were dipped in a 0.1, 0.01, or 0.001% (wt:vol) alcohol solution of pyriproxyfen and dried overnight. Adult females of an insecticide-susceptible An. gambiae strain were exposed to treated and untreated nets before and after a bloodmeal. Bioassays showed that females were completely sterilized after exposure to 0.1% (35 mg [AI]/m2) and 0.01% pyriproxyfen-treated nets both before and after a bloodmeal. In addition, adult longevity decreased after exposure to the pyriproxyfen-treated nets in a concentration-dependent manner. The sterilizing and life-shortening effects of pyriproxyfen on the vector mosquito indicate that the combined use of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroids on bed nets has the potential to provide better malaria control and prevent the further development of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors.

  18. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-03-01

    The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

  19. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. PMID:24349596

  20. Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.

  1. The mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) oreios sp. n., formerly species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti complex, and a critical review of its biology and relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Taai, K; Howard, T M; Cook, S; Harbach, R E

    2015-03-01

    Species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae) is described and formally named Anopheles oreios Bangs & Harbach, sp. n. Adult, pupal and fourth-instar larval specimens collected in the Baliem Valley, Papua Province, Indonesia, are characterized and compared with those of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles irenicus and Anopheles torresiensis (formerly informally denoted as species 1, 2, 7 and 3, respectively). The variable wings of adult females, the male genitalia, the pupa and the fourth-instar larva of An. oreios are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. The biology of An. oreios and its relation to malaria transmission are discussed in detail and contrasted with the biology and disease relations of some members of the An. farauti and Anopheles punctulatus sibling species complexes.

  2. The incongruent gelatinase genotype and phenotype in Enterococcus faecalis are due to shutting off the ability to respond to the gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP) quorum-sensing signal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Neuza; Santos, Sofia; Marujo, Paulo; Yokohata, Ryoji; Iyer, Vijayalakshmi S; Nakayama, Jiro; Hancock, Lynn E; Serror, Pascale; Silva Lopes, Maria de Fátima

    2012-02-01

    The concomitant presence of a complete fsr quorum-sensing system and gelE-sprE operons in Enterococcus faecalis is known to be essential for the detection of gelatinase activity. However, there are reports of the absence of gelatinase activity despite the presence of complete fsr and gelE loci. In order to understand this incongruence between genotype and phenotype we sequenced fsr and gelE loci of the E. faecalis LN68 strain, which was previously found to carry both operons but to lack gelatinase activity. Of the 59 nucleotide differences detected compared with the gelatinase-positive V583 strain, we found a nonsense mutation (a premature STOP codon) predicted to truncate the ATPase sensor domain of the FsrC protein, responsible for sensing and transducing the signal from the quorum-sensing molecule. Strain LN68 was highly affected in the expression of the gelE and sprE genes, further supporting the lack of Fsr-dependent gelE induction. When we constructed a V583 mutant with the same premature stop mutation in the fsrC gene the resulting strain was no longer able to degrade gelatin. We conclude that the reduced ability to transduce the quorum-sensing signal of the prematurely truncated FsrC protein is sufficient to explain the negative gelatinase phenotype. As the incongruent genotype and phenotype is detected in natural isolates, we believe that the silencing of the quorum-sensing system Fsr may be beneficial for some E. faecalis strains.

  3. Toward understanding Anophelinae (Diptera, Culicidae) phylogeny: insights from nuclear single-copy genes and the weight of evidence.

    PubMed

    Krzywinski, J; Wilkerson, R C; Besansky, N J

    2001-08-01

    A phylogeny of the mosquito subfamily Anophelinae was inferred from fragments of two protein-coding nuclear genes, G6pd (462 bp) and white (801 bp), and from a combined data set (2,136 bp) that included a portion of the mitochondrial gene ND5 and the D2 region of the ribosomal 28S gene. Sixteen species from all three anopheline genera and six Anopheles subgenera were sampled, along with six species of other mosquitoes used as an outgroup. Each of four genes analyzed individually recovered the same well-supported clades; topological incongruence was limited to unsupported or poorly supported nodes. As assessed by the incongruence length difference test, most of the conflicting signal was contributed by third codon positions. Strong structural constraints, as observed in white and G6pd, apparently had little impact on phylogenetic inference. Compared with the other genes, white provided a superior source of phylogenetic information. However, white appears to have experienced accelerated rates of evolution in few lineages, the affinities of which are therefore suspect. In combined analyses, most of the inferred relationship were well-supported and in agreement with previous studies: monophyly of Anophelinae, basal position of Chagasia, monophyly of Anopheles subgenera, and subgenera Nyssorhynchus + Kerteszia as sister taxa. The results suggested also monophyletic origin of subgenera Cellia + Anopheles, and the white gene analysis supported genus Bironella as a sister taxon to Anopheles. The present data and other available evidence suggest a South American origin of Anophelinae, probably in the Mesozoic; a rapid diversification of Bironella and basal subgeneric lineages of Anopheles, potentially associated with the breakup of Gondwanaland; and a relatively recent and rapid dispersion of subgenus Anopheles.

  4. Sugar Deprivation Reduces Insemination of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), Despite Daily Recruitment of Adults, and Predicts Decline in Model Populations

    PubMed Central

    STONE, C. M.; TAYLOR, R. M.; ROITBERG, B. D.; FOSTER, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Our research tests the hypothesis that the inability to sugar-feed reduces the insemination rate in mosquito populations. To test this, we measured the effects of sugar availability on cumulative insemination performance of male Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) during 10-d periods of continual emergence of equal numbers of both sexes, and we evaluated the implications at the population level with a matrix population model. On each day of each of four replicates, 20 newly emerged mosquitoes of each sex were recruited into the populations within two mesocosms, large walk-in enclosures with simulated natural conditions. Each mesocosm contained a cage to replicate the experiment on a small scale. Scented sucrose was absent or present (control). A human host was available nightly as a bloodmeal source in both mesocosms. Sugar availability and enclosure size significantly influenced female insemination. In the mesocosms, with sugar 49.7% of the females were inseminated, compared with 10.9% of the females without sugar. In the small cages, the insemination rates were 76.0 and 23.5%, respectively. In the mesocosms, cumulative survival of females after 10 d was 51.6% with sugar and 25.6% without sugar. In the cages, female survival was 95 and 73%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of the population projection matrix shows that both reduced male survival and reduced mating capability due to a lack of sugar contributed to lower insemination rates in females, and in the absence of sugar the insemination rate was lowered to an extent that led to population decline. PMID:19960677

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Animal Detritus on Growth, Survival, and Mass of Invasive Container Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    YEE, DONALD A.; KESAVARAJU, BANUGOPAN; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with plant detritus, animal detritus yields higher growth rates, survival, adult mass, and population growth of container-dwelling mosquitoes. It is unclear whether the benefit from animal detritus to larvae results from greater microorganism growth, direct ingestion of animal detritus by larvae, or some other mechanism. We tested alternative mechanisms by which animal detritus may benefit the invasive container-dwelling mosquito Aedesalbopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae). In the laboratory, larvae were reared under three conditions with access to 1) detritus, but where microorganisms in the water column were reduced through periodic flushing; 2) water column microorganisms, but larvae had no direct access to detritus; or 3) both water column microorganisms and detritus. Access treatments were conducted for three masses of animal detritus: 0.005, 0.010, and 0.020 g. Water column bacterial productivity (measured via incorporation of [3H]leucine) decreased significantly with flushing and with larval presence. Removing microorganisms through flushing significantly reduced mass of adult mosquitoes (both sexes), and it significantly prolonged developmental times of females compared with treatments where water column microorganisms or microorganisms and detritus were available. Survival to adulthood was greatest when larvae had access to both water column microorganisms and 0.020 g of detritus, but it declined when only water column microorganisms were available or when 0.005 g of detritus was used. These findings indicate both direct (as a food source) and indirect (assisting with decomposition of detritus) roles of microorganisms in producing the benefit of animal detritus to container mosquito larvae. PMID:17695011

  6. Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2014-04-01

    Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decapitation Improves Detection of Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes by the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    BECKMANN, J. F.; FALLON, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is often used to detect microorganisms, pathogens, or both, including the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), in mosquitoes. Natural populations of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes are infected with one or more strains of W. pipientis, and crosses between mosquitoes harboring different Wolbachia strains provide one of the best-known examples of cytoplasmic incompatibililty (CI). When we used PCR to monitor Wolbachia in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens, and in a Wolbachia-cured sister colony obtained by tetracycline treatment, we noted false negative PCR reactions with DNA samples from infected mosquitoes; these results were inconsistent with direct microscopic observation of Wolbachia-like particles in gonads dissected from mosquitoes in the same population. Assays with diluted template often improved detection of positive samples, suggesting that DNA prepared from whole mosquitoes contained an inhibitor of the PCR reaction. We reconciled discrepancies between PCR and microscopy by systematic measurement of the PCR reaction in the presence of an internal standard. Mosquito decapitation before DNA extraction restored the reliability of the PCR reaction, allowing accurate determination of Wolbachia infection status in infected and tetracycline-cured mosquito populations, consistent with microscopic examination. Using PCR primers based on the Tr1 gene, we confirmed that the Wolbachia infection in the Buckeye strain of Culex pipiens belongs to the genotype designated wPip1. Finally, to explore more widely the distribution of PCR inhibitors, we demonstrated that DNA isolated from the cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.); the beetle, Tenebrio molitor L.; the honey bee, Apis mellifera L.; and the mosquito, Anopheles punctipennis Say also contained PCR inhibitors. These results underscore the importance of measuring the presence of inhibitors in PCR templates by using a known positive

  8. Analysis of the potential for survival and seasonal activity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Avenell, David; Barrass, Iain; Leach, Steve

    2006-12-01

    The international trade in used tires, coupled with the ability to lay non-desiccating eggs, has enabled Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) to travel and establish on new continents, including North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, Australasia, Africa, and Europe. Concerns have been raised over its potential role in the transmission of arboviruses and Dirofilaria nematodes. Following importation into northerly latitudes, photoperiodically-induced egg diapause enables establishment of Ae. albopictus, and a number of abiotic factors determine the subsequent seasonal activity. The United Kingdom (U.K.) imports over 5 million used tires annually, and this seems the most likely route by which Ae. albopictus would be imported. The anthropophilic and container-breeding nature of Ae. albopictus could cause an urban human biting nuisance and the potential for involvement in (human and veterinary) disease transmission cycles needs to be assessed. This paper addresses the likelihood for importation of Ae. albopictus into the U.K. and assesses, using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based model, the ability for Ae. albopictus to establish, and the likely seasonal activity. It also reviews its possible role as a potential disease vector in the U.K. The model predicts that abiotic risk factors would permit establishment of Ae. albopictus throughout large parts of lowland U.K., with at least four to five months of adult activity (May-September), being more prolonged in the urban centers around London and the southern coastal ports. Pre-emptive surveillance of possible imported Ae. albopictus, through a targeted approach, could prevent the establishment of this exotic mosquito and mitigate any subsequent human and animal health implications for the U.K., either now or in the future.

  9. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu Tong; Smallegange, Renate C; Ter, Braak Cajo J F; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Loon, Joop J A; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul; Galimard, Agnes M; Van Beek, Teris A; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2007-11-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and L-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO, + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control.

  10. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  11. Attractiveness of MM-X Traps Baited with Human or Synthetic Odor to Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    QIU, YU TONG; SMALLEGANGE, RENATE C.; TER BRAAK, CAJO J. F.; SPITZEN, JEROEN; VAN LOON, JOOP J. A.; JAWARA, MUSA; MILLIGAN, PAUL; GALIMARD, AGNES M.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.; KNOLS, BART G. J.; TAKKEN, WILLEM

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and l-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO2 + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control. PMID:18047195

  12. Biochemical studies of insecticide resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pethuan, S; Jirakanjanakit, N; Saengtharatip, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T; Kaewpa, D; Rongnoparut, P

    2007-06-01

    Biochemical analysis was performed on field caught Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to determine activities of enzymes including mixed function oxidases (MFO), nonspecific esterases (alpha- and beta-), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biochemical tests were performed on F1 generation of Ae. aegypti field caught mosquitoes, while in Ae. albopictus F2 progenies were used. Twenty-six samples of Ae. aegypti mosquito were collected from areas across different parts of Thailand including Bangkok (central), and the provinces of Chiang Rai (north), Nakhon Sawan (north-central), Nakhon Ratchasrima (northeast), Chonburi (east), Chanthaburi (east), and Songkhla (south). Eight wild caught samples of Ae. albopictus were from Songkhla, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasrima and Kanchanaburi (west) provinces. The susceptibility to pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin), organophosphate (fenitrothion) and carbamate (propoxur) insecticides were revealed in these samples. The biochemical test results were compared with those of the susceptible Bora (French Polynesia) strain. There was significant enhancement of MFO in pyrethroid resistant Ae. aegypti samples, except those from Songkhla and Hauykwang district in Bangkok. Biochemical assay results suggested that nonspecific esterases conferred fenitrothion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Nakhon Sawan, while insensitive AChE and/or nonspecific esterases could play role in fenitrothion resistance in Nakhon Ratchasrima. There was no consistent association of GST with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Low enzyme activities found in Ae. aegypti in Songkhla and in Ae. albopictus corresponded to their insecticide susceptibility status. The increased enzyme activity in field samples reflecting local history of insecticide employment was discussed.

  13. The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Shavonn R; Peterson, Robert K D

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06–0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures—16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C—for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

  14. Comparison of the effects of extracts from three Vitex plant species on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Nyamoita, Mokua G; Ester, Innocent; Zakaria, Mbwambo H; Wilber, Lwande; Bwire, Ochola J; Ahmed, Hassanali

    2013-09-01

    Acetone and methanol extracts of different parts of three Vitex species (leaves and stem bark of Vitex trifolia, leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex schiliebenii and stem and root bark of Vitex payos) were evaluated for their potential to control Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). The extracts gave different levels and rate of mortality of the larvae. Some (methanol extract of V. trifolia leaves, acetone extracts of stem bark and leaves of V. schiliebenii, acetone extract of root bark of V. payos) caused 100% mortality at 100 ppm in 72 h, with those of V. schiliebenii and V. payos showing faster rate of mortality (LT₅₀=8 h) than that of V. trifolia (LT₅₀=14 h). At lower doses of these extracts (≤50 ppm), most of the larvae failed to transform to normal pupae but gave larval-pupal intermediates between 4 and 14 days of exposure. Some pupated normally but the adults that emerged appeared to be weak and died within 48 h. Extracts of the stem bark of V. payos showed interesting effects on the larvae. Initially, the larvae were relatively hyperactive compared to those in control treatments. Later, the ones that did not transform to larval-pupal intermediates became stretched and inactive and died and floated in clusters on the surface. These observations suggest some interesting growth-disrupting constituents in the plants, with possible application in the practical control of mosquito larvae in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran).

    PubMed

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  16. Susceptibility of Culicidae Mosquitoes to Some Insecticides Recommended by WHO in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathian, Mousa; Vatandoost, Hassan; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Raeisi, Ahmad; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the national strategy plan on monitoring of insecticides resistance, this study was carried out to determine the base line susceptibility of the Culicidae mosquitoes to the WHO-recommended insecticides in an endemic focus of malaria in southeastern Iran. Methods: Larval collection was carried out by dipping method and adult collection occurred by suction tube from January to December 2010. The susceptibility test was assessed to DDT 4 %, malathion 5 %, propoxur 0.1 %, deltamethrin 0.05 %, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05 %, and cyfluthrin 0.15 % at different interval times (discriminative dose) followed by 24 h recovery period. The LT50 and LT90 values were calculated for plotting the regression line using Microsoft office Excel software ver. 2007. Results: Anopheles stephensi was quite resistant to DDT and showed susceptible or tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values to DDT in this species were 29.07, and 98.26 minutes, respectively. Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles dthali were found susceptible or tolerant to insecticides. Culex pipiens was found resistance to DDT, propoxur, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin whereas observed susceptible to malathion and tolerant to deltamethrin. Ochlerotatus caspius sl. was resistant to DDT, whereas found susceptible to other insecticides. Culisita longiareolata was susceptible to deltamethrin, whereas tolerant to other insecticides. The LT50 and LT90 values of Cs. longiareolata to DDT were 17.82, and 51.26 minutes. Conclusion: We suggested the same study in different parts of the country for monitoring and evaluation of control measures. PMID:26114141

  17. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). Results A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Conclusions Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs. PMID:25183088

  18. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments.

  19. Isolation of Tahyna Virus (California Encephalitis Group) From Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae), a Mosquito Species New to, and Expanding in, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hubalek, Z; Sebesta, O; Pesko, J; Betasova, L; Blazejova, H; Venclikova, K; Rudolf, I

    2014-11-01

    Two strains of Tahyna virus (TAHV; Orthobunyavirus, Bunyaviridae) were isolated from 4,568 (92 pools) female Anopheles hyrcanus Pallas (Diptera, Culicidae) mosquitoes collected on the fishponds in South Moravia (Czechland, central Europe) during July-August 2013. This is the first isolation of TAHV from An. hyrcanus in Europe. An. hyrcanus is a species new to Czechland since 2007; its population density was very high in the year 2013 at these ponds. The virus isolation procedure was based on intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice; moreover, the positive pools were also tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to contain TAHV RNA. An. hyrcanus, feeding preferentially on mammals including humans, may be a new potential vector for TAHV in Europe. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Bothaella manhi, a new species of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Cuc Phuong National Park of Vietnam based on morphology and DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    COOK, SHELLEY; LIEN, NGO GIANG; MCALISTER, ERICA; HARBACH, RALPH E.

    2012-01-01

    A new species of genus Bothaella (Diptera: Culicidae) collected along with two other species of the genus during surveys for flavivirus isolations in the Cuc Phuong National Park in northern Vietnam is formally described and named as Bothaella manhi, sp. n. The adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva are characterized, the male genitalia and the two immature stages are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the COI and COII genes (mtDNA). The species is compared and distinguished from the other species of the genus, and sequence data are used to hypothesise its phylogenetic relationship with Bo. helenae and Bo. kleini, the other two species collected during the survey. PMID:23155353

  1. Bloodmeal host congregation and landscape structure impact the estimation of female mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance using dry ice-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Tara; Nelms, Brittany; Reisen, William K

    2011-05-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.

  2. Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

    PubMed Central

    THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310

  3. [New records and epidemiological potential of certain species of mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jáder da Cruz; Paula, Marcia Bicudo de; Fernandes, Aristides; Santos, Edmilson Dos; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes da; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2010-01-01

    Entomological surveillance has proven to be an important strategy for monitoring culicidae fauna, aimed at predicting the risk of exposure to pathogen vector species. The present work reports species identified for the first time in the State Rio Grande do Sul and discusses the epidemiological potential displayed by mosquito species occurring in Maquiné municipality and in other regions of the State. Mosquitoes were collected with Nasci vacuum and CDC light traps between December 2006 and December 2008, in the wild, rural and urban areas of Maquiné. Fifty-five species were verified, of which 22 were registered for the first time in the state and 10 are potential vector species for the Saint Louis, Oropouche, Aura, Trocara, Ilhéus, Rocio, Una, West Nile, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses. These data demonstrate the importance of entomological surveillance as a tool for gathering information and promoting Health Surveillance actions.

  4. The quantitative structure-insecticidal activity relationships from plant derived compounds against chikungunya and zika Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) vector.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Laura M; Romanelli, Gustavo P; Rozo, Ciro E; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2018-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of a series of 62 plant derived molecules against the chikungunya, dengue and zika vector, the Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) mosquito, is subjected to a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) analysis. The Replacement Method (RM) variable subset selection technique based on Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) proves to be successful for exploring 4885 molecular descriptors calculated with Dragon 6. The predictive capability of the obtained models is confirmed through an external test set of compounds, Leave-One-Out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-Randomization. The present study constitutes a first necessary computational step for designing less toxic insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific Competition of a New Invasive Mosquito, Culex coronator, and Two Container Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Different Detritus Environments

    PubMed Central

    YEE, D. A.; SKIFF, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments

  6. Interspecific competition of a new invasive mosquito, Culex coronator, and two container mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), across different detritus environments.

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Skiff, J F

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments.

  7. The dynamic limits of hop height: Biological actuator capabilities and mechanical requirements of task produce incongruity between one- and two-legged performance.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Anne K; Bertram, John Ea

    2016-03-01

    The maximum hop height attainable for a given hop frequency falls well below the theoretical limit dictated by gravity, h = g/8f(2). However, maximum hop height is proportional to 1/f(2), suggesting that ground reaction force and, hence, force production capabilities of the leg muscles limit human hopping performance. Curiously, during one-legged hopping, subjects were able to produce substantially more than 50% the ground reaction force produced during two-legged maximum height hopping-66% on average and as much as 90% the total force produced during two-legged hopping. This implies that two legs together should be able to produce an average of 1.32 times and as much as 1.8 times the force actually measured during two-legged maximum height hopping. Why were our subjects unable to access this extra force capacity when hopping on two legs? Here, we show that this apparent bilateral deficit and other features of maximum height hopping can be explained by the interaction of the mechanical requirements of hopping with the force-velocity and force-length relationships that dictate the force production capacity of the leg muscles. Identifying the factors that limit performance in hopping provides an opportunity to understand how functional limits are determined in more complex activities such as running and jumping.

  8. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  9. Mosquito larvicidal activity of alkaloids and limonoids derived from Evodia rutaecarpa unripe fruits against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Liu, Qi Zhi; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the ethanol extract of Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas (Rutaceae) unripe fruits was found to possess larvicidal activity against the mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa unripe fruits and the isolated constituents against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The powder, 5 kg of the fruit material, was extracted with 30 l of 95 % ethanol, filtered, and evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The crude extract was then partitioned between methanol-water and n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was evaporated off to given n-hexane extract. The aqueous layer was repartitioned with chloroform to provide chloroform extract after evaporation of the solvent. Further partitioning with ethyl acetate gave a residue after evaporation of the solvent. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of chloroform extract on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of three alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, and wuchuyuamide I) and two limonoids (evodol and limonin). The structures of the constituent compounds were elucidated based on high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Evodiamine, rutaecarpine, and wuchuyuamide I exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC(50) values of 12.51, 17.02, and 26.16 μg/ml, respectively. Limonin and evodol also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC(50) values of 32.43 and 52.22 μg/ml, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC(50) value of 43.21 μg/ml. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa and the five

  10. Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts

  11. Spatial analysis of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition in suburban neighborhoods of a Piedmont community in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephanie L; Apperson, Charles S; Ghosh, Sujit K; Cheshire, Heather M; Zeichner, Brian C

    2006-09-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of egg-laying by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated in suburban neighborhoods in Raleigh, NC, by using oviposition traps (ovitraps) at fixed sampling stations during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons. Variations in the phenology of oviposition between the two mosquito seasons resulted from differences in the patterns and amounts of rainfall early in the season. Aerial images of each study neighborhood were digitized, and the proportions of specific types of land cover within buffer zones encompassing ovitraps were estimated. Retrospective analyses showed that in some neighborhoods, oviposition intensity was significantly associated with specific types of land cover. However, in general, it seemed that gravid Ae. albopictus searched throughout the landscape for water-filled containers in which to lay eggs. Peridomestic surveys were carried out concurrently with ovitrap collections to estimate production of Ae. albopictus pupae in discarded water-filled containers and the abundance of females in vegetation that made up the resting habitat. Results of linear regression analyses indicated that the mean standing crop of pupae (total and per container) per residence was not a significant predictor of mean egg densities in ovitraps. However, the mean standing crop of adult females was a significant but weak predictor variable, because the magnitude and sign of regression coefficients varied between neighborhoods. Linear spatial regression analyses revealed that oviposition intensity was not spatially dependent on pupal standing crop or the numbers of pupae-positive containers distributed peridomestically. However, a weak spatial dependence on the standing crop of adult females was found in some neighborhoods. Based on spherical variogram models, kriging was carried out to predict the spatial patterns of oviposition in suburban neighborhoods. Focal areas of high and low oviposition intensity were evident in

  12. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  13. Professional role complexity and job satisfaction of collegiate certified athletic trainers.

    PubMed

    Brumels, Kirk; Beach, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Whenever professionals have multiple role obligations in the workplace, they face potential professional role complexities. To examine whether certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed at the collegiate level experienced professional role complexities, and if so, what effect those complexities had upon their job satisfaction and intent to leave a current position or the profession. Survey. We used Internet survey methods to gather information from 1000 randomly selected collegiate ATs regarding the amount of stress they felt due to role complexities. We obtained a random sample of e-mail addresses for 1000 collegiate ATs in the United States and contacted these individuals with an invitation to participate. A total of 348 usable responses were received, for a 36% response rate. The role complexity aspect of the survey consisted of 45 questions addressing role ambiguity, role overload, role incongruity, role incompetence, and role conflict. The job satisfaction portion consisted of global questions regarding overall job satisfaction and intent to leave the job or profession. A total of 38% of respondents experienced moderate to high stress levels from role overload, whereas 23% and 22% had moderate to high levels of stress from role ambiguity and role conflict, respectively. Clinicians and joint appointees who reported moderate to high levels of stress from role complexity issues had lower job satisfaction and more frequent thoughts of leaving than did their faculty counterparts. The majority of collegiate ATs experienced low levels of professional role complexities and were relatively satisfied with their jobs. However, collegiate ATs began to experience less job satisfaction and more thoughts of leaving when moderate to high stress levels occurred due to role ambiguity, overload, incongruity, incompetence, and conflict. Lessening the stress due to role complexities is critical to positive employment experiences for ATs employed in higher education.

  14. Combined toxicity of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty one essential oils were ini...

  15. The neural dynamics of stimulus and response conflict processing as a function of response complexity and task demands

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; McKay, Cameron C.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2016-01-01

    Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and the amount of response conflict (two versus four response choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types, along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic fronto-central incongruency-related negativity ‘Ninc’ was observed for all conditions, which was larger and ~100 ms longer in duration with more response options. Further, the onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets, indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC) was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not specifically related to task type or response-mapping complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the LRP onset at or before the conflict-related Ninc, indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the number of response options. PMID:26827917

  16. The neural dynamics of stimulus and response conflict processing as a function of response complexity and task demands.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Sarah E; Appelbaum, Lawrence G; McKay, Cameron C; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-04-01

    Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and the amount of response conflict (two versus four response choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types, along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic fronto-central incongruency-related negativity 'N(inc)' was observed for all conditions, but was larger and ~100 ms longer in duration with more response options. Further, the onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets, indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC) was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not specifically related to task type or response-mapping complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the LRP onset at or before the conflict-related N(inc), indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the number of response options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection and widespread distribution of sodium channel alleles characteristic of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-M; Li, C-X; Xing, D; Yu, Y-H; Liu, N; Xue, R-D; Dong, Y-D; Zhao, T-Y

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes are widely distributed throughout China and are known to be important disease vectors. Two pyrethroid resistance associated mutations have been identified in Cx. pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae), but there is little information on the diversity and distribution of kdr alleles in pyrethroid resistance in Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes in China. In the present study, we report on a modified three tube allele-specific (AS)-PCR method for detecting the 1014F and 1014S alleles. The new technique was applied to identify the distribution of the two alleles in natural Cx. pipiens complex populations in China. The results confirmed that the new method is both sensitive and specific. The 1014F allele was found in all 14 of the field populations tested (frequency ranged from 6.8 to 76.2%) and the 1014S allele was found in almost two-thirds (frequency from 2.4 to 28.6%), indicating that the genotypes known to be associated with pyrethroid resistance are widespread in China. The resistance-associated alleles were more common in southern Chinese sampling sites than in northern sites. The coexistence of the two resistant mutations in individual mosquitoes was also observed in five of the field populations. Two alternative mutations within the L1014 codon were identified in Culex pipiens molestus Forskal, 1775, including a non-synonymous mutation resulting in a 1014C substitution. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. [Detection of Anopheles artemievi Gordeev et al. (Diptera, Culicidae) in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Zvantsov, A B; Rozyev, K; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Khemzaev, Kh; Ezhov, M N

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles artemievi (a member of An. maculipennis complex species) described from the Transfergana region (South Kyrgyzstan) in 2004 was first found in the Lebap veloyat (Eastern Turkmenistan). A single larva of this species was collected together with An. superpictus in the irrigation channel of a rice field. Species affiliation has been proven by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. This species is to be included into a list of Anopheles species of Turkmenistan.

  19. [BLOODSUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN, THE TULA REGION ARE POTENTIAL VECTORS OF DIROFILARIAS].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Bloodsucking mosquitoes were collected in Tula and its Region in May to August 2013-2014. The fauna included 17 species from 5 genera in the subfamily Culicinae and Anopheles maculipennis complex in the subsystem Anophelinae. Ochlerotatus cantans was a dominant species in the collections. The dominant species also included Aedes einereus, Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. diantaeus, Och. intrudens, Och. Cataphylla, and Culex pipiens. The possible value of different mosquito species Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis as vectors of dirofilarasis was discussed.

  20. High Degree of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in California Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YOOSOOK; SEIFERT, STEPHANIE N.; NIEMAN, CATELYN C.; McABEE, RORY D.; GOODELL, PARKER; FRYXELL, REBECCA TROUT; LANZARO, GREGORY C.; CORNEL, ANTHONY J.

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of systematic relationships among members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex has important implications for public health as well as for studies on the evolution of sibling species. Currently held views contend that in California considerable genetic introgression occurs between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, and as such, these taxa behave as if they are a single species. Development of high throughput SNP genotyping tools for the analysis of Cx. pipiens complex population structure is therefore desirable. As a first step toward this goal, we sequenced 12 gene fragments from specimens collected in Marin and Fresno counties. On average, we found a higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density than any other mosquito species reported thus far. Coding regions contained significantly higher GC content (median 54.7%) than noncoding regions (42.4%; Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 5.29 × 10−5). Differences in SNP allele frequencies observed between mosquitoes from Marin and Fresno counties indicated significant genetic divergence and suggest that SNP markers will be useful for future detailed population genetic studies of this group. The high density of SNPs highlights the difficulty in identifying species within the complex and may be associated with the large degree of phenotypic variation observed in this group of mosquitoes. PMID:22493847

  1. [The presence of Culicidae species in medium-sized cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and the risk of West Nile fever and other arbovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Dibo, Margareth Regina; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Ghirardelli, Caroline Perez; Mendonça, Adriano Luís; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for this study were to measure the diversity of Culicidae species, describe their abundance and seasonal variation in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and discuss the risk of arbovirus infections. The collection of larval and adult mosquitoes was conducted monthly from 2006 to 2007 in an urban area and four sections of forested land. In the urban area, larvae were collected from sites where oviposition by Culex mosquitoes was most likely to occur. At two of the four sites in the forested land, adult mosquitoes were collected with the use of CDC traps at night, and a Nasci aspirator was used in the daytime at the two other collection sites. In the urban area, 34 Culicidae species were identified out of a total sample of 8,683 specimens; of these specimens, 80.7% were Culex quinquefasciatus, 9.6% were Culex coronator, 3.2% were Aedes albopictus, and 1.1% were Ochlerotatus fluviatilis. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was negatively related to rainfal. In the woods, 2,268 mosquitoes were collected, representing 10 genera and 46 species. The most abundant mosquito species were Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex coronator, Culex (Mel.) Melanoconion section, Culex declarator, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Anopheles triannulatus, Culex bidens/interfor and Culex habilitator/pseudojhantinosoma. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the urban area and the presence of other Culicidae species in urban areas and forested land point to the possibility of the transmission of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections in São José do Rio Preto and other cities. Thus, the enacting of measures aimed at the surveillance of these arbovirus infections is essential.

  2. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  3. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  4. Complex trauma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    delayed primary closure can be necessary and a temporary tibio-tarsal transfixation is useful. Despite the life-threatening injuries of the multiply-injured patient one must insist on an exact diagnosis of the foot trauma (radiographs in 3 standard projections: exact lateral, dorso-plantar, 45° oblique) if long-term disability due to articular incongruities and complex derangement of the arc geometry of the foot is to be avoided.

  5. [Complex trauma of the foot].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M

    1997-12-01

    primary closure can be necessary and a temporary tibio-tarsal transfixation is useful. Despite the life-threatening injuries of the multiply-injured patient one must insist on an exact diagnosis of the foot trauma (radiographs in 3 standard projections: exact lateral, dorso-plantar, 45 degrees oblique) if long-term disability due to articular incongruities and complex derangement of the arc geometry of the foot is to be avoided.

  6. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  7. Preliminary study on 2 colour patterns in Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Toma, Luciano; Severini, Francesco; Romi, Roberto; Di Luca, Marco

    2016-08-30

    Ochlerotatus caspius is a mosquito of medical and veterinary relevance both for its synanthropy and for its potential role in transmission of viruses and nematodes in the areas that it inhabits. Due to its wide range and the marked variability in the adult colour pattern, some authors have recognized Ochlerotatus caspius as a complex of species. In this study, we purposed to evaluate the possible taxonomic heterogeneity between 2 chromatic forms by using both morphological and molecular approaches. The preliminary results based on the identity of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) lead us to believe the 2 forms as a single species with a chromatic polymorphism.

  8. Knockdown and larvicidal activity of six monoterpenes against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and their structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2013-12-01

    The relationships between physicochemical parameters of majority components of Eucalyptus essential oils and their insecticide effect were evaluated on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The octanol-water partition coefficients of the monoterpenes were estimated by the atom/fragment contribution method and the vapor pressures were determined by our laboratory in previous studies. The larvicidal activity (LC50 (ppm)) and knockdown effect (KT50 (min)) of each component was determined. The results show that the toxicity of EOs main components of Eucalyptus on adults and larvae of A. aegypti is strongly related to their physicochemical properties (vapor pressure and Log P). However, the interaction of both variables (vapor pressure * Log P) explains the toxicological phenomenon more precisely. The regression models were expressed as follows: KT 50(min) =  - 10.9 + 3.7 * Log P + 1.9 * 1/Pvapor (R(2) = 0.80; F = 42.5) and LC 50(ppm) =  - 94.3 + 438.6 *  1/Log P + 2.8 *  1/Pvapor (F = 57.8; R(2) = 0.85). The six evaluated components present different functional groups. Therefore, it was considered to evaluate the monoterpenes as a group and separated in two groups: oxygenated monoterpenes (α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole) and terpene hydrocarbons (γ-terpinene, p-cymene, and α-pinene). The results show the regression models for each group as follows: (A) oxygenated terpenes: KT 50(min) = - 515.3 + 1613.2 * 1/Log P + 5, 2 * 1/Pvapor (F = 3176.7 R(2) = 0.99) and LC 50(ppm)  =  - 1679.4 + 5402.1 * 1/Log P + 12.7 *  1/Pvapor (F = 282.9; R(2) = 0.99). (B) Hydrocarbons terpenes: KT 50(min) = 18.2 - 58.3 * 1/Log P + 2.7 * 1/Pvapor (F = 171.7;  R(2) = 0.97) and LC 50(ppm) = - 21.1 + 174.9 * 1/Log P - 14.3 * 1/Pvapor (F = 410.0; R(2) = 0.99). The association between

  9. The development of Plasmodium falciparum in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) under ambient microhabitat temperature in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Bernard A; Gouagna, Louis C; Walczak, Elizabeth; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Beier, John C; Yan, Guiyun; Githure, John I

    2004-10-01

    The effect of microhabitat temperature variation on the early development of Plasmodium falciparum in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Batches of mosquitoes were fed artificially on gametocyteamic blood obtained from human volunteers and then held in five environmental conditions described as: (1) incubator maintained at constant temperature of 28 +/- 1 degrees C as control; (2) temperature unregulated laboratory environment; (3) screen house; (4) grass thatched mud house and (5) corrugated iron roofed mud house. Both the grass and iron roofed mud houses were real houses found in the village communities around the ICIPE Research Centre in Mbita Point, Suba District south-western Kenya. The temperature and relative humidity of these holding environments were recorded over the study period. Mosquitoes were dissected after 24 h and 7 days to enumerate ookinetes and oocysts stages, respectively in their midguts. The mean temperature observed in the temperature-unregulated laboratory (28 degrees C) was significantly higher than the temperature of the screen house (24 degrees C) while the mean temperature observed in the iron roof mud house (27 degrees C) was comparable with that in the grass-thatched mud house (27 degrees C) although the iron roof house experienced more variation (coefficient of variation, C.V., = 9.6%) and higher peaking temperatures than the grass-thatch house. The mean relative humidity for the laboratory and screen house were 23% and 32.5%, respectively, much lower than relative humidity in the incubator (73%). Relative humidity of the grass thatch hut (42%) and Iron roof hut (51%) were also lower than those of the incubator. The ookinete intensities for mosquitoes in the screen house (10.11 +/- 1.79 ookinetes/midgut) were not statistically different (P = 0.41) from those held in the laboratory (7.50 +/- 1.19 ookinetes/midgut) or in the incubator (9.89 +/- 1.47 ookinetes/midgut). The holding

  10. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, s