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Sample records for cultivated sorghum bicolor

  1. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  2. Characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) for biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Increased utilization of novel biomass sources for energy conversion schemes has become a significant portion of energy related research and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is often considered a viable potential resource. Plant breeding efforts to improve sorghum are limited in part by a poor definition of quality traits and their inheritance. To address these concerns, six diverse sorghums were compared and then combined to produce a full F/sub 1/ diallel with reciprocal crosses and genetic analysis. Fourteen agronomic, composition or quality traits were measured using chemical, biological and microscopic techniques. The six parental genotypes were grown at College Station and Weslaco, Texas in 1982 and 1983 while the diallel was grown at College Station in 1983. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and the Jinks-Hayman methods of diallel analysis. A significant genotype x environment interaction occurred for Brix % and yield per plant, but height and maturity did not display a significant effect. Through the diallel analysis, it was determined that additive genetic variance was a significant factor for total sugars, cell wall %, IVDMD, hemicellulose and starch. However, partial dominance was indicated for several traits as well. Reciprocal effects were not a major factor for the traits evaluated. The results together indicate that a breeding program should continue to develop improved male and female lines for use in hybrids.

  3. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fiber and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, phy...

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  5. Morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable nuclear male sterile mutant of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All commercial sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) hybrids are produced using A1 cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines. However, this homogenous cytoplasm could predispose sorghum to devastating diseases. Furthermore, it is expensive to develop and maintain the CMS-based breeding system, because it...

  6. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  7. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) ranks fifth among the cereals world-wide with respect to its importance for food and feed applications. The grain is approximately 13% protein, of which the kafirins comprise over 80% of the protein component of the grain endosperm. The kafirins are cate...

  8. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering genes in West and Central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod sensitive ...

  9. Impact of NPK treatments on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) yields for biofuel feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative ener...

  10. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  11. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  12. Variations in the polarized leaf reflectance of Sorghum bicolor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1987-01-01

    The polarized reflectance factor, Rq, of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) leaves from field-grown plants was measured in situ in the summers of 1983 and 1984. In 1983, three leaves of two randomly selected plants were measured at 2-week intervals. The value of Rq varied, depending on leaf and day of measurement. Measured values of Rq for the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 16 to 53; for the abaxial leaf surface the values ranged from 28 to 69. In 1984, measurements consisted of repeated observations made on the same leaf at biweekly intervals. The values of Rq from the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 26 to 38. Values of Rq from the abaxial leaf surface increased throughout the season, from 16 to 45. Differences in Rq were attributed to changes in surface details of the leaf.

  13. Identification of alkaline stress-responsive genes of CBL family in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxia; Bian, Mingdi; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Yang, Zhenming

    2011-11-01

    Calcineurin B-like proteins play important roles in the calcium perception and signal transduction of abiotic stress. In this study, the bioinformatic analysis of molecular characteristics of Sorghum bicolor calcineurin B-like protein (SbCBL) revealed that sequences of SbCBL are highly conserved, and most SbCBLs have three typical EF-hands structures. Among the SbCBL proteins, four of which, SbCBL01, 04, 05, 08, have a conserved N-myristoylation domain. Stress-responsive and phytohormone-responsive cis-elements were found in the promoter regions of SbCBL genes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis showed that SbCBL genes have different tissue-specific expression patterns under normal growth conditions in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Interestingly, when treated with sodium carbonate, SbCBL genes also show various sodium carbonate stress responsive patterns in sweet sorghum seedlings. These results suggest that SbCBLs may participate in regulating sodium carbonate stress-specific cellular adaptation responses and influencing growth and developmental patterns in sweet sorghum.

  14. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  15. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  16. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Genotypes in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Owuoche, James O.; Oyoo, Maurice E.; Cheruiyot, Erick; Mulianga, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p = 0.05) differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting) would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1) due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1) and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1) due to its high brix (16.21). PMID:28255577

  17. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  18. Development of a transposon-based marker system for mutation breeding in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    PubMed

    Im, S B; Kwon, S-J; Ryu, J; Jeong, S W; Kim, J B; Ahn, J-W; Kim, S H; Jo, Y D; Choi, H-I; Kang, S-Y

    2016-09-16

    Under certain circumstances, transposable elements (TE) can create or reverse mutations and alter the genome size of a cell. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is promising for plant transposon tagging due to its small genome size and its low content of repetitive DNA. We developed a marker system based on targeted region amplification polymorphisms (TE-TRAP) that uses the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of transposons. A total of 3816 class 2 transposons belonging to the PIF/Harbinger family were identified from the whole sorghum genome that produced five primers, including eight types of TIRs. To define the applicability and utilization of TE-TRAP, we used 21 individuals that had been bred after ɤ-ray irradiation. In total, 31 TE-TRAP, 16 TD, and 21 AFLP primer combinations generated 1133, 223, and 555 amplicons, respectively. The percent polymorphic marker was 62.8, 51.1, and 59.3% for the TE-TRAP, TD, and AFLP markers, respectively. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses revealed that TE-TRAP divided the 21 individuals into three groups. Analysis of molecular variance suggested that TE-TRAP had a higher level of genetic diversity than the other two marker systems. After verifying the efficiency of TE-TRAP, 189 sorghum individuals were used to investigate the associations between the markers and the ɤ-ray doses. Two significant associations were found among the polymorphic markers. This TE-based method provides a useful marker resource for mutation breeding research.

  19. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  20. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  1. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches.

  2. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 14,739 SNPs. The SNPs were produced using a highly multiplexed g...

  3. Expanding and vetting Sorghum bicolor gene annotations through transcriptome and methylome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the emergence and subsequent advancement of next generation sequence technology, detailed structural and functional characterization of genomes is readily attainable. Here, we have sampled the Sorghum bicolor methylome by shallow sequencing of bisulfite treated DNA derived from root samples. W...

  4. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    PubMed

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.

  5. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod-sensitive flowering in sorghum. For this purpose a genetically characterized panel of 219 sorghum accessions from West and Central Africa was evaluated for their photoperiod response index (PRI) based on two sowing dates under field conditions. Results Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1) and GIGANTEA (GI). Conclusions The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum. PMID:22394582

  6. Inhibition of aromatase and α-amylase by flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Sorghum bicolor bran extracts.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, James L; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Dowd, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We compared the ability of simple flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Sorghum bicolor bran extracts to inhibit enzymes in vitro. In particular, aromatase is a target for breast cancer therapy, and inhibition of α-amylase can reduce the glycemic effect of dietary starches. Proanthocyanidin-rich sumac sorghum bran extract inhibited α-amylase at a lower concentration (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀]=1.4 μg/mL) than did proanthocyanidin-free black sorghum bran extract (IC₅₀=11.4 μg/mL). Sumac sorghum bran extract inhibited aromatase activity more strongly than black sorghum bran extract (IC₅₀=12.1 μg/mL vs. 18.8 μg/mL, respectively). Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which binds proanthocyanidins, reduced inhibition by sumac but not black sorghum bran extract. When separated on Sephadex LH-20, sumac sorghum proanthocyanidins inhibited both enzymes but showed reduced inhibition with BSA. Flavonoids from either cultivar had higher IC₅₀ values than proanthocyanidins, and BSA had little effect on their inhibition. Proanthocyanidins and simple flavonoids in LH-20 fractions both inhibited aromatase with mixed kinetics and affected K(m) and V(max). The results show that potential health benefits of sorghum bran may include actions of monomeric flavanoids as well as proanthocyanidins.

  7. QTL mapping of forage yield and forage yield component traits in Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y L; Wang, L H; Li, J Q; Zhan, Q W; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-04-22

    The sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) is an important forage crop. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms related to forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits in this forage crop. In this study, a linkage map was constructed with 124 assigned SSR markers using an F2 mapping population derived from the crossing of sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits using inclusive composite interval mapping. Five fresh weight QTLs were identified and contributed >50% of the total phenotypic variance. Of these QTLs, all showed additive and dominant effects, but most exhibited mainly dominant effects. These results will provide useful information for improvements in sorghum-sudangrass hybrid breeding.

  8. Registration of seed sterile, Perennial Sorghum spp. [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] Hybrid 'PSH09TX15'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid (PSH) [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] ('PSH09TX15'; PI ______) was identified that possessed complete seed sterility, only rare occurrences (< 0.1%) of flowering, and significantly higher mean leaf number per tiller than S. halepense. I...

  9. Five new secondary metabolites from Monascus purpureus-fermented Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Md Pravej; Puri, Alka; Ali, M; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Long grains of Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor were individually fermented with Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 under solid state fermentation. The aqueous extract of Monascus which fermented H. vulgare and S. bicolor was found to contain five different new metabolites. Silica gel column chromatography of the aqueous extract with a linear gradient of ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride (v/v) yielded five new metabolites named benzopranyl capriate (9H-1-isoprenyl-benzopyran-5-isopropanoic acid-6-ol-6-n-decanoate), shorghumoic acid (n-octadec-8,11-dien-7α-ol-1-oic acid) and sorghumflavin A (2-n-butyloxo-6-β-hydroxy-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) from Monascus-fermented S. bicolor, while hordeumflavin B (2-n-undecanyloxo-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) and vulgaredilone (2-dodecanyl-7-β isopranyl monoscodilone) from Monascus-fermented H. vulgare.

  10. Gene Space Dynamics during the Evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regio...

  11. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  12. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Truong, Sandra K; McCormick, Ryan F; Rooney, William L; Mullet, John E

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance.

  13. Harnessing Genetic Variation in Leaf Angle to Increase Productivity of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Sandra K.; McCormick, Ryan F.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency with which a plant intercepts solar radiation is determined primarily by its architecture. Understanding the genetic regulation of plant architecture and how changes in architecture affect performance can be used to improve plant productivity. Leaf inclination angle, the angle at which a leaf emerges with respect to the stem, is a feature of plant architecture that influences how a plant canopy intercepts solar radiation. Here we identify extensive genetic variation for leaf inclination angle in the crop plant Sorghum bicolor, a C4 grass species used for the production of grain, forage, and bioenergy. Multiple genetic loci that regulate leaf inclination angle were identified in recombinant inbred line populations of grain and bioenergy sorghum. Alleles of sorghum dwarf-3, a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein involved in polar auxin transport, are shown to change leaf inclination angle by up to 34° (0.59 rad). The impact of heritable variation in leaf inclination angle on light interception in sorghum canopies was assessed using functional-structural plant models and field experiments. Smaller leaf inclination angles caused solar radiation to penetrate deeper into the canopy, and the resulting redistribution of light is predicted to increase the biomass yield potential of bioenergy sorghum by at least 3%. These results show that sorghum leaf angle is a heritable trait regulated by multiple loci and that genetic variation in leaf angle can be used to modify plant architecture to improve sorghum crop performance. PMID:26323882

  14. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  15. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Massel, Karen; Campbell, Bradley C.; Mace, Emma S.; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tao, Yongfu; Worland, Belinda G.; Jordan, David R.; Botella, Jose R.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and utilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT) genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR) genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum. PMID:27826302

  16. Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

  17. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.

  18. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    J. Felderhoff, Terry; M. McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  19. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGES

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; ...

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  20. A new photosystem II electron transfer inhibitor from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Rimando, A M; Dayan, F E; Czarnota, M A; Weston, L A; Duke, S O

    1998-07-01

    Our study of the mechanism(s) by which sorgoleone (1) acts as a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor led to the isolation of a new benzoquinone derivative, 2-hydroxy-5-ethoxy-3-[(Z,Z)-8',11', 14'-pentadecatriene]-rho-benzoquinone (2), from the root exudate of sorghum. The structure of 2, which is being given the name 5-ethoxy-sorgoleone, was determined by spectroscopic means. A methoxy derivative (3) of 1 was also prepared. Both 2 and 3 caused a reduction in oxygen evolution by thylakoid membranes and induced variable chlorophyll fluorescence. These compounds, however, were less active inhibitors of PS II than 1.

  1. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): Nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health.

    PubMed

    de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-01-22

    Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal in the world and is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the human diet. We summarize the recent findings concerning the nutrients and bioactive compounds of sorghum and its potential impact on human health, analyzing the limitations and positive points of the studies and proposing directions for future research. Sorghum is basically composed of starch, which is more slowly digested than that of other cereals, has low digestibility proteins and unsaturated lipids, and is a source of some minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, most sorghum varieties are rich in phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. The results obtained in vitro and in animals have shown that phenolics compounds and fat soluble compounds (polycosanols) isolated from sorghum benefit the gut microbiota and parameters related to obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, and hypertension. The effects of whole sorghum and its fractions on human health need to be evaluated. In conclusion, sorghum is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, tannins, and polycosanols, which beneficially modulate, in vitro and in animals, parameters related to noncommunicable diseases. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing on protein and starch digestibility of sorghum as well as on the profile and bioavailability of its bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. Furthermore, the benefits resulting from the interaction of bioactive compounds in sorghum and human microbiota should be studied.

  2. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  3. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  4. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaf sheath dye protects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine the protective effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups I and II were fed a basal diet, while groups III and IV were fed diets containing 0.5% and 1% sorghum leaf sheath dye, respectively, for 20 days before cisplatin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and the experiment was terminated at 3 days after cisplatin injection. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant capacity. Cisplatin caused a significant (P<.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase [GST], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) and nonenzymatic (glutathione [GSH] and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with a concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content; however, there was a significant (P<.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with a significant (P<.05) decrease in the tissue MDA content, after consumption of diets containing sorghum leaf sheath dye. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of sorghum leaf sheath dye caused a marked reduction in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase after cisplatin administration. However, the ability of the dye to prevent significant cisplatin-induced alteration of both plasma and liver antioxidant indices suggests an antioxidant mechanism of action. Hence, this protective effect of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath dye against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats reflects its potential and beneficial role in the prevention of liver damage associated with cisplatin administration.

  5. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future.

  6. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion.

  7. Effect of silver nanoparticles in crop plants Phaseolus radiatus and Sorghum bicolor: media effect on phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2012-02-01

    Understanding some adverse effects of nanoparticles in edible crop plants is a matter of importance because nanoparticles are often released into soil environments. We investigated the phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the important crop plants, Phaseolus radiatus and Sorghum bicolor. The silver nanoparticles were selected for this study because of their OECD designation as a priority nanomaterial. The toxicity and bioavailability of AgNPs in the crop plant species P. radiatus and S. bicolor were evaluated in both agar and soil media. The seedling growth of test species was adversely affected by exposure to AgNPs. We found evidence of nanoparticle uptake by plants using electron microscopic studies. In the agar tests, P. radiatus and S. bicolor showed a concentration dependent-growth inhibition effect. Measurements of the growth rate of P. radiatus were not affected in the soil studies by impediment within the concentrations tested herein. Bioavailability of nanoparticles was reduced in the soil, and the dissolved silver ion effect also differed in the soil as compared to the agar. The properties of nanoparticles have been shown to change in soil, so this phenomenon has been attributed to the reduced toxicity of AgNPs to plants in soil medium. The application of nanoparticles in soil is a matter of great importance to elucidate the terrestrial toxicity of nanoparticles.

  8. Discovery of a dhurrin QTL in sorghum bicolor: colocalization of dhurrin biosynthesis and a novel stay-green QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile-ß-D-glucopyranoside] is a cyanogenic glucoside produced by (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and is generally considered a natural defense compound capable of producing the toxin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to deter animal herbivory. Recently, high levels of leaf dhurrin h...

  9. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  10. Mapping QTLs associated with drought resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A C; Subudhi, P K; Rosenow, D T; Nguyen, H T

    2002-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress factor limiting crop production. Identification of genetic factors involved in plant responses to drought stress will provide a solid foundation to improve drought resistance. Sorghum is well adapted to hot dry environments and regarded as a model for studying drought resistance among the grasses. Significant progress in genome mapping of this crop has also been made. In sorghum, rapid premature leaf death generally occurs when water is limited during the grain filling period. Premature leaf senescence, in turn, leads to charcoal rot, stalk lodging, and significant yield loss. More than 80% of commercial sorghum hybrids in the United States are grown under non-irrigated conditions and although most of them have pre-flowering drought resistance, many do not have any significant post-flowering drought resistance. Stay-green is one form of drought resistance mechanism, which gives sorghum resistance to premature senescence under soil moisture stress during the post-flowering period. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies with recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and near-isogenic lines (NILs) identified several genomic regions associated with resistance to pre-flowering and post-flowering drought stress. We have identified four genomic regions associated with the stay-green trait using a RIL population developed from B35 x Tx7000. These four major stay-green QTLs were consistently identified in all field trials and accounted for 53.5% of the phenotypic variance. We review the progress in mapping stay-green QTLs as a component of drought resistance in sorghum. The molecular genetic dissection of the QTLs affecting stay-green will provide further opportunities to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in drought resistance in sorghum and other grasses.

  11. [Tannins, phytic phosphorus, phytase activity in the seed of 12 sorghum grain hybrids (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Alvaro; Frías, Amarayma; González, Rafael; Linares, Zoraida; Pizzani, Pablo

    2010-03-01

    In order to evaluate the variability in concentration of secondary metabolites among grains from different sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) and provide some information for rational use in animal feeds, grain samples were collected from 12 hybrids (Criollo 1, Criollo 27, Chaguaramas III, Chaguaramas VII, Cristiani Burkard H-8046-2, Guanipa 95, Himeca 101, Himeca 400, Pioneer 81-G67, Pioneer 83-G88, Pioneer 86-P42 y Tecsem 120) sowed on 2008 in the Turén municipality, Portuguesa State-Venezuela. Using standardized analytical methods, hybrids showed polyphenolics compounds contents (0.92 +/- 0.37% TaE), total (0.61 +/- 0.29% TaE) and condensed tannins (0.95 +/- 0.65% LeuE), phytic phosphorus (0.17 +/- 0.03%) and intrinsic phytase activity (12.3 +/- 6.74 U/kg) in the ranges described in the literature, with an important variation among hybrids that must be considered for their inclusion levels in the formulation of balanced feeds, as well as plant breeding programs.

  12. Proteome profiling of seed from inbred and mutant line of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum is a major staple food, with fifth rank among the cereals world-wide, considering its importance for food and feed applications. Cereals are main part of human nutrition and strategic resources. In this study, we executed a comprehensive proteomic study to investigate the seed storage ...

  13. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  14. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A new approach in ethnobiology

    PubMed Central

    Mekbib, Firew

    2009-01-01

    Background Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for thousands of years and hence the heritage of the crop is expected to be rich. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage has not been done before. Methods In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians. Results The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems) types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms. Conclusion The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions, varied function, communal or

  15. Chemical and genetic diversity of high-seed-yield sorghum (Sorghum bicolor M.) germplasms.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J; Im, S B; Kwon, S J; Ahn, J W; Jeong, S W; Kang, S Y

    2016-09-02

    This study evaluated the chemical and genetic diversity of high-seed-yield sorghum germplasms from Korea, the United States, and South Africa. We identified significant differences in the chemical contents of whole plants at the heading stage in all cultivars, including differences in crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral, and fatty acid contents. Our results suggest that Banwoldang is the most appropriate cultivar for roughage because of its high protein yield. We identified significant differences in the tannin, flavonoid, amylose, mineral, crude fat, fatty acid, and 3-deoxyanthocyanin contents in the whole grain from all cultivars, but not in the mineral or crude fat contents. Tannin levels were generally low. IS645 contained the highest levels of flavonoids and linolenic acid compounds, and Moktak had the highest amylose and deoxyanthocyanidin content in the grain. To assess genetic diversity, we used 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets to identify 38 alleles with 3-8 alleles per locus. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the SSR markers, the sorghum cultivars were divided into three major groups. Comparison of clusters based on chemical compositions with those based on SSRs showed that the groups formed by the three native Korean cultivars clustered similarly in molecular dendrograms. Association analysis was conducted for the 10 SSR marker; 48 chemical and growth traits were present for two marker traits (seed color and whole plant fatty acid content) with significant marker-trait associations. These markers could be used to select sorghum cultivars for breeding programs.

  16. Bioactive and nutritive compounds in Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn) red leaves and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Abugri, D A; Tiimob, B J; Apalangya, V A; Pritchett, G; McElhenney, W H

    2013-05-01

    Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and β-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases.

  17. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  18. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties adopt strongly contrasting strategies in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2014-10-01

    Sorghum is one of the most drought tolerant crops but surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms achieving this. We have compared physiological and biochemical responses to drought in two sorghum cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These closely related cultivars have starkly contrasting responses to water deficit. In the less tolerant Samsorg 40, drought induced progressive loss of photosynthesis. The more drought tolerant Samsorg 17 maintained photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content until the most extreme conditions. In Samsorg 40, there was a highly specific down-regulation of selected proteins, with loss of PSII and Rubisco but maintenance of PSI and cytochrome b6 f, allowing plants to maintain ATP synthesis. The nitrogen released allows for accumulation of glycine betaine and proline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of specific reengineering of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to drought. In contrast, in Samsorg 17 we detected no substantial change in the photosynthetic apparatus. Rather, plants showed constitutively high soluble sugar concentration, enabling them to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis, even in extremely dry conditions. The implications for these strikingly contrasted strategies are discussed in relation to agricultural and natural systems.

  19. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, M.; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S. Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Rao, D. Manohar

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  20. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance. Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression.

  1. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  2. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  3. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e.g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community. PMID:24456189

  4. Targeted mapping of quantitative trait locus regions for rhizomatousness in chromosome SBI-01 and analysis of overwintering in a Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While rhizome formation is intimately associated with perennialism and the derived benefit of sustainability, the introduction of this trait into temperate-zone adapted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars warrants precise knowledge of the genetics conditioning this trait in order to mini...

  5. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    PubMed

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  6. Growth Properties and Biomass Production in the Hybrid C4 Crop Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Youshi; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Saito, Chieko; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Kanno, Keiichi; Kojima, Soichi; Hirano, Ko; Kitano, Hideki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Hiroo; Makino, Amane

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid vigor (heterosis) has been used as a breeding technique for crop improvement to achieve enhanced biomass production, but the physiological mechanisms underlying heterosis remain poorly understood. In this study, to find a clue to the enhancement of biomass production by heterosis, we systemically evaluated the effect of heterosis on the growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency in sorghum hybrid [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. Tentaka] and its parental lines (restorer line and maintainer line). The final biomass of Tentaka was 10-14 times greater than that of the parental lines grown in an experimental field, but the relative growth rate during the vegetative growth stage did not differ. Tentaka exhibited a relatively enlarged leaf area with lower leaf nitrogen content per leaf area (Narea). When the plants were grown hydroponically at different N levels, daily CO2 assimilation per leaf area (A) increased with Narea, and the ratio of A to Narea (N-use efficiency) was higher in the plants grown at low N levels but not different between Tentaka and the parental lines. The relationships between the CO2 assimilation rate, the amounts of photosynthetic enzymes, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, Chl and Narea did not differ between Tentaka and the parental lines. Thus, Tentaka tended to exhibit enlargement of leaf area with lower N content, leading to a higher N-use efficiency for CO2 assimilation, but the photosynthetic properties did not differ. The greater biomass in Tentaka was mainly due to the prolonged vegetative growth period.

  7. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  8. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages.

  9. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.

  10. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.

  11. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  12. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Daniell, Henry; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2007-08-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5' end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19-37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16-21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C-U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae.

  13. Genetic divergence in northern Benin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) landraces as revealed by agromorphological traits and selection of candidate genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B K; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72-10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15-215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57-200 days), and plant height (153.27-636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901, P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247, P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin.

  14. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B. K.; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901,  P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247,  P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. PMID:25729773

  15. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SBP-box gene family in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Jianzhong, Chang; Fengxia, Yan; Linyi, Qiao; Jun, Zheng; Fuyao, Zhang; Qingshan, Liu

    2016-06-20

    SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box (SBP-box) family genes encoding plant-specific transcription factors are involved in many aspects of crop genetic improvement such as yield, plant-type and stress-resistance. The SBP-box gene family have important practical applications. In this study, 18 SBP-box genes were identified from the reference genome of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using bioinformatics. These genes distributed on nine chromosomes while eight of them located in the segmental duplication region. Phylogenetic reconstruction resulted in six subfamilies of SBP-box genes, among which SbSBP12, SbSBP3 and SbSBP15 are orthologous to ZmLG1, ZmTGA1 and ZmUB2/3 in corn, respectively. RNA-seq data analysis indicated that SbSBP-box genes show the highest expression level in primordial inflorescences. Moreover, SbSBP9 and SbSBP17 exhibited a tissue specific expression in primordial inflorescences. The expression levels of SbSBP5, SbSBP8 and SbSBP18 were increased in response to exogenous ABA and PEG,indicating that SbSBP-box genes are involved in the defense response against abiotic stresses in sorghum. This research provides references for cloning important genes in SbSBP-box gene family. Genes identified in this study could be considered as candidate genes for genetic improvement of sorghum.

  17. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses.

  18. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  19. Peroxidases from root exudates of Medicago sativa and Sorghum bicolor: Catalytic properties and involvement in PAH degradation.

    PubMed

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Golubev, Sergey; Muratova, Anna; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Bondarenkova, Anastasiya; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases from root exudates of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were purified and characterized, and their ability to oxidize native PAHs and PAH-derivatives was evaluated. The obtained data confirm that peroxidases are involved in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Nondenaturing PAGE showed that the peroxidases of both plants were represented by a range of isoforms/isoenzymes (five to eight). Minor forms were lost during further purification, and as a result, the major anionic form from alfalfa root exudates and the major cationic form from those of sorghum were obtained. Both electrophoretically homogeneous peroxidases were monomeric proteins with a molecular weight of about 46-48 kDa. The pH optima and the main catalytic constants for the test substrates were determined. On the basis of their molecular and catalytic properties, the obtained enzymes were found to be typical plant peroxidases. Derivatives of PAHs and potential products of their microbial degradation (9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone), unlike the parent PAH (phenanthrene), inhibited the catalytic activity of the peroxidases, possibly indicating greater availability of the enzymes' active centers to these substances. Peroxidase-catalyzed decreases in the concentrations of a number of PAHs and their derivatives were observed. Sorghum peroxidase oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene, while alfalfa peroxidase oxidized only phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was best oxidized by peroxidase of alfalfa. However, quinone derivatives of PAHs were unavailable to sorghum peroxidase, but were oxidized by alfalfa peroxidase. These results indicate that the major peroxidases from root exudates of alfalfa and sorghum can have a role in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs.

  20. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  1. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  2. Genome-wide association study of grain polyphenol concentrations in global sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Ramu, Punna; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen

    2014-11-12

    Identifying natural variation of health-promoting compounds in staple crops and characterizing its genetic basis can help improve human nutrition through crop biofortification. Some varieties of sorghum, a staple cereal crop grown worldwide, have high concentrations of proanthocyanidins and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We quantified total phenols, proanthocyanidins, and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in a global sorghum diversity panel (n = 381) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and characterized the patterns of variation with respect to geographic origin and botanical race. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 404,628 SNP markers identified novel quantitative trait loci for sorghum polyphenols, some of which colocalized with homologues of flavonoid pathway genes from other plants, including an orthologue of maize (Zea mays) Pr1 and a homologue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TT16. This survey of grain polyphenol variation in sorghum germplasm and catalog of flavonoid pathway loci may be useful to guide future enhancement of cereal polyphenols.

  3. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  4. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  5. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species.

  6. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species. PMID:27200008

  7. Distribution, structure and biosynthetic gene families of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Collins, Helen M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Henderson, Marilyn; Shirley, Neil J; Schwerdt, Julian; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-04-01

    In cereals, the presence of soluble polysaccharides including (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan has downstream implications for human health, animal feed and biofuel applications. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a versatile crop, but there are limited reports regarding the content of such soluble polysaccharides. Here, the amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan present in sorghum tissues was measured using a Megazyme assay. Very low amounts were present in the grain, ranging from 0.16%-0.27% (w/w), while there was a greater quantity in vegetative tissues at 0.12-1.71% (w/w). The fine structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, as denoted by the ratio of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl residues, was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ranged from 2.6-3:1 in the grain, while ratios in vegetative tissues were lower at 2.1-2.6:1. The distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was examined using a specific antibody and observed with fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Micrographs showed a variable distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan influenced by temporal and spatial factors. The sorghum orthologs of genes implicated in the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in other cereals, such as the Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F and H gene families were defined. Transcript profiling of these genes across sorghum tissues was carried out using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, indicating that, as in other cereals, CslF6 transcripts dominated.

  8. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  9. West African Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheaths Have Anti-Inflammatory and Immune-Modulating Properties In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F.; Beaman, Joni L.; Ou, Boxin; Okubena, Ademola; Okubena, Olajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The impact of chronic inflammatory conditions on immune function is substantial, and the simultaneous application of anti-inflammatory and immune modulating modalities has potential for reducing inflammation-induced immune suppression. Sorghum-based foods, teas, beers, and extracts are used in traditional medicine, placing an importance on obtaining an increased understanding of the biological effects of sorghum. This study examined selected anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties in vitro of Jobelyn™, containing the polyphenol-rich leaf sheaths from a West African variant of Sorghum bicolor (SBLS). Freshly isolated primary human polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cell subsets were used to test selected cellular functions in the absence versus presence of aqueous and ethanol extracts of SBLS. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation by inflammatory PMN cells, and reduced the migration of these cells in response to the inflammatory chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Distinct effects were seen on lymphocyte and monocyte subsets in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aqueous extract of SBLS triggered robust upregulation of the CD69 activation marker on CD3− CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the ethanol extract of SBLS triggered similar upregulation of CD69 on CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes, and monocytes. This was accompanied by many-fold increases in the chemokines RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contribute to anti-inflammatory effects, combined with multiple effects on immune cell activation status. These observations may help suggest mechanisms of action that contribute to the traditional use of sorghum-based products, beverages, and extracts for immune support. PMID:23289787

  10. Influence of Three Citrus Herbicides on Potential Production of Sorghum bicolor 'Topper 76-6' as a Bioenergy Crop.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick C; Gruber, Barrett; Lin, Youjian; Kumar, Prem; Niebch, David; Wilson, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Planting bioenergy crops on land previously used for citrus production may offer an alternative source of revenue for growers looking for alternative-to-citrus crops. However, residual herbicides used in citrus production may adversely affect alternative crops. This study evaluated effects of three herbicides (bromacil, norflurazon, and simazine) commonly used in citrus production on the bioenergy crop Sorghum bicolor 'Topper 76-6'. Plants were exposed to herbicides in soil for 1-5 weeks and observations of effects on photosynthetic quantum yield, leaf greenness, height, and biomass were made. Results indicate that concentrations of bromacil and norflurazon greater than 0.09 and 0.07 mg/kg and simazine >0.46 mg/kg will impair growth and development in similar soils. Concentrations below these may also be toxic.

  11. Registration of perennial Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum line 'PSH12TX09'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel sorghum x Sorghum propinquum recombinant inbred line, named PSSH12TX09, was identified that successfully overwintered across plant hardiness zones 8a, 8b, and 9a between 2013 and 2015. Overwintering perenniality of PSSH12TX09 exceeded 90% at all locations across both evaluation years, with ...

  12. Organic amendments impact the availability of heavy metal(loid)s in mine-impacted soil and their phytoremediation by Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Huang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The amendment of contaminated soil with organic materials is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique to immobilize heavy metal(loid)s and minimize their subsequent bioaccumulation in plants. This study focuses on the effects of different amendment techniques, such as the use of activated carbons (granulated or powder) and farmyard manure at various application rates (2 and 5 %). These techniques were applied on heavy metal(loid)s such as Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Al that were present in mine-impacted soil and caused bioaccumulation in cultivated plants. The results showed that, compared with the control, almost all the techniques significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in the amended soil. The bioaccumulation of heavy metal(loid)s in Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced with all techniques, while Zn and Cd concentrations increased with the use of farmyard manure. Also compared with the control, plant growth was significantly decreased with the use of activated carbons, particularly with powder activated carbons, while farmyard manure (at 5 %) significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plant growth. Among the amendment techniques, powdered activated carbons (at 5 %) were best at reducing the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soil and plant accumulation. However, it negatively affected the growth of selected plant species.

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  14. Microprobing the molecular spatial distribution and structural architecture of feed-type sorghum seed tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2011-09-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH(3) anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH(2) anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH(3) symmetric) and 2848 cm(-1) (CH(2) asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH(3) to CH(2) ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and

  15. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  16. Effects of season-long high temperature growth conditions on sugar-to-starch metabolism in developing microspores of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Prasad, P V Vara; Boote, Kenneth J; Hartwell, Allen L; Chourey, Prem S

    2007-12-01

    High temperature stress-induced male sterility is a critical problem in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) that significantly compromises crop yields. Grain sorghum plants were grown season-long under ambient (30/20 degrees C, day-time maximum/night-time minimum) and high temperature (36/26 degrees C) conditions in sunlit Soil-Plant-Atmospheric-Research (SPAR) growth chambers. We report data on the effects of high temperature on sugar levels and expression profiles of genes related to sugar-to-starch metabolism in microspore populations represented by pre- and post-meiotic "early" stages through post-mitotic "late" stages that show detectable levels of starch deposition. Microspores from high temperature stress conditions showed starch-deficiency and considerably reduced germination, translating into 27% loss in seed-set. Sugar profiles showed significant differences in hexose levels at both "early" and "late" stages at the two temperature regimes; and most notably, undetectable sucrose and approximately 50% lower starch content in "late" microspores from heat-stressed plants. Northern blot, quantitative PCR, and immunolocalization data revealed a significant reduction in the steady-state transcript abundance of SbIncw1 gene and CWI proteins in both sporophytic as well as microgametophytic tissues under high temperature conditions. Northern blot analyses also indicated greatly altered temporal expression profiles of various genes involved in sugar cleavage and utilization (SbIncw1, SbIvr2, Sh1, and Sus1), transport (Mha1 and MST1) and starch biosynthesis (Bt2, SU1, GBSS1, and UGPase) in heat-stressed plants. Collectively, these data suggest that impairment of CWI-mediated sucrose hydrolysis and subsequent lack of sucrose biosynthesis may be the most upstream molecular dysfunctions leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch deficiency under elevated growth temperature conditions.

  17. Effect of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) food, ugali.

    PubMed

    Bach Knudsen, K E; Munck, L; Eggum, B O

    1988-01-01

    1. The present work was undertaken to study the effects of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Three different sorghum varieties; Dabar, Feterita and Argentine containing zero, intermediate to low and high levels of polyphenols respectively were used in the study. From these varieties uncooked, uncooked acidified, cooked, and cooked acidified diets were prepared. Diets were characterized with regard to resistant starch (RS), dietary fibre (DF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and amino acid content. Raw materials were further analysed for content and composition of non-starch polysaccharides and Klason lignin. The nutritional properties were studied in balance trials with rats. True protein digestibility (TD), biological value (BV), net protein utilization, digestible amino acids, digestible energy (DE) and digestible DF were used as criteria in the nutritional study. 2. Cooking at neutral and acid pH resulted in significantly higher assayed values for DF. Increase in DF could be accounted for by formation of RS. Approximately 50% of RS was recovered in the faeces. 3. In vitro values for protein associated with ADF and in vivo balance values using rats suggest that an endosperm protein fraction, kafirins, was made unavailable during cooking. This resulted in reduced TD and increased BV. It is assumed that unavailable kafirins serve as a nitrogen source for microflora in the hind-gut. 4. Dietary polyphenols changed the excretory route for N from urine to faeces. This resulted in lower TD and higher BV in Argentine (high in polyphenols) than in Dabar and Feterita (low in polyphenols), although dietary lysine (first limiting amino acid) was the same in the three varieties. 5. Variation in DE of the diets was attributed to DF, RS and the amount of faecal protein, which in turn were influenced by undigested kafirins and polyphenols.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

  19. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R.; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  20. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance.

  1. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  2. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in Sorghum bicolor in Niger.

    PubMed

    Deu, Monique; Sagnard, F; Chantereau, J; Calatayud, C; Vigouroux, Y; Pham, J L; Mariac, C; Kapran, I; Mamadou, A; Gérard, B; Ndjeunga, J; Bezançon, G

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of crop genetic diversity need to be assessed to draw up monitoring and conservation priorities. However, few surveys have been conducted in centres of diversity. Sub-Saharan Africa is the centre of origin of sorghum. Most Sahel countries have been faced with major human, environmental and social changes in recent decades, which are suspected to cause genetic erosion. Sorghum is the second staple cereal in Niger, a centre of diversity for this crop. Niger was submitted to recurrent drought period and to major social changes during these last decades. We report here on a spatio-temporal analysis of sorghum genetic diversity, conducted in 71 villages covering the rainfall gradient and range of agro-ecological conditions in Niger's agricultural areas. We used 28 microsatellite markers and applied spatial and genetic clustering methods to investigate change in genetic diversity over a 26-year period (1976-2003). Global genetic differentiation between the two collections was very low (F (st) = 0.0025). Most of the spatial clusters presented no major differentiation, as measured by F (st), and showed stability or an increase in allelic richness, except for two of them located in eastern Niger. The genetic clusters identified by Bayesian analysis did not show a major change between the two collections in the distribution of accessions between them or in their spatial location. These results suggest that farmers' management has globally preserved sorghum genetic diversity in Niger.

  4. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions, and the range of adaptation exhibited by a plant species determines its utility in agriculture. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits unusual tolerance to adverse condit...

  5. Effect of cadmium stress and inoculation with a heavy-metal-resistant bacterium on the growth and enzyme activity of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Muratova, Anna; Lyubun, Yelena; German, Kristina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the influence of the heavy-metal-resistant rhizobacterial inoculant Rhodococcus ruber N7 on the growth and enzyme activity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. under cadmium stress was investigated in quartz sand pot experiments. The effect of cadmium and bacterium on the plant biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments, protein content, and the activities of plant-tissue enzymes such as peroxidase, laccase, and tyrosinase were estimated. It was shown that the presence of cadmium in the sand influenced the roots to a greater extent than it influenced the aerial parts of sorghum. This is manifested as increased protein content, reduced activity of peroxidase, and increased activity of laccase. Compared with cadmium stress, inoculation of plants with rhizobacterium R. ruber N7 has a stronger (and often opposite) effect on the biochemical parameters of sorghum, including a decrease in the concentration of protein in the plant, but increased the activity of peroxidase, laccase, and tyrosinase. Under cadmium contamination of sand, R. ruber N7 successfully colonizes the roots of Sorghum bicolor, survives in its root zone, and contributes to the accumulation of the metal in the plant roots, thereby reducing the concentration of the pollutant in the environment.

  6. Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L; Carvalho, P C F; Mezzalira, J C; Bremm, C; Galli, J R; Gregorini, P

    2013-09-01

    To maximize herbage DMI, pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) and level of herbage depletion (HD) must be such that variables determining short-term herbage intake such as bite mass (BM) and bite rate (BR) are optimized. The objective of this study was to determine a SSH target and the level of HD as a proportion of the SSH that optimizes BM and BR of beef heifers grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Two experiments were conducted using 2 S. bicolor swards and 4 beef heifers (25 mo old; 322 kg BW). Experiment 1 compared the effect of 6 pregrazing SSH, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm, on BM, BR, and jaw movements. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of HD level as a proportion of SSH (0.17, 0.34, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.84) on BM, BR, and jaw movements using the optimal pregrazing SSH defined in Exp. 1. Short-term herbage DMI was estimated using a double-weighing technique and corrected for insensible BW loss. Herbage DMI was subsequently used to calculate the BM. Net eating time and jaw movements for apprehension and manipulation + mastication during grazing as well as total jaw movements were determined using the IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research) behavior recorders. Bite rate and the number of total jaw movements per gram herbage DMI were derived from jaw movement count and measurements of herbage DMI. The results of Exp. 1 showed low and high SSH constraint the ease of herbage harvesting. Greater BM are maintained until a SSH of 50 cm is reached (P < 0.05) and then decline at greater SSH due to herbage dispersion. The nonbiting jaw movement rate increased at greater SSH whereas BR decreased (P < 0.05). For both variables, the turning point was close to a SSH of 50 cm. Experiment 2 showed that such an optimization of BM and BR was maintained until an HD level of 0.34 was reached (P < 0.05). There was a linear increase in both the total jaw movements per unit herbage DMI and the nonbiting jaw movements rate (manipulation + mastication) subsequent to levels

  7. Molecular mapping of genomic regions harbouring QTLs for root and yield traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Rajkumar; Fakrudin, B; Kavil, S P; Girma, Y; Arun, S S; Dadakhalandar, D; Gurusiddesh, B H; Patil, A M; Thudi, M; Bhairappanavar, S B; Narayana, Y D; Krishnaraj, P U; Khadi, B M; Kamatar, M Y

    2013-07-01

    Root system is a vital part of plants for absorbing soil moisture and nutrients and it influences the drought tolerance. Identification of the genomic regions harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root and yield traits, and the linked markers can facilitate sorghum improvement through marker-assisted selection (MAS) besides the deeper understanding of the plant response to drought stress. A population of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from E36-1 × SPV570, along with parents were phenotyped for component traits of yield in field and root traits in an above ground rhizotron. High estimates of heritability and genetic advance for all the root traits and for most of the yield traits, presents high scope for improvement of these traits by simple selection. A linkage map constructed with 104 marker loci comprising 50 EST-SSRs, 34 non-genic nuclear SSRs and 20 SNPs, and QTL analysis was performed using composite interval mapping (CIM) approach. A total of eight and 20 QTLs were mapped for root and yield related traits respectively. The QTLs for root volume, root fresh weight and root dry weight were found co-localized on SBI-04, supported by a positive correlation among these traits. Hence, these traits can be improved using the same linked markers. The lack of overlap between the QTLs of component traits of root and yield suggested that these two sets of parameters are independent in their influence and the possibility of combining these two traits might enhance productivity of sorghum under receding moisture condition.

  8. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    PubMed Central

    Darbani, Behrooz; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Rook, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Genomic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of chemical defence compounds are increasingly identified in plant genomes. We previously reported the independent evolution of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in three plant lineages. Here we report that the gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expressed with the biosynthetic genes. The predicted localisation of SbMATE2 to the vacuolar membrane was demonstrated experimentally by transient expression of a SbMATE2-YFP fusion protein and confocal microscopy. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrate that SbMATE2 is able to transport dhurrin. In addition, SbMATE2 was able to transport non-endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, but not the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-O-glucoside or the glucosinolate indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate. The genomic co-localisation of a transporter gene with the biosynthetic genes producing the transported compound is discussed in relation to the role self-toxicity of chemical defence compounds may play in the formation of gene clusters. PMID:27841372

  9. Gene Space Dynamics During the Evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Massa, A. N.; Wanjugi, H.; Deal, K. R.; O'Brien, K.; You, F. M.; Maiti, R.; Chan, A. P.; Gu, Y. Q.; Luo, M. C.; Anderson, O. D.; Rabinowicz, P. D.; Dvorak, J.; Devos, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice), and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regions was inferred and used to estimate gene deletion and gene duplication rates along each branch of the phylogenetic tree relating the four species. The total gene number in the extant Ae. tauschii genome was estimated to be 36,371. The gene deletion and gene duplication rates and total gene numbers in the four genomes were used to estimate the total gene number in each node of the phylogenetic tree. The common ancestor of the Brachypodieae and Triticeae lineages was estimated to have had 28,558 genes, and the common ancestor of the Panicoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae subfamilies was estimated to have had 27,152 or 28,350 genes, depending on the ancestral gene scenario. Relative to the Brachypodieae and Triticeae common ancestor, the gene number was reduced in B. distachyon by 3,026 genes and increased in Ae. tauschii by 7,813 genes. The sum of gene deletion and gene duplication rates, which reflects the rate of gene synteny loss, was correlated with the rate of structural chromosome rearrangements and was highest in the Ae. tauschii lineage and lowest in the rice lineage. The high rate of gene space evolution in the Ae. tauschii lineage accounts for the fact that, contrary to the expectations, the level of synteny between the phylogenetically more related Ae. tauschii and B. distachyon genomes is similar to the level of synteny between the Ae. tauschii genome and the genomes of the less related rice and sorghum. The ratio of gene duplication to gene deletion rates in these four grass species closely parallels both the total number of genes in a species and the overall genome size. Because the overall genome size is to a large extent a function of the repeated

  10. Gene space dynamics during the evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor genomes.

    PubMed

    Massa, A N; Wanjugi, H; Deal, K R; O'Brien, K; You, F M; Maiti, R; Chan, A P; Gu, Y Q; Luo, M C; Anderson, O D; Rabinowicz, P D; Dvorak, J; Devos, K M

    2011-09-01

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice), and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regions was inferred and used to estimate gene deletion and gene duplication rates along each branch of the phylogenetic tree relating the four species. The total gene number in the extant Ae. tauschii genome was estimated to be 36,371. The gene deletion and gene duplication rates and total gene numbers in the four genomes were used to estimate the total gene number in each node of the phylogenetic tree. The common ancestor of the Brachypodieae and Triticeae lineages was estimated to have had 28,558 genes, and the common ancestor of the Panicoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae subfamilies was estimated to have had 27,152 or 28,350 genes, depending on the ancestral gene scenario. Relative to the Brachypodieae and Triticeae common ancestor, the gene number was reduced in B. distachyon by 3,026 genes and increased in Ae. tauschii by 7,813 genes. The sum of gene deletion and gene duplication rates, which reflects the rate of gene synteny loss, was correlated with the rate of structural chromosome rearrangements and was highest in the Ae. tauschii lineage and lowest in the rice lineage. The high rate of gene space evolution in the Ae. tauschii lineage accounts for the fact that, contrary to the expectations, the level of synteny between the phylogenetically more related Ae. tauschii and B. distachyon genomes is similar to the level of synteny between the Ae. tauschii genome and the genomes of the less related rice and sorghum. The ratio of gene duplication to gene deletion rates in these four grass species closely parallels both the total number of genes in a species and the overall genome size. Because the overall genome size is to a large extent a function of the repeated

  11. Proline over-accumulation alleviates salt stress and protects photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Surender Reddy, P; Jogeswar, Gadi; Rasineni, Girish K; Maheswari, M; Reddy, Attipalli R; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2015-09-01

    Shoot-tip derived callus cultures of Sorghum bicolor were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well as by bombardment methods with the mutated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) gene encoding the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis from glutamate. The transgenics were selfed for three generations and T4 plants were examined for 100 mM NaCl stress tolerance in pot conditions. The effect of salt stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal carbon dioxide concentration, transpiration rates, intrinsic transpiration and water use efficiencies, proline content, MDA levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in 40-day-old transgenic lines and the results were compared with untransformed control plants. The results show that chlorophyll content declines by 65% in untransformed controls compared to 30-38% loss (significant at P < 0.05) in transgenics but not carotenoid levels. Photosynthetic rate (PSII activity) was reduced in untransformed controls almost completely, while it declined by 62-88% in different transgenic lines. Salinity induced ca 100% stomatal closure in untransformed plants, while stomatal conductance was decreased only by 64-81% in transgenics after 4 days. The intercellular CO2 decreased by ca 30% in individual transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenics compared to untransformed controls. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC1.8.1.7) were quantified in leaves exposed to 100 mM NaCl stress and found higher in transgenics. The results suggest that transgenic lines were able to cope better with salt stress than untransformed controls by protecting photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  12. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor (IX. The ma3R Allele Disrupts Diurnal Control of Gibberellin Biosynthesis).

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. R.; Morgan, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    The diurnal regulation of gibberellin (GA) concentrations in Sorghum bicolor was studied in a mutant lacking a light-stable 123-kD phytochrome (ma3Rma3R), wild-type (ma3ma3,Ma3Ma3), and heterozygous (ma3ma3R) cultivars. GAs were determined in shoots of 14-d-old plants by gas chromatography-selected ion-monitoring-mass spectrometry. GA12 levels fluctuated rhythmically in Ma3Ma3, ma3ma3, and,ma3Rma3R; Peak levels occured 3 to 9 h after lights-on. In some experiments, GA53 levels followed a similar pattern. There was no rhythmicity in levels of GA19 and GA8 in any genotype. In ma3ma3 and Ma3Ma3, GA20 levels increased at lights-on, peaked in the afternoon, and decreased to minimum levels in darkness. In ma3Rma3R, peak GA20 levels occured at lights-on, 9 h earlier than in the wild-type genotypes. The pattern for GA1 levels closely followed GA20 levels in all cultivars. One copy of ma3 restored near wild-type regulation of GA20 levels. GA rhythms persisted in 25-d-old ma3ma3 plants. Since absence of the 123-kD phytochrome disrupted diurnal regulation of the GA19 -> GA20 step, the ma3Rma3R genotype may be viewed as being phase shifted in the rhythmic levels of GA20 and GA1 rather than as simply overproducing them. PMID:12228478

  13. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  14. Enhanced Mineral Uptake by Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor Roots Inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Willy; Okon, Yaacov; Hardy, Ralph W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Inoculation of corn (Zea mays) seeds with Azospirillum brasilense strain Cd or Sp 7 significantly enhanced (30 to 50% over controls) the uptake of NO3−, K+, and H2PO4− into 3- to 4-day- and 2-week-old root segments. No gross changes in root morphology were observed; altered cell arrangement in the outer four or five layers of the cortex was seen in photomicrographs of cross sections of inoculated corn roots. The surface activity involved in ion uptake probably increased, as shown by the darker staining by methylene blue of the affected area. Shoot dry weight increased 20 to 30% in inoculated plants after 3 weeks, presumably by enhancement of mineral uptake. Corn and sorghum plants grown to maturity on limiting nutrients in the greenhouse showed improved growth from inoculation approaching that of plants grown on normal nutrient concentrations. Enhanced ion uptake may be a significant factor in the crop yield enhancement reported for Azospirillum inoculation. PMID:16346311

  15. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  16. Regioselective and stereospecific hydroxylation of GR24 by Sorghum bicolor and evaluation of germination inducing activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers toward seeds of Striga species.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kotomi; Ishiwa, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Hitomi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2015-09-15

    Bioconversion of GR24, the most widely used synthetic strigolactone (SL), by hydroponically grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and biological activities of hydroxylated GR24 stereoisomers were studied. Analysis of extracts and exudates of sorghum roots previously fed with a racemic and diastereomeric mixture of GR24, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), confirmed uptake of GR24 and suggested its conversion to mono-hydroxylated products. Two major GR24 metabolites, 7-hydroxy-GR24 and 8-hydroxy-GR24, were identified in the root extracts and exudates by direct comparison of chromatographic behavior with a series of synthetic mono-hydroxylated GR24 analogues. Separate feeding experiments with each of the GR24 stereoisomers revealed that the hydroxylated products were derived from 2'-epi-GR24, an evidence of sterical recognition of the GR24 molecule by sorghum. Trans-4-hydroxy-GR24 isomers derived from all GR24 stereoisomers were detected in the exudates as minor metabolites. The synthetic hydroxy-GR24 isomers induced germination of Striga hermonthica in decreasing order of C-8>C-7>C-6>C-5>C-4. In contrast the stereoisomers having the same configuration of orobanchol, irrespective of position of hydroxylation, induced germination of Striga gesnerioides. The results confirm previous reports on structural requirements of SLs and ascribe a critical role to hydroxylation, but not to the position of the hydroxyl group in the AB part of the molecule, in induction of S. gesnerioides seed germination.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis comparing stay-green and senescent Sorghum bicolor lines identifies a role for proline biosynthesis in the stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephanie M; Cummins, Ian; Lim, Fei Ling; Slabas, Antoni R; Knight, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal crop grown on the arid and semi-arid regions of >98 different countries. These regions are such that this crop is often subjected to low water conditions, which can compromise yields. Stay-green sorghum plants are able to retain green leaf area for longer under drought conditions and as such have higher yields than their senescent counterparts. However, the molecular and physiological basis of this drought tolerance is yet to be fully understood. Here, a transcriptomic approach was used to compare gene expression between stay-green (B35) and senescent (R16) sorghum varieties. Ontological analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts identified an enrichment of genes involved with the 'response to osmotic stress' Gene Ontology (GO) category. In particular, delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase 2 (P5CS2) was highly expressed in the stay-green line compared with the senescent line, and this high expression was correlated with higher proline levels. Comparisons of the differentially expressed genes with those that lie in known stay-green qualitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed that P5CS2 lies within the Stg1 QTL. Polymorphisms in known cis-elements were identified in the putative promoter region of P5CS2 and these could be responsible for the differences in the expression of this gene. This study provides greater insight into the stay-green trait in sorghum. This will be greatly beneficial not only to improve our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in sorghum, but also to facilitate the improvement of future sorghum cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  18. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels on seed germination and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Rekik, Imen; Chaabane, Zayneb; Missaoui, Amara; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Luptakova, Lenka; Elleuch, Amine; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-03-15

    Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL(-1), BOD5, 291mgL(-1)) and metal concentrations. These levels caused mortality (18% for fescue), decreased germination speed in seeds (37.5% for alfalfa) and reductions of root and stem length in seedlings (80% and 22% respectively for alfalfa). Adverse effects on seeds germination were reflected at the biochemical level by increased H2O2 levels (6 times for sorghum after 5days) and by increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (more than 600 times for sorghum roots) during seedlings development. When TW was used, these parameters were close to control seeds ones. They were also dependent on plant species and developmental stage. Therefore, for efficient reclaimed wastewater reuse in irrigation, suitable crops, displaying wide tolerance to toxic contents during germination and later seedling development stages have to be selected.

  19. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments.

  20. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-09-17

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  1. Effect of traditional fermentation and malting on phytic acid and mineral availability from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) grain varieties grown in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makokha, Anselimo O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Njoroge, Simon M; Kamar, Oliver K

    2002-09-01

    Sorghum and finger millet grains are traditional staple foods in Kenya. However, they have naturally occurring anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, that decrease their dietary availability. This work determined the effect of fermentation and malting on the phytic acid content of, and mineral availability in five varieties of sorghum and four varieties of finger millet grain grown in Kenya. Phytic acid ranged from 875.1 to 2,211.9 mg/100 g in sorghum. The levels in finger millet ranged from 851.6 to 1,419.4 mg/100 g grain. Fermentation resulted in a mean decrease of phytic acid in of 64.8% after 96 hours and 39.0% after 72 hours in sorghum grain. In finger millet, there was a mean decrease of 72.3% and 54.3% after 96 and 72 hours, respectively. Malting also resulted in a mean decrease of 23.9 and 45.3% after 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The extent of decrease of phytic acid differed among the grain varieties. Fermentation increased the rate of available iron, manganese, and calcium in both sorghum and finger millet. The available minerals were generally higher in finger millet than in sorghum after fermentation. Fermentation was also more effective than malting in reducing phytic acid in sorghum and finger millet. Simple traditional food processing methods can therefore be used to increase mineral availability.

  2. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel; Rimando, Agnes M.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Schröder, Joachim; Dayan, Franck E.; Nanayakkara, N.P. Dhammika; Pan, Zhiqiang; Noonan, Brice P.; Fishbein, Mark; Abe, Ikuro; Duke, Stephen O.; Baerson, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cells and involves the production of an alkylresorcinolic intermediate (5-[(Z,Z)-8′,11′,14′-pentadecatrienyl]resorcinol) derived from an unusual 16:3Δ9,12,15 fatty acyl-CoA starter unit. This led to the suggestion of the involvement of one or more alkylresorcinol synthases (ARSs), type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that produce 5-alkylresorcinols using medium to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA starter units via iterative condensations with malonyl-CoA. In an effort to characterize the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the pentadecyl resorcinol intermediate, a previously described expressed sequence tag database prepared from isolated S. bicolor (genotype BTx623) root hairs was first mined for all PKS-like sequences. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that three of these sequences were preferentially expressed in root hairs, two of which (designated ARS1 and ARS2) were found to encode ARS enzymes capable of accepting a variety of fatty acyl-CoA starter units in recombinant enzyme studies. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments directed against ARS1 and ARS2 resulted in the generation of multiple independent transformant events exhibiting dramatically reduced sorgoleone levels. Thus, both ARS1 and ARS2 are likely to participate in the biosynthesis of sorgoleone in planta. The sequences of ARS1 and ARS2 were also used to identify several rice (Oryza sativa) genes encoding ARSs, which are likely involved in the production of defense-related alkylresorcinols. PMID:20348430

  3. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Han, Yucui; Lv, Peng; Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield.

  4. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield. PMID:25984727

  5. Host specificity of Sporisorium reilianum is tightly linked to generation of the phytoalexin luteolinidin by Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Zuther, Katja; Kahnt, Jörg; Utermark, Jan; Imkampe, Julia; Uhse, Simon; Schirawski, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The smut fungus Sporisorium reilianum occurs in two varieties (S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum and S. reilianum f. sp. zeae) that cause head smut disease on sorghum and maize, respectively. Prior to plant infection, compatible haploid sporidia of S. reilianum fuse to form infectious dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate the leaf surface, spread throughout the plant, and reach the inflorescences, in which spore formation occurs. To elucidate the basis of host specificity of the two S. reilianum varieties, we compared disease etiology of S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum and S. reilianum f. sp. zeae on sorghum and maize. Both varieties could penetrate and multiply in both hosts. However, red spots appeared on inoculated leaves after sorghum infection with S. reilianum f. sp. zeae. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight analysis of leaf extracts, we show that sorghum reacts with the production of the red and orange phytoalexins luteolinidin and apigeninidin upon colonization by S. reilianum f. sp. zeae but not by S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum. Using in vitro growth assays, we demonstrate that luteolinidin but not apigeninidin slows vegetative growth of both S. reilianum f. sp. zeae and S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum. However, the phytoalexin biosynthesis gene SbDFR3 is only induced in sorghum after infection with S. reilianum f. sp. zeae, as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This suggests that regulation of luteolinidin biosynthesis determines infection success of S. reilianum on sorghum.

  6. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid are involved in silicon-induced drought resistance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Wenhua; Cao, Dan; Deng, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-07-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates drought stress has been widely reported, but the mechanism it underlying remains unclear. Here, morphologic and physiological changes were investigated in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings treated with silicon and exposed to PEG-simulated drought stress for seven days. Drought stress dramatically decreased growth parameters (biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate), while silicon application reduced the drought-induced decreases in those parameters. Leaf relative water content and transpiration rate were maintained at high levels compared to those in seedlings without silicon. The soluble sugar contents were increased, but the proline contents and the osmotic potential were decreased, showing that osmotic adjustment did not contribute to the silicon induced-drought resistance. Furthermore, levels of both free and conjugated polyamines (PAs) levels, including putrescine, spermidine and spermine, were all found to be increased by silicon under drought stress both in leaf and root. Meanwhile, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, was markedly decreased by supplemental silicon. Several key PA synthesis genes were upregulated by silicon under drought stress. These results suggest that silicon improves sorghum drought resistance by mediating the balance of PAs and ethylene levels. In leaf, the increased PAs and decreased ACC help to retard leaf senescence. In root, the balance between PAs and ACC participates in the modulation of root plasticity, increases the root/shoot ratio, and contributes to an increase in water uptake. These results suggest that silicon increases drought resistance through regulating several important physiological processes in plants.

  7. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on α-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Kaufman, Rhett C; Bean, Scott R; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S; Rose, Devin J

    2013-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). Tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex.

  8. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  9. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  10. Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  11. Disease severity and susceptibility of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] to infection by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  12. Genome- wide characterization of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) gene family of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]: a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neha; Jaiswal, Parul; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor (TF) complex with preferential binding to CCAAT elements of promoters, regulating gene expression in most of the higher eukaryotes. The availability of plant genome sequences have revealed multiple number of genes coding for the three subunits, namely NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC in contrast to single NF-Y gene for each subunit reported in yeast and animals. A total of 33 NF-YTF comprising of 8 NF-YA, 11 NF-YB and 14 NF-YC subunits were accessed from the sorghum genome. The bioinformatic characterization of NF-Y gene family of sorghum for gene structure, chromosome location, protein motif, phylogeny, gene duplication and in-silico expression under abiotic stresses have been attempted in the present study. The identified SbNF-Y genes are distributed on all the 10 chromosomes of sorghum with variability in the frequency and 18 out of 33 SbNF-Ys were found to be intronless. Segmental duplication event was found to be predominant feature based on gene duplication pattern study. Several orthologs and paralogs groups were disclosed through the comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of SbNF-Y proteins along with 36 Arabidopsis and 28 rice NF-Y proteins. In-silico expression analysis under abiotic stresses using rice transcriptome data revealed several of the sorghum NF-Y genes to be associated with salt, drought, cold and heat stresses.

  13. [Chemical and nutrition evaluation of whole sorghum flour (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench), complementation with bean and milk whey, application in baking].

    PubMed

    Zaparrart, M I; Salgado, J M

    1994-09-01

    The chemical characteristics nutritive value and technological properties of the whole sorghum flour for consumption were studied. The chemical analyses indicated 11.5% of protein, 2.7% of fat, 1.3% of fiber and 72% of carbohydrate. Major mineral in the flour were sulphur 0.25%, phosphorus 0.21%, potassium 0.15%, magnesium 0.07% and calcium 0.03%. The amino acid analyses showed lysine as the first limiting amino acid (score 31.3%) and as the second treonine (score 61.5%). The essential fatty acid contents in the oil were linolenic acid 36.2%, linolenic acid 1.4% and trace of arachidonic acid. The tanin content was 0.04%. PER and CEA were increased when the whole sorghum flour was supplemented with exception of digestibility. It was concluded that whole sorghum flour is a good source of calories in the diet (359 Cal/100g) and the protein responded positively to complementing with Phaseoulus vulgaris flour, dried milk whey and synthetic lysine. The bread baked with 0, 5, 10 and 15% of composite flour (wheat-sorghum) showed good volume, good external and internal characteristics and a high percentage of acceptability, by a panel of degustation testers.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopia sorghum collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS-NPGS) is unknown. In addition, passport information is absent for 83% of these accessions which limit its evaluation and utility. Therefor...

  15. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  16. Mutagenesis breeding for increased 3-deoxyanthocyanidin accumulation in leaves of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: a source of natural food pigment.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Kushwaha, Rekha; Tateno, Mizuki; Harman-Ware, Anne Elizabeth; Crocker, Mark; Awika, Joseph; Debolt, Seth

    2014-02-12

    Natural food colorants with functional properties are of increasing interest. Prior papers indicate the chemical suitability of sorghum leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins as natural food colorants. Via mutagenesis-assisted breeding, a sorghum variety that greatly overaccumulates 3-deoxyanthocyanidins of leaf tissue, named REDforGREEN (RG), has been isolated and characterized. Interestingly, RG not only caused increased 3-deoxyanthocyanidins but also caused increased tannins, chlorogenic acid, and total phenolics in the leaf tissue. Chemical composition of pigments was established through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that identified luteolinidin (LUT) and apigeninidin (APG) as the main 3-deoxyanthocianidin species. Specifically, 3-deoxyanthocianidin levels were 1768 μg g⁻¹ LUT and 421 μg g⁻¹ APG in RG leaves compared with trace amounts in wild type, representing 1000-fold greater levels in the mutant leaves. Thus, RG represents a useful sorghum mutagenesis variant to develop as a functionalized food colorant.

  17. Integration of experiments across diverse environments identifies the genetic determinants of variation in Sorghum bicolor seed element composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the bioavailable elemental nutrient content in the edible portions of the crop has the potential to increase the value of sorghum for human and animal nutrition. Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality are in part determined by the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients...

  18. Molecular tagging and validation of microsatellite markers linked to the low germination stimulant gene (lgs) for Striga resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Satish, Kanuganti; Gutema, Zenbaba; Grenier, Cécile; Rich, Patrick J; Ejeta, Gebisa

    2012-04-01

    Striga is a devastating parasitic weed in Africa and parts of Asia. Low Striga germination stimulant activity, a well-known resistance mechanism in sorghum, is controlled by a single recessive gene (lgs). Molecular markers linked to the lgs gene can accelerate development of Striga-resistant cultivars. Using a high density linkage map constructed with 367 markers (DArT and SSRs) and an in vitro assay for germination stimulant activity towards Striga asiatica in 354 recombinant inbred lines derived from SRN39 (low stimulant) × Shanqui Red (high stimulant), we precisely tagged and mapped the lgs gene on SBI-05 between two tightly linked microsatellite markers SB3344 and SB3352 at a distance of 0.5 and 1.5 cM, respectively. The fine-mapped lgs region was delimited to a 5.8 cM interval with the closest three markers SB3344, SB3346 and SB3343 positioned at 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 cM, respectively. We validated tightly linked markers in a set of 23 diverse sorghum accessions, most of which were known to be Striga resistant, by genotyping and phenotyping for germination stimulant activity towards both S. asiatica and S. hermonthica. The markers co-segregated with Striga germination stimulant activity in 21 of the 23 tested lines. The lgs locus similarly affected germination stimulant activity for both Striga species. The identified markers would be useful in marker-assisted selection for introgressing this trait into susceptible sorghum cultivars. Examination of the sorghum genome sequence and comparative analysis with the rice genome suggests some candidate genes in the fine-mapped region (400 kb) that may affect strigolactone biosynthesis or exudation. This work should form a foundation for map-based cloning of the lgs gene and aid in elucidation of an exact mechanism for resistance based on low Striga germination stimulant activity.

  19. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    PubMed

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied.

  20. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall

  1. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains.

  2. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1–0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  3. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier.

  4. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations1[W

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abigail R.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E.; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  5. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  6. Choline metabolism in glycinebetaine accumulating and non-accumulating near-isogenic lines of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Peel, Gregory J; Mickelbart, Michael V; Rhodes, David

    2010-03-01

    Glycinebetaine (GB) is a compatible solute that is accumulated by some plant species, especially under conditions leading to tissue osmotic stress. Genetic modification for accumulation of GB in an attempt to produce more stress tolerant plants has been a focus for several groups in recent years. However, attempts to increase tissue GB concentrations have been unsuccessful, with many transgenic lines accumulating far lower concentrations than naturally-occurring GB accumulators. A better understanding of the metabolic regulation of GB synthesis is necessary for successful molecular breeding and biotechnology. We utilized previously developed near-isogenic lines for GB accumulation to characterize the biochemical basis for GB deficiency in maize and sorghum. Salinity resulted in increased accumulation of choline in both accumulating and non-accumulating lines. When grown in the presence of NaCl, GB-non-accumulating lines had increased concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, but not GB. Decreased GB synthesis can be explained from the increased concentrations of phosphocholine in planta and the strong inhibition of N-phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase by phosphocholine observed in vitro. The lack of GB accumulation in GB-/- homozygous NILs was not due to the lack of the putative choline monooxygenase (the enzyme responsible for choline oxidation to betaine aldehyde) gene or protein that we describe. The previously identified bet1 locus does not appear to be choline monooxygenase. However, the lack of GB synthesis does affect the synthesis and turnover of choline moieties in GB non-accumulating lines, which may lead to alterations in overall 1-carbon metabolism in plants.

  7. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  8. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Natalie S.; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A.; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J.; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production. PMID:27232754

  9. Sugarcane aphid spatial distribution in grain sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important summer grain crop in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. produced 432 million bushels of sorghum valued at $1.67 billion on more than 6 million acres. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), was discovered in damaging numbers in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor ...

  10. Evaluation of a Non-Flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids (PSSHs) such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass feedstocks currently utilized as forage but with potential as dual-...

  11. Molecular evolution of the Sorghum Maturity Gene Ma3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Time to maturity is a critical trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) breeding, as it determines whether a variety can be grown in a particular cropping system or ecosystem. Understanding the nucleotide variation and the mechanisms of molecular evolution of the maturity genes would be helpful for breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide diversity of Ma3, an important maturity gene in sorghum, using 252 cultivated and wild sorghum materials from all over the world. The nucleotide variation and diversity were analyzed based both on race- and usage-based groups. We also sequenced 12 genes around the Ma3 gene in 185 of these materials to search for a selective sweep and found that purifying selection was the strongest force on Ma3, as low nucleotide diversity and low-frequency amino acid variants were observed. However, a very special mutation, described as ma3R, seemed to be under positive selection, as indicated by dramatically reduced nucleotide variation not only at the loci but also in the surrounding regions among individuals carrying the mutations. In addition, in an association study using the Ma3 nucleotide variations, we detected 3 significant SNPs for the heading date at a high-latitude environment (Beijing) and 17 at a low-latitude environment (Hainan). The results of this study increases our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the maturity genes in sorghum and will be useful in sorghum breeding.

  12. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  13. Identification of novel drought-responsive microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench by high-throughput sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Amit; Smita, Shuchi; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M.; Bansal, Kailash C.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus the control plant development and stress responses. In order to identify drought-responsive miRNAs and tasi-RNAs in sorghum, we constructed small RNA libraries from a drought tolerant (M35-1) and susceptible (C43) sorghum genotypes grown under control and drought stress conditions, and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Ninety seven conserved and 526 novel miRNAs representing 472 unique miRNA families were identified from sorghum. Ninety-six unique miRNAs were found to be regulated by drought stress, of which 32 were up- and 49 were down-regulated (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) at least in one genotype, while the remaining 15 miRNAs showed contrasting drought-regulated expression pattern between genotypes. A maximum of 17 and 18 miRNAs was differentially regulated under drought stress condition in the sensitive and tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that genotype dependent stress responsive regulation of miRNAs may contribute, at least in part, to the differential drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes. We also identified two miR390-directed TAS3 gene homologs and the auxin response factors as tasi-RNA targets. We predicted more than 1300 unique target genes for the novel and conserved miRNAs. These target genes were predicted to be involved in different cellular, metabolic, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and developmental processes. Genome-wide identification of stress-responsive miRNAs, tasi-RNAs and their targets identified in this study will be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress responses and genetic improvement of biomass production and stress tolerance in sorghum. PMID:26236318

  14. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. PMID:27630645

  15. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  16. Assessment of molecular diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopian sorghum collection maintained at the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has not been studied. In addition, 83% of the accessions in the Ethiopian collection lack passport information which has constrained their eval...

  17. Domestication to Crop Improvement: Genetic Resources for Sorghum and Saccharum (Andropogoneae)

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Sally L.; Shapter, Frances M.; Henry, Robert J.; Cordeiro, Giovanni; Izquierdo, Liz; Lee, L. Slade

    2007-01-01

    Background Both sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are members of the Andropogoneae tribe in the Poaceae and are each other's closest relatives amongst cultivated plants. Both are relatively recent domesticates and comparatively little of the genetic potential of these taxa and their wild relatives has been captured by breeding programmes to date. This review assesses the genetic gains made by plant breeders since domestication and the progress in the characterization of genetic resources and their utilization in crop improvement for these two related species. Genetic Resources The genome of sorghum has recently been sequenced providing a great boost to our knowledge of the evolution of grass genomes and the wealth of diversity within S. bicolor taxa. Molecular analysis of the Sorghum genus has identified close relatives of S. bicolor with novel traits, endosperm structure and composition that may be used to expand the cultivated gene pool. Mutant populations (including TILLING populations) provide a useful addition to genetic resources for this species. Sugarcane is a complex polyploid with a large and variable number of copies of each gene. The wild relatives of sugarcane represent a reservoir of genetic diversity for use in sugarcane improvement. Techniques for quantitative molecular analysis of gene or allele copy number in this genetically complex crop have been developed. SNP discovery and mapping in sugarcane has been advanced by the development of high-throughput techniques for ecoTILLING in sugarcane. Genetic linkage maps of the sugarcane genome are being improved for use in breeding selection. The improvement of both sorghum and sugarcane will be accelerated by the incorporation of more diverse germplasm into the domesticated gene pools using molecular tools and the improved knowledge of these genomes. PMID:17766842

  18. The relationship between population structure and aluminum tolerance in cultivated sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid soils comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands and in these areas aluminum (Al) toxicity impairs root growth, strongly limiting crop yield. Food security is thereby compromised in many developing countries that are located in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In sorghum, SbMATE,...

  19. Metabolic consequences of knocking out UGT85B1, the gene encoding the glucosyltransferase required for synthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Cecilia K; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2016-02-01

    Many important food crops produce cyanogenic glucosides as natural defense compounds to protect against herbivory or pathogen attack. It has also been suggested that these nitrogen-based secondary metabolites act as storage reserves of nitrogen. In sorghum, three key genes, CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and UGT85B1, encode two Cytochrome P450s and a glycosyltransferase, respectively, the enzymes essential for synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Here, we report the use of targeted induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) to identify a line with a mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the N-terminal region of UGT85B1. Plants homozygous for this mutation do not produce dhurrin and are designated tcd2 (totally cyanide deficient 2) mutants. They have reduced vigor, being dwarfed, with poor root development and low fertility. Analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) shows that tcd2 mutants accumulate numerous dhurrin pathway-derived metabolites, some of which are similar to those observed in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 genes. Our results demonstrate that UGT85B1 is essential for formation of dhurrin in sorghum with no co-expressed endogenous UDP-glucosyltransferases able to replace it. The tcd2 mutant suffers from self-intoxication because sorghum does not have a feedback mechanism to inhibit the initial steps of dhurrin biosynthesis when the glucosyltransferase activity required to complete the synthesis of dhurrin is lacking. The LC-MS analyses also revealed the presence of metabolites in the tcd2 mutant which have been suggested to be derived from dhurrin via endogenous pathways for nitrogen recovery, thus indicating which enzymes may be involved in such pathways.

  20. Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for nixtamalization performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting...

  1. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  2. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  3. Evaluation of sweet sorghum germplasm for the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has become a favorable biofuel feedstock for ethanol production. Among the essential traits for successful production and use of sweet sorghum in Southeastern United States for renewable fuel are high biomass, high BRIX, lodging resistance, as well as res...

  4. Lignin modification to improve sorghum for cellulosic and thermal bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement for both cellulosic and thermal bioenergy conversion. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is currently being developed as a dedicated bio-energy feedstock. Our goals are to improve sorghum biomass for both biochemic...

  5. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  6. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  7. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  8. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  9. Water and radiation use efficiencies in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing water and radiation use efficiencies (WUE and RUE, respectively) are critical to enhance crop production. Exploring genetic variability in WUE and RUE is necessary to improve these traits. The objectives of this research were to evaluate eight sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotyp...

  10. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V.; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  11. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2015-12-17

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha(-1) grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha(-1) independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  12. Enhancing water use efficiency with plant feedback irrigation control: The case for sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) is a well-adapted and widely grown grain crop in the U.S. Southern High Plains and other semi-arid regions. Sorghum has several advantages over corn (Zea mays L.) in this region. Sorghum planting dates are more flexible, making it easier to plant as a compan...

  13. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  14. Registration of partially converted germplasm from 44 accessions of the USDA-ARS Ethiopian and Sudanese sorghum collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-four sources of late-maturing sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm (Reg. No. PI 665639 to PI 665682) were converted to early-maturing, dwarf-height enhanced F3 families, and were released by the National Sorghum Foundation, the United Sorghum Checkoff Program, the USDA-ARS, and MMR ...

  15. Yield and morpho-agronomical evaluation of food-grade white sorghum hybrids grown in Southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a gluten-free grain that is gaining attention as a food crop that can be used in the management of celiac disease. At present, sorghum is widely grown in many semiarid regions of the world. New food-grade sorghum cultivars are of particular interest in...

  16. Fertilizer induced nitrous oxide emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Watanabe, Takeshi; Uchino, Hiroshi; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Wani, Suhas P; Ito, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics were determined using a closed chamber technique during the rainy season (June-October) of 2010. The study included two treatments, nitrogen (N) at a rate of 90 kg/ha and a control without N fertilizer application. The N(2)O emissions strongly coincided with N fertilization and rainfall events. The cumulative N(2)O-N emission from Alfisols was 1.81 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.15 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. Similarly, the N(2)O-N emission from Vertisols was 0.70 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.09 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. The mean N(2)O-N emission factor for fertilizer induced emissions from the Alfisols was 0.90% as compared to 0.32% for Vertisols. Our results suggest that the N(2)O emissions are dependent on the soil properties. Therefore, the monitoring of N(2)O emissions from different agro-ecological regions, having different soil types, rainfall characteristics, cropping systems and crop management practices are necessary to develop comprehensive and accurate green house gas inventories.

  17. Massive sorghum collection genotyped with SSR markers to enhance use of global genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Billot, Claire; Ramu, Punna; Bouchet, Sophie; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Gardes, Laetitia; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Rami, Jean-François; Rivallan, Ronan; Li, Yu; Lu, Ping; Wang, Tianyu; Folkertsma, Rolf T; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Hash, C Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity.

  18. Massive Sorghum Collection Genotyped with SSR Markers to Enhance Use of Global Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Gardes, Laetitia; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Rami, Jean-François; Rivallan, Ronan; Li, Yu; Lu, Ping; Wang, Tianyu; Folkertsma, Rolf T.; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Hash, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity. PMID:23565161

  19. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential impacts of global climate change on crop productivity have drawn much attention in recent years. To investigate these impacts on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] productivity, we calibrated the CERES-Sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT...

  20. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  1. General and specific combining ability of F1-hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising biofuel crop that accumulates fermentable sugar in the stalk and can be directly fermented as bioethanol. Currently, most of sweet sorghum cultivars are pure lines. However, developing high-yielding hybrids has many advantages. To date there...

  2. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum I: brix and sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was done to measure the deterioration of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after harvest. Three varieties of sorghum were grown in Louisiana and harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting (DAP). Whole stalks were cut from the field at soil level, stripped, and topped...

  3. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  4. Sustainable sorghum cropping systems for flexible forage/bio-energy use under limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L.), a versatile and nutritious cereal grain crop is equally useful as forage and feedstock for livestock and bioenergy applications, respectively. Further, sorghum is highly suitable for the Ogallala Aquifer (OA) region because of its inherent water saving properties and ...

  5. Pedigreed mutant library- a unique resource for sorghum improvement and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a versatile crop used for food, feeder, fodder, and biofuel. Due to its superior resilience to drought and high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum is becoming increasingly important in meeting the growing need for food and energy in face of de...

  6. Heterosis and combining ability of F1 hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sugar-based biofuel crop that is well-suited to tropical environments. Most sweet sorghum cultivars are open-pollinated, but hybrids could offer yield and seed production advantages. Fifteen hybrids were generated among five female and three male pa...

  7. Sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host range and sorghum resistance including cross-resistance from greenbug sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The graminous host range, and sources of sorghum plant resistance including cross resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) sorghums, [Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench], were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) in greenhouse no-choice experiments and ...

  8. Three sorghum serpin recombinant proteins inhibit midgut trypsin activity and growth of corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome contains at least 17 putative serpin (serine protease inhibitor) open reading frames, some of which are induced by pathogens. Recent transcriptome studies found that most of the putative serpins are expressed but their roles are unknown. Four sorghum serpins were...

  9. Argonomic practices of dryland grain sorghum maturity, yield, and test weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or milo, is drought tolerant, is easy to incorporate into winter wheat crop rotations, has a low cost of production compared to corn, and the late date of planting provides flexibility in early-season weed control. Grain sorghum is an important crop in so...

  10. Agronomic factors affecting dryland grain sorghum maturity and production in northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dryland crop in southeast Colorado, but expansion into northeast Colorado is thought to be limited due to the shorter growing season. The study examined whether sorghum production could be expanded into northeast Colorado. A 2-year study ...

  11. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  12. Justification of the choice of units for mains-noah soil cultivation of sweet sorghum and their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The article is devoted to problems of improving the efficiency of tillage crops. Presents an approach that focuses on the application of resource-saving technologies. To investigate the relationship between the financial welfare of the management and selection of units for primary processing of the soil. Conducted economic evaluation and identified the energy efficiency of main processing of the soil under sweet sorghum.

  13. Identification and mapping of a single recessive gene that confers resistance to the white sugarcane aphid in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known for its resilience in arid environments, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a multi-functioning staple food crop grown around the world. Sorghum produces grain, sugar, and cellulose-material that can be used for: livestock feed, human consumption, ethanol production, and building materials. Despite...

  14. Biomass sorghum production and components under different irrigation/tillage systems for the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeking renewable energy sources is necessary to reduce the US dependence on foreign oil. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) may be a reasonable alternative as an energy crop in the Southern U.S. because it is drought resistant. An experiment was developed to evaluate several types of sorghum as bioenergy...

  15. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-02-26

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.

  16. Pollen tube growth after intergeneric pollinations of iap-homozygous Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization within Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench has been the primary means of creating genetic diversity for improvement. While considerable variation exists within S. bicolor, there are traits that could be improved if secondary and tertiary germplasm pools were accessible through hybridization. ...

  17. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  18. Preservation of potential fermentables in sweet sorghum by ensiling.

    PubMed

    Linden, J C; Henk, L L; Murphy, V G; Smith, D H; Gabrielsen, B C; Tengerdy, R P; Czako, L

    1987-11-01

    Pressed and wilted samples of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. Rio] were ensiled for periods up to 155 days. A kinetic study of the biochemical changes which occurred during ensiling showed that in wilted sorghum ensilage invert sugars and mannitol levels collectively were maintained at 65% of the original ferment able sugar content of the sorghum. The acidic environment produced by ensiling also served as a pretreatment that resulted in enhanced yields of reducing sugar when the sorghum was contacted with cellulolytic enzymes. The quantity of sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis more than compensated for carbohydrate used by organisms during the ensiling process. Both Saccharomyces uvarum and Clostridium acetobutylicum were able to ferment a medium constituted from pressed sorghum juice and the solution resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum ensilage.

  19. Screening of sorghum lines for resistance against sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) has emerged as the most significant threat to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production in the United States. Since 2013, discovery of aphid resistant germplasm has been a priority all stakeholders involved. We screened twenty three differen...

  20. The genes BM2 and BLMC that affect cuticle proper synthesis in sorghum are allelic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epicuticular waxes (EW) coat the aerial surfaces of the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) plant and have a role in the plants’ resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought, ultraviolet light, insects, and fungal pathogens. Mutants of the Bloomless 2 (BM2) locus, such as bm2-3, lack EW as well a...

  1. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  2. Heterosis and combining ability for yield components in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol....

  3. Evaluation of hybrid sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop for the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  4. Understanding genetic control of biotic stress resistance in sorghum for applied breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) improvement deals with development of new crop cultivars which are superior to existing cultivars for traits of interest like high yield, better quality, resistance to pests and diseases, and specific usability traits (Reddy et al 2011; Ashok Kumar et al 2013). ...

  5. Multi-seeded sorghum mutants as a novel trait to boost grain yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has highly branched panicles with primary, secondary, and tertiary branches. The flower branch ends with a terminal triplet spikelet, one sessile spikelet that is directly attached to the branch and two pedicellate spikelets that are attached to the branch through...

  6. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  7. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens fusarium thapsinum and macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots has been reported, even though these diseases pose serious constraints f...

  8. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance genes present in sorghum line SC112-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) affecting all aerial tissues of the plant. The most effective strategy for its control is the incorporation of resistance genes. Therefore, the anthracnose resistance response pr...

  9. Registration of N641 and N642 waxy Grain Sorghum Genetic Stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss-of-function mutations in the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) gene result in an endosperm with a waxy appearance and a near absence of amylose starch. waxy grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines, AN641, BN641, and RN642 (PI 672150 to PI 672152) were developed jointly by the USDA...

  10. Irrigation seedling rates, and row type effects on grain sorghum in the Midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops and may help reduce depletion of aquifers used by agriculture for irrigation. A study at Stoneville, MS, in 2012 and 2013 examined the effects of seeding rates (98 000, 148 000, 197 600, and 248 000 ...

  11. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  12. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  13. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin ...

  14. Crop rotation affects corn, grain sorghum, and soybean yields and nitrogen recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping system and fertilizer N studies are essential towards understanding production potential and yield stability of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in rain-fed environments. A no-till experiment (2007-13) was conduc...

  15. Registration of nine sorghum seed parent (A/B) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] A1 cyto plasmic-genic male sterile seed parent (A) and their maintainer (B) lines [KS 133A/B, KS 134A/B, KS 135A/B, KS 136A/B, KS 137A/B, KS 138A/B, KS 139A/B, KS 140A/B and KS 141A/B] were released by the Kansas State University, Agricultural Research Cent...

  16. SorghumFDB: sorghum functional genomics database with multidimensional network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; You, Qi; Zhang, Liwei; Yi, Xin; Yan, Hengyu; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) has excellent agronomic traits and biological properties, such as heat and drought-tolerance. It is a C4 grass and potential bioenergy-producing plant, which makes it an important crop worldwide. With the sorghum genome sequence released, it is essential to establish a sorghum functional genomics data mining platform. We collected genomic data and some functional annotations to construct a sorghum functional genomics database (SorghumFDB). SorghumFDB integrated knowledge of sorghum gene family classifications (transcription regulators/factors, carbohydrate-active enzymes, protein kinases, ubiquitins, cytochrome P450, monolignol biosynthesis related enzymes, R-genes and organelle-genes), detailed gene annotations, miRNA and target gene information, orthologous pairs in the model plants Arabidopsis, rice and maize, gene loci conversions and a genome browser. We further constructed a dynamic network of multidimensional biological relationships, comprised of the co-expression data, protein–protein interactions and miRNA-target pairs. We took effective measures to combine the network, gene set enrichment and motif analyses to determine the key regulators that participate in related metabolic pathways, such as the lignin pathway, which is a major biological process in bioenergy-producing plants. Database URL: http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/sorghum/index.html. PMID:27352859

  17. Evaluation of sorghum starch as a tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A V; Panya, L B

    1987-06-01

    The starch prepared from the seeds of Sorghum bicolor, Moench has been evaluated as a disintegrant and binder in tablets of magnesium sulphate, calcium carbonate, sulphadimidine, and chloroquine phosphate to represent soluble and insoluble inorganic and organic substances. The starch performed as well as maize starch in binding and disintegrating properties and better than acacia as binder.

  18. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    SciTech Connect

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  19. Characterization of a multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum that displays significant enhancement in seed number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars and germplasm display branched inflorescence or panicle, characterized by spikelets composed of a single sessile, fertile floret that develop into viable seed and one or two adjacent sterile pedicellate florets (Monoseeded [MSD] trait). Based on total nu...

  20. Registration of sorghum germplasm Tx3408 and Tx3409 with tolerance to sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis saccari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) germplasm lines Tx3408 and Tx3409 were developed and released from Texas A&M AgriLife Research and the USDA-ARS in 2015. Both of these lines were developed from intentional crosses using the pedigree method of plant breeding. The breeding crosses for these l...

  1. Flag leaf photosynthesis and stomatal function of grain sorghum as influenced by changing photosynthetic photon flux densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on physiological parameters of A, gs, Em, Ci, and IWUE in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is limited. Flag leaves from three plants of two hybrids, grown using added N fertilizer rates of 0.0, 112, and 224 kg ha-1 near Elizabeth, MS were field sampled for these parameters at growth s...

  2. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  3. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Hugo E.; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P.; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Hash, C. Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from “converted” sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the “FT” family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense (“Johnsongrass”), one of the world’s most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 − 6). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops. PMID:27335143

  4. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops.

  5. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from transgenic provitamin A biofortified sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; De Moura, Fabiana F; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Albertsen, Marc C; Che, Ping; Glassman, Kimberly; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-06-19

    Biofortified sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) lines are being developed to target vitamin A deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, but the delivery of provitamin A carotenoids from such diverse germplasms has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to screen vectors and independent transgenic events for the bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids using an in vitro digestion model. The germplasm background and transgenic sorghum contained 1.0-1.5 and 3.3-14.0 μg/g β-carotene equivalents on a dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Test porridges made from milled transgenic sorghum contained up to 250 μg of β-carotene equivalents per 100 g of porridge on a fresh weight basis (FW). Micellarization efficiency of all-trans-β-carotene was lower (p < 0.05) from transgenic sorghum (1-5%) than from null/nontransgenic sorghum (6-11%) but not different between vector constructs. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was significantly improved (p < 0.05) by increasing the amount of coformulated lipid in test porridges from 5% w/w to 10% w/w. Transgenic sorghum event Homo188-A contained the greatest bioaccessible β-carotene content, with a 4-8-fold increase from null/nontransgenic sorghum. While the bioavailability and bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids from these grains must be confirmed in vivo, these data support the notion that biofortification of sorghum can enhance total and bioaccessible provitamin A carotenoid levels.

  6. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  7. Registration of BN611, A/BN612, RN613 Sorghum Genetic Stocks with Stacked bmr-6 and bmr-12 Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genetic stocks, BN611, A/BN612, and RN613, with stacked brown midrib genes bmr-6 and bmr-12 were developed jointly by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, and were rele...

  8. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  9. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  10. Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

  11. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  12. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests.

  13. Population genetics structure of glyphosate-resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers) does not support a single origin of the resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; de Haro, Luis Alejandro; Distefano, Ana J; Carolina Martínez, Maria; Lía, Verónica; Papa, Juan C; Olea, Ignacio; Tosto, Daniela; Esteban Hopp, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Single sequence repeats (SSR) developed for Sorghum bicolor were used to characterize the genetic distance of 46 different Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) accessions from Argentina some of which have evolved toward glyphosate resistance. Since Johnsongrass is an allotetraploid and only one subgenome is homologous to cultivated sorghum, some SSR loci amplified up to two alleles while others (presumably more conserved loci) amplified up to four alleles. Twelve SSR providing information of 24 loci representative of Johnsongrass genome were selected for genetic distance characterization. All of them were highly polymorphic, which was evidenced by the number of different alleles found in the samples studied, in some of them up to 20. UPGMA and Mantel analysis showed that Johnsongrass glyphosate-resistant accessions that belong to different geographic regions do not share similar genetic backgrounds. In contrast, they show closer similarity to their neighboring susceptible counterparts. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components using the clusters identified by K-means support the lack of a clear pattern of association among samples and resistance status or province of origin. Consequently, these results do not support a single genetic origin of glyphosate resistance. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene from glyphosate-resistant and susceptible accessions collected from different geographic origins showed that none presented expected mutations in aminoacid positions 101 and 106 which are diagnostic of target-site resistance mechanism. PMID:24223277

  14. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  15. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 107 spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition. PMID:24031807

  16. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    PubMed

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  17. Variability of non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobin genes from the genome of cultivated monocots

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) hemoglobins (Hbs) have been detected in a variety of land plants. The evolution of land plant nsHbs and tHbs at the protein level is well documented; however, little is known about the evolution of genes coding for these proteins. For example, the variability of the land plant nshb and thb genes is not known. Here, we report the variability of the nshb and thb genes from the genome of the cultivated monocots Brachypodium distachyon, Hordeum vulgare (barley), Oryza glaberrima (rice), O. rufipogon (rice), O. sativa (rice) var indica, O. sativa (rice) var japonica, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Setaria italica (foxtail millet), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), and Zea mays ssp. mays (maize) using sequence comparison and computational methods. Our results revealed that in cultivated monocots variability is higher in nshbs than in thbs, and suggest that major substitution events that occurred during the evolution of the cultivated monocot hbs were A→G and T→C transitions and that these genes evolved under the effect of neutral selection. PMID:24563718

  18. Variability of non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobin genes from the genome of cultivated monocots.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    Non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) hemoglobins (Hbs) have been detected in a variety of land plants. The evolution of land plant nsHbs and tHbs at the protein level is well documented; however, little is known about the evolution of genes coding for these proteins. For example, the variability of the land plant nshb and thb genes is not known. Here, we report the variability of the nshb and thb genes from the genome of the cultivated monocots Brachypodium distachyon, Hordeum vulgare (barley), Oryza glaberrima (rice), O. rufipogon (rice), O. sativa (rice) var indica, O. sativa (rice) var japonica, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Setaria italica (foxtail millet), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), and Zea mays ssp. mays (maize) using sequence comparison and computational methods. Our results revealed that in cultivated monocots variability is higher in nshbs than in thbs, and suggest that major substitution events that occurred during the evolution of the cultivated monocot hbs were A→G and T→C transitions and that these genes evolved under the effect of neutral selection.

  19. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  20. Morpho-physiological and proteome level responses to cadmium stress in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potentiality associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the pro...

  1. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  2. Cloning and expression analyses of Sucrose non-fermenting-1-Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm, and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench) L.]. Multiple sequence alignment data show...

  3. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  4. Molecular characterization and In silico analysis of Sorghum Panallergens: Profilin and Polcalin.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, B Chandra; Sachin, Ch; Raman, B V; Bondili, J S

    2015-11-01

    In India, 20-30% of the human population suffer from allergic rhinitis and 15% of them develop asthma. Plant pollens are one of the causative aeroallergens and are mixture of a number of molecules including major and minor allergens (Panallergens). Profilin and polcalcin are the known pollen specific panallergens. Allergenicity of the Sorghum plant in Andhra Pradesh was found to be 54.9%. But the allergens responsible have not been characterized well. This study highlights identification and molecular characterization of Sorghum bicolor profilin (Sorb PF) and S. bicolor polcalcin (Sorb PC) allergen genes based on homology. The coding sequences of the two genes were PCR amplified from the cDNA constructed from Sorghum pollen total RNA. The gene sequences were deposited in NCBI, KC427126 and KC427125. Recombinantly expressed histidine tag (His-tag) purified Sorghum polcalcin and profilin confirmed 9 and 14 kDa proteins, respectively. Based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, Sorghum polcalcin and profilin were found to be closely related with Cynodon dactylon, Phleum pratense and Oryza sativa grass species. In silico Algpred based screening of SorbPF and SorbPC showed an allergenicity score of 1.149 and 0.879, respectively. The structure of two Ef-hand sequences (DTNGDGKISLSEL and DTDGDGFIDFNEF) of SorbPC showed an exact match with Phlp7. It is concluded that Sorghum recombinant profilin and polcalcin proteins can be of potential use in developing diagnostic kits for allergenicity to Sorghum pollen grains.

  5. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    1) Vermerris W, Saballos A (2012) Genetic enhancement of sorghum for biomass utilization. In Paterson, A. (Ed.) Genetics and Genomics of the Saccharinae, Springer, New York, NY. pp. 391-428. 2) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2012) QTLs for energy-related traits in a sweet x grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] mapping population. Crop Science 52: 2040-2049. 3) Sattler SE, Palmer NA, Saballos A, Greene AM, Xin Z, Sarath G, Vermerris W, Pedersen JF (2012) Identification and characterization of four missense mutations in Brown midrib12 (Bmr12), the caffeic acid O-methyltranferase (COMT) of sorghum. BioEnergy Research (in press) DOI 10.1007/s12155-012-9197-z 4) Saballos A, Sattler S, Sanchez E, Foster TP, Xin Z, Kang CH, Pedersen J, Vermerris W (2012). Brown midrib2 encodes the major 4-coumarate:CoA ligase involved in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The Plant Journal 70: 818-830. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04933. 5) Vermerris, W (2011) Survey of genomics approaches to improve bioenergy traits in maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53: 105-119 6) Saballos A, Ejeta G, Sanchez E, Kang CH, Vermerris W (2009) A genome-wide analysis of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] identifies SbCAD2 as the Brown midrib6 gene. Genetics 181: 783-795. 7) Saballos A, Vermerris W, Rivera L, Ejeta G (2008) Allelic association, chemical characterization and saccharification properties of brown midrib mutants of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). BioEnergy Research 2: 193-204 8) Felderhoff TJ. (2012) QTLs for energy related traits in a sweet x grain RIL sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] population. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Publications in preparation (tentative titles) 9) Felderhoff T, Murray SC, Klein PE, Sharma A, Hamblin MT, Kresovich S, Vermerris W, Rooney, WL (2013) QTLs for biomass and juice

  6. Registration of N619 to N640 grain sorghum lines with waxy or wild-type endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines A N619 to A N636 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670134 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670151); B N619 to B N636 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 671777 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 671794); and R N637 to R N640 (Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670152 to Reg. No. GS-XXX, PI 670155) comprise nine pairs of...

  7. Novel Sources of Witchweed (Striga) Resistance from Wild Sorghum Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Mbuvi, Dorothy A.; Masiga, Clet W.; Kuria, Eric; Masanga, Joel; Wamalwa, Mark; Mohamed, Abdallah; Odeny, Damaris A.; Hamza, Nada; Timko, Michael P.; Runo, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but its production is constrained by the parasitic plant Striga that attaches to the roots of many cereals crops and causes severe stunting and loss of yield. Away from cultivated farmland, wild sorghum accessions grow as weedy plants and have shown remarkable immunity to Striga. We sought to determine the extent of the resistance to Striga in wild sorghum plants. Our screening strategy involved controlled laboratory assays of rhizotrons, where we artificially infected sorghum with Striga, as well as field experiments at three sites, where we grew sorghum with a natural Striga infestation. We tested the resistance response of seven accessions of wild sorghum of the aethiopicum, drummondii, and arundinaceum races against N13, which is a cultivated Striga resistant landrace. The susceptible control was farmer-preferred variety, Ochuti. From the laboratory experiments, we found three wild sorghum accessions (WSA-1, WSE-1, and WSA-2) that had significantly higher resistance than N13. These accessions had the lowest Striga biomass and the fewest and smallest Striga attached to them. Further microscopic and histological analysis of attached Striga haustorium showed that wild sorghum accessions hindered the ingression of Striga haustorium into the host endodermis. In one of the resistant accessions (WSE-1), host and parasite interaction led to the accumulation of large amounts of secondary metabolites that formed a dark coloration at the interphase. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory screening experiments in that these same accessions were found to have resistance against Striga. In the field, wild sorghum had low Area under the Striga Number Progressive curve (AUSNPC), which measures emergence of Striga from a host over time. We concluded that wild sorghum accessions are an important reservoir for Striga resistance that could be used to expand the genetic basis of cultivated sorghum for resistance to the

  8. Effects of crop rotation, tillage, and fertilizer applications on sorghum head insects.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Matocha, John E

    2007-02-01

    Rotations, tillage, and fertilizer treatments can affect yield, costs, and profitability in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depending on their effects on pests. Rotation or planting different crops reduces soil erosion and pests that build up when a field is planted to the same crop each year. Minimum tillage reduces the number of trips over a field, lessening soil compaction and reducing costs. We examined the effects of fertilizer, tillage, and rotation with cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sorghum head insects during three sampling periods each year from 2000 to 2003. We found that fertilizer treatments did not affect pests or predators. Also, predators were unaffected by rotation and tillage, which some years affected Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Oebalus pugnax (F.), both pests that feed on developing sorghum kernels, thereby reducing yield. In 2000, H. zea densities were greater in continuous sorghum, regardless of tillage practice, than in sorghum-cotton rotation. However, in 2003, H. zea densities were greater in minimum tillage plots within sorghum- cotton rotation than minimum tillage plots within continuous sorghum. In 2000, in sorghum- cotton rotation, O. pugnax densities were greater in minimum tillage than conventional tillage plots, whereas in continuous sorghum the opposite was true, O. pugnax were greater in conventional tillage. Also, O. pugnax were greater in sorghum- cotton rotation than in continuous sorghum. In 2002, O. pugnax densities were greater in conventional than minimum tillage plots. These results suggest that rotation of sorghum with cotton can sometimes reduce H. zea, but this reduction may occur with increased density of O. pugnax. Also, reducing tillage may reduce O. pugnax in some instances.

  9. Targeted expression of SbMATE in the root distal transition zone is responsible for sorghum aluminum resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for crop production on acid soils that comprise significant portions of the world’s lands. Al resistance in the cereal crop, Sorghum bicolor, is mainly achieved by Al-activated root apical citrate exudation, which is mediated by the plasma ...

  10. Natural variation in synthesis and catabolism genes influences dhurrin content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in over 1,000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucos...

  11. Oxidative enzyme changes in sorghum infested by shoot fly.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.

  12. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  13. Impacts of climate change on sorghum productivity in India: Simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Gangadhar Rao, D.; Katyal, J.C.; Sinha, S.K.; Srinivas, K.

    1995-12-31

    An attempt was made to assess the impact of climate change on the crop productivity of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in India. Climate change scenarios were projected for three sorghum growing areas in India using three global climate models (GCMs) namely; Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS), Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and United Kingdom Meteorology Office (UKMO). The three diverse sorghum growing areas selected were Hyderabad, Akola, and Solapur. In the first two regions sorghum is grown in the rainy season, whereas in the third region it is grown in the post rainy season. Crop growth was simulated using the CERES-sorghum simulation model with climate change scenarios generated by the GCMs. The simulations were run with and without the direct effects of doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, under dryland, low N conditions, and under nonlimiting water and nutrient conditions. The simulated results indicated a decrease in yield and biomass of rainy season sorghum at Hyderabad and Akola under all climate change scenarios. Post rainy season sorghum grown at Solapur on stored soil water showed a marginal increase in yield. The positive effects of increased CO{sub 2}, if any, were masked by the adverse effects of predicted increase in temperature resulting in shortened crop growing seasons.

  14. Influence of Weather on the Predicted Moisture Content of Field Chopped EnergySorghum and Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, Michael P.; Searcy, Stephen S.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Smartt, James B.; Cahill, Nathanial E.

    2015-03-25

    To determine the effects of weather on harvested moisture content (MC) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), tracking of harvest progress on individual fields in the Integrated Biomass Supply and Logistics (IBSAL) model was modified to allow: i) rewetting of swathed material in the drying formulae; and ii) field queuing rules based on equipment availability and weather. Estimated crop yield and initial MC by harvest date, as observed in field trials, along with the modeling of different delays between mowing and harvest allowed estimation of harvested MC, annual tonnage processed and associated processing cost differences by crop and location over 10 years. Extending the hours of annual equipment use had minor implications on cost of production. Energy sorghum proved difficult to dry in the field. Its higher yield, leading to shorter supply distance to the plant, may justify harvesting of energy sorghum early in the season with drier weather. Lastly, later harvest for lower-yielding switchgrass offers MC advantages.

  15. Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    2001-01-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  16. Global transcriptome analysis reveals distinct expression among duplicated genes during sorghum-interaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a rich source of natural phytochemicals. We performed massive parallel sequencing of mRNA to identify differentially expressed genes after sorghum BTx623 had been infected with Bipolaris sorghicola, a necrotrophic fungus causing a sorghum disease called target leaf spot. Result Seventy-six-base-pair reads from mRNAs of mock- or pathogen-infected leaves were sequenced. Unannotated transcripts were predicted on the basis of the piling-up of mapped short reads. Differentially expressed genes were identified statistically; particular genes in tandemly duplicated putative paralogs were highly upregulated. Pathogen infection activated the glyoxylate shunt in the TCA cycle; this changes the role of the TCA cycle from energy production to synthesis of cell components. The secondary metabolic pathways of phytoalexin synthesis and of sulfur-dependent detoxification were activated by upregulation of the genes encoding amino acid metabolizing enzymes located at the branch point between primary and secondary metabolism. Coordinated gene expression could guide the metabolic pathway for accumulation of the sorghum-specific phytochemicals 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and dhurrin. Key enzymes for synthesizing these sorghum-specific phytochemicals were not found in the corresponding region of the rice genome. Conclusion Pathogen infection dramatically changed the expression of particular paralogs that putatively encode enzymes involved in the sorghum-specific metabolic network. PMID:22838966

  17. A Sorghum Mutant Resource as an Efficient Platform for Gene Discovery in Grasses[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John; Chen, Junping; Wang, Bo; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a versatile C4 crop and a model for research in family Poaceae. High-quality genome sequence is available for the elite inbred line BTx623, but functional validation of genes remains challenging due to the limited genomic and germplasm resources available for comprehensive analysis of induced mutations. In this study, we generated 6400 pedigreed M4 mutant pools from EMS-mutagenized BTx623 seeds through single-seed descent. Whole-genome sequencing of 256 phenotyped mutant lines revealed >1.8 million canonical EMS-induced mutations, affecting >95% of genes in the sorghum genome. The vast majority (97.5%) of the induced mutations were distinct from natural variations. To demonstrate the utility of the sequenced sorghum mutant resource, we performed reverse genetics to identify eight genes potentially affecting drought tolerance, three of which had allelic mutations and two of which exhibited exact cosegregation with the phenotype of interest. Our results establish that a large-scale resource of sequenced pedigreed mutants provides an efficient platform for functional validation of genes in sorghum, thereby accelerating sorghum breeding. Moreover, findings made in sorghum could be readily translated to other members of the Poaceae via integrated genomics approaches. PMID:27354556

  18. A Sorghum Mutant Resource as an Efficient Platform for Gene Discovery in Grasses.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Burke, John; Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Chen, Junping; Wang, Bo; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves; Ware, Doreen; Xin, Zhanguo

    2016-07-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a versatile C4 crop and a model for research in family Poaceae. High-quality genome sequence is available for the elite inbred line BTx623, but functional validation of genes remains challenging due to the limited genomic and germplasm resources available for comprehensive analysis of induced mutations. In this study, we generated 6400 pedigreed M4 mutant pools from EMS-mutagenized BTx623 seeds through single-seed descent. Whole-genome sequencing of 256 phenotyped mutant lines revealed >1.8 million canonical EMS-induced mutations, affecting >95% of genes in the sorghum genome. The vast majority (97.5%) of the induced mutations were distinct from natural variations. To demonstrate the utility of the sequenced sorghum mutant resource, we performed reverse genetics to identify eight genes potentially affecting drought tolerance, three of which had allelic mutations and two of which exhibited exact cosegregation with the phenotype of interest. Our results establish that a large-scale resource of sequenced pedigreed mutants provides an efficient platform for functional validation of genes in sorghum, thereby accelerating sorghum breeding. Moreover, findings made in sorghum could be readily translated to other members of the Poaceae via integrated genomics approaches.

  19. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses.

  20. Fine mapping of qGW1, a major QTL for grain weight in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijie; Chen, Jun; Mace, Emma S; Liu, Yishan; Zhu, Mengjiao; Yuyama, Nana; Jordan, David R; Cai, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    We detected seven QTLs for 100-grain weight in sorghum using an F 2 population, and delimited qGW1 to a 101-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 1, which contained 13 putative genes. Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops. Breeding high-yielding sorghum varieties will have a profound impact on global food security. Grain weight is an important component of grain yield. It is a quantitative trait controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs); however, the genetic basis of grain weight in sorghum is not well understood. In the present study, using an F2 population derived from a cross between the grain sorghum variety SA2313 (Sorghum bicolor) and the Sudan-grass variety Hiro-1 (S. bicolor), we detected seven QTLs for 100-grain weight. One of them, qGW1, was detected consistently over 2 years and contributed between 20 and 40 % of the phenotypic variation across multiple genetic backgrounds. Using extreme recombinants from a fine-mapping F3 population, we delimited qGW1 to a 101-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 1, containing 13 predicted gene models, one of which was found to be under purifying selection during domestication. However, none of the grain size candidate genes shared sequence similarity with previously cloned grain weight-related genes from rice. This study will facilitate isolation of the gene underlying qGW1 and advance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of grain weight. SSR markers linked to the qGW1 locus can be used for improving sorghum grain yield through marker-assisted selection.

  1. Systemic regulation of photosynthetic function in field-grown sorghum.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yujun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuangdao

    2015-09-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of developing leaves of plants grown under artificial conditions are, to some extent, regulated systemically by mature leaves; however, whether systemic regulation of photosynthesis occurs in field-grown crops is unclear. To explore this question, we investigated the effects of planting density on growth characteristics, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence in field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Our results showed that close planting resulted in a marked decline in light intensity in lower canopy. Sorghum plants grown at a high planting density had lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown at a low planting density. Moreover, in the absence of mineral deficiency, close planting induced a slight increase in leaf nitrogen concentration. The decreased photosynthesis in leaves of the lower canopy at high planting density was caused mainly by the low light. However, newly developed leaves exposed to high light in the upper canopy of plants grown at high planting density also exhibited a distinct decline in photosynthesis relative to plants grown at low planting density. Based on these results, the photosynthetic function of the newly developed leaves in the upper canopy was not determined fully by their own high light environment. Accordingly, we suggest that the photosynthetic function of newly developed leaves in the upper canopy of field-grown sorghum plants is regulated systemically by the lower canopy leaves. The differences in systemic regulation of photosynthesis were also discussed between field conditions and artificial conditions.

  2. Sorghum and Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum and maize are closely related cereal grains grown throughout the world. Sorghum, a drought tolerant crop grown in semi-arid regions, is a basic food staple in many parts of the developing world, while primarily an animal feed in western countries. Maize, a major worldwide crop, is used for...

  3. Correlation and path analysis of biomass sorghum production.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, T P S; Barelli, M A A; Castrillon, M A S; da Silva, R S; de Oliveira, F T; Corrêa, C L; Zago, B W; Tardin, F D

    2016-12-23

    Sorghum biomass is an interesting raw material for bioenergy production due to its versatility, potential of being a renewable energy source, and low-cost of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of biomass sorghum genotypes and to estimate genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations, and direct and indirect effects of seven agronomic traits through path analysis. Thirty-four biomass sorghum genotypes and two forage sorghum genotypes were cultivated in a randomized block design with three replicates. The following morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated: flowering date, stem diameter, number of stems, plant height, number of leaves, green mass production, and dry matter production. There were significant differences at the 1% level for all traits. The highest genotypic correlation was found between the traits green mass production and dry matter production. The path analysis demonstrated that green mass production and number of leaves can assist in the selection of dry matter production.

  4. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  5. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  6. Opportunistic spawning of tropical anguillid eels Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Takaomi; Abdul Kadir, Siti Raudah

    2017-01-01

    Information on the spawning migration, spawning ecology and life history of tropical eels in the Indo-Pacific region is very limited. The physiological and morphological characteristics of tropical freshwater eels, Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis collected in Malaysia were examined in relation to their downstream migration patterns. A total of 455 eels were collected over monthly intervals between February 2014 and January 2016 and we examined both gonadosomatic index and gonad histology features. In both species, close positive relationships between advanced maturation stages and eye, fin, gonadosomatic indexes were found in males and females. A. bengalensis bengalensis was found to be larger and heavier than A. bicolor bicolor at the time of seaward migration. The final stage of maturation for seaward spawning migration occurred throughout the year in A. bicolor bicolor, although that of A. bengalensis bengalensis was estimated to six months due to the limited number of samples. These results suggest that year-round spawning in the open ocean occurs in the tropical eel. This non-seasonal spawning ecology is notably different from that of temperate eels, which are known to follow a well-defined spawning season, with spawning migrations generally taking place during autumn months. PMID:28134305

  7. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, Zachary W.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Mathew T.; Boyles, Richard E.; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J.; Rauh, Bradley L.; Bridges, William C.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production

  8. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Brenton, Zachary W; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Myers, Mathew T; Boyles, Richard E; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J; Rauh, Bradley L; Bridges, William C; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production.

  9. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  10. Sorghum DW1 positively regulates brassinosteroid signaling by inhibiting the nuclear localization of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ko; Kawamura, Mayuko; Araki-Nakamura, Satoko; Fujimoto, Haruka; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Miki; Fujii, Akihiro; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sazuka, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    Semi-dwarf traits have been widely introgressed into cereal crops to improve lodging resistance. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), four major unlinked dwarfing genes, Dw1-Dw4, have been introduced to reduce plant height, and among them, Dw3 and Dw1 have been cloned. Dw3 encodes a gene involved in auxin transport, whereas, Dw1 was recently isolated and identified as a gene encoding a protein of unknown function. In this study, we show that DW1 is a novel component of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sorghum possessing the mutated allele of Dw1 (dw1), showed similar phenotypes to rice BR-deficient mutants, such as reduced lamina joint bending, attenuated skotomorphogenesis, and insensitivity against feedback regulation of BR-related genes. Furthermore, DW1 interacted with a negative regulator of BR signaling, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), and inhibited its nuclear localization, indicating that DW1 positively regulates BR signaling by inhibiting the function of BIN2. In contrast to rice and wheat breeding which used gibberellin (GA) deficiency to reduce plant height, sorghum breeding modified auxin and BR signaling. This difference may result from GA deficiency in rice and wheat does not cause deleterious side effects on plant morphology, whereas in sorghum it leads to abnormal culm bending.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed microRNA in the stems and leaves during sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huilin; Cong, Ling; Zhu, Zhenxing; Wang, Chunyu; Zou, Jianqiu; Tao, Chengguang; Shi, Zhensheng; Lu, Xiaochun

    2015-10-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in plant development, growth and stress response. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important source of bioenergy due to the high sugar content in its stems. However, it is not clear how the miRNA is involved in sugar accumulation in sorghum stems. In order to identify the miRNAs in the stems and the leaves of sweet sorghum, we extracted RNAs of the stems and leaves of sweet sorghum (Rio) and grain sorghum (BTx623) at the heading and dough stages for high-throughput sequencing. A total of 179279048 reads were obtained from Illumina-based sequencing. Further analysis identified nine known miRNAs and twelve novel miRNAs that showed significantly and specifically differentially expressed in the stems of sweet sorghum. The target genes of the differentially expressed novel miRNAs include the transcription factor, glucosyltransferase, protein kinase, cytochrome P450, transporters etc. GO enrichment analysis showed that the predicted targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs participated in diverse physiological and metabolic processes. We performed RT-qRCR analysis on these miRNAs across eight different libraries to validate the miRNAs. Finally, we screened stem-specifically expressed novel miRNA and a leaf-specifically expressed novel miRNA in sweet sorghum comparing with grain sorghum. Our results provide a basis for further investigation of the potential role of these individual miRNAs in sugar accumulation.

  12. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Sorghum and Bipolaris sorghicola by using RNA-seq in combination with de novo transcriptome assembly.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Takayuki; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has enabled us to analyze the transcriptomes of plants and their pathogens simultaneously. However, RNA-seq often relies on aligning reads to a reference genome and is thus unsuitable for analyzing most plant pathogens, as their genomes have not been fully sequenced. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its pathogen Bipolaris sorghicola simultaneously by using RNA-seq in combination with de novo transcriptome assembly. We sequenced the mixed transcriptome of the disease-resistant sorghum cultivar SIL-05 and B. sorghicola in infected leaves in the early stages of infection (12 and 24 h post-inoculation) by using Illumina mRNA-Seq technology. Sorghum gene expression was quantified by aligning reads to the sorghum reference genome. For B. sorghicola, reads that could not be aligned to the sorghum reference genome were subjected to de novo transcriptome assembly. We identified genes of B. sorghicola for growth of this fungus in sorghum, as well as genes in sorghum for the defense response. The genes of B. sorghicola included those encoding Woronin body major protein, LysM domain-containing intracellular hyphae protein, transcriptional factors CpcA and HacA, and plant cell-wall degrading enzymes. The sorghum genes included those encoding two receptors of the simple eLRR domain protein family, transcription factors that are putative orthologs of OsWRKY45 and OsWRKY28 in rice, and a class III peroxidase that is a homolog involved in disease resistance in the Poaceae. These defense-related genes were particularly strongly induced among paralogs annotated in the sorghum genome. Thus, in the absence of genome sequences for the pathogen, simultaneous transcriptome analysis of plant and pathogen by using de novo assembly was useful for identifying putative key genes in the plant-pathogen interaction.

  13. Simultaneous Transcriptome Analysis of Sorghum and Bipolaris sorghicola by Using RNA-seq in Combination with De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takayuki; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has enabled us to analyze the transcriptomes of plants and their pathogens simultaneously. However, RNA-seq often relies on aligning reads to a reference genome and is thus unsuitable for analyzing most plant pathogens, as their genomes have not been fully sequenced. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its pathogen Bipolaris sorghicola simultaneously by using RNA-seq in combination with de novo transcriptome assembly. We sequenced the mixed transcriptome of the disease-resistant sorghum cultivar SIL-05 and B. sorghicola in infected leaves in the early stages of infection (12 and 24 h post-inoculation) by using Illumina mRNA-Seq technology. Sorghum gene expression was quantified by aligning reads to the sorghum reference genome. For B. sorghicola, reads that could not be aligned to the sorghum reference genome were subjected to de novo transcriptome assembly. We identified genes of B. sorghicola for growth of this fungus in sorghum, as well as genes in sorghum for the defense response. The genes of B. sorghicola included those encoding Woronin body major protein, LysM domain-containing intracellular hyphae protein, transcriptional factors CpcA and HacA, and plant cell-wall degrading enzymes. The sorghum genes included those encoding two receptors of the simple eLRR domain protein family, transcription factors that are putative orthologs of OsWRKY45 and OsWRKY28 in rice, and a class III peroxidase that is a homolog involved in disease resistance in the Poaceae. These defense-related genes were particularly strongly induced among paralogs annotated in the sorghum genome. Thus, in the absence of genome sequences for the pathogen, simultaneous transcriptome analysis of plant and pathogen by using de novo assembly was useful for identifying putative key genes in the plant–pathogen interaction. PMID:23638091

  14. Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ramu, Punna; Deshpande, Santosh; Hash, C. Tom; Bonnette, Jason; Juenger, Thomas E.; Hyma, Katie; Acharya, Charlotte; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Buckler, Edward S.; Brenton, Zachary; Kresovich, Stephen; Morris, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these could be used to predict phenotypic variation for adaptive traits. We tested this proposition in the global food crop Sorghum bicolor, characterizing 1943 georeferenced landraces at 404,627 SNPs and quantifying allelic associations with bioclimatic and soil gradients. Environment explained a substantial portion of SNP variation, independent of geographical distance, and genic SNPs were enriched for environmental associations. Further, environment-associated SNPs predicted genotype-by-environment interactions under experimental drought stress and aluminum toxicity. Our results suggest that genomic signatures of environmental adaptation may be useful for crop improvement, enhancing germplasm identification and marker-assisted selection. Together, genome-environment associations and phenotypic analyses may reveal the basis of environmental adaptation. PMID:26601206

  15. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827.

  16. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World's Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-03-30

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered.

  17. Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

    2014-11-27

    Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'.

  18. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Natalie H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2013-12-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentrations of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism. Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20% PEG (-0.5 MPa) for an extended period had significantly higher concentrations of dhurrin in their shoots but lower dhurrin concentrations in their roots. The total amount of dhurrin in the shoots of plants from the various treatments was not significantly different on a per mass basis, although a greater proportion of shoot N was allocated to dhurrin. Following transfer from medium containing 20% PEG to medium lacking PEG, shoot dhurrin concentrations decreased but nitrate concentrations increased to levels potentially toxic to grazing ruminants. This response is likely due to the resumption of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress.

  19. Effect of epicuticular wax on UV scattering of sorghum leaves and canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawhey, Cheryl I.; Grant, Richard H.

    2003-11-01

    Sorghum bicolor is grown in equatorial regions that have naturally high ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposures. To determine whether the increased wax production on the sorghum leaves and sheaths protects the plant by increased scattered radiation from the plant surface, the effects of wax amount on UVB reflectances were examined in greenhouse and field experiments involving three isolines of sorghum -- wild-type and two wax mutants. Reflectance of the wild-type sheath was found to be a result of the wax present while that on the mutant sheaths was not dependent on wax amount. Overhead UVB exposure corresponded with reduced sheath and increased leaf UVB reflectance for wild-type but negligible changes in both sheath and leaf reflectance for the two mutants. Although the sheath reflectances of wild-type were twice that of the two mutants, the negligible difference in leaf reflectance between isolines resulted in negligible differences in the canopy bi-directional reflectance, even at high view angles. The UVA canopy reflectance factors of the three sorghum isolines were measured at 0.03 at viewing angles near nadir on clear sky days. Predicted reflectance factors were calculated using the SAIL model then compared with the measured reflectance factors to evaluate the effect of sky diffuse fraction on the measured differences.

  20. Influence of Weather on the Predicted Moisture Content of Field Chopped EnergySorghum and Switchgrass

    DOE PAGES

    Popp, Michael P.; Searcy, Stephen S.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; ...

    2015-03-25

    To determine the effects of weather on harvested moisture content (MC) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), tracking of harvest progress on individual fields in the Integrated Biomass Supply and Logistics (IBSAL) model was modified to allow: i) rewetting of swathed material in the drying formulae; and ii) field queuing rules based on equipment availability and weather. Estimated crop yield and initial MC by harvest date, as observed in field trials, along with the modeling of different delays between mowing and harvest allowed estimation of harvested MC, annual tonnage processed and associated processing cost differences by cropmore » and location over 10 years. Extending the hours of annual equipment use had minor implications on cost of production. Energy sorghum proved difficult to dry in the field. Its higher yield, leading to shorter supply distance to the plant, may justify harvesting of energy sorghum early in the season with drier weather. Lastly, later harvest for lower-yielding switchgrass offers MC advantages.« less

  1. Whole-genome sequencing reveals untapped genetic potential in Africa’s indigenous cereal crop sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emma S.; Tai, Shuaishuai; Gilding, Edward K.; Li, Yanhong; Prentis, Peter J.; Bian, Lianle; Campbell, Bradley C.; Hu, Wushu; Innes, David J.; Han, Xuelian; Cruickshank, Alan; Dai, Changming; Frère, Céline; Zhang, Haikuan; Hunt, Colleen H.; Wang, Xianyuan; Shatte, Tracey; Wang, Miao; Su, Zhe; Li, Jun; Lin, Xiaozhen; Godwin, Ian D.; Jordan, David R.; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum is a food and feed cereal crop adapted to heat and drought and a staple for 500 million of the world’s poorest people. Its small diploid genome and phenotypic diversity make it an ideal C4 grass model as a complement to C3 rice. Here we present high coverage (16–45 × ) resequenced genomes of 44 sorghum lines representing the primary gene pool and spanning dimensions of geographic origin, end-use and taxonomic group. We also report the first resequenced genome of S. propinquum, identifying 8 M high-quality SNPs, 1.9 M indels and specific gene loss and gain events in S. bicolor. We observe strong racial structure and a complex domestication history involving at least two distinct domestication events. These assembled genomes enable the leveraging of existing cereal functional genomics data against the novel diversity available in sorghum, providing an unmatched resource for the genetic improvement of sorghum and other grass species. PMID:23982223

  2. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE PAGES

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; ...

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  3. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Ricky J.; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Patrick, John W.; Grof, Christopher P. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences. PMID:23805151

  4. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Milne, Ricky J; Byrt, Caitlin S; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  5. Characterization of novel Sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Scott E; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Overall, most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  6. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  7. Genome-wide analysis of WOX gene family in rice, sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis and poplar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zong, Jie; Liu, Jianhua; Yin, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-11-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) genes form a large gene family specifically expressed in plants. They are known to play important roles in regulating the development of plant tissues and organs by determining cell fate. Recent available whole genome sequences allow us to do more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the WOX genes in plants. In the present study, we identified 11 and 21 WOXs from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and maize (Zea mays), respectively. The 72 WOX genes from rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum, maize, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) were grouped into three well supported clades with nine subgroups according to the amino acid sequences of their homodomains. Their phylogenetic relationship was also supported by the observation of the motifs outside the homodomain. We observed the variation of duplication events among the nine sub-groups between monocots and eudicots, for instance, more gene duplication events of WOXs within subgroup A for monocots, while, less for dicots in this subgroup. Furthermore, we observed the conserved intron/exon structural patterns of WOX genes in rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis. In addition, WUS (Wuschel)-box and EAR (the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression)-like motif were observed to be conserved among several WOX subgroups in these five plants. Comparative analysis of expression patterns of WOX genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggest that the WOX genes play conserved and various roles in plants. This work provides insights into the evolution of the WOX gene family and is useful for future research.

  8. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  9. Integrated karyotyping of sorghum by in situ hybridization of landed BACs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Soon; Childs, Kevin L; Islam-Faridi, M Nurul; Menz, Monica A; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E; Price, H James; Mullet, John E; Stelly, David M

    2002-04-01

    The reliability of genome analysis and proficiency of genetic manipulation are increased by assignment of linkage groups to specific chromosomes, placement of centromeres, and orientation with respect to telomeres. We have endeavored to establish means to enable these steps in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), the genome of which contains ca. 780 Mbp spread across n = 10 chromosomes. Our approach relies on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and integrated structural genomic resources, including large-insert genomic clones in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. To develop robust FISH probes, we selected sorghum BACs by association with molecular markers that map near the ends of linkage groups, in regions inferred to be high in recombination. Overall, we selected 22 BACs that encompass the 10 linkage groups. As a prelude to development of a multiprobe FISH cocktail, we evaluated BAC-derived probes individually and in small groups. Biotin- and digoxygenin-labeled probes were made directly from the BAC clones and hybridized in situ to chromosomes without using suppressive unlabelled C0t-1 DNA. Based on FISH-signal strength and the relative degree of background signal, we judged 19 BAC-derived probes to be satisfactory. Based on their relative position, and collective association with all 10 linkage groups, we chose 17 of the 19 BACs to develop a 17-locus probe cocktail for dual-color detection. FISH of the cocktail allowed simultaneous identification of all 10 chromosomes. The results indicate that linkage and physical maps of sorghum allow facile selection of BAC clones according to position and FISH-signal quality. This capability will enable development of a high-quality molecular cytogenetic map and an integrated genomics system for sorghum, without need of chromosome flow sorting or microdissection. Moreover, transgeneric FISH experiments suggest that the sorghum system might be applicable to other Gramineae.

  10. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; Paterson, Andrew H

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures of selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.

  11. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; ...

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures ofmore » selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.« less

  12. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  13. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  14. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  15. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  16. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  17. The wheat Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-03-16

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multi-pathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum respectively occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 hours, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterised the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24 h post inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites was associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed.

  19. Cloning and expression analyses of sucrose non-fermenting-1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Li, Qin-Bao; Chourey, Prem S

    2008-09-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Multiple sequence alignment data showed a phylogenetic affiliation of the sorghum clone with the SnRK1b group of protein kinases that are highly expressed in cereal seed endosperm. The DNA gel blot analyses indicated that SbSnRK1b gene is present as a single- or low copy number gene in sorghum. The RNA and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the expression of SbSnRK1b in developing sorghum caryopses, overlapping with the starch biosynthesis phase, 12-24 days after fertilization. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization data resolved the spatial specificity of SbSnRK1b expression in the basal endosperm transfer cell layer, the unique port of assimilate unloading in the growing sorghum seed. Expression of SbSnRK1b was also evident in the developing sorghum microspores, coincident with the onset of starch deposition phase. As in sorghum, similar spatiotemporal specificity of SnRK1b expression was observed during maize (Zea mays L.) seed development. However, discordant in situ hybridization and immunolocalization data indicated that the expression of SbSnRK1b homologue in maize is under posttranscriptional control during endosperm development.

  20. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  2. Biogasification of sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has been operating a 1200-gallon, anaerobic solids-concentrating digester at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. This digester development work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Gas Research Institute to provide an effective community waste treatment and energy recovery concept for smaller communities. As a result, an economically attractive, water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment system was developed that includes the digestion of water hyacinth and sludge to methane. A further extension of the community waste treatment concept is to include agricultural wastes in the energy recovery scheme. Therefore, during 1986 a test program was initiated to obtain data on the digestion of sorghum in the solids concentrating digester. Performance data was collected at both mesophilic and thermophilic operating conditions at total organic loading rates of 0.25 and 0.5 pounds per cubic foot of digester volume per day, respectively. Excellent methane yields were obtained during twelve months of stable and uninterrupted operation. This paper summarizes the performance data obtained on sorghum in this digester. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots

    PubMed Central

    Cheruiyot, Erick Kimutai; Othira, Jacktone Odongo; Njuguna, Virginia Wanjiku; Macharia, Joseph Kinyoro; Owuoche, James; Oyier, Moses; Kange, Alex Machio

    2016-01-01

    The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield. PMID:27777968

  4. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots.

    PubMed

    Rono, Justice Kipkorir; Cheruiyot, Erick Kimutai; Othira, Jacktone Odongo; Njuguna, Virginia Wanjiku; Macharia, Joseph Kinyoro; Owuoche, James; Oyier, Moses; Kange, Alex Machio

    2016-01-01

    The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield.

  5. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered. PMID:27417755

  6. A comparison of water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum in the rain-fed, Midwestern, US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, M.; Salas Fernandez, M.; VanLoocke, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing consensus among model projections that climate change may increase the frequency and intensity of drought in the rain-fed, maize-dominated, Midwestern US. Uncertainty in the availability of water, combined with an increased demand for non-grain ethanol feedstock, may necessitate expanding the production of more water-use-efficient and less drought sensitive crops for biomass applications. Research suggests that biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is more drought tolerant and can produce more biomass than maize in water-limiting environments; however, sorghum water use data are limited for the rain-fed Midwestern US. To address this gap, a replicated (n=3) side-by-side trial was established in Ames, Iowa to determine cumulative water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum. Data were collected by micrometeorological stations located in the center of each plot and used to calculate cumulative evapotranspiration throughout the 2014 growing season using the residual energy balance method. Continuous micrometeorological measurements were supplemented by periodic measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and above-ground biomass. At mid-point of the growing season, preliminary data analysis revealed similar water use for sorghum and maize. Data collection will continue for the remainder of the growing season, at which point a stronger conclusion can be drawn. This research will provide important insight on the potential hydrologic effects of expanding biomass sorghum production in the Midwestern, US.

  7. Storage characteristics of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss, percent extraction, and juice Brix were determined in stored sweet sorghum harvested as billets and stalks. Stalks lost less weight and maintained juice quality longer than billets. Storage requirements after harvest should determine the harvesting method.

  8. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  9. Photosynthetic response of sweet sorghum to drought and re-watering at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 drought resistant species with a huge potential for bioenergy. Accentuated reductions in water availability for crop production and altered rainfall distribution patterns, however, will have direct impact on its physiological attributes, metabolic functions and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of sweet sorghum. Durable or short transient drought stress periods were imposed at early and late growth stages and compared with well-watered plants. In spite of very similar drought levels at early and late growth stages (Ψsoil  = -1.6 and -1.7 MPa), the decrements in maximum quantum yield (ϕPo ) and performance index (PI) were about twice at late than at early growth stages. All the PI components, that is, density of active reaction centers (RCs), excitation energy trapping and conversion of excitation energy into electron flow followed a similar decreasing pattern. Upon re-watering and regardless the duration and growth stage of the drought period, all the photosynthetic functions, and particularly those of photosystem II (PSII), fully recovered. Such effective self-regulating functional activity by PSII photochemistry likely contributes to both high drought resistance and photosynthetic recovery capacity of sweet sorghum. At vegetative growth stages, the down regulation of the photochemistry seems to be the main photoprotective/regulative mechanisms, while at late growth stages, the accumulation of compatible solutes likely has a more preponderant role. The observed sugar concentration increments likely contributed to prevent permanent photo-oxidative destruction of the PSII RCs of mature droughted sweet sorghum plants.

  10. Characterization of some useful traits in sweet sorghum for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple yearly harvests can increase crop productivity but the crop may encounter different environmental challenges (such as early-spring cold or late-fall frost) depending on cultivation zones. Sweet sorghum as a feedstock may be planted early to get a double harvest or be rotated with sugarcane ...

  11. Research update: Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of photoperiod-sensitive forage sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass against non-photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, or corn silage. Forages were planted on two dates at two locations (Marshfield and Hancock, WI). Results suggested some ...

  12. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia

    2017-01-01

    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  13. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  14. Promotion of Sorghum Callus Growth by the s-Triazine Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Nadar, Hassan M.; Clegg, Max D.; Maranville, Jerry W.

    1975-01-01

    Growth-promoting action of simazine and other s-triazine herbicides was detected by the use of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L]. Moench) callus tissue and the chlorophyll retention test. Soil application of simazine [2-chloro-4, 6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] at sublethal levels nearly doubled the growth-promoting action of sorghum root exudates. Treated plants yielded up to 26% more total protein than untreated plants. This indicated that the level of callus growth-promoting action in the root exudate of the plant has a positive effect on its final total protein yield and confirms a positive effect of simazine on total protein content in certain instances. The results may provide a new understanding of the mode of action of s-triazines applied at sublethal levels in increasing protein content and certain enzymic activities of treated plants. It is speculated that the growth-promoting action of these herbicides is hormonal in nature and most likely kinetin-like. PMID:16659386

  15. Genetic variation and expression diversity between grain and sweet sorghum lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological scientists have long sought after understanding how genes and their structural/functional changes contribute to morphological diversity. Though both grain (BT×623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines originated from the same species Sorghum bicolor L., they exhibit obvious phenotypic variations. However, the genome re-sequencing data revealed that they exhibited limited functional diversity in their encoding genes in a genome-wide level. The result raises the question how the obvious morphological variations between grain and sweet sorghum occurred in a relatively short evolutionary or domesticated period. Results We implemented an integrative approach by using computational and experimental analyses to provide a detail insight into phenotypic, genetic variation and expression diversity between BT×623 and Keller lines. We have investigated genome-wide expression divergence between BT×623 and Keller under normal and sucrose treatment. Through the data analysis, we detected more than 3,000 differentially expressed genes between these two varieties. Such expression divergence was partially contributed by differential cis-regulatory elements or DNA methylation, which was genetically determined by functionally divergent genes between these two varieties. Both tandem and segmental duplication played important roles in the genome evolution and expression divergence. Conclusion Substantial differences in gene expression patterns between these two varieties have been observed. Such an expression divergence is genetically determined by the divergence in genome level. PMID:23324212

  16. Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving saccharification efficiency in bioenergy crop species remains an important challenge. Here, we report the characterization of a Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutant, named REDforGREEN (RG), as a bioenergy feedstock. Results It was found that RG displayed increased accumulation of lignin in leaves and depletion in the stems, antithetic to the trend observed in wild type. Consistent with these measurements, the RG leaf tissue displayed reduced saccharification efficiency whereas the stem saccharification efficiency increased relative to wild type. Reduced lignin was linked to improved saccharification in RG stems, but a chemical shift to greater S:G ratios in RG stem lignin was also observed. Similarities in cellulose content and structure by XRD-analysis support the correlation between increased saccharification properties and reduced lignin instead of changes in the cellulose composition and/or structure. Conclusion Antithetic lignin accumulation was observed in the RG mutant leaf-and stem-tissue, which resulted in greater saccharification efficiency in the RG stem and differential thermochemical product yield in high lignin leaves. Thus, the red leaf coloration of the RG mutant represents a potential marker for improved conversion of stem cellulose to fermentable sugars in the C4 grass Sorghum. PMID:24103129

  17. Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc, Phytate and Phytase Activity during Soaking and Germination of White Sorghum Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim M. R.; El-Beltagi, Hossam S.; Abd El-Salam, Samiha M.; Omran, Azza A.

    2011-01-01

    The changes in phytate, phytase activity and in vitro bioavailability of iron and zinc during soaking and germination of three white sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), named Dorado, Shandweel-6, and Giza-15 were investigated. Sorghum varieties were soaked for 20 h and germinated for 72 h after soaking for 20 h to reduce phytate content and increase iron and zinc in vitro bioavailability. The results revealed that iron and zinc content was significantly reduced from 28.16 to 32.16% and 13.78 to 26.69% for soaking treatment and 38.43 to 39.18% and 21.80 to 31.27% for germination treatments, respectively. Phytate content was significantly reduced from 23.59 to 32.40% for soaking treatment and 24.92 to 35.27% for germination treatments, respectively. Phytase enzymes will be activated during drying in equal form in all varieties. The results proved that the main distinct point is the change of phytase activity as well as specific activity during different treatment which showed no significant differences between the varieties used. The in vitro bioavailability of iron and zinc were significantly improved as a result of soaking and germination treatments. PMID:22003395

  18. Manipulating plant geometry to improve microclimate, grain yield, and harvest index in grain sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Bob A.; Xue, Qingwu; Chen, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare). Air temperature and relative humidity (RH) within the plant canopy were measured every five minutes at different growth stages. Mean vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) within the clumps were consistently lower than those for ESPs, indicating that clumps improved the microclimate. Clumps had significantly higher harvest index (HI) compared to ESPs (0.48 vs. 0.43), which was largely due to clumps having an average of 0.4 tillers per plant compared to 1.2 tillers per plant for ESPs. Grain yield in the current study was similar between clumps and ESPs. However, our results suggest that improved microclimate was likely a reason for clumps producing significantly higher grain yields compared to ESPs in previous studies. PMID:28264051

  19. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae: Primates) in a relict forest in Manaus, Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Egler, S G

    1992-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term ecological study of habitat and dietary requirements of the pied bare-face tamarin (Saguinus bicolor bicolor). One group was studied for 11 months in an area of secondary forest in a suburb of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Three main vegetation types occurred inside the group's home range (12 ha): capoeira, older secondary forest and campinarana (white sand forest). The tamarins ate fruits (21 species), flowers (1 species), exudates (4 species), and arthropods (insects and spiders). They spent 14.3% of total activity time seeking and eating animal prey, and 9.9% feeding on plant material, mostly fruits. In general, fruits consumed were ripe, small and succulent. Trees used for feeding were low and had small crown diameters. Three plant species (Protium aracouchinni, Myrcia cf. fallax, and Couma utilis) were used intensively during the three seasons covered by the study period. The concentrated use of 3 fruit species, each for an extended period (one fruiting species per season), provided the tamarins with a regular food supply. Tamarins consumed exudates from holes in the bark of trees of the families Anacardiaceae and Vochysiaceae, as well as gum exuded from seed pods of Mimosaceae. Exudates were exploited during the dry season and at the beginning of the wet season. Group travel was primarily based on routes connecting the fruiting trees exploited, with foraging for animal prey occurring during travel. Tamarins searched for arthropods on trunks, branches and leaves and in trunk holes. The foraging and feeding tactics displayed by S. b. bicolor are closely linked to morphological characteristics (small size and weight, claw-like nails) that allowed access to energy-rich resources (arthropods and plant exudates) in different strata of the vegetation.

  20. Genomic inversion caused by gamma irradiation contributes to downregulation of a WBC11 homolog in bloomless sorghum.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Jun; Minami, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Epicuticular wax (bloom) plays important roles in protecting the tissues of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) plants from abiotic stresses. However, reducing wax content provides resistance to greenbug and sheath blight-a useful trait in agricultural crops. We generated a sorghum bloomless (bm) mutant by gamma irradiation. One bm population segregated for individuals with and without epicuticular wax at a frequency of 72:22, suggesting that the bm mutation was under the control of a single recessive nuclear gene. Genes differentially expressed in the wild-type and the bm mutant were identified by RNA-seq technology. Of the 31 downregulated genes, Sb06g023280 was the most differentially expressed and was similar to WBC11, which encodes an ABC transporter responsible for wax secretion in Arabidopsis. An inversion of about 1.4 Mb was present in the region upstream of the Sb06g023280 gene in the bm mutant; it is likely that this inversion changed the promoter sequence of the Sb06g023280 gene. Using genomic PCR, we confirmed that six independent F2 bm mutant-phenotype plants carried the same inversion. Therefore, we concluded that the inversion involving the Sb06g023280 gene inhibited wax secretion in the bloomless sorghum.

  1. Sorghum allelopathy – from ecosystem to molecule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference have also been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse loca...

  2. Harmonized Collaborative Validation of Aflatoxins and Sterigmatocystin in White Rice and Sorghum by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Tian, Fei; Hong, Eun Young; Paek, Ockjin; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Dongsul; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed in eight laboratories to validate a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin (STC) in white rice and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Fortified samples (at three different levels) of white rice and sorghum were extracted, purified through a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column, and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. The apparent recoveries (ARs) ranged from 78.8% to 95.0% for aflatoxins and from 85.3% to 96.7% for STC. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDR) of aflatoxins were in the ranges 7.9%–33.8% and 24.4%–81.0%, respectively. For STC, the RSDr ranged from 7.1% to 40.2% and the RSDR ranged from 28.1% to 99.2%. The Horwitz ratio values for the aflatoxins and STC ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 in white rice and from 0.3 to 1.0 in sorghum, respectively. These results validated this method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and STC by LC/MS/MS after SPE column cleanup. The percentages of satisfactory Z-score values (|Z| ≤ 2) were the following: for white rice, 100% for aflatoxins and STC; for sorghum, 100%, except in data from two laboratories for STC (0.3 μg/kg). This validated that the LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the determination of aflatoxins and STC in 20 white rice and 20 sorghum samples sourced from Korean markets. PMID:27983588

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z Y; Cai, T; Tagliani, L; Miller, M; Wang, N; Pang, H; Rudert, M; Schroeder, S; Hondred, D; Seltzer, J; Pierce, D

    2000-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to genetically transform sorghum. Immature embryos of a public (P898012) and a commercial line (PHI391) of sorghum were used as the target explants. The Agrobacterium strain used was LBA4404 carrying a 'Super-binary' vector with a bar gene as a selectable marker for herbicide resistance in the plant cells. A series of parameter tests was used to establish a baseline for conditions to be used in stable transformation experiments. A number of different transformation conditions were tested and a total of 131 stably transformed events were produced from 6175 embryos in these two sorghum lines. Statistical analysis showed that the source of the embryos had a very significant impact on transformation efficiency, with field-grown embryos producing a higher transformation frequency than greenhouse-grown embryos. Southern blot analysis of DNA from leaf tissues of T0 plants confirmed the integration of the T-DNA into the sorghum genome. Mendelian segregation in the T1 generation was confirmed by herbicide resistance screening. This is the first report of successful use of Agrobacterium for production of stably transformed sorghum plants. The Agrobacterium method we used yields a higher frequency of stable transformation that other methods reported previously.

  4. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  5. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  6. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2].

  7. Sorghum for human food--a review.

    PubMed

    Anglani, C

    1998-01-01

    A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. The cooked porridge Aceda has lower protein digestibility and higher biological value than the uncooked porridge Aceda. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent.

  8. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  13. Historical Synthesis-Analysis of Changes in Grain Nitrogen Dynamics in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling the complexity underpinning nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) can be physiologically approached via examining grain N sources and N internal efficiency (NIE) (yield to plant N content ratio). The main objective of this original research paper is to document and understand sorghum NUE and physiological mechanisms related to grain N dynamics. The study of different grain N sources, herein defined as the reproductive-stage shoot N remobilization (Remobilized N), reproductive-stage whole-plant N content (Reproductive N), and vegetative-stage whole-plant N content (Vegetative N), was pursued with the goal of synthesizing scientific literature for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop. A detailed literature review was performed and summarized on sorghum NUE (13 studies; >250 means) with three Eras, defined by the year of the study, named as Old Era (1965–1980); Transient Era (1981–2000); and New Era (2001–2014). The most remarkable outcomes from this synthesis were: (1) overall historical (1965–2014) cumulative yield gain was >0.5 Mg ha-1 (yields >7 Mg ha-1); (2) NIE did not change across the same time period; (3) grain N concentration (grain %N) accounted for a large proportion (63%) of the variation in NIE; (4) NIE increased as grain %N diminished, regardless of the Eras; (5) Remobilized N was strongly (>R2 0.6) and positively associated with Vegetative N, presenting a unique slope across Eras; and (6) a trade-off was documented for the Remobilized N and Reproductive N (with large variation,

  14. In vivo monoubiquitination of anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase occurs at Lys624 in germinating sorghum seeds

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an important cytosolic regulatory enzyme that plays a pivotal role in numerous physiological processes in plants, including seed development and germination. Previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides of ~110kDa and 107kDa (p110 and p107, respectively) on immunoblots of clarified extracts of germinating sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds. In order to establish the biochemical basis for this observation, a 460kDa PEPC heterotetramer composed of an equivalent ratio of p110 and p107 subunits was purified to near homogeneity from the germinated seeds. Mass spectrometry established that p110 and p107 are both encoded by the same plant-type PEPC gene (CP21), but that p107 was in vivo monoubiquitinated at Lys624 to form p110. This residue is absolutely conserved in vascular plant PEPCs and is proximal to a PEP-binding/catalytic domain. Anti-ubiquitin IgG immunodetected p110 but not p107, whereas incubation with a deubiquitinating enzyme (USP-2 core) efficiently converted p110 into p107, while relieving the enzyme’s feedback inhibition by l-malate. Partial PEPC monoubiquitination was also detected during sorghum seed development. It is apparent that monoubiquitination at Lys624 is opposed to phosphorylation at Ser7 in terms of regulating the catalytic activity of sorghum seed PEPC. PEPC monoubiquitination is hypothesized to fine-tune anaplerotic carbon flux according to the cell’s immediate physiological requirements for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates needed in support of biosynthesis and carbon–nitrogen interactions. PMID:24288181

  15. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Adams, An; Li, Wei-Lin; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Gynura bicolor (Willd.) DC., is used in folk recipes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan province in the south of China. A previous pharmacological study proved that the plant showed significant hypoglycemic activity on normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. In this study, two terpenes, four megastigmane-type norisoprenoids and two glycosides were isolated from the aqueous ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and characterized mainly by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Thes e compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and no evidence could be found for the previous reported presence of megastigmane-type norisoprenoids in the genus Gynura.

  16. Identification of sorghum hybrids with high phenotypic stability using GGE biplot methodology.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Almeida Filho, J E; Daher, R F; Menezes, C B; Cardoso, M J; Godinho, V P C; Torres, F E; Tardin, F D

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to identify sorghum hybrids that have both high yield and phenotypic stability in Brazilian environments. Seven trials were conducted between February and March 2011. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 25 treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of 20 simple pre-commercial hybrids and five witnesses of grain sorghum. Sorghum genotypes were analyzed by the genotype main effects + genotype environment interaction (GGE) biplot method if significant genotype x environment interaction, adaptability, and phenotypic stability were detected. GGE biplot methodology identified two groups of environments, the first composed of Água Comprida-MG, Montividiu-GO, and Vilhena- RO and the second of Guaíra-SP and Sete Lagoas-MG. The BRS 308 and 1G282 genotypes were found to have high grain yield, adaptability, and phenotypic stability and are thus indicated for cultivation in the first and second groups of environments, respectively.

  17. Differential Responses of Soybean and Sorghum Growth, Nitrogen Uptake, and Microbial Metabolism in the Rhizosphere to Cattle Manure Application: A Rhizobox Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qingnan; Sha, Zhimin; Nakamura, Takuji; Oka, Norikuni; Osaki, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2016-11-02

    In this study, we determined the capacity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Hoyoharuka) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. cv. Hybrid Sorgo) to utilize different forms of nitrogen (N) in a rhizobox system. Seedlings were grown for 35 days without N or with 130 mg N kg(-1) soil as ammonium sulfate or farmyard cattle manure. The soil fractions at different distances from the root were sliced millimeter by millimeter in the rhizobox system. We assessed the distribution of different forms of N and microbial metabolism in different soil fractions in the rhizosphere. There are no treatment-dependent changes in biomass production in the roots and shoots of soybeans, however, the ammonium and manure treatment yielded 1.30 and 1.40 times higher shoot biomass of sorghum than the control. Moreover, the depletion of inorganic N and total amino acids (TAA) in the rhizosphere was largely undetectable at various distances from the soybean roots regardless of the treatments employed. The addition of ammonium sulfate resulted in a decrease in the nitrate concentration gradient as the distance decreased from the sorghum roots. The addition of manure to the soil increased the N content in the sorghum shoots, 1.57 times higher than the control; this increase was negatively correlated with the concentrations of TAA in the soil of the root compartment. In addition, the application of manure simultaneously induced TAA depletion (i.e., the TAA concentration in root compartment was 1.48 times higher than that in bulk soil) and greater microbial activity and diversity in the sorghum rhizosphere, where higher microbial consumption of asparagine, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine were also observed near the roots. Our results are first to present the evidence that sorghum may possess a high capacity for taking up amino acids as a consequence of organic matter application, and microbial metabolism.

  18. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.

  19. Physiological Changes in Cultured Sorghum Cells in Response to Induced Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ronald J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Puryear, Jeffrey D.; Smith, Roberta H.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cultivars Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were grown as callus cultures under induced, prolonged water stress (8 weeks), with polyethylene glycol in the medium. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and organic acids in callus were measured at the end of the growth period to determine differences in response to prolonged water stress. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and malate were the predominant solutes detected in all callus at all water potentials. All cultivars had high levels of solutes in the absence of water stress and low levels in the presence of prolonged water stress. However, at low water potentials, low levels of solutes were observed in drought-tolerant cultivar callus and high solute levels were observed in drought-susceptible cultivar callus. Estimated sucrose concentrations were significantly higher in water-stressed, susceptible cultivar callus. Large solute concentrations in susceptible cultivar callus were attributed to osmotic adjustment and/or reduced growth during water stress. PMID:16664867

  20. Protein enrichment of grain sorghum by submerged culture of the amylolytic yeastsSchwanniomyces occidentalis andLipomyces kononenkoae.

    PubMed

    Horn, C H; du Preez, J C; Kilian, S G

    1992-07-01

    Cultivation of aSchwanniomyces occidentalis derepressed mutant in a 10% (w/v) gelatinized grain sorghum slurry increased the crude protein content of the biomass from an initial value of 12% to 41% (dry) within 20 h, with no detectable residual starch. Co-cultivation ofCandida utilis with theS. occidentalis mutant improved the final crude protein content to 47% within 18 h, whereas a co-culture ofC. utilis with aLipomyces kononenkoae mutant resulted in a cultivation time of 50 h with a significantly lower protein content and a low final α-amylase activity. In a 15% (w/v) grain sorghum slurry aC. utilis/S. occidentalis co-culture increased the protein content to about 44% within 30 h. Yeast cultivation increased the lysine and threonine content of the final biomass considerably.

  1. Photomorphogenesis and photoassimilation in soybean and sorghum grown under broad spectrum or blue-deficient light sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britz, S. J.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    The role of blue light in plant growth and development was investigated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench. cv Rio) grown under equal photosynthetic photon fluxes (approximately 500 micromoles per square meter per second) from broad spectrum daylight fluorescent or blue-deficient, narrow-band (589 nanometers) low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps. Between 14 and 18 days after sowing, it was possible to relate adaptations in photosynthesis and leaf growth to dry matter accumulation. Soybean development under LPS light was similar in several respects to that of shaded plants, consistent with an important role for blue light photoreceptors in regulation of growth response to irradiance. Thus, soybeans from LPS conditions partitioned relatively more growth to leaves and maintained higher average leaf area ratios (mean LAR) that compensated lower net assimilation rates (mean NAR). Relative growth rates were therefore comparable to plants from daylight fluorescent lamps. Reductions in mean NAR were matched by lower rates of net photosynthesis (A) on an area basis in the major photosynthetic source (first trifoliolate) leaf. Lower A in soybean resulted from reduced leaf dry matter per unit leaf area, but lower A under LPS conditions in sorghum correlated with leaf chlorosis and reduced total nitrogen (not observed in soybean). In spite of a lower A, mean NAR was larger in sorghum from LPS conditions, resulting in significantly greater relative growth rates (mean LAR was approximately equal for both light conditions). Leaf starch accumulation rate was higher for both species and starch content at the end of the dark period was elevated two- and three-fold for sorghum and soybean, respectively, under LPS conditions. Possible relations between starch accumulation, leaf export, and plant growth in response to spectral quality were considered.

  2. Comparing the water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum grown in the rain-fed, Midwestern US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Heaton, E.; Miguez, F.; Salas Fernandez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty in the quantity and timing of precipitation in a changing climate, combined with an increased demand for non-grain ethanol feedstock, may necessitate expanding the production of more water-use-efficient and less drought sensitive crops for biofuel applications. Research suggests that biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is more drought tolerant and can produce more biomass than maize in water-limiting environments; however, sorghum water use data are scarce for the rain-fed Midwestern US. To address this gap, a replicated (n=3) side-by-side trial was established in Ames, Iowa to determine cumulative water use and water-use-efficiency of maize and biomass sorghum throughout the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Latent heat flux was estimated using the residual in the energy balance technique. Continuous micrometeorological measurements were supplemented by periodic measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and above-ground biomass. Water use (WU), aboveground biomass, and water-use-efficiency (WUE) were found to be similar for both crop types in 2014; data from the 2015 growing season are currently being processed. In 2015, leaf gas exchange measurements were made with a portable photosynthesis instrument. Photosynthetic parameters from gas exchange measurements will be implemented in a semi-mechanistic crop model (BioCro) as a method for scaling WUE estimates across the rain-fed Midwestern US driven with future climate projections. This research highlights the importance of understanding the potential effects of expanding biomass sorghum production on the hydrologic cycle of the Midwestern, US.

  3. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  4. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  5. Outbreak of sorghum/sugarcane aphid on sorghum: First detections, distribution, and notes on management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...

  6. Allelic variants in the PRR37 gene play and the human-mediated dispersal and diversification of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication and spread of crops by early humans is of interest from a historical perspective and is of practical importance to present-day agriculturists. From its origin in northeastern Africa, cultivation of the tropical cereal sorghum spread north and south of the equator beginning approxi...

  7. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause for grain yield reduction for crops cultivated on acid soils which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporte...

  8. ISSR-based analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum landraces growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Basahi, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity among 15 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A total of 92 alleles were amplified, with an average of 13 ISSR alleles per primer. Cluster analysis divided the 15 genotypes into two main groups. Group A consisted of five genotypes with white grains from Jazan and Abha with a similarity coefficient range of 0.527 to 0.818. Group B was comprised of 10 genotypes; two genotypes from Al-Qassim were clearly delimited from the remaining eight samples with a coefficient range from 0.709 to 0.490. The eight genotypes were divided into two clusters; one was comprised of landraces with dark grains from Abha in Saudi Arabia and Ab in Yemen, with a similarity coefficient range between 0.563 and 0.781, and the other cluster was differentiated into three white-colored-grain genotypes and one colored-grain genotype; all samples from North Yemen had a similarity coefficient range from 0.454 to 0.800. The current results encourage further collection and authentication of sorghum landraces in the gene banks of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Genome wide identification of Dof transcription factor gene family in sorghum and its comparative phylogenetic analysis with rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Hariom; Gupta, Shubhra; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Rastogi, Smita; Yadav, Dinesh

    2011-11-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family represents a classic zinc-finger transcription factors involved with multifarious roles exclusively in plants. There exists great diversity in terms of number of Dof genes observed in different crops. In current study, a total of 28 putative Dof genes have been predicted in silico from the recently available whole genome shotgun sequence of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (with assigned accession numbers TPA:BK006983-BK007006 and TPA:BK007079-BK007082). The predicted SbDof genes are distributed on nine out of ten chromosomes of sorghum and most of these genes lack introns based on canonical intron/exon structure. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 SbDof proteins resulted in four subgroups constituting six clusters. The comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins along with 30 rice and 36 Arabidopsis Dof proteins revealed six major groups similar to what has been observed earlier for rice and Arabidopsis. Motif analysis revealed the presence of conserved 50-52 amino acids Dof domain uniformly distributed across all the 28 Dof proteins of sorghum. The in silico cis-regulatory elements analysis of these SbDof genes suggested its diverse functions associated with light responsiveness, endosperm specific gene expression, hormone responsiveness, meristem specific expression and stress responsiveness.

  10. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  11. A high-density genetic recombination map of sequence-tagged sites for sorghum, as a framework for comparative structural and evolutionary genomics of tropical grains and grasses.

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, John E; Abbey, Colette; Anderson, Sharon; Chang, Charlene; Draye, Xavier; Hoppe, Alison H; Jessup, Russell; Lemke, Cornelia; Lennington, Jennifer; Li, Zhikang; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Luo, Lijun; Marler, Barry S; Ming, Reiguang; Mitchell, Sharon E; Qiang, Dou; Reischmann, Kim; Schulze, Stefan R; Skinner, D Neil; Wang, Yue-Wen; Kresovich, Stephen; Schertz, Keith F; Paterson, Andrew H

    2003-01-01

    We report a genetic recombination map for Sorghum of 2512 loci spaced at average 0.4 cM ( approximately 300 kb) intervals based on 2050 RFLP probes, including 865 heterologous probes that foster comparative genomics of Saccharum (sugarcane), Zea (maize), Oryza (rice), Pennisetum (millet, buffelgrass), the Triticeae (wheat, barley, oat, rye), and Arabidopsis. Mapped loci identify 61.5% of the recombination events in this progeny set and reveal strong positive crossover interference acting across intervals of Sorghum bicolor and S. propinquum, but not to variation in levels of intraspecific allelic richness. While cDNA and genomic clones are similarly distributed across the genome, SSR-containing clones show different abundance patterns. Rapidly evolving hypomethylated DNA may contribute to intraspecific genomic differentiation. Nonrandom distribution patterns of multiple loci detected by 357 probes suggest ancient chromosomal duplication followed by extensive rearrangement and gene loss. Exemplifying the value of these data for comparative genomics, we support and extend prior findings regarding maize-sorghum synteny-in particular, 45% of comparative loci fall outside the inferred colinear/syntenic regions, suggesting that many small rearrangements have occurred since maize-sorghum divergence. These genetically anchored sequence-tagged sites will foster many structural, functional and evolutionary genomic studies in major food, feed, and biomass crops. PMID:14504243

  12. Nitrogen deficiency as well as phosphorus deficiency in sorghum promotes the production and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, the host recognition signal for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root parasites.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kusumoto, Dai; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2007-12-01

    Strigolactones released from plant roots induce hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and germination of root parasitic weeds, Striga and Orobanche spp. We already demonstrated that, in red clover plants (Trifolium pratense L.), a host for both AM fungi and the root holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor Sm., reduced supply of phosphorus (P) but not of other elements examined (N, K, Ca, Mg) in the culture medium significantly promoted the secretion of a strigolactone, orobanchol, by the roots of this plant. Here we show that in the case of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a host of both the root hemiparasitic plant Striga hermonthica and AM fungi, N deficiency as well as P deficiency markedly enhanced the secretion of a strigolactone, 5-deoxystrigol. The 5-deoxystrigol content in sorghum root tissues also increased under both N deficiency and P deficiency, comparable to the increase in the root exudates. These results suggest that strigolactones may be rapidly released after their production in the roots. Unlike the situation in the roots, neither N nor P deficiency affected the low content of 5-deoxystrigol in sorghum shoot tissues.

  13. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire.

  14. Sorting of fungal-damaged white sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed, color image-based sorting machine was modified to separate white sorghum with symptoms of fungal damage. Most of the sorghum tested was typically white, but over 27% of the bulk contained grains with fungal damage of various degrees, from severe to very slight. Grains with slight fun...

  15. Genetic dissection of bioenergy traits in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, and high biomass yield. Because of the species’ great genetic diversity (Murray et al. 2009), and the fact that sorghum is a diploid, seed-propagated crop...

  16. Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

  17. Modification of sorghum proteins for enhanced functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is the third most widely produced crop in the United States (U.S.) and fifth in the world during fiscal year 2006/07(USDA-FAS, 2007). The use of sorghum in foods faces functional and nutritional constraints due, mainly, to the rigidity of the protein bodies. The disruption and modificatio...

  18. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  19. Stomatal Behavior and Water Status of Maize, Sorghum, and Tobacco under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.

    1974-01-01

    Diurnal changes in the vertical profiles of irradiance incident upon the adaxial leaf surface (I), leaf resistance (r1), leaf water potential (ψ), osmotic potential (π), and turgor potential (P) were followed concurrently in crops of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Pa602A), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench cv. RS 610), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Havanna Seed 211) on several days in 1968 to 1970 when soil water potentials were low. The r1, measured with a ventilated diffusion porometer, of the leaves in the upper canopy decreased temporarily after sunrise [∼0530 hours Eastern Standard Time] as I increased, but then r1 increased again between 0700 and 0830 hr Eastern Standard Time as the ψ, measured with a pressure chamber, decreased rapidly from the values of −7, −4 and −6 bars at sunrise to minimal values of −18, −22 and −15 bars near midday in the maize, sorghum, and tobacco, respectively. The π, measured with a vapor pressure osmometer, also decreased after sunrise, but not to the same degree as the decrease in ψ, so that a P of zero was reached in some leaves between 0730 and 0800 hours. The lower (more negative) π of leaves in the upper canopy than those in the lower canopy gave the upper leaves a higher P at a given ψ than the lower leaves in all three species; leaves at intermediate heights had an intermediate P. This difference between leaves at the three heights in the canopy was maintained at all values of ψ. The r1 remained unchanged over a wide range of P and then increased markedly at a P of 2 bars in maize, −1 bar in sorghum, and near zero P in tobacco: r1 also remained constant until ψ decreased to −17, −20, and −13 bars in leaves at intermediate heights in maize, sorghum, and tobacco, respectively. In all three species r1 of leaves in the upper canopy increased at more negative values of ψ than those at the base of the canopy, and in tobacco, leaves in the upper canopy wilted at more negative values of ψ than

  20. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  1. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  5. Responses of Sorghum and Pennisetum Species to the N2-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rex L.; Schank, S. C.; Milam, J. R.; Baltensperger, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Three field inoculation experiments, two in Florida and one in New Mexico, were conducted with Azospirillum brasilense Cd. Each of the Florida experiments evaluated two crop species. One species in each of the Florida experiments responded to inoculation with a significant dry matter yield increases of 11 to 24% and nitrogen yield increases of 9 to 39%. No inoculation response was noted in the New Mexico experiment. The responding species were Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (sorghum) and the interspecific hybrid between Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum. (pearl millet) and P. purpureum Schumach. (napiergrass). Nonresponding species were pearl millet (Florida) and Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Staph. (New Mexico). Acetylene reduction activity of inoculated plots in Florida was low, showing no increase over the natural uninoculated background rates and, in one case, was negatively correlated with yield. Acetylene reduction activity was not measured in New Mexico. In Florida, A. brasilense populations were found to decline from 5 × 103 to 5 × 102 bacteria g of soil−1 in about 3 weeks (quadratic regressions). Continued decline to less than 102 by week 5 indicated that the inoculated bacteria did not become established in the soil in high numbers. The A. brasilense population declined at about the same rate in the New Mexico experiment. The erractic inoculation responses in these experiments are similar to those observed in earlier work at the University of Florida. The lack of acetylene reduction activity response to inoculation and the rapid population decline of the inoculated bacteria suggest that N2 fixation is not the major mechanism causing yield responses after inoculation. PMID:16346571

  6. Variability of Phyllochron, Plastochron and Rate of Increase in Height in Photoperiod-sensitive Sorghum Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Clerget, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Gozé, E.; Rattunde, H. F. W.; Ney, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims West African sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties are generally highly photoperiod-sensitive, which is a necessary adaptation to the variable onset date of the rainy season and the variable dates of sowing in the savannah zone. Depending on sowing date, plants can produce from 12 to >40 leaves on the main culm, with height varying from 1 m to more than 5 m. The present study aimed to better understand the complex phenology of these variables. Methods A 2-year series of monthly sowings of three West African sorghum varieties was conducted near Bamako, Mali. Drought stress was avoided by supplemental irrigation. Rate of initiation of primordia at the stem apex was recorded, together with rate of leaf emergence and increase in plant height. Key Results Leaf initiation and appearance rates (plastochron−1 and phyllochron−1) were constant for a given sowing date in cases where less than 20 leaves were produced (generally observed with late sowing dates). In contrast, rates were bilinear for early sowing dates, for which plants produced more than 20 leaves. The secondary rates, which occurred from the 20th leaf onwards, were only half of the initial rate. Plastochron and phyllochron showed large variations among sowing dates, and were correlated with the rate of plant height increase. The initial plastochron and phyllochron were positively correlated with soil temperature and negatively correlated with both day length and day-to-day change of day length prevailing at plant emergence, but these factors explained only half of the variation observed. Conclusions Although they belong to different genetic groups and have different height and photoperiod sensitivity, the three varieties studied exhibited similar response patterns of development rates among phenological phases and seasons, with the local landrace showing the greatest variation due to its longer vegetative phase and longer stem internodes. The possible adaptive advantages in African

  7. Systemic regulation of leaf anatomical structure, photosynthetic performance, and high-light tolerance in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuang-Dao; Wang, Xin; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Shi, Lei; Chow, Wah Soon

    2011-03-01

    Leaf anatomy of C3 plants is mainly regulated by a systemic irradiance signal. Since the anatomical features of C4 plants are different from that of C3 plants, we investigated whether the systemic irradiance signal regulates leaf anatomical structure and photosynthetic performance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a C4 plant. Compared with growth under ambient conditions (A), no significant changes in anatomical structure were observed in newly developed leaves by shading young leaves alone (YS). Shading mature leaves (MS) or whole plants (S), on the other hand, caused shade-leaf anatomy in newly developed leaves. By contrast, chloroplast ultrastructure in developing leaves depended only on their local light conditions. Functionally, shading young leaves alone had little effect on their net photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance, but shading mature leaves or whole plants significantly decreased these two parameters in newly developed leaves. Specifically, the net photosynthetic rate in newly developed leaves exhibited a positive linear correlation with that of mature leaves, as did stomatal conductance. In MS and S treatments, newly developed leaves exhibited severe photoinhibition under high light. By contrast, newly developed leaves in A and YS treatments were more resistant to high light relative to those in MS- and S-treated seedlings. We suggest that (1) leaf anatomical structure, photosynthetic capacity, and high-light tolerance in newly developed sorghum leaves were regulated by a systemic irradiance signal from mature leaves; and (2) chloroplast ultrastructure only weakly influenced the development of photosynthetic capacity and high-light tolerance. The potential significance of the regulation by a systemic irradiance signal is discussed.

  8. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism.

  9. Carbon Balance and Water Relations of Sorghum Exposed to Salt and Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Steven G.; McCree, Keith J.

    1985-01-01

    The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential −0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = −0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl2·2H2O per kilogram water, osmotic potential −0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days. Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials. Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate. It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations. PMID:16664521

  10. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  11. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  12. A Stilbene Synthase Gene (SbSTS1) Is Involved in Host and Nonhost Defense Responses in Sorghum1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Christine K.Y.; Springob, Karin; Schmidt, Jürgen; Nicholson, Ralph L.; Chu, Ivan K.; Yip, Wing Kin; Lo, Clive

    2005-01-01

    A chalcone synthase (CHS)-like gene, SbCHS8, with high expressed sequence tag abundance in a pathogen-induced cDNA library, was identified previously in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Genomic Southern analysis revealed that SbCHS8 represents a single-copy gene. SbCHS8 expression was induced in sorghum mesocotyls following inoculation with Cochliobolus heterotrophus and Colletotrichum sublineolum, corresponding to nonhost and host defense responses, respectively. However, the induction was delayed by approximately 24 h when compared to the expression of at least one of the other SbCHS genes. In addition, SbCHS8 expression was not induced by light and did not occur in a tissue-specific manner. SbCHS8, together with SbCHS2, was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tt4 (transparent testa) mutants defective in CHS activities. SbCHS2 rescued the ability of these mutants to accumulate flavonoids in seed coats and seedlings. In contrast, SbCHS8 failed to complement the mutation, suggesting that the encoded enzyme does not function as a CHS. To elucidate their biochemical functions, recombinant proteins were assayed with different phenylpropanoid-Coenzyme A esters. Flavanones and stilbenes were detected in the reaction products of SbCHS2 and SbCHS8, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrated that SbCHS2 encodes a typical CHS that synthesizes naringenin chalcone, which is necessary for the formation of different flavonoid metabolites. On the other hand, SbCHS8, now retermed SbSTS1, encodes an enzyme with stilbene synthase activity, suggesting that sorghum accumulates stilbene-derived defense metabolites in addition to the well-characterized 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins. PMID:15821144

  13. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  14. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity.

  15. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes.

  16. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  17. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... without added water. It may contain one or more of the optional ingredients provided for in paragraph (b... name of the food is “Sorghum sirup” or “Sorghum”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled...

  18. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Marie F.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; Collins, Carl C.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Jahn, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  19. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Marie F.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; Collins, Carl C.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Jahn, Courtney E.

    2016-07-11

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  20. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Marie F.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end productsmore » of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  1. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  2. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D; Brun, A; Danchin, E; Duchaussoy, F; Gibon, J; Kohler, A; Lindquist, E; Pereda, V; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, HJ; Wuyts, J; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M; Brokstein, P; Canbeck, B; Cohen, D; Courty, PE; Coutinho, PM; Delaruelle, C; Detter, J C; Deveau, A; DiFazio, Stephen P; Duplessis, S; Fraissinet-Tachet, L; Lucic, E; Frey-Klett, P; Fourrey, C; Feussner, I; Gay, G; Grimwood, Jane; Hoegger, P J; Jain, P; Kilaru, S; Labbe, J; Lin, Y C; Legue, V; Le Tacon, F; Marmeisse, R; Melayah, D; Montanini, B; Muratet, M; Nehls, U; Niculita-Hirzel, H; Oudot-Le Secq, M P; Peter, M; Quesneville, H; Rajashekar, B; Reich, M; Rouhler, N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yin, Tongming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chalot, M; Henrissat, B; Kues, U; Lucas, S; Van de Peer, Y; Podila, G; Polle, A; Pukkila, P J; Richardson, P M; Rouze, P; Sanders, I R; Stajich, J E; Tunlid, A; Grigoriev, I.

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  3. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  4. Management of blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) caused by Drechslera bicolor.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Kuldeep Singh; Shah, Rakesh; Gour, Hari Narayan; Sharma, Pankaj

    Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor.

  5. Duplicate and conquer: multiple homologs of PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 enhance phosphorus acquisition and sorghum performance on low-phosphorus soils.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, Barbara; de Sousa, Sylvia M; Assis, Lidianne; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Leiser, Willmar; Azevedo, Gabriel C; Negri, Barbara; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Pastina, Maria Marta; Barros, Beatriz A; Weltzien, Eva; Rattunde, Henry Frederick W; Viana, Joao H; Clark, Randy T; Falcão, Alexandre; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto F; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-10-01

    Low soil phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint for crop production in tropical regions. The rice (Oryza sativa) protein kinase, PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 (OsPSTOL1), was previously shown to enhance P acquisition and grain yield in rice under P deficiency. We investigated the role of homologs of OsPSTOL1 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) performance under low P. Association mapping was undertaken in two sorghum association panels phenotyped for P uptake, root system morphology and architecture in hydroponics and grain yield and biomass accumulation under low-P conditions, in Brazil and/or in Mali. Root length and root surface area were positively correlated with grain yield under low P in the soil, emphasizing the importance of P acquisition efficiency in sorghum adaptation to low-P availability. SbPSTOL1 alleles reducing root diameter were associated with enhanced P uptake under low P in hydroponics, whereas Sb03g006765 and Sb03g0031680 alleles increasing root surface area also increased grain yield in a low-P soil. SbPSTOL1 genes colocalized with quantitative trait loci for traits underlying root morphology and dry weight accumulation under low P via linkage mapping. Consistent allelic effects for enhanced sorghum performance under low P between association panels, including enhanced grain yield under low P in the soil in Brazil, point toward a relatively stable role for Sb03g006765 across genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. This study indicates that multiple SbPSTOL1 genes have a more general role in the root system, not only enhancing root morphology traits but also changing root system architecture, which leads to grain yield gain under low-P availability in the soil.

  6. Expression of Flavone Synthase II and Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase Is Associated with Color Variation in Tan-Colored Injured Leaves of Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yazawa, Takayuki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sawada, Yuji; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Ogo, Yuko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) exhibits various color changes in injured leaves in response to cutting stress. Here, we aimed to identify key genes for the light brown and dark brown color variations in tan-colored injured leaves of sorghum. For this purpose, sorghum M36001 (light brown injured leaves), Nakei-MS3B (purple), and a progeny, #7 (dark brown), from Nakei-MS3B × M36001, were used. Accumulated pigments were detected by using high-performance liquid chromatography: M36001 accumulated only apigenin in its light brown leaves; #7 accumulated both luteolin and a small amount of apigenin in its dark brown leaves, and Nakei-MS3B accumulated 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (apigeninidin and luteolinidin) in its purple leaves. Apigenin or luteolin glucoside derivatives were also accumulated, in different proportions. Differentially expressed genes before and after cutting stress were identified by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Integration of our metabolic and RNA-seq analyses suggested that expression of only flavone synthase II (FNSII) led to the synthesis of apigenin in M36001, expression of both FNSII and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) led to the synthesis of apigenin and luteolin in #7, and expression of both flavanone 4-reductase and F3'H led to the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in Nakei-MS3B. These results suggest that expression of FNSII is related to the synthesis of flavones (apigenin and luteolin) and the expression level of F3'H is related to the balance of apigenin and luteolin. Expression of FNSII and F3'H is thus associated with dark or light brown coloration in tan-colored injured leaves of sorghum.

  7. Expression of Flavone Synthase II and Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Is Associated with Color Variation in Tan-Colored Injured Leaves of Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Yazawa, Takayuki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sawada, Yuji; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Ogo, Yuko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) exhibits various color changes in injured leaves in response to cutting stress. Here, we aimed to identify key genes for the light brown and dark brown color variations in tan-colored injured leaves of sorghum. For this purpose, sorghum M36001 (light brown injured leaves), Nakei-MS3B (purple), and a progeny, #7 (dark brown), from Nakei-MS3B × M36001, were used. Accumulated pigments were detected by using high-performance liquid chromatography: M36001 accumulated only apigenin in its light brown leaves; #7 accumulated both luteolin and a small amount of apigenin in its dark brown leaves, and Nakei-MS3B accumulated 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (apigeninidin and luteolinidin) in its purple leaves. Apigenin or luteolin glucoside derivatives were also accumulated, in different proportions. Differentially expressed genes before and after cutting stress were identified by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Integration of our metabolic and RNA-seq analyses suggested that expression of only flavone synthase II (FNSII) led to the synthesis of apigenin in M36001, expression of both FNSII and flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) led to the synthesis of apigenin and luteolin in #7, and expression of both flavanone 4-reductase and F3′H led to the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in Nakei-MS3B. These results suggest that expression of FNSII is related to the synthesis of flavones (apigenin and luteolin) and the expression level of F3′H is related to the balance of apigenin and luteolin. Expression of FNSII and F3′H is thus associated with dark or light brown coloration in tan-colored injured leaves of sorghum. PMID:27917182

  8. Duplicate and Conquer: Multiple Homologs of PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 Enhance Phosphorus Acquisition and Sorghum Performance on Low-Phosphorus Soils1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, Barbara; de Sousa, Sylvia M.; Assis, Lidianne; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Leiser, Willmar; Azevedo, Gabriel C.; Negri, Barbara; Larson, Brandon G.; Shaff, Jon E.; Pastina, Maria Marta; Barros, Beatriz A.; Weltzien, Eva; Rattunde, Henry Frederick W.; Viana, Joao H.; Clark, Randy T.; Falcão, Alexandre; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto F.; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Low soil phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint for crop production in tropical regions. The rice (Oryza sativa) protein kinase, PHOSPHORUS-STARVATION TOLERANCE1 (OsPSTOL1), was previously shown to enhance P acquisition and grain yield in rice under P deficiency. We investigated the role of homologs of OsPSTOL1 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) performance under low P. Association mapping was undertaken in two sorghum association panels phenotyped for P uptake, root system morphology and architecture in hydroponics and grain yield and biomass accumulation under low-P conditions, in Brazil and/or in Mali. Root length and root surface area were positively correlated with grain yield under low P in the soil, emphasizing the importance of P acquisition efficiency in sorghum adaptation to low-P availability. SbPSTOL1 alleles reducing root diameter were associated with enhanced P uptake under low P in hydroponics, whereas Sb03g006765 and Sb03g0031680 alleles increasing root surface area also increased grain yield in a low-P soil. SbPSTOL1 genes colocalized with quantitative trait loci for traits underlying root morphology and dry weight accumulation under low P via linkage mapping. Consistent allelic effects for enhanced sorghum performance under low P between association panels, including enhanced grain yield under low P in the soil in Brazil, point toward a relatively stable role for Sb03g006765 across genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. This study indicates that multiple SbPSTOL1 genes have a more general role in the root system, not only enhancing root morphology traits but also changing root system architecture, which leads to grain yield gain under low-P availability in the soil. PMID:25189534

  9. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of sorghum bicolor caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cold acclimation is a key process in plants from temperate climates, the mechanisms sensing low temperature remain obscure. Here, we show that the accumulation of the organic acid fumaric acid, mediated by the cytosolic fumarase FUM2, is essential for cold acclimation of metabolism in the c...

  10. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  11. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a sorghum bicolor tilling population using the ComSeq approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare SNPs is required both in Targeting induced local lesions IN genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and analogously in screening human populations. We formerly suggested an approach that combines the celebrated mathematical field of c...

  12. Characterization of sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a gluten free grain that has potential to be used as an alternative to wheat flour for the Celiac Sprue market. There are thousands of sorghum lines that have not been characterized for grain, flour or end product quality. The objective of the research was to gain an understanding among g...

  13. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  14. Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass in central Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the yield and nutrient composition of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn planted on 2 dates and harvested using single or multiple-cut harvest strategies at 2 research stations (Marshfield and Ha...

  15. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.

  16. Plant phosphorus acquisition in a common mycorrhizal network: regulation of phosphate transporter genes of the Pht1 family in sorghum and flax.

    PubMed

    Walder, Florian; Brulé, Daphnée; Koegel, Sally; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding microcosm study, we found huge differences in phosphorus (P) acquisition in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) sharing a common mycorrhizal network (CMN). Is the transcriptional regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-induced inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) transporters responsible for these differences? We characterized and analyzed the expression of Pi transporters of the Pht1 family in both plant species, and identified two new AM-inducible Pi transporters in flax. Mycorrhizal Pi acquisition was strongly affected by the combination of plant and AM fungal species. A corresponding change in the expression of two AM-inducible Pht1 transporters was noticed in both plants (SbPT9, SbPT10, LuPT5 and LuPT8), but the effect was very weak. Overall, the expression level of these genes did not explain why flax took up more Pi from the CMN than did sorghum. The post-transcriptional regulation of the transporters and their biochemical properties may be more important for their function than the fine-tuning of their gene expression.

  17. Two forward genetic screens for vein density mutants in sorghum converge on a cytochrome P450 gene in the brassinosteroid pathway.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Govinda; Thakur, Vivek; Dionora, Jacqueline; Karki, Shanta; Wanchana, Samart; Acebron, Kelvin; Larazo, Nikki; Garcia, Richard; Mabilangan, Abigail; Montecillo, Florencia; Danila, Florence; Mogul, Reychelle; Pablico, Paquito; Leung, Hei; Langdale, Jane A; Sheehy, John; Kelly, Steven; Quick, William Paul

    2015-10-01

    The specification of vascular patterning in plants has interested plant biologists for many years. In the last decade a new context has emerged for this interest. Specifically, recent proposals to engineer C(4) traits into C(3) plants such as rice require an understanding of how the distinctive venation pattern in the leaves of C(4) plants is determined. High vein density with Kranz anatomy, whereby photosynthetic cells are arranged in encircling layers around vascular bundles, is one of the major traits that differentiate C(4) species from C(3) species. To identify genetic factors that specify C(4) leaf anatomy, we generated ethyl methanesulfonate- and γ-ray-mutagenized populations of the C(4) species sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and screened for lines with reduced vein density. Two mutations were identified that conferred low vein density. Both mutations segregated in backcrossed F(2) populations as homozygous recessive alleles. Bulk segregant analysis using next-generation sequencing revealed that, in both cases, the mutant phenotype was associated with mutations in the CYP90D2 gene, which encodes an enzyme in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway. Lack of complementation in allelism tests confirmed this result. These data indicate that the brassinosteroid pathway promotes high vein density in the sorghum leaf, and suggest that differences between C(4) and C(3) leaf anatomy may arise in part through differential activity of this pathway in the two leaf types.

  18. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first order kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.

  19. Kinetic features of xylan de-polymerization in production of xylose monomer and furfural during acid pretreatment for kenaf, forage sorghums and sunn hemp feedstocks

    DOE PAGES

    Kamireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Kozliak, Evguenii I.; Tucker, Melvin; ...

    2014-08-01

    A kinetic study of acid pretreatment was conducted for sorghum non-brown mid rib (SNBMR) (Sorghum bicolor L Moench), sorghum-brown mid rib (SBMR), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L) and kenaf (Gossypiumhirsutum L), focusing on rates of xylose monomer and furfural formation. The kinetics was investigated using two independent variables, reaction temperature (150 and 160°C) and acid concentration (1 and 2 wt%), with a constant dry biomass loading of 10 wt% and a treatment time up to 20 min while sampling the mixture every 2 min. The experimental data were fitted using a two-step kinetic model based on irreversible pseudo first ordermore » kinetics at each step. Varied kinetic orders on the acid concentration, ranging from 0.2 to >3, were observed for both xylose and furfural formation, the values depending on the feedstock. The crystallinity index of raw biomass was shown to be a major factor influencing the rate of both xylose and furfural formation. As a result, a positive correlation was observed between the activation energy and biomass crystallinity index for xylose formation.« less

  20. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  1. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum varieties from burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Hilhorst, Riet; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; Laane, Colja; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-06-19

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was higher than the monophenolase and o-diphenolase specific activities of PPO. For POX, there was a diversity of isoforms among varieties. No clear correlation could be made between the quantitative composition of the grain in phenolics, PPO, and POX, and resistance of plant to pathogens. In general, varieties good for a thick porridge preparation ("tô") had low phenolic compounds content and a medium POX activity. From the red varieties, those used for local beer ("dolo") had a high content in phenolic compounds and PPO, and a low POX activity. The variety considered good for couscous had a low POX content. The characteristics might be useful as selection markers for breeding for specific applications.

  2. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  5. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2014 in Tifton, and a total of 10 insect pests were observed. While sorghum midge and bird damage was relatively low, sorghum webworm and aphid damage was high. Those insects in order of importance are: sug...

  6. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum panicle worm is an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The sorghum panicle worm complex consists of larvae of two highly polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Heli...

  7. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  8. Fluorescent pseudomonads occurring in Macrotermes subhyalinus mound structures decrease Cd toxicity and improve its accumulation in sorghum plants.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, R; Kisa, M; Assigbetse, K; Prin, Y; Thioulouse, J; Issartel, M; Moulin, P; Lepage, M

    2006-11-01

    Cd-tolerant bacterial strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, mostly belonging to Pseudomonas monteillii, were isolated from termite mound soil (Macrotermes subhyalinus, a litter-forager and fungus-growing termite), in a Sudanese shrubby savanna, Burkina Faso. Such large mounds appeared as sites of great bacterial diversity and could be considered as hot spots of metal-tolerant fluorescent pseudomonads. Microbial isolates were inoculated to Sorghum plants (S. bicolor) in glasshouse experiments with soil amended with CdCl(2) (560 mg Cd kg(-1) soil). Microbial functional diversity was assessed at the end of the experiment by measurement of in situ patterns of catabolic potentials. All the bacteria isolates significantly improved the shoot and total biomass of sorghum plants compared to the control. Results concerning root biomass were not significant with some strains. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was greatly reduced by CdCl(2) amendment, and fluorescent pseudomonad inoculation significantly increased AM colonisation in the contaminated soil. The bacterial inoculation significantly improved Cd uptake by sorghum plants. Measurement of catabolic potentials on 16 substrates showed that the microbial communities were different according to the soil amendment. Soils samples inoculated with pseudomonad strains presented a higher use of ketoglutaric and hydroxybutiric acids, as opposed to fumaric acid in soil samples not inoculated. It is suggested that fluorescent pseudomonads could act indirectly in such metabolic processes by involving a lower rate of degradation of citric acid, in line with the effect of small organic acid on phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil. This is a first contribution to bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites with soil-to-plant transfer, using termite built structures. Further data are required on the efficiency of the bacterial strains isolated and on the processes involved.

  9. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  10. A web-based decision support system for managing panicle caterpillars in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum headworms are economically important insect pests of sorghum throughout the United States and are often ranked 1st or 2nd in importance among the myriad of insects that feed on sorghum, depending on the geographic location where the sorghum is grown. Sorghum producers, crop consultants, and...

  11. Influence of CeO2 nanoparticles on growth and physiology of sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Linlin; Liang, Wei-zhen; Kinsey, Erin; Rauh, Bradley; Kresovich, Stephen; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are commonly used as polishing agents for industry and fuel additives to decrease the particulate matter emissions. CeO2 NPs may be encountered in the soil and water environment through their life cycle or accidental releases, and have potential phytotoxicity effects. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects of CeO2 NPs in soil on plant growth and physiology. The objective of this research is to determine the physiological responses of three sorghums (Grassl, BtX623 and Rio) to the effect of CeO2 nanoparticles in potting soil environment. Sorghums were germinated and grown in potting soil in the greenhouse for three weeks cultivation with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Plant parameters, such as length, weight, and biomass of root and leaves were measured in each treatment with 12 replications. After three weeks germination, the sorghum plants were dig out and the roots were examined and scanned by the Silverfast SE Plus scanner to compare and analyze their dimensions and shapes. To further study the growth and physiological changes in plants due to the presence of CeO2 NPs in soil, one selected type of sorghum (Grassl) was grown under the four different CeO2 NPs concentration treatments for six months until plant maturity, and was also cut and harvested three times to study CeO2 NPs effect on plant re-growth. At the end of each growing period, above ground vegetative tissues were air-dried, grounded to 2mm particle size and compositional traits were estimated by using near-infrared spectroscopy. The influence of nanoparticles was observed on some of the plant traits. Preliminary results showed the influence of CeO2 NPs on the roots growth, as Grassl and Btx623 in 100 mgkg-1 treatment grew significantly faster than other concentrations; however no significant difference between control and 100 mgkg-1 treatment in Rio. CeO2 NPs concentration of 100 mgkg-1 had no impact on sorghum growth

  12. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ali, Salah Eldeen A

    2014-01-01

    This survey examined 60 samples of sorghum and 30 samples of sorghum products from three states (Khartoum, Kordofan and Gadarif) of Sudan for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A and B (OTA, OTB) and zearalenone (ZEN), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.6 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-2.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The frequency of contaminated samples with AFB1 from Khartoum, Gadarif and Kordofan state was 38.1%, 22.2% and 23.8%, respectively. Only two samples of sorghum from Khartoum state were contaminated with OTA (3.3%). Concentrations of OTA and OTB were low and may not cause problems. No sample of sorghum or sorghum products was contaminated with ZEN. Some sorghum samples contained AFB1 concentrations above the European Union regulatory limits. The highest contaminated samples were found in Khartoum state.

  13. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

  14. Future for sorghum regarding its water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the planet's Earth appearance from space, water is a minor component of the plant's mass and the considerably less is present as fresh water available for crop production. Sorghum is ideally suited for grain and silage production in water limited areas because of its ability to yield higher ...

  15. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  16. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  17. SNP-tagged mutant library in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the filth largest grain crop in the world, sorghum is well adapted to high temperature, drought, and low fertilizer input conditions. It can also be used as a fodder and bioenergy crop. Given the trend of global warming, depletion of refresh water resources, reduction in arable land due to soil d...

  18. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  19. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  20. Subcellular Localization of a UDP-Glucose:Aldehyde Cyanohydrin β-Glucosyl Transferase in Epidermal Plastids of Sorghum Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Thayer, Susan S.; Conn, Eric E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidermal and mesophyll protoplasts, prepared from leaf blades of 6-day-old light-grown Sorghum bicolor seedlings were separated by differential sedimentation and assayed for a number of enzymes. The epidermal protoplasts contained higher levels of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (EC 1.6.2.4), triose phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31), and a UDP-glucose:cyanohydrin β-glucosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.85), but lower levels of NADP+ triosephosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) than did mesophyll protoplasts. When protoplast preparations were lysed and applied to linear sucrose density gradients, triosephosphate isomerase was found to be present in epidermal plastids. A significant fraction (41%) of the glucosyl transferase activity was also associated with the epidermal plastids. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662753

  1. Brown midrib sorghum silage for midlactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J; Haddad, S G; Moore, K J; Pedersen, J F

    1995-09-01

    Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.

  2. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  3. Solid-state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The main goal of this research is to study the solid-state fermentation of sorghum-sudangrass, Grazex II (F{sub 1} hybrid of Sorghum vulgare X Sorghum sudanese), to ethanol. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol directly in the silo. Thirty-eight liters of ethanol/metric ton (L/MT) on a wet-weight basis were produced from sorghum receiving cellulose compared to 23.4 L/MT for sorghum not receiving cellulose additives. Based on total free sugar content, 101 and 84% of theoretical yield are achieved for cellulase-amended and nonamended sorghum, respectively. 47 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Pepsin Digestibility of Proteins in Sorghum and Other Major Cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Edwin T.; Hassen, Mohamed M.; Cairns-Whittern, Carleen; Kirleis, Allen W.; Tu, Lichuan; Axtell, John D.

    1984-01-01

    We have shown previously that sorghum is highly digestible in the rat. However, other workers have shown that sorghum is much less digestible than wheat, maize, and rice in young children. Because the rat does not show these digestibility differences, we developed an empirical pepsin digestion method, first reported in 1981, which simulates the digestion values found in children. In this report the method has been improved and used to analyze wheat, maize, rice, millet, and sorghum and certain processed samples of millet and sorghum. The pepsin digestion values parallel those found in children for wheat, maize, rice, and sorghum. In addition, a processed sorghum product that gave a high digestion value in children also gave a high value with the in vitro pepsin method.

  5. Effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on product quality of sorghum starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryani, Kristinah; Hadiyanto, Handayani, Noera; Nugraheni, Dwi; Suryanto

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a cereal plant that rich of nutrition contents. The high content of carbohydrate in sorghum make this plant can be processed into one of the processed food i.e vermicelli. To give better quality, it is necessary to use flour substitution from sorghum starch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of natural sorghum starch substitution, the addition of CMC, and a comparison of the natural starch with starch sorghum forage sorghum against solid losses value, rehydration weight and texture profiles. The variable used in this study: amount of natural sorghum starch subtituion (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%), the addition of CMC (0.1%; 0.2%; 0.3%; 0.4%; 0.5%) and substituting sorghum starch Natural: HMT sorghum starch (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3; 1: 4; 1: 5) and the quality parameters were evaluated. The result indicated that to substitute sorghum starch naturally at a rate of 50% had the best results with a value of solid losses 5.1% (white sorghum) 5.83% (red sorghum) and weighing rehydration 301.82% (white sorghums) 293.16% (red sorghum), the addition of CMC with 0.5% concentration of 3.96% solid losses value (red sorghum) 4:21% (white sorghums) and weight rehydration 252.71% (white sorghums) 244.45% (red sorghums).

  6. 22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    PubMed Central

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intrinsic bending was due to an uneven cell proliferation between the lower and upper sides of culm internodes. GA treatment alleviated the bending and dwarfism in mutants, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazole, induced such phenotypes in wild-type plants— both in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating an important role of GA in controlling erectness of the sorghum culm. Finally, we propose that because of the tight relationship between GA deficiency-induced dwarfism and culm bending in sorghum, GA-related mutations have unlikely been selected in the history of sorghum breeding, as could be inferred from previous QTL and association studies on sorghum plant height that did not pinpoint GA-related genes. PMID:24924234

  8. Regulation of tillering in sorghum: environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Koo; van Oosterom, Erik; Dingkuhn, Michael; Luquet, Delphine; Hammer, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Tillering has a significant effect on canopy development and, hence, on resource capture, crop growth and grain yield in sorghum. However, the physiological basis of tillering and its regulation by environmental effects are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to understand and quantify the environmental effects on tillering in sorghum using a carbohydrate supply–demand framework. Methods A series of five experiments with a wide range of radiation and temperature conditions was conducted and details of the tillering responses of a single representative hybrid were monitored. The concept of internal plant competition for carbohydrate was developed for analysis of these responses. Key Results Tiller appearance was highly synchronized with main shoot leaf appearance, with a consistent hierarchy for tillering across environments. The main environmental effect was on the frequency of tiller appearance, in particular of the lower-rank tillers. This explained some of the observed environmental differences in the onset of tillering. A generalized index of internal plant competition, which took account of plant assimilate supply and demand (S/Dindex) during the critical period for tillering, explained most of the variation in maximum tiller number observed across the five experiments. Conclusions This result was consistent with the hypothesis that internal plant competition for assimilates regulates tillering in sorghum. Hence, the framework outlined has a predictive value that could provide the basis for dynamic simulation of tillering in crop growth models. PMID:20421230

  9. Transgenic sorghum plants via microprojectile bombardment.

    PubMed

    Casas, A M; Kononowicz, A K; Zehr, U B; Tomes, D T; Axtell, J D; Butler, L G; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-12-01

    Transgenic sorghum plants have been obtained after microprojectile bombardment of immature zygotic embryos of a drought-resistant sorghum cultivar, P898012. DNA delivery parameters were optimized based on transient expression of R and C1 maize anthocyanin regulatory elements in scutellar cells. The protocol for obtaining transgenic plants consists of the delivery of the bar gene to immature zygotic embryos and the imposition of bialaphos selection pressure at various stages during culture, from induction of somatic embryogenesis to rooting of regenerated plantlets. One in about every 350 embryos produced embryogenic tissues that survived bialaphos treatment; six transformed callus lines were obtained from three of the eight sorghum cultivars used in this research. Transgenic (T0) plants were obtained from cultivar P898012 (two independent transformation events). The presence of the bar and uidA genes in the T0 plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase activity was detected in extracts of the T0 plants. These plants were resistant to local application of the herbicide Ignite/Basta, and the resistance was inherited in T1 plants as a single dominant locus.

  10. The Sorghum Gene for Leaf Color Changes upon Wounding (P) Encodes a Flavanone 4-Reductase in the 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sawada, Yuji; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Momma, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Zui; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Upon wounding or pathogen invasion, leaves of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plants with the P gene turn purple, whereas leaves with the recessive allele turn brown or tan. This purple phenotype is determined by the production of two 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, apigeninidin and luteolinidin, which are not produced by the tan-phenotype plants. Using map-based cloning in progeny from a cross between purple Nakei-MS3B (PP) and tan Greenleaf (pp) cultivars, we isolated this gene, which was located in a 27-kb genomic region around the 58.1 Mb position on chromosome 6. Four candidate genes identified in this region were similar to the maize leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene. None of them was expressed before wounding, and only the Sb06g029550 gene was induced in both cultivars after wounding. The Sb06g029550 protein was detected in Nakei-MS3B, but only slightly in Greenleaf, in which it may be unstable because of a Cys252Tyr substitution. A recombinant Sb06g029550 protein had a specific flavanone 4-reductase activity, and converted flavanones (naringenin or eriodictyol) to flavan-4-ols (apiforol or luteoforol) in vitro. Our data indicate that the Sb06g029550 gene is involved in the 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis pathway. PMID:26994288

  11. The Sorghum Gene for Leaf Color Changes upon Wounding (P) Encodes a Flavanone 4-Reductase in the 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Sawada, Yuji; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Momma, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Zui; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2016-05-03

    Upon wounding or pathogen invasion, leaves of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plants with the P gene turn purple, whereas leaves with the recessive allele turn brown or tan. This purple phenotype is determined by the production of two 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, apigeninidin and luteolinidin, which are not produced by the tan-phenotype plants. Using map-based cloning in progeny from a cross between purple Nakei-MS3B (PP) and tan Greenleaf (pp) cultivars, we isolated this gene, which was located in a 27-kb genomic region around the 58.1 Mb position on chromosome 6. Four candidate genes identified in this region were similar to the maize leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene. None of them was expressed before wounding, and only the Sb06g029550 gene was induced in both cultivars after wounding. The Sb06g029550 protein was detected in Nakei-MS3B, but only slightly in Greenleaf, in which it may be unstable because of a Cys252Tyr substitution. A recombinant Sb06g029550 protein had a specific flavanone 4-reductase activity, and converted flavanones (naringenin or eriodictyol) to flavan-4-ols (apiforol or luteoforol) in vitro Our data indicate that the Sb06g029550 gene is involved in the 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis pathway.

  12. Spatiotemporal Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Bicolor Tepal Development in Lilium “Tiny Padhye”

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Leifeng; Yang, Panpan; Feng, Yayan; Xu, Hua; Cao, Yuwei; Tang, Yuchao; Yuan, Suxia; Liu, Xinyan; Ming, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The bicolor Asiatic hybrid lily cultivar “Tiny Padhye” is an attractive variety because of its unique color pattern. During its bicolor tepal development, the upper tepals undergo a rapid color change from green to white, while the tepal bases change from green to purple. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely uncharacterized. To systematically investigate the dynamics of the lily bicolor tepal transcriptome during development, we generated 15 RNA-seq libraries from the upper tepals (S2-U) and basal tepals (S1-D, S2-D, S3-D, and S4-D) of Lilium “Tiny Padhye.” Utilizing the Illumina platform, a total of 295,787 unigenes were obtained from 713.12 million high-quality paired-end reads. A total of 16,182 unigenes were identified as differentially expressed genes during tepal development. Using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, candidate genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (61 unigenes), and chlorophyll metabolic pathway (106 unigenes) were identified. Further analyses showed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were transcribed coordinately in the tepal bases, but not in the upper tepals, suggesting that the bicolor trait of “Tiny Padhye” tepals is caused by the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Meanwhile, the high expression level of chlorophyll degradation genes and low expression level of chlorophyll biosynthetic genes resulted in the absence of chlorophylls from “Tiny Padhye” tepals after flowering. Transcription factors putatively involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and chlorophyll metabolism in lilies were identified using a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and their possible roles in lily bicolor tepal development were discussed. In conclusion, these extensive transcriptome data provide a platform for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of bicolor tepals in lilies and provide a basis for similar research in other

  13. Understanding Genetic Diversity of Sorghum Using Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sweta; Kumaravadivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum is the important cereal crop around the world and hence understanding and utilizing the genetic variation in sorghum accessions are essential for improving the crop. A good understanding of genetic variability among the accessions will enable precision breeding. So profiling the genetic diversity of sorghum is imminent. In the present investigation, forty sorghum accessions consisting of sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, forage sorghum, mutant lines, maintainer lines, and restorer lines were screened for genetic diversity using quantitative traits. Observations were recorded on 14 quantitative traits, out of which 9 diverse traits contributing to maximum variability were selected for genetic diversity analysis. The principle component analysis revealed that the panicle width, stem girth, and leaf breadth contributed maximum towards divergence. By using hierarchical cluster analysis, the 40 accessions were grouped under 6 clusters. Cluster I contained maximum number of accessions and cluster VI contained the minimum. The maximum intercluster distance was observed between cluster VI and cluster IV. Cluster III had the highest mean value for hundred-seed weight and yield. Hence the selection of parents must be based on the wider intercluster distance and superior mean performance for yield and yield components. Thus in the present investigation quantitative data were able to reveal the existence of a wide genetic diversity among the sorghum accessions used providing scope for further genetic improvement. PMID:27382499

  14. A meteorologically driven grain sorghum stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A grain sorghum soil moisture and temperature stress model is described. It was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions and crop phenology in selected grain sorghum production areas. The model also identifies optimum conditions on a daily basis and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  15. Grain and Flour Characterization of Four Different Sorghum Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of people with celiac disease, the need for gluten-free products is on the rise. Sorghum is a grain tolerated by celiac patients which can be used in gluten-free foods. The grain and flour of four sorghum varieties were characterized through physical and chemical means. ...

  16. Grain quality traits in sorghum association mapping panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain quality traits were analyzed in a diverse sorghum sample set which consisted of 174 sorghum lines (110 non-tannin lines and 64 tannin lines). These samples were previously grouped into five distinct genetic populations which made it possible to compare grain quality traits across the genetic g...

  17. Grain quality traits in a sorghum association mapping panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain quality traits were analyzed in a diverse sorghum sample set which consisted of 174 sorghum lines (110 non-tannin lines and 64 tannin lines). These samples were previously grouped into five distinct genetic populations which made it possible to compare grain quality traits across the genetic g...

  18. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  19. Phenotypic evaluation of sweet sorghum lines for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem juice of sweet sorghum is rich in fermentable sugars and is a desirable primary material for alcoholic fermentation. Today, interest in growing sweet sorghum for fermentable sugars is increasing worldwide; thus there is strong demand for elite varieties and hybrids offering high sugar yiel...

  20. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    DOEpatents

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  1. QTLs analysis of tillers number in F6 sorghum population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of tillers in sorghum is an important agronomic trait. In this study, the F6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population derived from the cross of sorghum lines T70 with P607 was used to construct a genetic linkage map by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven quantitative trait locu...

  2. The Sorghum Headworm Calculator: A speedy tool for headworm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sorghum Headworm Calculator is an interactive decision support system for sorghum headworm management. It was designed to be easily accessible and usable. It provides users with organized information on identification, sampling, and management using images, descriptions and research-based mana...

  3. Genetic studies on sugarcane aphid resistance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southern United States, the white sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) has recently become a major pest of sorghum. The aphid population can build up rapidly on the undersides of sorghum leaves causing leaf damage, leaf death, stunting, delayed flowering, and plant death. Furthermore, the ov...

  4. NDVI to detect sugarcane aphid injury to grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. The purpose of this report is to describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants i...

  5. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 26 grain sorghum hybrids (24 commercial grain sorghum hybrids and a pair of sugarcane aphid resistant and susceptible controls) were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pests were observed. The insect pests in order of importance are...

  6. Anthracnose field evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Botswana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum anthracnose is a disease of worldwide importance and host-plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. In this study, 154 sorghum accessions from the Botswana collection maintained by the United States National Plant Germplasm System were inoculated with Colletotrich...

  7. 7 CFR 407.15 - Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. 407... risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. The grain sorghum crop insurance provisions for Area Risk... AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Grain Sorghum Crop...

  8. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  9. Functional Classification, Genomic Organization, Putatively cis-Acting Regulatory Elements, and Relationship to Quantitative Trait Loci, of Sorghum Genes with Rhizome-Enriched Expression1[W

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Cheol Seong; Kamps, Terry L.; Skinner, D. Neil; Schulze, Stefan R.; Vencill, William K.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomes are organs of fundamental importance to plant competitiveness and invasiveness. We have identified genes expressed at substantially higher levels in rhizomes than other plant parts, and explored their functional categorization, genomic organization, regulatory motifs, and association with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring rhizomatousness. The finding that genes with rhizome-enriched expression are distributed across a wide range of functional categories suggests some degree of specialization of individual members of many gene families in rhizomatous plants. A disproportionate share of genes with rhizome-enriched expression was implicated in secondary and hormone metabolism, and abiotic stimuli and development. A high frequency of unknown-function genes reflects our still limited knowledge of this plant organ. A putative oligosaccharyl transferase showed the highest degree of rhizome-specific expression, with several transcriptional or regulatory protein complex factors also showing high (but lesser) degrees of specificity. Inferred by the upstream sequences of their putative rice (Oryza sativa) homologs, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genes that were relatively highly expressed in rhizome tip tissues were enriched for cis-element motifs, including the pyrimidine box, TATCCA box, and CAREs box, implicating the gibberellins in regulation of many rhizome-specific genes. From cDNA clones showing rhizome-enriched expression, expressed sequence tags forming 455 contigs were plotted on the rice genome and aligned to QTL likelihood intervals for ratooning and rhizomatous traits in rice and sorghum. Highly expressed rhizome genes were somewhat enriched in QTL likelihood intervals for rhizomatousness or ratooning, with specific candidates including some of the most rhizome-specific genes. Some rhizomatousness and ratooning QTLs were shown to be potentially related to one another as a result of ancient duplication, suggesting long-term functional conservation of

  10. Isolation and reconstitution of cytochrome P450ox and in vitro reconstitution of the entire biosynthetic pathway of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin from sorghum.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, R A; Bak, S; Svendsen, I; Halkier, B A; Møller, B L

    1997-01-01

    A cytochrome P450, designated P450ox, that catalyzes the conversion of (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime (oxime) to p-hydroxymandelonitrile in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile (dhurrin), has been isolated from microsomes prepared from etiolated seedlings of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). P450ox was solubilized using nonionic detergents, and isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, Triton X-114 phase partitioning, and dye-column chromatography. P450ox has an apparent molecular mass of 55 kD, its N-terminal amino acid sequence is -ATTATPQLLGGSVP, and it contains the internal sequence MDRLVADLDRAAA. Reconstitution of P450ox with NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase in micelles of L-alpha-dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine identified P450ox as a multifunctional P450 catalyzing dehydration of (Z)-oxime to p-hydroxyphenylaceto-nitrile (nitrile) and C-hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile to nitrile. P450ox is extremely labile compared with the P450s previously isolated from sorghum. When P450ox is reconstituted in the presence of a soluble uridine diphosphate glucose glucosyltransferase, oxime is converted to dhurrin. In vitro reconstitution of the entire dhurrin biosynthetic pathway from tyrosine was accomplished by the insertion of CYP79 (tyrosine N-hydroxylase), P450ox, and NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase in lipid micelles in the presence of uridine diphosphate glucose glucosyltransferase. The catalysis of the conversion of Tyr into nitrile by two multifunctional P450s explains why all intermediates in this pathway except (Z)-oxime are channeled. PMID:9414567

  11. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Biofuels from Sorghum: Plant-based Sesquiterpene Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Chromatin will engineer sweet sorghum—a plant that naturally produces large quantities of sugar and requires little water—to accumulate the fuel precursor farnesene, a molecule that can be blended into diesel fuel. Chromatin’s proprietary technology enables the introduction of a completely novel biosynthetic process into the plant to produce farnesene, enabling sorghum to accumulate up to 20% of its weight as fuel. Chromatin will also introduce a trait to improve biomass yields in sorghum. The farnesene will accumulate in the sorghum plants—similar to the way in which it currently stores sugar—and can be extracted and converted into a type of diesel fuel using low-cost, conventional methods. Sorghum can be easily grown and harvested in many climates with low input of water or fertilizer, and is already planted on an agricultural scale. The technology will be demonstrated in a model plant, guayule, before being used in sorghum.

  13. Environmental Impact Research Program. Bicolor Lespedeza (Lespedeza Bicolor) . Section 7.3.2, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    seed coat resists deterioration, seeds do not germinate until the outer waterproof coating is disrupted by fire or scarification; therefore, bicolor...scarified seeds should be used, i.e., those which have had the seed coats treated to hasten germination (McConnell 1971, Allen and Waters 1972, Environmental...critical factor for seed germination is soil moisture; therefore, seeds should be planted before May 15 in most regions (Allen and S Waters 1972). 7

  14. Response of sorghum accessions from four African countries against Colletotrichum sublineolum, causal agent of sorghum anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-two sorghum accessions were randomly selected from the Ethiopia, Mali, Sudan, and Uganda germplasm collections maintained by the US National Plant Germplasm System to evaluate variation in anthracnose resistance. The accessions were planted in a randomized complete block design in College S...

  15. Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum and Sorghum x Sudangrass Hybrids as Feedstocks for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the conversion of sugar from sugarcane and related grasses to ethanol. Field studies were conducted at the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Laboratory in southeast Louisiana to evaluate the ethanol yield potential of five sweet sorghums (Dale, M 81-E, Rio, Theis, and Topper) an...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes from Sorghum1

    PubMed Central

    Gronwald, John W.; Plaisance, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Two glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, A1/A1 and B1/B2, were purified from etiolated, O-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methyl-2,2,2,-trifluoro-4′-chloroacetophenone-oxime-treated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shoots. GST A1/A1, a constitutively expressed homodimer, had a subunit molecular mass of 26 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.9. GST A1/A1 exhibited high activity with 1-chloro-2, 4,dinitrobenzene (CDNB) but low activity with the chloroacetanilide herbicide metolachlor. For GST A1/A1, the random, rapid-equilibrium bireactant kinetic model provided a good description of the kinetic data for the substrates CDNB and glutathione (GSH). GST B1/B2 was a heterodimer with subunit molecular masses of 26 kD (designated the B1 subunit) and 28 kD (designated the B2 subunit) and a native isoelectric point of 4.8. GST B1/B2 exhibited low activity with CDNB and high activity with metolachlor as the substrate. The kinetics of GST B1/B2 activity with GSH and metolachlor fit a model describing a multisite enzyme having two binding sites with different affinities for these substrates. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 exhibited GSH-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and GSH peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide, 9-hydroperoxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 are glycoproteins, as indicated by their binding of concanavalin A. Polyclonal antibodies raised against GST A1/A1 exhibited cross-reactivity with the B1 subunit of GST B1/B2. Comparisons of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the GST A1, B1, and B2 subunits with other type I θ-GSTs indicated a high degree of homology with the maize GST I subunit and a sugarcane GST. PMID:9662530

  17. Contrasting effects of sorghum biochars and sorghum residues on soil chemical changes of coastal plains ultisols with winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most soil properties were improved following applications of various crop residues, there is still a need to pursue additional research that will improve understanding on the impact of soil fertility enhancement because the effect could vary greatly between sorghum residues and sorghum bioc...

  18. Biased dispersal of Metrioptera bicolor, a wing dimorphic bush-cricket.

    PubMed

    Heidinger, Ina Monika Margret; Hein, Silke; Feldhaar, Heike; Poethke, Hans-Joachim

    2016-10-24

    In the highly fragmented landscape of central Europe, dispersal is of particular importance as it determines the long-term survival of animal populations. Dispersal not only secures the recolonization of patches where populations went extinct, it may also rescue small populations and thus prevent local extinction events. As dispersal involves different individual fitness costs, the decision to disperse should not be random but context-dependent and often will be biased toward a certain group of individuals (e.g., sex- and wing morph-biased dispersal). Although biased dispersal has far-reaching consequences for animal populations, immediate studies of sex- and wing morph-biased dispersal in orthopterans are very rare. Here, we used a combined approach of morphological and genetic analyses to investigate biased dispersal of Metrioptera bicolor, a wing dimorphic bush-cricket. Our results clearly show wing morph-biased dispersal for both sexes of M. bicolor. In addition, we found sex-biased dispersal for macropterous individuals, but not for micropters. Both, morphological and genetic data, favor macropterous males as dispersal unit of this bush-cricket species. To get an idea of the flight ability of M. bicolor, we compared our morphological data with that of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria, which are very good flyers. Based on our morphological data, we suggest a good flight ability for macropters of M. bicolor, although flying individuals of this species are seldom observed.

  19. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia-nodulating Adesmia bicolor in soils of Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Luciana; Angelini, Jorge; Fabra, Adriana; Malpassi, Rosana

    2013-02-01

    Native perennial legume Adesmia bicolor reveals characteristics that are key to securing persistence under grazing. Literature on the diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia-nodulating A. bicolor in central Argentina is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine phenotypic and genotypic variability as well as biological N-fixation effectiveness in rhizobia isolated from A. bicolor nodules. To this end, repetitive genomic regions were analyzed using ERIC primers. In the greenhouse, plants were grown under a (i) N-fertilized treatment, (ii) N-free control treatment, and (iii) rhizobia inoculation treatment. Dry weight and N-content were analyzed. All isolates belonged to Rhizobium genus and showed high symbiotic effectiveness. The N-content/subterranean N-content ratio in aerial and subterranean parts of inoculated plants was higher than that observed in N-fertilized plants during the vegetative stage. Results from this study demonstrate that symbiosis between native rhizobial strains and A. bicolor is very effective.

  20. Mapping of post-flowering drought resistance traits in grain sorghum: association between QTLs influencing premature senescence and maturity.

    PubMed

    Crasta, O R; Xu, W W; Rosenow, D T; Mullet, J; Nguyen, H T

    1999-10-01

    The identification of genetic factors underlying the complex responses of plants to drought stress provides a solid basis for improving drought resistance. The staygreen character in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a post-flowering drought resistance trait, which makes plants resistant to premature senescence under drought stress during the grainfilling stage. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control premature senescence and maturity traits, and to investigate their association under post-flowering drought stress in grain sorghum. A genetic linkage map was developed using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) obtained from the cross B35 x Tx430, which were scored for 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The RILs and their parental lines were evaluated for post-flowering drought resistance and maturity in four environments. Simple interval mapping identified seven stay-green QTLs and two maturity QTLs. Three major stay-green QTLs (SGA, SGD and SGG) contributed to 42% of the phenotypic variability (LOD 9.0) and four minor QTLs (SGB, SGI. 1, SGI.2, and SGJ) significantly contributed to an additional 25% of the phenotypic variability in stay-green ratings. One maturity QTL (DFB) alone contributed to 40% of the phenotypic variability (LOD 10.0), while the second QTL (DFG) significantly contributed to an additional 17% of the phenotypic variability (LOD 4.9). Composite interval mapping confirmed the above results with an additional analysis of the QTL x Environment interaction. With heritability estimates of 0.72 for stay-green and 0.90 for maturity, the identified QTLs explained about 90% and 63% of genetic variability for stay-green and maturity traits, respectively. Although stay-green ratings were significantly correlated (r = 0.22, P< or =0.05) with maturity, six of the seven stay-green QTLs were independent of the QTLs influencing maturity. Similarly, one maturity QTL (DFB) was

  1. Comparison of trait associations in adapted × exotic matings of sorghum developed by two introgression methods.

    PubMed

    Menkir, A; Bramel-Cox, P J; Witt, M D

    1994-08-01

    The association among six traits in the F2 lines derived from adapted × exotic backcrosses of sorghum developed via two introgression methods was studied using principal component analysis. The first principal component defined a hybrid index in matings of the wild accession ('12-26') but not in matings of the cultivated sorghum genotypes ('Segeolane' and 'SC408'), no matter which adapted parent was used. This component accounted for 27-42% of the total variation in each mating. The 'recombination spindle' was wide in all matings of CK60 and KP9B, which indicated that the relationships among traits were not strong enough to restrict recombination among the parental characters. The index scores of both CK60 and KP9B matings showed clear differentiation of the backcross generations only when the exotic parent was the undomesticated wild accession ('12-26'). None of the distributions of the first principal component scores in any backcross population was bimodal. The frequency of recombinant genotypes derived from a mating was determined by the level of domestication and adaptation of the exotic parent and the genetic background of the adapted parent. Backcrossing to a population (KP9B) was found to be superior to backcrossing to an inbred line (CK60) to produce lines with an improved adapted phenotype.

  2. [Gluten-free cookies prepared with sorghum flour].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for the color and the odour. All the sensorial scores reached values equal or higher than 7 for both samples and most of them scored 8. The results showed the feasibility of including sorghum flour on the manufacture of gluten free cookies.

  3. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  4. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability.

  5. Stability and adaptability of grain sorghum hybrids in the off-season.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Daher, R F; Barbé, T C; Paula, C M; Cardoso, M J; Godinho, V P C

    2014-03-24

    We analyzed productivity data obtained from experiments on grain sorghum conducted in 7 locations of its cultivation in Brazil. A total of 25 hybrids were analyzed, of which 22 were pre-commercial and 3 were cultivars. The Wricke and Purchase et al. methods were highly consistent in identifying individuals with low contributions to genotype x environment interactions. The Lin and Binns method proved to be easily applicable and interpretable but it was not efficient in detecting individuals with specific adaptations. An additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model indicated the suitability of cultivar 1G282 for the cities of Guaíra, Sete Lagoas, and Vilhena, and hybrids 0307087 and 0307091 for the southeast of Goiás. The associations of the Eberhart and Russell method with AMMI indicated that 0307071, 0307131, 0307511, and 0307651 showed adaptability to favorable environments. Hybrid 0009061 stood out as the most adaptable and stable cultivar.

  6. CERES: Cultivating Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Richard

    2014-03-06

    CERES, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has rethought biofuels from the ground up. Their forward thinking approach to overcoming the traditional barriers for biofuels has resulted in creating high biomass feedstocks for switchgrass, sorghum, and miscanthus varietals. These new breeds grow taller and thicker on traditionally low rent farmland that doesn't compete with corn or other food crops.

  7. CERES: Cultivating Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    Hamilton, Richard (CERES, President and CEO)

    2016-07-12

    CERES, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has rethought biofuels from the ground up. Their forward thinking approach to overcoming the traditional barriers for biofuels has resulted in creating high biomass feedstocks for switchgrass, sorghum, and miscanthus varietals. These new breeds grow taller and thicker on traditionally low rent farmland that doesn't compete with corn or other food crops.

  8. [Vegetable resources with agroindustrial potential from Guatemala. Chemical characterization of the pulp and of the seeds of Theobroma bicolor].

    PubMed

    Furlán, A L; Bressani, R

    1999-12-01

    T. bicolor grows wild in certain regions of Guatemala. The fruit is utilized by the rural population for the preparation of drinks from the pulp and the seed, replacing cocoa (T. cocoa). The fruit of T. bicolor used in the present study, measured on the average, 15 cm long and had an average weight, of 752 g. The pulp, the shell, and the seed represented 23.8, 62.5, and 13.7%, respectively, of the fruit weight. The pulp contained on the average, 38 seeds/fruit, which weighted on the average, 1.11 g and were 2.4 cm long. T. cacao seeds weighted 0.62 g and were 1.6 cm long. The protein content (24.42%) and fiber content (30.86%) of the T. bicolor seeds, was greater than those from T. cacao, although fat content was lower (25.48%). The fat of the seeds of T. bicolor has different physicochemical characteristics than the fat of the seeds of T. cacao, such as melting point, iodine value, and saponification number. The seeds of both, T. cacao and T. bicolor, were used for the preparation of a local drink using toasted corn flour, sugar, and anatto flour in equal preparations, with and without toasted whole soybean flours (6.25%). Through a sensory ranking trial, it is established that the drink from T. bicolor and soybeans, was preferred over other preparations with T. cacao. The pulp of T. bicolor with an interesting chemical composition, yielded an aromatic pleasant drink, and from T. bicolor, is an interesting resource for industrialization and for genetic characteristics for T. cacao improvement.

  9. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... placed by a machine appropriate for the insured crop and planting method, at the correct depth, into a... subsequent mechanical incorporation of the sorghum seed is not allowed. 2. Crop Insured (a) The insured...

  11. The Use of Water Exchange for Feeding Rate and Growth Promotion of Shortfin Eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor In Recirculating Water System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq-Spj, N.; Sunaryo, S.; Wirasatriya, A.; Sugianto, D. N.

    2017-02-01

    The shortage of eel’s seed Anguilla spp. and it’s consumption size will induce the hunting of this species. Thus, stocks are critically endangered. Central Java have two indigenious species i.e. A. marmorata and A. bicolor bicolor. These two species will be endanger if management of stock do not conduct properly. The use of water exchange by replacing water volume for feeding rate and growth promotion of Indonesian shortfin eel A. bicolor bicolor in RWS will at least give a basic information in appropriate aquaculture systems and as a part of disaster mitigation of indegenious species extinction. The study used 3 replications and 3 treatments of water exchange, i.e. T1: 50, T2: 100, and T3: 200 % of water removed d-1. The fish were fed with approx. 2.2% dry basis of formulated feed. Tanks with volume of 1 m3 contain a density of approx. 20 kg seed stock of shortfin eel fingerlink size per m3 water in RSW. The result shows that feeding rate among treatments are significantly different (α < 0.001), where T1= 1.62±0.23% d-1, T2 = 1.89±0.06% d-1 and T3 = 1.99±0.06% d-1. Individual and Biomass weight gain increase (IWG: T1= 0.039±0.003, T2= 0.050±0.001, T3= 0.076±0.002 kg and BWG: T1= 7.087±0.443, T2 = 11.051±0.894, T3= 19.722±0.831 kg respectively) by increasing water exchange (α < 0.001). Meanwhile the absolute growth was found higher in individual (IAG) compare to biomass (BAG) and both of them increase by increasing water exchange (α < 0.001). Where for IAG: T1= 55.42±3.69, T2= 71.02±2.40, T3= 106.12±1.98% and BAG: T1= 35.11±1.13, T2= 52.94±6.17, T3= 90.77±3.14% respectively.

  12. Bioaccumulation and distribution of heavy metals in Maize, Oat and Sorghum Plants, grown in industrially polluted region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Violina; Ivanova, Radka; Ivanov, Krasimir

    2010-05-01

    The uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) by maize, oat and sorghum plants cultivated, under field conditions, in industrially polluted soils was studied. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness the crops were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts - roots, stems, leaves and grains, were determined after dry ashing. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A clearly distinguished species peculiarity existed in the accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the studied crops. Sorghum plants accumulated larger heavy metal quantities compared to maize and oat plants, as the major part of heavy metals was retained by roots and a very small part was translocated to epigeous parts. The studied crops may be considered as metal-tolerant crops and may be cultivated on soils which are low, medium or highly contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium, as they do not show a tendency of accumulating these elements in epigeous parts and grains above the maximum permissible concentrations. The possible use of aboveground mass and grains for animal food guarantees the economic expedience upon the selection of these crops. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Project DO-02-87/08.

  13. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  14. The effects of Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Lactobacillus plantarum, applied at ensiling, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    PubMed

    Filya, I; Sucu, E; Karabulut, A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of applying a strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, with or without Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter (DM) corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silages. Corn at the dent stage and sorghum at the flowering stage were harvested. Treatments comprised control (no additives), P. acidipropionici, L. plantarum and a combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum. Fresh forages were sampled prior to ensiling. Bacterial inoculants were applied to the fresh forage at 1.0 x 10(6) colony-forming units per gram. After treatment, the chopped fresh materials were ensiled in 1.5-l anaerobic glass jars equipped with a lid that enabled gas release only. Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 after ensiling, for chemical and microbiological analysis. At the end of the ensiling period, 60 days, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test. The L. plantarum inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of lactic acid than the controls, P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum inoculated silages (P<0.05). The P. acidipropionici did not increase propionic and acetic acid levels of the silages. After the aerobic exposure test, the L. plantarum and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum had produced more CO2 than the controls and the silages inoculated with P. acidipropionici (P<0.05). All silages had high levels of CO2 and high numbers of yeasts and molds in the experiment. Therefore, all silages were deteriorated under aerobic conditions. The P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum were not able to improve the aerobic stability of fast-fermenting silages, because they could not work well in this acidic environment. The results showed that P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum did not improve the

  15. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P < 0.05) as level of concentrate increased in complete rations. No significant difference was found in digestibilities of proximate nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P > 0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P < 0.05) rations in comparison to lambs fed with CR-I ration. Furthermore, CP digestibility was higher by 7.09 and 3.66 % in lambs fed with CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-II (P < 0.05) and CR-III (P > 0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.01) different and progressively increased by 31.46, 48.69, and 82.86 % in ram lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. The N balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.

  16. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  17. Mashing with unmalted sorghum using a novel low temperature enzyme system: Impacts of sorghum grain composition and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Calum P; Casey, John; Cook, David J

    2017-04-15

    Brewing lager beers from unmalted sorghum traditionally requires the use of high temperature mashing and exogenous enzymes to ensure adequate starch conversion. Here, a novel low-temperature mashing system is compared to a more traditional mash in terms of the wort quality produced (laboratory scale) from five unmalted sorghums (2 brewing and 3 non-brewing varieties). The low temperature mash generated worts of comparable quality to those resulting from a traditional energy intensive mash protocol. Furthermore, its performance was less dependant on sorghum raw material quality, such that it may facilitate the use of what were previously considered non-brewing varieties. Whilst brewing sorghums were of lower protein content, protein per se did not correlate with mashing performance. Rather, it was the way in which protein was structured (particularly the strength of protein-starch interactions) which most influenced brewing performance. RVA profile was the easiest way of identifying this characteristic as potentially problematic.

  18. Analysis of chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Solanum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Arias, Eilen; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    The volatile components from the leaves of Solanum bicolor Roemer & Schultes, was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analizad by GC/MS. A total of 20 compounds, representing 96.3 % of the oil, were identified. The dominant compounds were trans-caryophyllene (23.2%), trans-2-pentadecene (22.6%), germacrene D (12.2%), biciclogermecrene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.7%).

  19. Polarization-Sensitive Interneurons in the Optic Lobe of the Desert Ant Cataglyphis bicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labhart, Thomas

    Desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor (Hymenoptera), navigate by using compass information provided by skylight polarization. In this study, electrophysiological recordings were made from polarization-sensitive interneurons (POL-neurons) in the optic lobe of Cataglyphis. The POL-neurons exhibit a characteristic polarization opponency. They receive monochromatic input from the UV receptors of the specialized dorsal rim area of the compound eye. Both polarization opponency and monochromacy are features also found in the POL-neurons of crickets (Orthoptera).

  20. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC-MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-β-caryophyllene (31.42 %), α-pinene (17.11 %), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09 %) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while α-pinene (61.42 %), β-pinene (14.39 %), and myrcene (5.10 %) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Eleven and 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The abilities of these oils to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. The sesquiterpenoids in the oils were found to inhibit AChE activity more strongly than the monoterpenoids in the oils did. It was suggested that the three main components in each essential oil act synergistically against AChE activity. These results show that the essential oils obtained from G. bicolor are a good dietary source of AChE activity inhibition.

  1. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response1

    PubMed Central

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation. PMID:26084921

  2. Transcript profiling of aquaporins during basidiocarp development in Laccaria bicolor ectomycorrhizal with Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-01-01

    Sporocarp formation is part of the reproductive stage in the life cycle of many mycorrhizal macrofungi. Sporocarp formation is accompanied by a transcriptomic switch and profound changes in regulation of the gene families that play crucial roles in the sporocarp initiation and maturation. Since sporocarp growth requires efficient water delivery, in the present study, we investigated changes in transcript abundance of six fungal aquaporin genes that could be cloned from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor strain UAMH8232, during the initiation and development of its basidiocarp. Aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins facilitating the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. In controlled-environment experiments, we induced basidiocarp formation in L. bicolor, which formed ectomycorrhizal associations with white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings. We profiled transcript abundance corresponding to six fungal aquaporin genes at six different developmental stages of basidiocarp growth and development. We also compared physiological parameters of non-inoculated to mycorrhizal seedlings with and without the presence of basidiocarps. Two L. bicolor aquaporins--JQ585592, a functional channel for CO2, NO and H2O2, and JQ585595, a functional water channel--showed the greatest degree of upregulation during development of the basidiocarp. Our findings point to the importance of aquaporin-mediated transmembrane water and CO2 transport during distinct stages of basidiocarp development.

  3. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation.

  4. A remote sensing assessment of pest infestation on sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.

    The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was

  5. Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for Grain Sorghum Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule and fact sheet contains a lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis for grain sorghum ethanol and regulatory determination that grain sorghum ethanol qualifies as a renewable fuel under the RFS program.

  6. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  8. Water as a leaching medium for hydrolysis of sorghum in anaerobic digestion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.; Coble, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of using water to leach hydrolysis products from sorghum used as an anaerobic digestion feedstock. The pH of the leachate had no effect on the cumulative COD measured in the leachate. Milling the sorghum with a three roll mill prior to leaching appeared to slightly increase the hydrolysis of structural carbohydrates in the sorghum.

  9. Comparison of sorghum classes for grain and forage yield and forage nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum represents a broad category of plants that includes those grown primarily for forage (FS) or grain. Sorghum sudan crosses (SS) are also considered sorghum. Each of these groups can be further classified as brown midrib (BMR), nonBMR, photoperiod sensitive (PS), and nonPS. In our study, sor...

  10. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  11. Proceedings of the 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the Hilton Garden Inn, Manhattan, KS from September 1-3, 2015. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry including sorghum research community fr...

  12. Registration of 40 converted germplasm sources from the reinstated sorghum conversion program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty sources of late-maturing sorghum germplasm registered with NPGS as genetic stocks were converted to early-maturing, dwarf-height BC1F3 families and were released by the National Sorghum Foundation, the United Sorghum Checkoff Program, the USDA-ARS, and NuSeed/MMR Genetics in 2014. Conversion ...

  13. Impact of Mashing on Sorghum Proteins and Its Relationship to Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine grain sorghum varieties with a broad range of ethanol fermentation efficiencies were selected to characterize the changes in sorghum protein in digestibility, solubility and microstructure during mashing and to relate those changes to ethanol fermentation quality of sorghum. Mashing reduced in...

  14. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  15. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  16. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  17. Characterization of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is used as bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food. Economical methods for disease prevention and control are valuable for producers. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and surrounding soil with the goal of finding isolates that significantly inhibited sorghum f...

  18. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  19. SORGHUM BIOMASS/FEEDSTOCK GENOMICS RESEARCH FOR BIOENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Steven; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) annotate genes, pathways and regulatory networks identified in the sorghum genome sequence that are important for biomass generation, and (2) identify, map and clarify the function of trait loci that modulate accumulation and quality of biomass in sorghum. Approach: Objective 1: Genes encoding proteins involved in biochemical pathways important for biomass generation and plant composition related to biofuel production (i.e., starch, lignin, sugar, cellulose and hemicellulose) were identified and projected onto biochemical pathways using the database MetaCyc (SorgCyc). The pathway projections provide a baseline of information on sorghum genes involved in biochemical pathways thus aiding our downstream analysis of QTL and traits. In addition, the information on sorghum biochemical pathways in Gramene can be readily compared to information on other cereals and other organisms via Gramene’s comparative mapping tools. This information helped identify gaps in the current knowledge of sorghum biochemistry and identified pathways and genes that may be useful to deploy in sorghum for biomass/bioenergy generation. Objective 2: Grain, biomass, and carbohydrate yields were measured in germplasm and a population consisting of 175 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F5:6) from the cross of BTx623 (a high yielding early flowering grain sorghum) × Rio (a high biomass sweet sorghum). Plant growth parameters were analyzed to obtain a baseline for downstream meta-analysis including plant height, flowering time and tillering, traits that likely modulate carbohydrate partitioning in various tissues and total biomass. Traits that affect grain yield, biomass (i.e. the tissue harvest index and distribution of grain, stem, and leaf weight), the composition of structural and non-structural carbohydrates, and the overall energy gain of the plant were evaluated. A genetic map of this population was created and QTL analysis will

  20. Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island and effect of the isolated fungi on growth of sorghum under salt-treated conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Masahide; Ikeda, Shiho; Iwase, Koji

    2008-07-01

    Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island in Japan was examined. A sampling plot was established in a colony of Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae) on the beach in Tamagusuku, Okinawa Pref, in which eight root samples of I. pes-caprae and three root samples each of Vigna marina (Leguminosae) and Paspalum distichum (Poaceae) were collected. Partial 18S rDNA of AM fungi was amplified from the root samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers NS31 and AM1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HinfI and RsaI for cloned PCR products revealed that two types of Glomus sp., type A and type B, were dominant in the colony. Among them, the fungi of type A were especially dominant near the edge of the colony facing the sea. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the AM fungi of type B are closely related to Glomus intraradices and those of type A are nearly related to type B. From the sequence data, it was also found that type A was further divided into two types, type A1 and A2. One representative strain each of the three types, type A1, A2, and B, propagated from single spore each, was examined for the growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at three different salinity levels, 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl. At the non-salt-treated condition, the type B fungus was the most effective on shoot growth enhancement of the host plant, whereas at the salt-treated conditions, the type A2 fungus was the most effective. An efficient suppression of Na + translocation into the shoot by the examined AM fungi was found. These results suggested that the AM fungi dominant near the sea are adapted to salt-stressed environment to alleviate the salt stress of host plants.