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Sample records for cultivated wild ginseng

  1. Differentiation of the root of Cultivated Ginseng, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Mountain Wild Ginseng using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Yong-Guo; Xu, Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-07-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines. Based on the grown environments and the cultivate method, three kinds of ginseng, Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG) and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are classified. A novel and scientific-oriented method was developed and established to discriminate and identify three kinds of ginseng using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), secondary derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The findings indicated that the relative contents of starch in the CG were more than that in MCG and MWG, while the relative contents of calcium oxalate and lipids in MWG were more than that in CG and MCG, and the relative contents of fatty acid in MCG were more than that in CG and MWG. The hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to data analysis of MWG, CG and MWG, which could be classified successfully. The results demonstrated the macroscopic IR fingerprint method, including FT-IR, secondary derivative IR and 2D-IR, can be applied to discriminate different ginsengs rapidly, effectively and non-destructively.

  2. Metabolomic quality control of commercial Asian ginseng, and cultivated and wild American ginseng using (1)H NMR and multi-step PCA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Xu, Jin; Ghebrezadik, Helen; Hylands, Peter J

    2015-10-10

    Ginseng, mainly Asian ginseng and American ginseng, is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world . However, the existing quality control method is not adequate: adulteration is often seen in the market. In this study, 31 batches of ginseng from Chinese stores were analyzed using (1)H NMR metabolite profiles together with multi-step principal component analysis. The most abundant metabolites, sugars, were excluded from the NMR spectra after the first principal component analysis, in order to reveal differences contributed by less abundant metabolites. For the first time, robust, distinctive and representative differences of Asian ginseng from American ginseng were found and the key metabolites responsible were identified as sucrose, glucose, arginine, choline, and 2-oxoglutarate and malate. Differences between wild and cultivated ginseng were identified as ginsenosides. A substitute cultivated American ginseng was noticed. These results demonstrated that the combination of (1)H NMR and PCA is effective in quality control of ginseng.

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-02

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements.

  4. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    PubMed

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  5. [A crisis of ginseng capital and the countermeasures of the ginseng-cultivating people during Daehan empire].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong Pil

    2009-12-01

    This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.

  6. Soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng at local level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choonsig; Choo, Gap Chul; Cho, Hyun Seo; Lim, Jong Teak

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying suitable site for growing mountain-cultivated ginseng is a concern for ginseng producers. This study was conducted to evaluate the soil properties of cultivation sites for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Hamyang-gun, which is one of the most well-known areas for mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea. Methods The sampling plots from 30 sites were randomly selected on or near the center of the ginseng growing sites in July and August 2009. Soil samples for the soil properties analysis were collected from the top 20 cm at five randomly selected points. Results Mountain-cultivated ginseng was grown in soils that varied greatly in soil properties on coniferous, mixed, and deciduous broad-leaved stand sites of elevations between > 200 m and < 1,000 m. The soil bulk density was higher in Pinus densiflora than in Larix leptolepis stand sites and higher in the < 700-m sites than in > 700-m sites. Soil pH was unaffected by the type of stand sites (pH 4.35–4.55), whereas the high-elevation sites of > 700 m were strongly acidified, with pH 4.19. The organic carbon and total nitrogen content were lower in the P. densiflora stand sites than in the deciduous broad-leaved stand sites. Available phosphorus was low in all of the stand sites. The exchangeable cation was generally higher in the mixed and low-elevation sites than in the P. densiflora and high-elevation sites, respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that mountain-cultivated ginseng in Korea is able to grow in very acidic, nutrient-depleted forest soils. PMID:25535480

  7. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing... grades would replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in...

  8. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised General... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of...

  9. [Cropping system and research strategies in Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Xu, Jiang; Dong, Lin-lin; Li, Xi-wen; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-09-01

    Panax ginseng is the king of herbs and plays important roles in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, we summarized the development of ginseng cultivation in China and other main countries, analyzed the effects of ecological factors of soil and climate on ginseng distribution, and investigated the characteristic of main cultivation patterns (conversion of forest to cultivate ginseng soils, cultivated ginseng in the farmland and wild nursery). Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of cultivated ginseng in the farmland should be strive to develop; pollution-free cultivation and studies of continuous cropping obstacles should be carried out; ginseng varieties suited to ecological environment of farmland should be bred using modern biotechnology.

  10. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil. PMID:27187071

  11. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea.

  12. Effects of cultivation ages and modes on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soil of Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chunping; Yang, Limin; Zhang, Lianxue; Liu, Cuijing; Han, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng cannot be cultivated on the same land consecutively for an extended period, and the underlying mechanism regarding microorganisms is still being explored. Methods Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and BIOLOG methods were used to evaluate the microbial genetic and functional diversity associated with the P. ginseng rhizosphere soil in various cultivation ages and modes. Results The analysis of microbial diversity using PCR-DGGE showed that microbial communities were significantly variable in composition, of which six bacterial phyla and seven fungal classes were detected in P. ginseng soil. Among them, Proteobacteria and Hypocreales dominated. Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne pathogen, was found in all P. ginseng soil samples except R0. The results from functional diversity suggested that the microbial metabolic diversity of fallow soil abandoned in 2003 was the maximum and transplanted soil was higher than direct-seeding soil and the forest soil uncultivated P. ginseng, whereas the increase in cultivation ages in the same mode led to decreases in microbial diversity in P. ginseng soil. Carbohydrates, amino acids, and polymers were the main carbon sources utilized. Furthermore, the microbial diversity index and multivariate comparisons indicated that the augmentation of P. ginseng cultivation ages resulted in decreased bacterial diversity and increased fungal diversity, whereas microbial diversity was improved strikingly in transplanted soil and fallow soil abandoned for at least one decade. Conclusion The key factors for discontinuous P. ginseng cultivation were the lack of balance in rhizosphere microbial communities and the outbreak of soilborne diseases caused by the accumulation of its root exudates. PMID:26843819

  13. Effects of Cultured Wild-Ginseng Root and Xylitol on Fermentation of Kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kun-Jong; Sung, Jung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Chung, Heajung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of cultured wild ginseng root (0.05%, 0.1% v/w) and xylitol in kimchi. The fermented characteristics of kimchi were investigated during 28 days of fermentation at 4°C. The pH value in the sample with the cultured wild ginseng root was higher than that of control group. The total acidity in the sugar groups (SG groups) was higher than that of xylitol groups (XG groups). Comparing total bacterial count, XG groups were lower than SG groups, regardless of the additional ratio of the cultured wild ginseng root. Reducing sugar of XG groups decreased more slowly than SG groups for seven days; glucose and fructose of XG groups were lower than the control group. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in groups with cultured wild ginseng root than in control. In the result of sensory evaluation, XG groups were more preferred than other groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that cultured wild-ginseng root and xylitol have a positive effect on the quality of kimchi, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant functions. PMID:24772409

  14. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

  15. Study on nondestructive discrimination of genuine and counterfeit wild ginsengs using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Fan, Y.; Peng, Z.; Ding, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the nondestructive discrimination between genuine wild ginsengs and the counterfeit ones by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed. Both discriminant analysis and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) were applied to the model establishment for discrimination. Optimal modeling wavelengths were determined based on the anomalous spectral information of counterfeit samples. Through principal component analysis (PCA) of various wild ginseng samples, genuine and counterfeit, the cumulative percentages of variance of the principal components were obtained, serving as a reference for principal component (PC) factor determination. Discriminant analysis achieved an identification ratio of 88.46%. With sample' truth values as its outputs, a three-layer BP-ANN model was built, which yielded a higher discrimination accuracy of 100%. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate that NIRS combined with BP-ANN classification algorithm performs better on ginseng discrimination than discriminant analysis, and can be used as a rapid and nondestructive method for the detection of counterfeit wild ginsengs in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  16. NanoESI-MS-based lipidomics to discriminate between cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-03-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in Asia, including Korea and China. In the present study lipid profiling of two officially registered cultivars (P. ginseng 'Chunpoong' and P. ginseng 'Yunpoong') was performed at different cultivation ages (5 and 6 years) and on different parts (tap roots, lateral roots, and rhizomes) using nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). In total, 30 compounds including galactolipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and ginsenosides were identified. Among them, triacylglycerol 54:6 (18:2/18:2/18:2), phosphatidylglycerol 34:3 (16:0/18:3), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol 36:4 (18:2/18:2), phosphatidic acid species 36:4 (18:2/18:2), and 34:1 (16:0/18:1) were selected as biomarkers to discriminate cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts. In addition, an unknown P. ginseng sample was successfully predicted by applying validated partial least squares projection to latent structures regression models. This is the first study regarding the identification of intact lipid species from P. ginseng and to predict cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of P. ginseng using nanoESI-MS-based lipidomic profiling with a multivariate statistical analysis.

  17. Identification of suitable sites for mountain ginseng cultivation using GIS and geo-temperature.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore an accurate site identification technique using a geographic information system (GIS) and geo-temperature (gT) for locating suitable sites for growing cultivated mountain ginseng (CMG; Panax ginseng), which is highly sensitive to the environmental conditions in which it grows. The study site was Jinan-gun, South Korea. The spatial resolution for geographic data was set at 10 m × 10 m, and the temperatures for various climatic factors influencing CMG growth were calculated by averaging the 3-year temperatures obtained from the automatic weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Identification of suitable sites for CMG cultivation was undertaken using both a conventional method and a new method, in which the gT was added as one of the most important factors for crop cultivation. The results yielded by the 2 methods were then compared. When the gT was added as an additional factor (new method), the proportion of suitable sites identified decreased by 0.4 % compared with the conventional method. However, the proportion matching real CMG cultivation sites increased by 3.5 %. Moreover, only 68.2 % corresponded with suitable sites identified using the conventional factors; i.e., 31.8 % were newly detected suitable sites. The accuracy of GIS-based identification of suitable CMG cultivation sites improved by applying the temperature factor (i.e., gT) in addition to the conventionally used factors.

  18. Discrimination of cultivation ages and cultivars of ginseng leaves using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Ahn, Myung Suk; Park, Jong Suk; Liu, Jang Ryol; In, Dong Su; Min, Byung Whan; Kim, Suk Weon

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether Fourier transform (FT)-IR spectral analysis combined with multivariate analysis of whole-cell extracts from ginseng leaves can be applied as a high-throughput discrimination system of cultivation ages and cultivars, a total of total 480 leaf samples belonging to 12 categories corresponding to four different cultivars (Yunpung, Kumpung, Chunpung, and an open-pollinated variety) and three different cultivation ages (1 yr, 2 yr, and 3 yr) were subjected to FT-IR. The spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. A dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering analysis of the FT-IR spectral data on ginseng leaves showed that leaf samples were initially segregated into three groups in a cultivation age-dependent manner. Then, within the same cultivation age group, leaf samples were clustered into four subgroups in a cultivar-dependent manner. The overall prediction accuracy for discrimination of cultivars and cultivation ages was 94.8% in a cross-validation test. These results clearly show that the FT-IR spectra combined with multivariate analysis from ginseng leaves can be applied as an alternative tool for discriminating of ginseng cultivars and cultivation ages. Therefore, we suggest that this result could be used as a rapid and reliable F1 hybrid seed-screening tool for accelerating the conventional breeding of ginseng.

  19. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea).

    PubMed

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  20. The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, In-Ho; So, Seung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world’s largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the

  1. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

  2. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  3. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    PubMed

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  4. Improvement of Ginseng by In Vitro Culture: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Panax belongs to the taxonomic family Araliaceae and consists of many species that are commonly referred to as ginseng. The plants are perennial herbs that grow mostly in the wild and only a few are cultivated. Geographically, they are mainly distributed in North America and North East Asi...

  5. Persimmon vinegar ripening with the mountain-cultivated ginseng ingestion reduces blood lipids and lowers inflammatory cytokines in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Jeon, Byung-Duk; Ryu, Sungpil

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the vinegar, which is made of 4-year-old mountain-cultivated ginseng ripened into 4-year-matured persimmon vinegar, on the blood lipids level and inflammatory cytokines concentration in obese female adolescents. [Methods] Subjects ingested the vinegar, so-called 'mountain-cultivated ginseng persimmon vinegar (MPV)', without meals every day for 6 weeks with activities control. Subjects were grouped into control (CON), persimmon vinegar (PV), and MPV with 10 people in each group. Blood lipids, triglyceride (TG), total-cholesterol (TC), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed. Also, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were analyzed for the hepatotoxicity. Blood cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) were analyzed. [Results] Subjects showed a high reduction in body weight and body fat. Their blood lipid level was effectively improved, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokine was suppressed as well, except for TNF-α. However, the change ratio of the cytokines was high in PV and MPV. Such results were similar to those from research subjects who took persimmon vinegar only (PV), but the effect of the vinegar (MPV) was more remarkable. Besides, this mixture was found to have no effect on the hepatotoxicity. [Conclusion] The significance of this study is that all the experiments were conducted without controlling research subjects' daily lives, and it is suggested that the vinegar may be recommended as a kind of health supplement food to suppress obesity. Especially, since these two products are traditional foods of Korean people, which have been taken for ages, it is expected that the fusing of two foods may be better applied to ordinary people who are concerned about obesity. PMID:25960949

  6. Microsatellite variability among wild and cultivated hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Jakse, Jernej; Satovic, Zlatko; Javornik, Branka

    2004-10-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a dioecious perennial plant native to the northern hemisphere cultivated for its use in the brewing industry. To investigate the genetic diversity present in wild hop accessions in comparison with cultivated hops, microsatellite marker variation was assessed at four loci in 124 accessions of wild (from Europe, Asia and from North America) and cultivated (varieties and breeding lines) hops. A total of 63 alleles were identified, with an average of 15.7 alleles per locus and an average PIC of 0.64 over four loci. The average number of alleles per locus in groups of accessions ranged from 5.75 to 8.30, with the highest number detected in groups of wild hops either of European (EU) or North American (NA) origin. Accessions from NA revealed the highest number of unique alleles indicating the high diversity present in this gene pool. Cluster analysis based on the D(D) or D(sw) distance matrix divided accessions into 10 different clusters, which reflect the relationship among geographically diverse wild accessions and hop cultivars. The highest genetic differences were found between NA wild accessions, forming one distant cluster, and all the other accessions. The differentiation between European wild and cultivated accessions was revealed by PCoA based on the D(D) distance matrix and by AMOVA results. Cultivated hops differ significantly from wild ones, although most of the variability was found within groups. The molecular variances within groups of cultivated and wild hops were homogeneous, suggesting that a similar level of molecular variability is found in both groups of accessions. The analysis of allele polymorphism and of allele sequences showed that hop germplasm can be differentiated to NA and EU geographic types according to the differences of allele sizes at three loci or by the specific microsatellite repeat type at one locus. The analysis also indicates the different evolutionary dynamics and complex mutations of microsatellite

  7. Oral administration of fermented wild ginseng ameliorates DSS-induced acute colitis by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and protects intestinal epithelial barrier

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Myeong A; Woo, Jong Kyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Yeong Su; Choi, Seungho; Jang, Young Saeng; Lee, Taek Hwan; Jung, Kyung Hoon; Kang, Dong Kyu; Hurh, Byung Seok; Kim, Dae Eung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been widely used for therapeutic and preventive purposes for thousands of years. However, orally administered ginseng has very low bioavailability and absorption in the intestine. Therefore, fermented ginseng was developed to enhance the beneficial effects of ginseng in the intestine. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of fermented wild ginseng (FWG). We found that FWG significantly alleviated the severity of colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, and decreased expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colonic tissue. Moreover, we observed that FWG suppressed the infiltration of macrophages in DSS-induced colitis. FWG also attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus. Our data indicate that FWG contains anti-inflammatory activity via NF-κB inactivation and could be useful for treating colitis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 419-425] PMID:25936779

  8. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of root transcriptomes from different varieties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer grown in different environments.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Gang; Zhang, Lei; Du, YaNan; Yu, RenBo; Liu, XinMin; Cao, FangRui; Chang, Qi; Deng, XingWang; Xia, Mian; He, Hang

    2015-11-01

    Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is an important traditional herb in eastern Asia. It contains ginsenosides, which are primary bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Although ginseng has been cultivated since at least the Ming dynasty to increase production, cultivated ginseng has lower quantities of ginsenosides and lower disease resistance than ginseng grown under natural conditions. We extracted root RNA from six varieties of fifth-year P. ginseng cultivars representing four different growth conditions, and performed Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 163,165,706 raw reads were obtained and used to generate a de novo transcriptome that consisted of 151,763 contigs (76,336 unigenes), of which 100,648 contigs (66.3%) were successfully annotated. Differential expression analysis revealed that most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated (246 out of 258, 95.3%) in ginseng grown under natural conditions compared with that grown under artificial conditions. These DEGs were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms including response to stimuli and localization. In particular, some key ginsenoside biosynthesis-related genes, including HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS), mevalonate kinase (MVK), and squalene epoxidase (SE), were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. Moreover, a high proportion of disease resistance-related genes were upregulated in wild-grown ginseng. This study is the first transcriptome analysis to compare wild-grown and cultivated ginseng, and identifies genes that may produce higher ginsenoside content and better disease resistance in the wild; these genes may have the potential to improve cultivated ginseng grown in artificial environments.

  9. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production.

  10. Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng?

    PubMed Central

    Yun, T K; Choi, S Y; Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    In the light of experimental results, two case-control studies and one cohort study in a population of ginseng cultivation area were conducted to confirm whether ginseng has any anticarcinogenic effect on human cancers. All participants were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire to obtain the information on demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and ginseng intake. In 905 pairs case-control study, 62% had a history of ginseng intake compared to 75% of the controls, a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). The odds ratio (OR) for cancer in relation to ginseng intake was 0.56. In extended case-control study with 1987 pairs, the ORs for cancer were 0.37 in fresh ginseng extract users, 0.57 in white ginseng extract users, 0.30 in white ginseng extract users, 0.30 in white ginseng powder users, and 0.20 in red ginseng users. Those who took fresh ginseng slices, fresh ginseng juice, and white ginseng tea, however, did not show decrease in the risk. Overall, the risk decreased as the frequency and duration of ginseng intake increased. With respect to the site of cancer, the ORs for cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colorectum, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung and ovary were significantly reduced by ginseng intake. Smokers with ginseng intake showed lower ORs for cancers of lung, lip, oral cavity and pharynx and liver than those without ginseng intake. In 5 yr follow- up cohort study conducted in the ginseng cultivation area, Kangwha-eup, ginseng intakers had significantly lower risk than non-intakers. As for the type of ginseng, cancer risk significantly decreased among intakers of fresh ginseng extract, alone or together with other ginseng preparations. Among 24 red ginseng intakers, no cancer death occurred during the follow-up period. The risk for stomach and lung cancers was significantly reduced by ginseng intake, showing a statistically significant dose-response relationship in each follow-up year. In

  11. TLC profiling, nutritional and pharmacological properties of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Załuski, Daniel; Smolarz, Helena D

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and pharmacological activity of E. senticosus cultivated in Poland were investigated. Studies included the assay of TPC and TFC, 2D-TLC identification of phenolic acids, HPTLC-detection of antioxidants, and antioxidative, antileukemic, anti-MMPs properties of E. senticosus. The ethanolic extracts from the roots, spring leaves, fruits, and the chloroform extract from the roots were tested. The richest in polyphenols are the fresh fruits (57.5 mg/g), while in flavonoids the spring leaves (27.4 mg/g). The antioxidant ability both in extracts and single phenolic constituents were checked out by the measurement of the DPPH radical scavenging activity, iron (II) chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. Using HPTLC-DB test eleutherosides B and E1 have been found as the phenolic antioxidants. Thirty six percent of apoptotic cells have been observed in Jurkatt 45 line by the treatment with the chloroform extract from the roots. Only the chloroform extract from the roots and the ethanolic one from the dried fruits have shown the inhibitory activities against MMPs. It is noteworthy, that our studies have been done for the first time, and the plant material has come from another geographical zone (Poland) than native (Asia).

  12. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-10-10

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology.

  13. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J.C.B.; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J.; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L. Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M.; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. PMID:25300236

  14. Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sou...

  15. Karyological features of wild and cultivated forms of myrtle (Myrtus communis, Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Serçe, S; Ekbiç, E; Suda, J; Gündüz, K; Kiyga, Y

    2010-03-09

    Myrtle is an evergreen shrub or small tree widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. In Turkey, both cultivated and wild forms, differing in plant and fruit size and fruit composition, can be found. These differences may have resulted from the domestication of the cultivated form over a long period of time. We investigated whether wild and cultivated forms of myrtle differ in karyological features (i.e., number of somatic chromosomes and relative genome size). We sampled two wild forms and six cultivated types of myrtle. All the samples had the same chromosome number (2n = 2x = 22). The results were confirmed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Only negligible variation (approximately 3%) in relative fluorescence intensity was observed among the different myrtle accessions, with wild genotypes having the smallest values. We concluded that despite considerable morphological differentiation, cultivated and wild myrtle genotypes in Turkey have similar karyological features.

  16. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  17. Genetic Structure of Wild and Cultivated Olives in the Central Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    BALDONI, LUCIANA; TOSTI, NICOLA; RICCIOLINI, CLAUDIA; BELAJ, ANGJELINA; ARCIONI, SERGIO; PANNELLI, GIORGIO; GERMANA, MARIA ANTONIETTA; MULAS, MAURIZIO; PORCEDDU, ANDREA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Olive cultivars and their wild relatives (oleasters) represent two botanical varieties of Olea europaea subsp. europaea (respectively europaea and sylvestris). Olive cultivars have undergone human selection and their area of diffusion overlaps that of oleasters. Populations of genuine wild olives seem restricted to isolated areas of Mediterranean forests, while most other wild-looking forms of olive may include feral forms that escaped cultivation. • Methods The genetic structure of wild and cultivated olive tree populations was evaluated by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers at a microscale level in one continental and two insular Italian regions. • Key Results The observed patterns of genetic variation were able to distinguish wild from cultivated populations and continental from insular regions. Island oleasters were highly similar to each other and were clearly distinguishable from those of continental regions. Ancient cultivated material from one island clustered with the wild plants, while the old plants from the continental region clustered with the cultivated group. • Conclusions On the basis of these results, we can assume that olive trees have undergone a different selection/domestication process in the insular and mainland regions. The degree of differentiation between oleasters and cultivated trees on the islands suggests that all cultivars have been introduced into these regions from the outside, while the Umbrian cultivars have originated either by selection from local oleasters or by direct introduction from other regions. PMID:16935868

  18. Microsatellite analysis of genetic relationships between wild and cultivated melons in Northwest and Central China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianbin; Wang, Panqiao; Li, Qiong; Su, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The genetic relationships between the wild and cultivated melon accessions from Northwest and Central China were dissected using 22 microsatellite markers. A total of 153 alleles, a high level of expected heterozygosity (0.669), and a low observed heterozygosity (0.156) were detected in the total panel. Differences on the allelic composition and heterozygosity levels were found between the two accession types and the wild accessions revealed a higher level of genetic diversity. The UPGMA analysis of the total panel showed that (a) most wild accessions from Northwest China were clustered independently from the cultivated accessions, and (b) the wild and cultivated accessions from Central China presented a high genetic closeness and showed a divergence from those of Northwest China. Similar positioning of the most accessions was observed with the principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis. Pairwise FST and Nei's genetic distance quantified the genetic differentiation among the different accession types and further verified our findings. We concluded that the wild melons from Northwest China have a distinctive genetic background and could be the true wild forms, while the wild melons from Central China showed a close relationship to the local cultivars and could be a return from the cultivated melons in the same region. Our results offer an insight into the genetic resources of the main melon producing regions in China, which is essential for maximizing utilization of the traits of interest in wild melons.

  19. De novo and comparative transcriptome analysis of cultivated and wild spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we performed deep transcriptome sequencing for nine spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., 2n = 2× = 12) accessions, three from cultivated S. oleracea, three from wild S. turkestanica and three from wild S. tetrandra, using the Illumina sequencing technology. A total of approximately 100 mill...

  20. Distinction between wild and cultivated enset (Ensete ventricosum) gene pools in Ethiopia using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Birmeta, Genet; Nybom, Hilde; Bekele, Endashaw

    2004-01-01

    In southwest Ethiopia, the cultivation area of Ensete ventricosum (enset) overlaps with the natural distribution area of this species. Analyses of genetic diversity were undertaken using RAPD to provide information for conservation strategies as well as evidence of possible gene flow between the different gene pools, which can be of interest for future improvement of cultivated enset. The extent of RAPD variation in wild enset was investigated in 5 populations in the Bonga area (Kefficho administrative region) and 9 cultivated clones. Comparisons were also made with some Musa samples of potential relevance for crop improvement. Nine oligonucleotide primers amplified 72 polymorphic loci. Population differentiation was estimated with the Shannon index (G'(ST)=0.10), Nei's G(ST) (0.12) and AMOVA (Phi(ST)=0.12), and appears to be relatively low when compared with outbreeding, perennial species in general. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) similarly indicated low population differentiation, and also demonstrated that cultivated clones essentially clustered distinctly from wild enset samples, suggesting that the present-day cultivated enset clones have been introduced to domestication from a limited number of wild progenitors. In addition, subsequent gene flow between wild and cultivated enset may have been prohibited by differences between modes of propagation and harvesting time; cultivated enset is propagated vegetatively through sucker production and the plant is generally harvested before maturity or flower set, thereby hindering pollination by wild enset or vice versa. A significant correlation was not found between genetic and geographical distances. The relatively high total RAPD diversity suggests that wild enset populations in the Bonga area harbour genetic variability which could potentially act as a source for useful or rare genes in the improvement of cultivated enset. As expected, E. ventricosum was clearly differentiated from

  1. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-02-02

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  2. American ginseng

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood sugar after a meal in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, larger doses do not seem to have ... pre-meal blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Different American ginseng products may have different effects. ...

  3. Survival and flowering of hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota) in Danish grasslands.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Shim, Sang In

    2007-01-01

    Many crop species are able to hybridize with related weedy or wild relatives, which could lead to transfer of cultivar genes, and among them transgenes, into wild populations. It is not clear, however, whether the hybrids and their descendants are able to survive and reproduce in natural habitats, as inherited cultivar traits may be maladaptive under such conditions. To test this, we produced hybrid (F(1)) seeds by controlled crosses between wild [see text for formula] and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. carota and ssp. sativa, respectively) and sowed them into three Danish grasslands of different age, in parallel with seeds of wild carrots. Replicate plots were sown in fall and spring. Survival and flowering of the emerging plants were monitored for the following three years. Both hybrid and wild carrots survived and flowered in highest frequency at a recently disturbed site, and much less at two older sites. Hybrids emerged in higher proportions than wild carrots in the first year and survived to similar or slightly lower frequencies at the end of the experiment. Hybrids flowered as frequently or slightly less frequently than wild plants, and developed fewer and smaller umbels. Despite a somewhat lower reproductive potential compared to wild carrots, first generation hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots are likely to survive and produce offspring in natural grasslands in Denmark. This, together with other studies, suggests that cultivar genes may transfer relatively easily into wild carrot populations.

  4. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition of Wild and Cultivated Sunflowers and Biological Activity against an Insect Pest.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Spring, Otmar; Conrad, Jürgen; Cook, Leonard W; Palmquist, Debra E; Foley, Michael E

    2015-04-29

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds, and insects. Across a broad range of Helianthus annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from disc florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers and also between distinct groups of inbreds used to produce sunflower hybrids. Discriminant function analysis showed the presence and relative abundance of argophyllone B, niveusin B, and 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxyfruticin were usually (75%) effective at classifying wild sunflowers, cultivated inbreds, and hybrids. Argophyllone B reduced the larval mass of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum, by >30%, but only at a dose greater than that found in florets. Low doses of mixed extracts from cultivated florets produced a similar (≈40%) reduction in larval mass, suggesting combinations of sesquiterpene lactones act additively. Although the results support a role for sesquiterpene lactones in herbivore defense of cultivated sunflowers, additional information is needed to use these compounds purposefully in breeding.

  5. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-06-20

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.

  6. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding.

  7. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  8. Assessment of nutritional quality of wild and cultivated Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, F Lucy; Oyetayo, V O

    2009-10-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju, cultivated on corncobs and obtained from the wild, was assessed by nutritional indices. The protein efficiency ratios obtained for the rats fed stalk diet (2.16) and that of rats fed native P. sajor-caju cap diet (2.14) were not significantly different (P >or= .05) from one another but were lower than the casein control (2.50), whereas the value for the wild cap diet-fed rats (2.99) was significantly higher (P or= .05) from the control. Biochemical parameters analyzed include serum albumin, total protein, and hemoglobin. Serum albumin concentrations of both the cultivated and wild cap diet-fed rats were not significantly different (P >or= .05) from that of the control, whereas those of the two stalk diet-fed groups were significantly higher (P wild cap diet than in all other treatment groups. Serum total protein values of rats fed cultivated stalk and wild cap diets were significantly higher (P wild cap diet than in all other treatment groups. Total protein values of rats fed cultivated stalk and wild cap diets were significantly higher than those of other groups. The preceding highlights the importance of cultivated and native P. sajor-caju as sources of high-quality protein that could contribute to nutritional adequacy in human diets.

  9. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dongshuang; Li, Mingxia; Shi, Lianxuan

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars. PMID:27442489

  10. [Research on life history and phenological period of wild-stimulated cultivated Gastrodia elata f. elata in Guizhou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo-hua; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Zhi; Luo, Fu-lai; Liu, Hong-chang; Huang, Ming-jin; Wang, Hua-lei; Li, Jin-ling; Luo, Chun-li; Wen, Ping; Chen, Wen-yu

    2014-11-01

    In order to get to know the imitation of wild Gastrodia elata in life history and phenology period, by G. elata f. elata forest wild simulated cultivation in Dafang county, Guizhou province, observing and recording its morphological characteristics of each growth and development stage. This experiment summarized the law of its life history over 24 months, amplified the characteristics of each 5 phenology periods over the sexual and asexual reproduction of wild simulated cultivated G. elata f. elata in Guizhou. Which the results could clear the process of wild simulated cultivated G. elata f. elata in Guizhou, and provide a theoretical support for the standard technical of the simulated wild G. elata.

  11. [Study on Different Parts of Wild and Cultivated Gentiana Rigescens with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun-xia; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Zuo, Zhi-tian; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Qing-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their preparations have a long history. With the deepening of the research, the market demand is increasing. However, wild resources are so limited that it can not meet the needs of the market. The development of wild and cultivated samples and research on accumulation dynamics of chemical component are of great significance. In order to compare composition difference of different parts (root, stem, and leaf) of wild and cultivated G. rigescens, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectra were used to analyze and evaluate. The second derivative spectra of 60 samples and the rate of affinity (the match values) were measured automatically using the appropriate software (Omnic 8.0). The results showed that the various parts of wild and cultivated G. rigescens. were high similar the peaks at 1732, 1 643, 1 613, 1 510, 1 417, 1 366, 1 322, 1 070 cm(-1) were the characteristic peak of esters, terpenoids and saccharides, respectively. Moreover, the shape and peak intensity were more distinct in the second derivative spectrum of samples. In the second derivative spectrum range of 1 800-600 cm(-1), the fingerprint characteristic peak of samples and gentiopicroside standards were 1 679, 1 613, 1 466, 1 272, 1 204, 1 103, 1 074, 985, 935 cm(-1). The characteristic peak intensity of gentiopicroside of roots of wild and cultivated samples at 1 613 cm(-1) (C-C) was higher than stems and leaves which indicated the higher content of gentiopicroside in root than in stem and leaves. Stems of wild samples at 1 521, 1 462 and 1 452 cm(-1) are the skeletal vibration peak of benzene ring of lignin, and the stem of cultivated sample have stronger peak than other samples which showed that rich lignin in stems. The iInfrared spectrum of samples were similar with the average spectral of root of wild samples, and significant difference was found for the correlation between second derivative spectrum of samples

  12. The relationship between genetic and chemotypic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.).

    PubMed

    Schlag, Erin M; McIntosh, Marla S

    2013-09-01

    Ginseng is one of the world's most important herbals used as an adaptogen and a cure for an impressively large range of ailments. Differences in the medicinal properties of ginseng roots have been attributed to variation in ginsenoside composition. In this study, the association between genetic and chemotypic profiles of wild and cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots grown in Maryland was investigated. Ginseng roots were classified into chemotypes based on their relative composition of Re and Rg1. Genetic profiles of these roots were determined from the analysis of 38 polymorphic RAPD markers and used for a cluster analysis of genetic similarities. The close correspondence between chemotype and genetic cluster provides the first DNA-based evidence for the genetic basis of ginsenoside composition. Results of this research are significant for plant breeding and conservation, phytochemical research, and clinical and pharmacological studies. Also, the correlation between RAPD markers and chemotype indicates the potential to use RAPD markers as a reliable and practical method for identification and certification of ginseng roots.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  14. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Tajalli, Faezeh; Malekzadeh, Khalil; Soltanian, Hadi; Janpoor, Javad; Rezaeian, Sharareh; Pourianfar, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation. PMID:26413059

  15. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  16. Variation in β-amylase activity and thermostability in Tibetan annual wild and cultivated barley genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-tao; Chen, Tian-long; Zhang, Bing-lin; Wu, De-zhi; Huang, Ye-chang; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2014-09-01

    β-Amylase activity (BAA) and thermostability (BAT) are important traits for malt quality. In this study, 138 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 20 cultivated genotypes differing in BAA were planted and analyzed in 2009 and 2012. Significant differences were detected among genotypes in BAA and BAT. The cultivated genotypes had a mean BAA of 1137.6 U/g and a range of from 602.1 to 1407.5 U/g, while the wild accessions had a mean of 1517.9 U/g and a range of from 829.7 to 2310.0 U/g. The cultivated genotypes had a mean relative residual β-amylase activity (RRBAA) of 61.6% and a range of from 22.2% to 82.3%, while the wild barleys had a mean of 57.8% and a range of from 21.9% to 96.1%. Moreover, there was a significant difference among genotypes in the response of RRBAA to the temperature and duration of heat treatment. The wild barleys had wider variation in BAA and BAT than cultivated genotypes.

  17. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  18. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus Species into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sunflower lacks a sufficient level of resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, but abundant resistance in perennial Helianthus species has been confirmed. The objectives of this project were to transfer Sclerotinia head and stalk rot resistance from resistant wild perennial hexa...

  19. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  20. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the different tissues between the cultivated and wild tomato

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Minjia; Jin, Weibo; Nan, Xuying; He, Ping-an

    2017-01-01

    Although domesticated tomato is cultivated by wild tomato, there are a lot of differences between cultivated tomato and wild tomato, such as shape, physiological function and life history. Many studies show that wild tomato has better salt resistance and drought resistance. In addition to, domesticated tomato’s fruit is bigger and has more nutritious than wild tomato. The different features are closely related to differentially expressed genes. We identified 126 up-regulated differentially expressed genes and 87 down-regulated differentially expressed genes in cultivated tomato and wild tomato by RNA-Seq. These differentially expressed genes may be associated with salt resistance, drought resistance and fruit nutrition. These differentially expressed genes also further highlight the large-scale reconstruction between wild and cultivated species. In this paper, we mainly study GO enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes. After GO and pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched GO annotations and pathways were identified for the differentially expressed genes. What’s more, we also identified long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs in the two species and analyzed its essential features. In addition to, we construct a co-expression network of long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs, and annotate mRNAs associated with long non-coding RNAs as target genes, and speculate the regulation function of long non-coding RNAs. In total, our results reveal the effects of artificial and natural selection on tomato’s transcript, providing scientific basis for tomato’s research in the future. PMID:28278186

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the different tissues between the cultivated and wild tomato.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Geng, Lili; Lu, Minjia; Jin, Weibo; Nan, Xuying; He, Ping-An; Yao, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Although domesticated tomato is cultivated by wild tomato, there are a lot of differences between cultivated tomato and wild tomato, such as shape, physiological function and life history. Many studies show that wild tomato has better salt resistance and drought resistance. In addition to, domesticated tomato's fruit is bigger and has more nutritious than wild tomato. The different features are closely related to differentially expressed genes. We identified 126 up-regulated differentially expressed genes and 87 down-regulated differentially expressed genes in cultivated tomato and wild tomato by RNA-Seq. These differentially expressed genes may be associated with salt resistance, drought resistance and fruit nutrition. These differentially expressed genes also further highlight the large-scale reconstruction between wild and cultivated species. In this paper, we mainly study GO enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes. After GO and pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched GO annotations and pathways were identified for the differentially expressed genes. What's more, we also identified long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs in the two species and analyzed its essential features. In addition to, we construct a co-expression network of long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs, and annotate mRNAs associated with long non-coding RNAs as target genes, and speculate the regulation function of long non-coding RNAs. In total, our results reveal the effects of artificial and natural selection on tomato's transcript, providing scientific basis for tomato's research in the future.

  3. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  4. The origin and fate of morphological intermediates between wild and cultivated soybeans in their natural habitats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D

    2010-06-01

    The spread of transgenes into the genome of wild soybean is a concern when transgenic and wild soybeans are planted sympatrically. The objectives of this study were to investigate the origin and fate of morphological intermediates between wild and cultivated soybeans in their natural habitats in Japan. Twenty nuclear microsatellite and two chloroplast dCAPS markers were used to evaluate genetic variation of 468 wild, 17 intermediate, and 12 cultivated soybean samples collected from six sites between 2003 and 2006. Allelic differentiation of microsatellite markers between wild and cultivated soybeans was sufficient to detect their hybrids. Based on levels of observed heterozygosity, intermediate soybean plants were from two generations: either F(1) or an early segregating generation. Genetic admixture analysis and parentage assignment analysis revealed that the parents of all intermediate soybean plants could be assigned to a particular wild soybean plant and late-maturing cultivar. The chloroplast DNA haplotypes revealed that all intermediate soybean plants originated from gene flow from cultivated to wild soybeans at all sites. Based on monitoring at both the phenotypic and molecular levels, hybrids quickly disappeared from natural habitats, and secondary gene flow from these plants to wild soybean was not detected. Thus, while gene flow from transgenic soybean into wild soybean can occur, gene introgression appears to be rare in natural habitats in Japan. This is the first report on the detection of gene flow from cultivated to wild soybean at the molecular level.

  5. Performance of generalist and specialist herbivores and their endoparasitoids differs on cultivated and wild Brassica populations.

    PubMed

    Gols, Rieta; Bukovinszky, Tibor; van Dam, Nicole M; Dicke, Marcel; Bullock, James M; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Through artificial selection, domesticated plants often contain modified levels of primary and secondary metabolites compared to their wild progenitors. It is hypothesized that the changed chemistry of cultivated plants will affect the performance of insects associated with these plants. In this paper, the development of several specialist and generalist herbivores and their endoparasitoids were compared when reared on a wild and cultivated population of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and a recently established feral Brassica species. Irrespective of insect species or the degree of dietary specialization, herbivores and parasitoids developed most poorly on the wild population. For the specialists, plant population influenced only development time and adult body mass, whereas for the generalists, plant populations also affected egg-to-adult survival. Two parasitoid species, a generalist (Diadegma fenestrale) and a specialist (D. semiclausum), were reared from the same host (Plutella xylostella). Performance of D. semiclausum was closely linked to that of its host, whereas the correlation between survival of D. fenestrale and host performance was less clear. Plants in the Brassicaceae characteristically produce defense-related glucosinolates (GS). Levels of GS in leaves of undamaged plants were significantly higher in plants from the wild population than from the domesticated populations. Moreover, total GS concentrations increased significantly in wild plants after herbivory, but not in domesticated or feral plants. The results of this study reveal that a cabbage cultivar and plants from a wild cabbage population exhibit significant differences in quality in terms of their effects on the growth and development of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Although cultivated plants have proved to be model systems in agroecology, we argue that some caution should be applied to evolutionary explanations derived from studies on domesticated plants, unless some knowledge

  6. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in cultivated and wild edible fruits grown in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565

  7. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  8. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J.; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R.; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance. PMID:23169639

  9. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, Petra M; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2012-12-04

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance.

  10. De novo and comparative transcriptome analysis of cultivated and wild spinach

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenxi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Liu, Wenli; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Yimin; Mou, Beiquan; Dai, Shaojun; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2015-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an economically important green leafy vegetable crop. In this study, we performed deep transcriptome sequencing for nine spinach accessions: three from cultivated S. oleracea, three from wild S. turkestanica and three from wild S. tetrandra. A total of approximately 100 million high-quality reads were generated, which were de novo assembled into 72,151 unigenes with a total length of 46.5 Mb. By comparing sequences of these unigenes against different protein databases, nearly 60% of them were annotated and 50% could be assigned with Gene Ontology terms. A total of 387 metabolic pathways were predicted from the assembled spinach unigenes. From the transcriptome sequencing data, we were able to identify a total of ~320,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic analyses using SNPs as well as gene expression profiles indicated that S. turkestanica was more closely related to the cultivated S. oleracea than S. tetrandra. A large number of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses were found to be differentially expressed between the cultivated and wild spinach. Finally, an interactive online database (http://www.spinachbase.org) was developed to allow the research community to efficiently retrieve, query, mine and analyze our transcriptome dataset. PMID:26635144

  11. De novo and comparative transcriptome analysis of cultivated and wild spinach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenxi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Liu, Wenli; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Yimin; Mou, Beiquan; Dai, Shaojun; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2015-12-04

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an economically important green leafy vegetable crop. In this study, we performed deep transcriptome sequencing for nine spinach accessions: three from cultivated S. oleracea, three from wild S. turkestanica and three from wild S. tetrandra. A total of approximately 100 million high-quality reads were generated, which were de novo assembled into 72,151 unigenes with a total length of 46.5 Mb. By comparing sequences of these unigenes against different protein databases, nearly 60% of them were annotated and 50% could be assigned with Gene Ontology terms. A total of 387 metabolic pathways were predicted from the assembled spinach unigenes. From the transcriptome sequencing data, we were able to identify a total of ~320,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic analyses using SNPs as well as gene expression profiles indicated that S. turkestanica was more closely related to the cultivated S. oleracea than S. tetrandra. A large number of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses were found to be differentially expressed between the cultivated and wild spinach. Finally, an interactive online database (http://www.spinachbase.org) was developed to allow the research community to efficiently retrieve, query, mine and analyze our transcriptome dataset.

  12. Glycoalkaloids as biomarkers for recognition of cultivated, wild, and somatic hybrids of potato.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs). During breeding programs, species genomes are often put together through either sexual or somatic hybridization. Therefore, the determination of the GA composition of hybrids is very important in that it may affect either human consumption, or resistance to pathogen and pests. Here, we report the results of GA analysis performed on wild Solanum bulbocastanum, haploids of cultivated potato S. tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids. GAs were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. HPLC Profile of S. tuberosum haploids showed, as expected, the presence of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. The profile of S. bulbocastanum extract showed lack of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, and the presence of four GAs. The GA pattern of the somatic hybrids was the sum of their parents' profile. This represents a noteworthy tool for their unequivocal recognition. Interestingly, two hybrids produced not only GAs of both parents but also new compounds to be further investigated. This provided evidence that somatic hybridization induced the synthesis of new metabolites. The nature of the probable unidentified GAs associated to S. bulbocastanum and its somatic hybrids was ascertained by chemical degradation and spectroscopic analysis of their aglycones and sugar moieties. Our results suggest their close relation with GAs of both wild and cultivated potato species.

  13. Characterization and Transferable Utility of Microsatellite Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Weigang; Zheng, Yanli; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) is one of the most widely distributed molecular markers that have been widely utilized to assess genetic diversity and genetic mapping for important traits in plants. However, the understanding of microsatellite characteristics in Arachis species and the currently available amount of high-quality SSR markers remain limited. In this study, we identified 16,435 genome survey sequences SSRs (GSS-SSRs) and 40,199 expressed sequence tag SSRs (EST-SSRs) in Arachis hypogaea and its wild relative species using the publicly available sequence data. The GSS-SSRs had a density of 159.9–239.8 SSRs/Mb for wild Arachis and 1,015.8 SSR/Mb for cultivated Arachis, whereas the EST-SSRs had the density of 173.5–384.4 SSR/Mb and 250.9 SSRs/Mb for wild and cultivated Arachis, respectively. The trinucleotide SSRs were predominant across Arachis species, except that the dinucleotide accounted for most in A. hypogaea GSSs. From Arachis GSS-SSR and EST-SSR sequences, we developed 2,589 novel SSR markers that showed a high polymorphism in six diverse A. hypogaea accessions. A genetic linkage map that contained 540 novel SSR loci and 105 anchor SSR loci was constructed by case of a recombinant inbred lines F6 population. A subset of 82 randomly selected SSR markers were used to screen 39 wild and 22 cultivated Arachis accessions, which revealed a high transferability of the novel SSRs across Arachis species. Our results provided informative clues to investigate microsatellite patterns across A. hypogaea and its wild relative species and potentially facilitate the germplasm evaluation and gene mapping in Arachis species. PMID:27243460

  14. Glycoalkaloids of wild and cultivated Solanum: effects on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Altesor, Paula; García, Álvaro; Font, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Vilaró, Francisco; Oesterheld, Martín; Soler, Roxina; González, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    Plant domestication by selective breeding may reduce plant chemical defense in favor of growth. However, few studies have simultaneously studied the defensive chemistry of cultivated plants and their wild congeners in connection to herbivore susceptibility. We compared the constitutive glycoalkaloids (GAs) of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and a wild congener, S. commersonii, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We also determined the major herbivores present on the two species in field plots, and tested their preference for the plants and their isolated GAs in two-choice bioassays. Solanum commersonii had a different GA profile and higher concentrations than S. tuberosum. In the field, S. tuberosum was mostly attacked by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and by the specialist flea beetle Epitrix argentinensis. In contrast, the most common herbivore on S. commersonii was the specialist sawfly Tequus sp. Defoliation levels were higher on the wild species, probably due to the chewing feeding behavior of Tequus sp. As seen in the field, M. persicae and E. argentinensis preferred leaf disks of the cultivated plant, while Tequus sp. preferred those of the wild one. Congruently, GAs from S. commersonii were avoided by M. persicae and preferred by Tequus sp. The potato aphid performed well on both species and was not deterred by S. commersonii GAs. These observations suggest that different GA profiles explain the feeding preferences of the different herbivores, and that domestication has altered the defensive capacity of S. tuberosum. However, the wild relative is still subject to severe defoliation by a specialist herbivore that may cue on the GAs.

  15. Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xuanqiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liu, Haiyan; Zhou, Guiyuan; Li, Shaoxiong; Guo, Baozhu

    2009-01-01

    Background Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been generated. These data offered an opportunity to identify SSR in ESTs by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 24,238 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 881 SSRs were identified from 780 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.3 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (63.9%) being the most abundant followed by di- (32.7%), tetra- (1.7%), hexa- (1.0%) and penta-nucleotide (0.7%) repeat types. The top six motifs included AG/TC (27.7%), AAG/TTC (17.4%), AAT/TTA (11.9%), ACC/TGG (7.72%), ACT/TGA (7.26%) and AT/TA (6.3%). Based on the 780 SSR-containing ESTs, a total of 290 primer pairs were successfully designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism among 22 genotypes of cultivated peanuts and 16 accessions of wild species. The results showed that 251 primer pairs yielded amplification products, of which 26 and 221 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism among the cultivated and wild species examined, respectively. Two to four alleles were found in cultivated peanuts, while 3–8 alleles presented in wild species. The apparent broad polymorphism was further confirmed by cloning and sequencing of amplified alleles. Sequence analysis of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the microsatellite regions. In addition, a few single base mutations were observed in the microsatellite flanking regions. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of peanut EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in

  16. HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one.

  17. Gain and loss of fruit flavor compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Asaph; Giri, Ashok P; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bertea, Cinzia M; Sevenier, Robert; Sun, Zhongkui; Jongsma, Maarten A; Schwab, Wilfried; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2004-11-01

    The blends of flavor compounds produced by fruits serve as biological perfumes used to attract living creatures, including humans. They include hundreds of metabolites and vary in their characteristic fruit flavor composition. The molecular mechanisms by which fruit flavor and aroma compounds are gained and lost during evolution and domestication are largely unknown. Here, we report on processes that may have been responsible for the evolution of diversity in strawberry (Fragaria spp) fruit flavor components. Whereas the terpenoid profile of cultivated strawberry species is dominated by the monoterpene linalool and the sesquiterpene nerolidol, fruit of wild strawberry species emit mainly olefinic monoterpenes and myrtenyl acetate, which are not found in the cultivated species. We used cDNA microarray analysis to identify the F. ananassa Nerolidol Synthase1 (FaNES1) gene in cultivated strawberry and showed that the recombinant FaNES1 enzyme produced in Escherichia coli cells is capable of generating both linalool and nerolidol when supplied with geranyl diphosphate (GPP) or farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), respectively. Characterization of additional genes that are very similar to FaNES1 from both the wild and cultivated strawberry species (FaNES2 and F. vesca NES1) showed that only FaNES1 is exclusively present and highly expressed in the fruit of cultivated (octaploid) varieties. It encodes a protein truncated at its N terminus. Green fluorescent protein localization experiments suggest that a change in subcellular localization led to the FaNES1 enzyme encountering both GPP and FPP, allowing it to produce linalool and nerolidol. Conversely, an insertional mutation affected the expression of a terpene synthase gene that differs from that in the cultivated species (termed F. ananassa Pinene Synthase). It encodes an enzyme capable of catalyzing the biosynthesis of the typical wild species monoterpenes, such as alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene, and caused the loss of these

  18. Population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the vrs1 nucleotide sequence in wild and cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Yonggang; Yan, Songxian; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2014-04-01

    Spike morphology is a key characteristic in the study of barley genetics, breeding, and domestication. Variation at the six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) locus is sufficient to control the development and fertility of the lateral spikelet of barley. To study the genetic variation of vrs1 in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), nucleotide sequences of vrs1 were examined in 84 wild barleys (including 10 six-rowed) and 20 cultivated barleys (including 10 six-rowed) from four populations. The length of the vrs1 sequence amplified was 1536 bp. A total of 40 haplotypes were identified in the four populations. The highest nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity, and per-site nucleotide diversity were observed in the Southwest Asian wild barley population. The nucleotide diversity, number of haplotypes, haplotype diversity, and per-site nucleotide diversity in two-rowed barley were higher than those in six-rowed barley. The phylogenetic analysis of the vrs1 sequences partially separated the six-rowed and the two-rowed barley. The six-rowed barleys were divided into four groups.

  19. Genomic analyses of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus provide insights into asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Zhang, Siqi; Cao, Li; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Junfeng; Wu, Guizhi; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Yu, Huiwen; Yang, Xiaoming; Lan, Hong; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lun; Xu, Jidi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Xie, Zongzhou; Tan, Meilian; Larkin, Robert M; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ma, Bin-Guang; Ruan, Yijun; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2017-04-10

    The emergence of apomixis-the transition from sexual to asexual reproduction-is a prominent feature of modern citrus. Here we de novo sequenced and comprehensively studied the genomes of four representative citrus species. Additionally, we sequenced 100 accessions of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus. Comparative population analysis suggested that genomic regions harboring energy- and reproduction-associated genes are probably under selection in cultivated citrus. We also narrowed the genetic locus responsible for citrus polyembryony, a form of apomixis, to an 80-kb region containing 11 candidate genes. One of these, CitRWP, is expressed at higher levels in ovules of polyembryonic cultivars. We found a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion in the promoter region of CitRWP that cosegregated with polyembryony. This study provides new insights into citrus apomixis and constitutes a promising resource for the mining of agriculturally important genes.

  20. Comparison of essential oil components and in vitro anticancer activity in wild and cultivated Salvia verbenaca.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of our research were to study the chemical composition and the in vitro anticancer effect of the essential oil of Salvia verbenaca growing in natural sites in comparison with those of cultivated (Sc) plants. The oil from wild (Sw) S. verbenaca presented hexadecanoic acid (23.1%) as the main constituent, while the oil from Sc plants contained high quantities of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.7%), scarce in the natural oil (0.7%). The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the essential oils from Sw and Sc S. verbenaca were evaluated in the human melanoma cell line M14, testing cell vitality, cell membrane integrity, genomic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Both the essential oils were able to inhibit the growth of the cancer cells examined inducing also apoptotic cell death, but the essential oil from cultivated samples exhibited the major effects.

  1. Metabolic fingerprinting reveals differences between shoots of wild and cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) and suggests maternal inheritance or wild trait dominance in hybrids.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, C; Choi, Y H; Rong, J; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M

    2011-08-01

    Differences between the metabolic content of cultivars and their related wild species not only have implications for breeding and food quality, but also for the increasingly studied area of crop to wild introgression. Wild and cultivated western carrots belong to the same outcrossing species and hybridize under natural conditions. The metabolic fingerprinting of Dutch wild carrot and of western orange carrot cultivar shoots using (1)H NMR showed only quantitative differences in chemical content, indicating relatively low divergence after domestication. Main differences reside in the primary metabolite content and in the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid in the shoots of the different carrot types. Wild×cultivar hybrids cannot be distinguished from wild plants based on the metabolome, suggesting maternal, maternal environment, or dominance effects, and indicating high hybrid fitness in wild conditions. Considering these similarities, introgression is a real possibility in carrots, but understanding its consequences would require further studies using backcrosses in a multiple environments.

  2. Physico-chemical changes in cladodes (nopalitos) from cultivated and wild cacti (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Betancourt-Domínguez, M A; Hernández-Pérez, T; García-Saucedo, P; Cruz-Hernández, A; Paredes-López, O

    2006-09-01

    Physico-chemical and nutritional composition from four different nopalitos (young cladodes from cacti): Blanco sin Espinas, Blanco con Espinas, Verde Valtierrilla (cultivated materials) and a wild material from the central region of México were studied at different sizes of harvesting. The first three are commercial crops. None of the tested materials exhibited superior characteristics in all of the evaluated parameters in relation to each one of them. In various cases properties of the wild crop were comparable, if not superior, to commercial ones. Some important changes were observed in total soluble solids, water content, texture, acidity and pH as affected by size of cladode and specific crop. Most cladode samples appear to be a good source of beta-carotene and lutein. The presence of these compounds is important for human nutraceutical purposes.

  3. Whole genome shotgun sequences for microsatellite discovery and application in cultivated and wild Macadamia (Proteaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Catherine J.; Elphinstone, Martin S.; Ablett, Gary; Kawamata, Asuka; Hancock, Wayne; Hardner, Craig M.; King, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data are widely used for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery and genetic marker development in species with limited available genome information. We developed microsatellite primers for the Proteaceae nut crop species Macadamia integrifolia and assessed cross-species transferability in all congeners to investigate genetic identification of cultivars and gene flow. • Methods and Results: Primers were designed from both raw and assembled Illumina NGS paired-end reads. The final 12 microsatellite markers selected were polymorphic among wild individuals of all four Macadamia species—M. integrifolia, M. tetraphylla, M. ternifolia, and M. jansenii—and in commercial macadamia cultivars including hybrids. • Conclusions: We demonstrate the utility of raw and assembled Illumina NGS reads from total genomic DNA for the rapid development of microsatellites in Macadamia. These primers will facilitate future studies of population structure, hybridization, parentage, and cultivar identification in cultivated and wild Macadamia populations. PMID:25202615

  4. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0.05), the lowest net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value showed in the treatment supplied with 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P < 0.05), and highest content appeared in these ginsengs exposed to 1000 mg x kg(-1) of lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P < 0.01), and significant positive linear correlations between total content of ginsenoside and lead concentration was also observed (P < 0.05). These results strongly indicate that exposing to high level of lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  6. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Susan R; Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B; Mueller, Lukas A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum 'Heinz', an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum 'Yellow Pear', and two of cultivated tomato's closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful in

  7. Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples.

  8. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  9. A gene block causing cross-incompatibility hidden in wild and cultivated rice.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Khin-Thidar; Sano, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional cross-incompatibility was detected in advanced generations of backcrossing between wild (Oryza rufipogon) and cultivated (O. sativa) rice strains. The near-isogenic line (NIL) of T65wx (Japonica type) carrying an alien segment of chromosome 6 from a wild strain gave a reduced seed setting only when crossed with T65wx as the male. Cytological observations showed that abortion of hybrid seeds occurred as a consequence of a failure of early endosperm development followed by abnormalities in embryo development. The genetic basis of cross-incompatibility reactions in the female and male was investigated by testcrosses using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that were established through dissecting the introgressed segments of wild and cultivated (Indica type) strains. The results revealed that the cross-incompatibility reaction was controlled by Cif in the female and by cim in the male. When the female plant with Cif was crossed with the male plant with cim, a failure of early endosperm development was observed in the hybrid zygotes. Among cultivars of O. sativa, cim was distributed predominantly in the Japonica type but not in the Indica type. In addition, a dominant suppressor, Su-Cif, which changes the reaction in the female from incompatible to compatible was proposed to present near the centromere of chromosome 6 of the Indica type. Further, the death of young F(1) zygotes was controlled by the parental genotypes rather than by the genotype of the hybrid zygote itself since all three genes acted sporophytically, which strongly suggests an involvement of parent-of-origin effects. We discuss the results in relation to the origin of a crossing barrier as well as their maintenance within the primary gene pool. PMID:14504241

  10. Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. Results A set of 380 unique genotypes were evaluated with data generated from 34 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The set included 306 V. vinifera cultivars, 40 accessions of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, and 34 accessions of Vitis species from northern Pakistan, Afghanistan and China. Based on the presence of four SSR alleles previously identified as linked to the powdery mildew resistance locus, Ren1, 10 new mildew resistant genotypes were identified in the test set: eight were V. vinifera cultivars and two were V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris based on flower and seed morphology. Sequence comparison of a 620 bp region that includes the Ren1-linked allele (143 bp) of the co-segregating SSR marker SC8-0071-014, revealed that the ten newly identified genotypes have sequences that are essentially identical to the previously identified mildew resistant V. vinifera cultivars: ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’. Kinship analysis determined that three of the newly identified powdery mildew resistant accessions had a relationship with ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’, and that six were not related to any other accession in this study set. Clustering procedures assigned accessions into three groups: 1) Chinese species; 2) a mixed group of cultivated and wild V. vinifera; and 3) table grape cultivars, including nine of the powdery mildew resistant accessions. Gene flow was detected among the groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that powdery mildew resistance is present in V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, the dioecious wild

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  12. Population structure and domestication revealed by high-depth resequencing of Korean cultivated and wild soybean genomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions.

  13. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of wild growing and cultivated Allium species.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Igić, R; Popović, B M; Malencić, Dj

    2008-01-01

    Allium species are cultivated for the edible bulb, which is used mainly as flavoring in foods. Besides that, they could prevent tumor promotion and some processes that are associated with free radicals, such as cardiovascular diseases and aging. Therefore, different Allium species, both cultivated (Allium nutans L., A. fistulosum L., A. vineale L., A. pskemense B. Fedtsch, A. schoenoprasum L., A. cepa L. and A. sativum L.) and wild (A. flavum L., A. sphaerocephalum L., A. atroviolaceum Boiss, A. vineale L., A. ursinum L., A. scorodoprasum L., A. roseum L. and A. subhirsutum L.), were investigated in order to evaluate the antioxidant properties of their bulbs. This study reports on the results obtained for the bulb antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), the quantities of non-enzymatic plant antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total flavonoids), the contents of soluble proteins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, as well as for the quantities of malonyldialdehyde and .OH and O2.- radicals.

  14. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  15. Genetic mapping of wild introgressions into cultivated peanut: a way toward enlarging the genetic basis of a recent allotetraploid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is widely used as a food and cash crop around the world. It is considered to be an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The most probable hypothesis gave A. duranensis as the wild donor of the A genome and A. ipaënsis as the wild donor of the B genome. A low level of molecular polymorphism is found in cultivated germplasm and up to date few genetic linkage maps have been published. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has received little attention due to the reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and to the technical difficulties encountered in making large number of crosses. We report here the development of a SSR based genetic map and the analysis of genome-wide segment introgressions into the background of a cultivated variety through the utilization of a synthetic amphidiploid between A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis. Results Two hundred ninety eight (298) loci were mapped in 21 linkage groups (LGs), spanning a total map distance of 1843.7 cM with an average distance of 6.1 cM between adjacent markers. The level of polymorphism observed between the parent of the amphidiploid and the cultivated variety is consistent with A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis being the most probable donor of the A and B genomes respectively. The synteny analysis between the A and B genomes revealed an overall good collinearity of the homeologous LGs. The comparison with the diploid and tetraploid maps shed new light on the evolutionary forces that contributed to the divergence of the A and B genome species and raised the question of the classification of the B genome species. Structural modifications such as chromosomal segment inversions and a major translocation event prior to the tetraploidisation of the cultivated species were revealed. Marker assisted selection of BC1F1 and then BC2F1 lines carrying the desirable donor segment with the best

  16. Cultivated ginseng inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC activation in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Park, Bong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Han, Hwa Jeong; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jun Min; Chung, Young Chul; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng contains many bioactive constituents, including various ginsenosides that are believed to have anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, and immunostimulatory activities; however, its effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that cultivated ginseng (CG) would inhibit 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulating the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance. Also, CG inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) expression through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent signaling in HaCaT cells. CG ameliorated DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of IgE and TARC, and mRNA expression of TARC, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. Histopathological examination showed reduced thickness of the epidermis/dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells in the ears. Furthermore, CG suppressed the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced mRNA expression of TARC in HaCaT cells. CG inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced NF-κB activation. These results suggest that CG inhibited the development of the AD-like skin symptoms by modulating Th1 and Th2 responses in the skin lesions in mice and TARC expression by suppressing TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced NF-κB activation in keratinocytes, and so may be a useful tool in the therapy of AD-like skin symptoms.

  17. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats) were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu) and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii) species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process. PMID:20699006

  18. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

  19. Conversion of a diversity arrays technology marker differentiating wild and cultivated carrots to a co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic site marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated carrot and its wild ancestor co-occur in most temperate regions of the world and can easily hybridize. The genetic basis of the process of domestication in carrot is not well recognized. Recent results of an investigation on genetic diversity structure of cultivated and wild carrot and si...

  20. Evaluation of different grades of ginseng using Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines which have many kinds of pharmaceutical values. The discrimination of grades of ginseng includes the cultivation types and the growth years herein. To evaluate the different grades of ginseng, the fibrous roots and rhizome roots of ginseng were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy in this paper. The fibrous root and rhizome root of ginseng have different content of starch, calcium oxalate and other components. For the fibrous roots of ginseng, mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG), garden cultivation ginseng (GCG) and transplanted cultivation ginseng (TCG) have clear difference in the infrared spectra and second derivative spectra in the range of 1800-400 cm -1, and clearer difference was observed in the range of 1045-1160 and 1410-1730 cm -1 in 2D synchronous correlation spectra. Three kinds of ginseng can be clustered very well by using SIMCA analysis on the basis of PCA as well. For the rhizome roots, the content of calcium oxalate and starch change with growth years in the IR spectra, and some useful procedure can be obtained by the analysis of 2D IR synchronous spectra in the range of 1050-1415 cm -1. Also, ginsengs cultivated in different growth years were clustered perfectly by using SIMCA analysis. The results suggested that different grades of ginseng can be well recognized using the mid-infrared spectroscopy assisted by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy, which provide the macro-fingerprint characteristics of ginseng in different parts and supplied a rapid, effective approach for the evaluation of the quality of ginseng.

  1. A major QTL introgressed from wild Lycopersicon hirsutum confers chilling tolerance to cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    John Goodstal, F; Kohler, Glenn R; Randall, Leslie B; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2005-09-01

    Many plants of tropical or subtropical origin, such as tomato, suffer damage under chilling temperatures (under 10 degrees C but above 0 degrees C). An earlier study identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shoot turgor maintenance (stm) under root chilling in an interspecific backcross population derived from crossing chilling-susceptible cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and chilling-tolerant wild L. hirsutum. The QTL with the greatest phenotypic effect on stm was located in a 28 cM region on chromosome 9 (designated stm 9), and enhanced chilling-tolerance was conferred by the presence of the Lycopersicon hirsutum allele at this QTL. Here, near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used to verify the effect of stm 9, and recombinant sub-NILs were used to fine map its position. Replicated experiments were performed with NILs and sub-NILs in a refrigerated hydroponic tank in the greenhouse. Sub-NIL data was analyzed using least square means separations, marker-genotype mean t-tests, and composite interval mapping. A dominant QTL controlling shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling was confirmed on chromosome 9 using both NILs and sub-NILs. Furthermore, sub-NILs permitted localization of stm 9 to a 2.7 cM interval within the original 28 cM QTL region. If the presence of the L. hirsutum allele at stm 9 also confers chilling-tolerance in L. esculentum plants grown under field conditions, it has the potential to expand the geographic areas in which cultivated tomato can be grown for commercial production.

  2. [The ginseng growing district, taxation and trade in ancient Korea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Pil; Yeo, In-Sok

    2004-12-01

    The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before th birth of CHrist, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area bing Manchurian and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provincnes to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan?) mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the Sejongshilok Chiriji (geographical records of Sejong chronicles) of the early Choson ear indicates 113 prefectures and countries as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A.D.. Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but new feature. Third

  3. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yongping; Wang, Xinxin; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Song, Bing; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD) caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus. PMID:27669211

  5. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  6. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  7. Genome size variation in wild and cultivated maize along altitudinal gradients

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Gaut, Brandon S.; Meca, Esteban; Scheinvar, Enrique; Montes-Hernandez, Salvador; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Tenaillon, Maud I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary • It is still an open question as to whether genome size (GS) variation is shaped by natural selection. One approach to address this question is a population-level survey that assesses both the variation in GS and the relationship of GS to ecological variants. • We assessed GS in Zea mays, a species that includes the cultivated crop, maize, and its closest wild relatives, the teosintes. We measured GS in five plants of each of 22 maize landraces and 21 teosinte populations from Mexico sampled from parallel altitudinal gradients. • GS was significantly smaller in landraces than in teosintes, but the largest component of GS variation was among landraces and among populations. In maize, GS correlated negatively with altitude; more generally, the best GS predictors were linked to geography. By contrast, GS variation in teosintes was best explained by temperature and precipitation. • Overall, our results further document the size flexibility of the Zea genome, but also point to a drastic shift in patterns of GS variation since domestication. We argue that such patterns may reflect the indirect action of selection on GS, through a multiplicity of phenotypes and life-history traits. PMID:23550586

  8. In Silico identification of SNP diversity in cultivated and wild tomato species: insight from molecular simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Bag, Sumit K

    2016-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), an important source of genetic variations, are often used in crop improvement programme. The present study represented comprehensive In silico analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms in wild (Solanum habrochaites) and cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum) species of tomato to explore the consequence of substitutions both at sequence and structure level. A total of 8978 SNPs having Ts/Tv (Transition/Transversion) ratio 1.75 were identified from the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Next Generation Sequence (NGS) data of both the species available in public databases. Out of these, 1838 SNPs were non-synonymous and distributed in 988 protein coding genes. Among these, 23 genes containing 96 SNPs were involved in traits markedly different between the two species. Furthermore, there were 28 deleterious SNPs distributed in 27 genes and a few of these genes were involved in plant pathogen interaction and plant hormone pathways. Molecular docking and simulations of several selected proteins showed the effect of SNPs in terms of compactness, conformation and interaction ability. Observed SNPs exhibited various types of motif binding effects due to nucleotide changes. SNPs that provide the evidence of differential motif binding and interaction behaviour could be effectively used for the crop improvement program. PMID:27929054

  9. Genetic and Molecular Organization of Ribosomal DNA (Rdna) Variants in Wild and Cultivated Barley

    PubMed Central

    Allard, R. W.; Maroof, MAS.; Zhang, Q.; Jorgensen, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty rDNA spacer-length variants (slvs) have been identified in barley. These slvs form a ladder in which each variant (with one exception) differs from its immediate neighbors by a 115-bp subrepeat. The 20 slvs are organized in two families, one forming an eight-step ladder (slvs 100-107) in the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) of chromosome 7 and the other a 12-step ladder (slvs 108a-118) in the NOR of chromosome 6. The eight shorter slvs (100-107) segregate and serve as markers of eight alleles of Mendelian locus Rrn2 and the 12 longer slvs (108a-118) segregate and serve as markers of 12 alleles of Mendelian locus Rrn1. Most barley plants (90%) are homozygous for two alleles, including one from each the 100-107 and the 108a-118 series. Two types of departures from this typical pattern of molecular and genetic organization were identified, one featuring compound alleles marked by two slvs of Rrn1 or of Rrn2, and the other featuring presence in Rrn1 of alleles normally found in Rrn2, and vice versa. The individual and joint effects on adaptedness of the rDNA alleles are discussed. It was concluded that selection acting on specific genotypes plays a major role in molding the strikingly different allelic and genotypic frequency distributions seen in populations of wild and cultivated barley from different ecogeographical regions. PMID:2249766

  10. [Advances in research on allelopathy of ginseng and American ginseng].

    PubMed

    Lei, Fengjie; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Qiuju; Zhang, Lianxue

    2010-09-01

    Both ginseng and American ginseng can not be replanted on the same soil consecutively. The article reviews the development and progress of studies on the replant failure of ginseng and American ginseng with a special focus on allelopathy in recent years. The allelopathy effect in ginseng and American ginseng is reviewed from following aspects: collecting and extracting allelochemicals, effects of such allelochemicals on seeds germination, seedlings growth, antioxidant enzyme activities in ginseng roots, growth of ginseng pathogens and ginseng callus, and more. It is presumed that inhibitory allelopathy is one of the many possible factors contributing to the replant failure of ginseng and American ginseng. Based on that, the paper points out problems in current researches on the allelopathic effect of ginseng and American ginseng: the allelochemicals are consist of a mixture, which one plays the specific role is not clear; concentrating on a single allelochemical while ignoring the interaction among allelochemicals. It is suggested that further study for this area should be focused on the interactions among allelochemicals and interactions between allelochemicals and environmental impact factors. Another area of needed research is that of the migration and transformation of allelochemicals in soil and microbial involvement in allelopathy on the growth of ginseng and American ginseng.

  11. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  12. Conversion of a diversity arrays technology marker differentiating wild and cultivated carrots to a co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic site marker.

    PubMed

    Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Iorizzo, Massimo; Smółka, Krzysztof; Simon, Philipp W; Grzebelus, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated carrot and its wild ancestor co-occur in most temperate regions of the world and can easily hybridize. The genetic basis of the process of domestication in carrot is not well understood. Recent results of an investigation on genetic diversity structure of cultivated and wild carrot and signatures for domestication using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) allowed identification of polymorphisms differentiating wild and cultivated accessions. We selected one of these polymorphisms, showing the strongest evidence for directional selection in the course of domestication, and converted it into a co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker named cult. To achieve that, we designed site-specific primers anchored in sequences flanking the original DArT clone, amplified and sequenced the PCR products derived from cultivated and wild carrot. A PstI restriction site present in the 'cultivated' variant and absent in the 'wild' was subsequently used for routine differentiation the two variants. We validated the cult marker on 88 accessions of cultivated and wild carrot, each represented by five individuals. The allelic variant associated with the wild phenotype was only rarely observed in cultivated carrot, mostly in purple-rooted accessions originating Turkey and Iran, possibly indicating that the physical association between the diagnostic polymorphism and the putative 'domestication gene' has been broken in a group of Eastern carrots.

  13. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-10-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place.

  14. Morphological markers for the detection of introgression from cultivated into wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveal dominant domestication traits.

    PubMed

    Grebenstein, C; Kos, S P; de Jong, T J; Tamis, W L M; de Snoo, G R

    2013-05-01

    Hybridisation and subsequent introgression have recently received much attention in the context of genetically modified crops. But crop-wild hybrid detection in the field can be difficult, as most domestication traits seem to be recessive, and the hybrid phenotype may also depend on the direction of the cross or environmental factors. Our aim was to develop a reliable set of morphological markers that differ between two wild and 13 cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) and to evaluate their inheritance in hybrid lines. We then examined these morphological markers in four F1 hybrids obtained by fertilising plants from the two wild accessions with pollen from two common carrot cultivars. Of the 16 traits that differed between the two carrot subspecies, three took intermediate values in the hybrids, eight resembled the cultivar parent (dominant domestication traits), two resembled the wild parent (domestication traits recessive), and three were not significant or growth condition-dependent. Root:shoot ratio was seven times higher for cultivars than for wild plants, while still attaining equivalent total dry weight, which shows that dry matter production by the shoot is much higher in cultivars than in wild plants. High root:shoot ratios were also present in the hybrids. While we found no maternal effects, the type of cultivar used for pollination had an impact on hybrid characteristics. The morphological markers developed here provide insights into the mode of inheritance of ecologically relevant traits and can be useful for pre-screening wild populations for hybrid detection prior to genetic analysis.

  15. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated Moroccan Achillea ageratum L.: a rare and threatened medicinal species.

    PubMed

    El Bouzidi, Laila; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Hassani, Lahcen; Fattarsi, Karine; Leach, David; Markouk, Mohammed; Legendre, Laurent; Bekkouche, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers of the wild and cultivated Moroccan Achillea ageratum L., a rare and threatened medicinal species, were examined by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared. At least nine components were identified in both wild and cultivated A. ageratum oils, representing more than 95% of the oils. Artemisyl acetate (62.34-78.79%), yomogi alcohol (4.89-12.40%), santolina alcohol (4.86-11.77%), and artemisia alcohol (3.36-7.04%) were the major compounds. Terpene-alcohol proportion was higher in wild A. ageratum than in cultivated A. ageratum. The antibacterial analysis showed that both oils presented high activity against all the studied Gram-positive strains in a range of MIC values from 2.55 to 7.02 mg/ml, but they appeared not effective against the tested Gram-negative ones (MIC values 20.40-41.10 mg/ml). They also exhibited remarkable antifungal activities against Candida species with MIC values ranging from 5.83 to 8.42 mg/ml. From these results, it was concluded that domestication of this threatened medicinal species using clonal propagation did not significantly affect its chemical composition and consequently its antimicrobial properties.

  16. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3) variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp.).

    PubMed

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  17. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  18. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X.; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena. PMID:27023871

  19. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  20. A genetic map of an Australian wild Gossypium C genome and assignment of homoeologies with tetraploid cultivated cotton.

    PubMed

    Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, L A; Matheson, B; Brubaker, C L

    2011-09-01

    Genetic diversity for traits such as fibre quality or disease resistance to microorganisms is limited in the elite cotton germplasm; consequently, cotton breeders are looking for novel alleles in the secondary or even in the tertiary gene pools. The wild Australian Gossypium species (tertiary gene pool) represent an alternative source of novel alleles. However, to use these species efficiently, enabling tools are required. Chromosome-specific molecular markers are particularly useful tools to track the transmission of this exotic genetic material into the cultivated cotton during introgression. In this study, we report the construction of a genetic linkage map of the Australian wild C-genome species Gossypium sturtianum. The map, based on an F(2) population of 114 individuals, contains 291 AFLP loci. The map spans 1697 cM with an average distance of 5.8 cM between markers. To associate C-genome chromosomes with the A and D subgenomes of cultivated cotton, 29 SSR and RFLP-STS markers were assigned to chromosomes using cultivated cotton mapped marker information. Polymorphisms were revealed by 51 AFLP primer combinations and 38 RFLP-STS and 115 SSR cotton mapped markers. The utility of transferring RFLP-STS and SSR cotton mapped markers to other Gossypium species shows the usefulness of a comparative approach as a source of markers and for aligning the genetic map of G. sturtianum with the cultivated species in the future. This also indicates that the overall structure of the G. sturtianum linkage groups is similar to that of the A and D subgenomes of cotton at the gross structural level. Applications of the map for the Australia wild C-genome species and cotton breeding are discussed.

  1. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  2. Tracking sesamin synthase gene expression through seed maturity in wild and cultivated sesame species--a domestication footprint.

    PubMed

    Pathak, N; Bhaduri, A; Bhat, K V; Rai, A K

    2015-09-01

    Sesamin and sesamolin are the major oil-soluble lignans present in sesame seed, having a wide range of biological functions beneficial to human health. Understanding sesame domestication history using sesamin synthase gene expression could enable delineation of the sesame putative progenitor. This report examined the functional expression of sesamin synthase (CYP81Q1) during capsule maturation (0-40 days after flowering) in three wild Sesamum species and four sesame cultivars. Among the cultivated accessions, only S. indicum (CO-1) exhibited transcript abundance of sesamin synthase along with high sesamin content similar to S. malabaricum, while the other cultivated sesame showed low expression. The sesamin synthase expression analysis, coupled with quantification of sesamin level, indicates that sesamin synthase was not positively favoured during domestication. The sesamin synthase expression pattern and lignan content, along with phylogenetic analysis suggested a close relationship of cultivated sesame and the wild species S. malabaricum. The high genetic identity between the two species S. indicum and S. malabaricum points towards the role of the putative progenitor S. malabaricum in sesame breeding programmes to broaden the genetic base of sesame cultivars. This study emphasises the need to investigate intraspecific and interspecific variation in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools to develop superior sesame genotypes.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Cytosine-5 DNA Methyltransferase and Demethylase Families in Wild and Cultivated Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Gao, Chao; Bian, Xiaotong; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Song, Hui; Hou, Lei; Wan, Shubo; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and is associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequenced, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) and demethylases in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in MET, CMT, and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 members didn't contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize and soybean. Five DNA demethylase encoding genes were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTase genes mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or PEG stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTase and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut in the future. PMID:26870046

  4. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing of Diverse Peanut (Arachis) Wild Species and the Cultivated Species Reveals a Wealth of Untapped Genetic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Simpson, Charles E.; Chagoya, Jennifer; Mudge, Joann; Burow, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the cultivated peanut species possesses almost no molecular variability, we sequenced a diverse panel of 22 Arachis accessions representing Arachis hypogaea botanical classes, A-, B-, and K- genome diploids, a synthetic amphidiploid, and a tetraploid wild species. RNASeq was performed on pools of three tissues, and de novo assembly was performed. Realignment of individual accession reads to transcripts of the cultivar OLin identified 306,820 biallelic SNPs. Among 10 naturally occurring tetraploid accessions, 40,382 unique homozygous SNPs were identified in 14,719 contigs. In eight diploid accessions, 291,115 unique SNPs were identified in 26,320 contigs. The average SNP rate among the 10 cultivated tetraploids was 0.5, and among eight diploids was 9.2 per 1000 bp. Diversity analysis indicated grouping of diploids according to genome classification, and cultivated tetraploids by subspecies. Cluster analysis of variants indicated that sequences of B genome species were the most similar to the tetraploids, and the next closest diploid accession belonged to the A genome species. A subset of 66 SNPs selected from the dataset was validated; of 782 SNP calls, 636 (81.32%) were confirmed using an allele-specific discrimination assay. We conclude that substantial genetic variability exists among wild species. Additionally, significant but lesser variability at the molecular level occurs among accessions of the cultivated species. This survey is the first to report significant SNP level diversity among transcripts, and may explain some of the phenotypic differences observed in germplasm surveys. Understanding SNP variants in the Arachis accessions will benefit in developing markers for selection. PMID:27729436

  6. Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.

  7. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  8. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-15

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  9. Functional constituents of wild and cultivated Goji (L. barbarum L.) leaves: phytochemical characterization, biological profile, and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Zengin, Gökhan; Simirgiotis, Mario; Schafberg, Michaela; Mollica, Adriano; Vodnar, Dan C; Crişan, Gianina; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-12-01

    Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) leaves are emphasized as a functional tea or as dietary supplements. The phenolic compound profile, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities of leaf extracts from two selected cultivars in comparison with wild-growing plants have been evaluated. HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids with chlorogenic acid and rutin being the dominant compounds in the cultivated plants, whereas rutin and kaempeferol-3-O-rutinoside for wild growing ones. In particular, cv. Erma contained the highest amount of chlorogenic acid and showed a strong tyrosinase-inhibitory effect. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Penicillium funiculosum were the most sensitive strains when exposed to extracts from cultivated plants. Antimutagenic activity was evaluated by Ames' test. The tested extracts provided high protection against mutagenicity induced by 2-anthramine (2-AA) to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 (max. inhibition (%) 88% and 74.2%, respectively). Overall, Goji leaves are a rich source of bioactive compounds with functional properties that need further risk/benefit evaluation when used in foods or health-promoting formulations.

  10. Cuticular hydrocarbons and sucrose esters as chemotaxonomic markers of wild and cultivated tomato species (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. Due to the limited genetic variability, wild related species are considered as potential gene pool for breeding cultivated plants with enriched genetic basis. Taxonomic relations between tomato species at the level of single groups and taxa still remain, however, not fully resolved. Hence, in addition to already reported classification based on the morphology of the plants and molecular markers, we proposed chemotaxonomic approach to unveil some aspects of tomato taxonomy. Cuticular hydrocarbons and surface sucrose esters (SEs) were used as chemotaxonomic markers. Classification based on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile was in good agreement with other taxonomic studies as long as between-species differences were taken into account. Clear separation of the common tomato and closely related species from the majority of S. pennellii accessions was obtained. In the same time, however, S. pennellii revealed broad variation: based on the results, three highly distinct types of these plants were proposed, among them one type was very similar to cultivated tomato and its relatives. Addition of SEs profiles to the dataset did not impair the classification, but clarified the position of S. pennellii. The results suggest possible hybrid origin of some of S. pennellii and wild S. lycopersicum accessions, and the approach proposed has a potential to identify such hybrid plant lines.

  11. Cultivated walnut trees showed earlier but not final advantage over its wild relatives in competing for seed dispersers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.

  12. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-01

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  13. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the...

  14. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the...

  15. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the...

  16. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the...

  17. 7 CFR 65.145 - Ginseng.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ginseng. 65.145 Section 65.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.145 Ginseng. Ginseng means ginseng root of the...

  18. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programs designed to monitor and protect American ginseng from over-harvest. When a State or Tribe with a... programs can be obtained from our website or by contacting us (see § 23.7). (1) To export wild...

  19. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus Species into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Sclerotinia-resistant diploid accessions, one hexaploid, and five interspecific amphiploids have been successfully crossed with Sclerotinia-tolerant cultivated lines, backcrossed and selfed to produce progeny families for field evaluation. In 2009, replicated field screening of 163 and 316 pro...

  20. Allelic diversification at the C (OsC1) locus of wild and cultivated rice: nucleotide changes associated with phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kumi; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Mikami, Ichiho; Thidar, Khin; Sano, Yoshio

    2004-10-01

    Divergent phenotypes are often detected in domesticated plants despite the existence of invariant phenotypes in their wild forms. One such example in rice is the occurrence of varying degrees of apiculus coloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation, which was previously reported to be caused by a series of alleles at the C locus. The present study reveals, on the basis of comparison of its maps, that the C gene appears to be the rice homolog (OsC1) of maize C1, which belongs to the group of R2R3-Myb factors. Two different types of deletions causing a frameshift were detected in the third exon, and both of the deleted nucleotides corresponded to the positions of putative base-contacting residues, suggesting that the Indica and Japonica types carry loss-of-function mutations with independent origins. In addition, replacement substitutions were frequently detected in OsC1 of strains carrying the previously defined C alleles. Molecular population analysis revealed that 17 haplotypes were found in 39 wild and cultivated rices, and the haplotypes of most cultivated forms could be classified into one of three distinct groups, with few shared haplotypes among taxa, including Indica and Japonica types. The genealogy of the OsC1 gene suggests that allelic diversification causing phenotypic change might have resulted from mutations in the coding region rather than from recombination between preexisting alleles. The McDonald and Kreitman test revealed that the changes in amino acids might be associated with selective forces acting on the lineage of group A whose haplotypes were carried by most Asian cultivated forms. The results regarding a significant implication for genetic diversity in landraces of rice are also discussed.

  1. Divergent Regulation of Terpenoid Metabolism in the Trichomes of Wild and Cultivated Tomato Species1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Katrin; Harper, Andrea; Welsby, Nicholas; Schauvinhold, Ines; Slocombe, Stephen; Li, Yi; Dixon, Richard A.; Broun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The diversification of chemical production in glandular trichomes is important in the development of resistance against pathogens and pests in two species of tomato. We have used genetic and genomic approaches to uncover some of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie the divergence in trichome metabolism between the wild species Solanum habrochaites LA1777 and its cultivated relative, Solanum lycopersicum. LA1777 produces high amounts of insecticidal sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (SCAs), whereas cultivated tomatoes lack SCAs and are more susceptible to pests. We show that trichomes of the two species have nearly opposite terpenoid profiles, consisting mainly of monoterpenes and low levels of sesquiterpenes in S. lycopersicum and mainly of SCAs and very low monoterpene levels in LA1777. The accumulation patterns of these terpenoids are different during development, in contrast to the developmental expression profiles of terpenoid pathway genes, which are similar in the two species, but they do not correlate in either case with terpenoid accumulation. However, our data suggest that the accumulation of monoterpenes in S. lycopersicum and major sesquiterpenes in LA1777 are linked both genetically and biochemically. Metabolite analyses after targeted gene silencing, inhibitor treatments, and precursor feeding all show that sesquiterpene biosynthesis relies mainly on products from the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in LA1777 but less so in the cultivated species. Furthermore, two classes of sesquiterpenes produced by the wild species may be synthesized from distinct pools of precursors via cytosolic and plastidial cyclases. However, highly trichome-expressed sesquiterpene cyclase-like enzymes were ruled out as being involved in the production of major LA1777 sesquiterpenes. PMID:18997116

  2. Population-based resequencing analysis of wild and cultivated barley revealed weak domestication signal of selection and bottleneck in the Rrs2 scald resistance gene region.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-02-01

    Many plant disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned, but the potential of utilizing these plant R-gene genomic resources for genetic inferences of plant domestication history remains unexplored. A population-based resequencing analysis of the genomic region near the Rrs2 scald resistance gene was made in 51 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from 41 countries. Fifteen primer pairs were designed to sample the genomic region with a total length of 10 406 bp. More nucleotide diversity was found in wild (π = 0.01846) than cultivated (π = 0.01507) barley samples. Three distinct groups of 29 haplotypes were detected for all 51 samples, and they were well mixed with wild and cultivated barley samples from different countries and regions. The neutrality tests by Tajima's D were not significant, but a significant (P < 0.05) case by Fu and Li's D* and F* was found in the barley cultivar samples. The estimate of selection intensity by K(a)/K(s) was 0.691 in wild barley and 0.580 in cultivated barley. The estimate of the minimum recombination events was 16 in wild barley and 19 in cultivated barley. A coalescence simulation revealed a bottleneck intensity of 1.5 to 2 since barley domestication. Together, the domestication signal in the genomic region was weak both in human selection and domestication bottleneck.

  3. The effect of photoperiod on tuberization in cultivated x wild potato species hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Solanum species offer a valuable source of genetic diversity for potato improvement. Most of these species are found in equatorial South and Central America and they do not tuberize under long day photoperiods typical of those in the major potato production areas of North America, Europe and As...

  4. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  5. Progress on the introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary attacks sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) causing root, stalk, and head rot, and is one of the most damaging and difficult-to-control sunflower diseases. Some wild perennial Helianthus species have been identified to contain abundant res...

  6. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  7. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  8. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  9. Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromones by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and Multivariate Statistical Methods in Wild and Cultivated Agarwood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanbin; Sheng, Nan; Wang, Lingli; Li, Shijie; Chen, Jiannan; Lai, Xiaoping

    2016-05-23

    Agarwood is the fragrant resinous material mainly formed from species of Aquilaria. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, especially the highly oxidized 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, are the main representative compounds from agarwood. It is important to determine whether agarwood in trade is from cultivated trees or natural trees in the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). We characterized the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and differentiated wild from cultivated agarwood by metabolomic analysis. A total of 141 chromones including 50 potentially new compounds were evaluated as belonging to four structural classes (unoxidized 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones, bi-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, and tri-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones). The metabolic difference between wild and cultivated agarwood was analyzed by component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Fourteen markers of metabolisms in wild and cultivated agarwood were constructed (e.g., 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, etc.). These results indicated that UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics analysis in agarwood may be useful for distinguishing wild agarwood from cultivated agarwood.

  10. Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromones by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and Multivariate Statistical Methods in Wild and Cultivated Agarwood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanbin; Sheng, Nan; Wang, Lingli; Li, Shijie; Chen, Jiannan; Lai, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood is the fragrant resinous material mainly formed from species of Aquilaria. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, especially the highly oxidized 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, are the main representative compounds from agarwood. It is important to determine whether agarwood in trade is from cultivated trees or natural trees in the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). We characterized the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS) and differentiated wild from cultivated agarwood by metabolomic analysis. A total of 141 chromones including 50 potentially new compounds were evaluated as belonging to four structural classes (unoxidized 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones, bi-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, and tri-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones). The metabolic difference between wild and cultivated agarwood was analyzed by component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Fourteen markers of metabolisms in wild and cultivated agarwood were constructed (e.g., 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, etc.). These results indicated that UPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics analysis in agarwood may be useful for distinguishing wild agarwood from cultivated agarwood. PMID:27223280

  11. Responses to NaCl stress of cultivated and wild tomato species and their hybrids in callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Cano, E A; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moreno, V; Bolarin, M C

    1996-06-01

    If in vitro culture is to be used for evaluating the salt tolerance of tomato hybrids and segregant populations in a breeding programme, it is previously necessary to get quick and reliable traits. In this work, growth and physiological responses to salinity of two interspecific hybrids between the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and its wild salt-tolerant species L pennellii are compared to those of their parents. The leaf callus of the first subculture was grown on media amended with 0, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175 and 210 mM NaCl for 40 days. Relative fresh weight growth of callus in response to increased salinity in the culture medium was much greater in L pennellii than in the tomato cultivars, and greater in the hybrids than in the wild species. Moreover, the different salt tolerance degree of hybrids was related to that of female parents. At high salt levels, only Cl(-) accumulation was higher in L pennellii than in tomato cultivars, whereas in the hybrids both Cl(-), and Na(+) accumulation were higher than in their parents. Proline increased with salinity in the callus of all genotypes; these increases were much higher in the tomato cultivars than in L pennellii, and the hybrids showed a similar response to that of the wild species. Salt-treated callus of the tomato cultivars showed significant increases in valine, isoleucine and leucine contents compared to control callus tissue. In contrast, these amino acids in callus tissues of the wild species and hybrids showed a tendency to decrease with increasing salinity.

  12. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  13. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  14. Characterization of the Variability of Nucleoli in the Cells of Panax ginseng Meyer In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khrolenko, Yuliya A.; Burundukova, Olga L.; Lauve, Lyudmila S.; Muzarok, Tamara I.; Makhan’kov, Vyacheslav V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.

    2012-01-01

    Results of karyological study of intact plants and some callus lines of Panax ginseng are presented. In the native plants of P. ginseng the nucleus with 1 nucleolus (90%) dominate, and nucleus with 2 nucleoli is rare. One nucleolar nucleus also dominate in interphase nuclei of cells of cultivated P. ginseng (from 2006), but we also found nucleus with 2 to 3 nucleoli in the same cell lines. Interphase nuclei of P. ginseng in long cultivated lines (from 1988) contain 1 to 9 nucleoli, with a predominance of nuclei containing from 3 to 4 nucleoli. It was shown that long-time cells (cultivated since 1988) had cytogenetic changes such as increase level of polyploid and aneuploid cells, increase of nucleoli number into interphase nucleus and decrease of nuclei/nucleoli ratio. These long-time cultivated cells had very low ginsenoside content. PMID:23717134

  15. Anthocyanin Profile in Berries of Wild and Cultivated Vaccinium spp. along Altitudinal Gradients in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-10-07

    Vaccinium spp. berries provide some of the best natural sources of anthocyanins. In the wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a clear increasing trend in anthocyanin biosynthesis has been reported toward northern latitudes of Europe, but studies related to altitude have given contradictory results. The present study focused on the anthocyanin composition in wild bilberries and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta Blue) growing along altitudinal gradients in the Alps of northern Italy. Our results indicate an increasing accumulation of anthocyanins in bilberries along an altitudinal gradient of about 650 m. The accumulation was due to a significant increase in delphinidin and malvidin glycosides, whereas the accumulation of cyanidin and peonidin glycosides was not affected by altitude. Seasonal differences, especially temperature, had a major influence on the accumulation of anthocyanins in blueberries.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  17. Ionomic and physiological responses to low nitrogen stress in Tibetan wild and cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Han, Zhigang; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    In a previous study, we identified the low-nitrogen (LN) tolerant accessions from the Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum). In this study, two wild barley genotypes (XZ149, LN-tolerant and XZ56, LN-sensitive) and a barley cultivar ZD9 (H. vulgare) were used to determine the LN tolerant mechanism underlying the wild barley in the ionomic and physiological aspects. XZ149 exhibited higher LN tolerance with highest relative dry weight and N accumulation among three barley genotypes under LN stress. When exposed to LN stress, XZ149 had more N transportation from roots to leaves, and remained relatively higher activities of nitrate reductase (NR, EC.1.7.1.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS, EC.6.3.1.2) in leaves than other two genotypes, ensuring its higher capacity of N assimilation and utilization. The ionome analysis showed that LN stress had a significant effect on tissue ionome and the effect was genotypic and tissue-specific difference. On the whole, XZ149 maintained more stable Mn and Cu contents in roots, and less reduction of root P, K and Ca contents than XZ56 and ZD9 when exposed to LN stress. It may be assumed that more N movement into shoots, greater N assimilating capacity and specific rearrangement of nutrient element levels in tissues under LN stress are attributed to LN tolerance in XZ149.

  18. Identification of the proteins associated with low potassium tolerance in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianbin; He, Xiaoyan; Quan, Xiaoyan; Cai, Shengguan; Han, Yong; Nadira, Umme Aktari; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-08-03

    In previous studies, we found Tibetan wild barley accessions with high tolerance to low K. In this study, ionomics and proteomics analyses were done on two wild genotypes (XZ153, tolerant and XZ141, sensitive), and a cultivar (B1031, tolerance to low K) to understand the mechanism of low-K tolerance. XZ153 was much less affected by low K stress than the other two genotypes in plant biomass and shoot K content. A total of 288 differentially accumulated proteins were identified between low-K and normal K treated plants. Among them, 129 proteins related to low-K tolerance were mainly involved in defense, transcription, signal transduction, energy, and protein synthesis. The analysis of tandem mass tag (TMT) detected 51 proteins which were increased in relative abundance under low K in XZ153, but unaltered or decreased in XZ141. The proteomics results showed that XZ153 is highly capable of rearranging ion homeostasis and developing an antioxidant defense system under low-K stress. Moreover, ethylene response and phenylpropanoid pathways could determine the genotypic difference in low-K tolerance. The current results confirmed the possibility of Tibetan wild barley providing low-K tolerant germplasm and identified some candidate proteins for use in developing the cultivars with low-K tolerance.

  19. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses.

  20. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses. PMID:26863232

  1. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  2. Geographic distribution of cryptic species of Plasmopara viticola causing downy mildew on wild and cultivated grape in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Mélanie; Mestre, Pere; Baudoin, Anton; Carisse, Odile; Delière, Laurent; Ellis, Michael A; Gadoury, David; Lu, Jiang; Nita, Mizuho; Richard-Cervera, Sylvie; Schilder, Annemiek; Wise, Alice; Delmotte, François

    2014-07-01

    The putative center of origin of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grape downy mildew, is eastern North America, where it has been described on several members of the family Vitaceae (e.g., Vitis spp., Parthenocissus spp., and Ampelopsis spp.). We have completed the first large-scale sampling of P. viticola isolates across a range of wild and cultivated host species distributed throughout the above region. Sequencing results of four partial genes indicated the presence of a new P. viticola species on Vitis vulpina in Virginia, adding to the four cryptic species of P. viticola recently recorded. The phylogenetic analysis also indicated that the P. viticola species found on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in North America is identical to Plasmopara muralis in Europe. The geographic distribution and host range of five pathogen species was determined through analysis of the internal transcribed spacer polymorphism of 896 isolates of P. viticola. Among three P. viticola species found on cultivated grape, one was restricted to Vitis interspecific hybrids within the northern part of eastern North America. A second species was recovered from V. vinifera and V. labrusca, and was distributed across most of the sampled region. A third species, although less abundant, was distributed across a larger geographical range, including the southern part of eastern North America. P. viticola clade aestivalis predominated (83% of isolates) in vineyards of the European winegrape V. vinifera within the sampled area, indicating that a single pathogen species may represent the primary threat to the European host species within eastern North America.

  3. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus.

  4. Identification of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes from legumes and their responses in wild type and cultivated peanut upon Aspergillus flavus infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Changsheng; Han, Suoyi; Lopez-Baltazar, Javier; Zhang, Xinyou; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Although they have been characterized in various plants, little is known about the evolution of legume LOX genes. In this study, we identified 122 full-length LOX genes in Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaënsis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In total, 64 orthologous and 36 paralogous genes were identified. The full-length, polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) and lipoxygenase domain sequences from orthologous and paralogous genes exhibited a signature of purifying selection. However, purifying selection influenced orthologues more than paralogues, indicating greater functional conservation of orthologues than paralogues. Neutrality and effective number of codons plot results showed that natural selection primarily shapes codon usage, except for C. arietinum, L. japonicas and M. truncatula LOX genes. GCG, ACG, UCG, CGG and CCG codons exhibited low relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, while CCA, GGA, GCU, CUU and GUU had high RSCU values, indicating that the latter codons are strongly preferred. LOX expression patterns differed significantly between wild-type peanut and cultivated peanut infected with Aspergillus flavus, which could explain the divergent disease resistance of wild progenitor and cultivars. PMID:27731413

  5. A simple real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for authentication of the Chinese Panax ginseng cultivar Damaya from a local ginseng population.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G

    2016-06-27

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population.

  6. A test of taxonomic predictivity: resistance to early blight in wild relatives of cultivated potato.

    PubMed

    Jansky, S H; Simon, R; Spooner, D M

    2008-06-01

    Host plant resistance offers an attractive method of control for early blight (caused by the foliar fungus Alternaria solani), a widespread disease that appears annually in potato crops worldwide. We tested the assumed ability of taxonomy to predict the presence of early blight resistance genes in wild Solanum species for which resistance was observed in related species. We also tested associations to ploidy, crossing group, breeding system, and geography. As in a prior study of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold) resistance, tremendous variation for resistance to early blight was found to occur within and among species. There was no discernable relationship between the distribution of resistant phenotypes and taxonomic series (based on an intuitive interpretation of morphological data), clade (based on a cladistic analysis of plastid DNA data), ploidy, breeding system, geographic distance, or climate parameters. Species and individual accessions with high proportions of early blight resistant plants were identified, but high levels of inter- and intra-accession variability were observed. Consequently, the designation of species or accessions as resistant or susceptible must take this variation into account. This study calls into question the assumption that taxonomic or geographic data can be used to predict sources of early blight resistance in wild Solanum species.

  7. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Marrano, Annarita; Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the 'PN40024' reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops.

  8. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  9. A Jasmonate-Inducible Defense Trait Transferred from Wild into Cultivated Tomato Establishes Increased Whitefly Resistance and Reduced Viral Disease Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Alba, Juan M.; Pons, Clara; Granell, Antonio; Kant, Merijn R.; Moriones, Enrique; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages. Treatment of young plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) resulted in a 60% increase in type-IV trichome density, acylsucrose production, and enhanced resistance to whiteflies, leading to 50% decrease in the virus disease incidence compared to cultivated tomato. Using transcriptomics, metabolite analysis, and insect bioassays we established the basis of this inducible resistance. We found that MeJA activated the expression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defensive acylsugars in young BC5S2 plants leading to enhanced chemical defenses in their acquired type-IV trichomes. Our results show that not only constitutive but also these inducible defenses can be transferred from wild into cultivated crops to aid sustainable protection, suggesting that conventional breeding strategies provide a feasible alternative to increase pest resistance in tomato. PMID:27920785

  10. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  11. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  12. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated mint timija (Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley), an endemic and threatened medicinal species in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, A; Jamali, C Alaoui; Bekkouche, K; Lahcen, H; Markouk, M; Wohlmuth, H; Leach, D; Abbad, A

    2013-01-01

    The hydro-distilled essential oils obtained from aerial parts of the wild (w) and cultivated (c) mint timija (Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija), an endemic medicinal species of Morocco, have been analyzed by GC-MS and screened for antimicrobial activity. In total, 35 compounds representing more than 98% of the oils were identified. Menthone (39.4(w)-10.8(c)%), pulegone (62.3(c)-34.3(w)%) and isomenthone (9.3(c)-7.8(w)%) were found as the main components for the two oils. The volatiles of the wild and cultivated material differed significantly in both the percentage of the main components and antimicrobial effect. Pulegone was more dominant in cultivated mint timija (62.3%) than in wild one (34.3%), while menthone was more abundant in the wild material (39.4%). In the antimicrobial assays, both oils displayed good to excellent activity against all microorganisms tested with the oil of the cultivated form being more active.

  13. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  14. Study on Analysis of Variance on the indigenous wild and cultivated rice species of Manipur Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhabati, K.; Rohinikumar, M.; Rajiv Das, K.; Henary, Ch.; Dikash, Th.

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of variance revealed considerable variation among the cultivars and the wild species for yield and other quantitative characters in both the years of investigation. The highly significant differences among the cultivars in year wise and pooled analysis of variance for all the 12 characters reveal that there are enough genetic variabilities for all the characters studied. The existence of genetic variability is of paramount importance for starting a judicious plant breeding programme. Since introduced high yielding rice cultivars usually do not perform well. Improvement of indigenous cultivars is a clear choice for increase of rice production. The genetic variability of 37 rice germplasms in 12 agronomic characters estimated in the present study can be used in breeding programme

  15. Gene tree discordance of wild and cultivated Asian rice deciphered by genome-wide sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-chia; Sakai, Hiroaki; Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2011-05-15

    Although a large number of genes are expected to correctly solve a phylogenetic relationship, inconsistent gene tree topologies have been observed. This conflicting evidence in gene tree topologies, known as gene tree discordance, becomes increasingly important as advanced sequencing technologies produce an enormous amount of sequence information for phylogenomic studies among closely related species. Here, we aim to characterize the gene tree discordance of the Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa and its progenitor, O. rufipogon, which will be an ideal case study of gene tree discordance. Using genome and cDNA sequences of O. sativa and O. rufipogon, we have conducted the first in-depth analyses of gene tree discordance in Asian rice. Our comparison of full-length cDNA sequences of O. rufipogon with the genome sequences of the japonica and indica cultivars of O. sativa revealed that 60% of the gene trees showed a topology consistent with the expected one, whereas the remaining genes supported significantly different topologies. Moreover, the proportions of the topologies deviated significantly from expectation, suggesting at least one hybridization event between the two subgroups of O. sativa, japonica and indica. In fact, a genome-wide alignment between japonica and indica indicated that significant portions of the indica genome are derived from japonica. In addition, literature concerning the pedigree of the indica cultivar strongly supported the hybridization hypothesis. Our molecular evolutionary analyses deciphered complicated evolutionary processes in closely related species. They also demonstrated the importance of gene tree discordance in the era of high-speed DNA sequencing.

  16. Genotype of FLOWERING LOCUS T homologue contributes to flowering time differences in wild and cultivated roses.

    PubMed

    Otagaki, S; Ogawa, Y; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L; Foucher, F; Kawamura, K; Horibe, T; Matsumoto, S

    2015-07-01

    Rose flowers have long delighted humans as ornamental plants. To improve the ornamental value of roses it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of flowering. We previously found that flowering time is controlled by three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and a major QTL co-localised with RoFT. In this study, we isolated three RoFT alleles encoding completely identical amino acid sequences from the parents of a mapping population. Correlation analysis of the RoFT genotypes and flowering time phenotypes in the mapping population showed that the RoFT_f and RoFT_g alleles contribute to the early-flowering phenotype, while the RoFT_e allele contributes to the late-flowering phenotype. We developed two novel cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers based on the genomic sequences of the RoFT alleles and clearly showed that the relationship between RoFT genotype and flowering time was applicable to 12 of 13 cultivated roses grown at the Higashiyama Botanical Gardens, Japan. Allele-specific expression analysis using a reverse transcription CAPS assay suggested that these RoFT alleles are regulated differentially at the transcription level. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants ectopically expressing the RoFT gene showed an early-flowering phenotype. Conversely, in roses, RoFT was continuously expressed after floral bud formation, and RoFT transcript accumulation reached its peak after that of the floral meristem identity gene RoAP1b. These data suggest that RoFT may be essential not only for floral transition but also for normal floral development and flowering in roses.

  17. A Feedback-Insensitive Isopropylmalate Synthase Affects Acylsugar Composition in Cultivated and Wild Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jing; Moghe, Gaurav D; Leong, Bryan; Kim, Jeongwoon; Ofner, Itai; Wang, Zhenzhen; Adams, Christopher; Jones, A Daniel; Zamir, Dani; Last, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Acylsugars are insecticidal specialized metabolites produced in the glandular trichomes of plants in the Solanaceae family. In the tomato clade of the Solanum genus, acylsugars consist of aliphatic acids of different chain lengths esterified to sucrose, or less frequently to glucose. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry screening of introgression lines, we previously identified a region of chromosome 8 in the Solanum pennellii LA0716 genome (IL8-1/8-1-1) that causes the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum to shift from producing acylsucroses with abundant 3-methylbutanoic acid acyl chains derived from leucine metabolism to 2-methylpropanoic acid acyl chains derived from valine metabolism. We describe multiple lines of evidence implicating a trichome-expressed gene from this region as playing a role in this shift. S. lycopersicum M82 SlIPMS3 (Solyc08g014230) encodes a functional end product inhibition-insensitive version of the committing enzyme of leucine biosynthesis, isopropylmalate synthase, missing the carboxyl-terminal 160 amino acids. In contrast, the S. pennellii LA0716 IPMS3 allele found in IL8-1/8-1-1 encodes a nonfunctional truncated IPMS protein. M82 transformed with an SlIPMS3 RNA interference construct exhibited an acylsugar profile similar to that of IL8-1-1, whereas the expression of SlIPMS3 in IL8-1-1 partially restored the M82 acylsugar phenotype. These IPMS3 alleles are polymorphic in 14 S. pennellii accessions spread throughout the geographical range of occurrence for this species and are associated with acylsugars containing varying amounts of 2-methylpropanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid acyl chains.

  18. Wolbachia infections in world populations of bean beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) infesting cultivated and wild legumes.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuko I; Tuda, Midori; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Lan, Yen-Chiu; Buranapanichpan, Sawai; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-07-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts are widespread among insects and other arthropods, often causing cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive phenotypes in their hosts. Recently, possibilities of Wolbachia-mediated pest control and management have been proposed, and the bean beetles of the subfamily Bruchinae are known as serious pests of harvested and stored beans worldwide. Here we investigated Wolbachia infections in bean beetles from the world, representing seven genera, 20 species and 87 populations. Of 20 species examined, Wolbachia infections were detected in four species, Megabruchidius sophorae, Callosobruchus analis, C. latealbus and C. chinensis. Infection frequencies were partial in M. sophorae but perfect in the other species. In addition to C. chinensis described in the previous studies, C. latealbus was infected with two distinct Wolbachia strains. These Wolbachia strains from the bean beetles were phylogenetically not closely related to each other. Among world populations of C. chinensis, some Taiwanese populations on a wild leguminous plant, Rhynchosia minima, exhibited a peculiar Wolbachia infection pattern, suggesting the possibility that these populations comprise a distinct host race or a cryptic species.

  19. Increasing Strawberry Fruit Sensorial and Nutritional Quality Using Wild and Cultivated Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Diamanti, Jacopo; Capocasa, Franco; Balducci, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Hancock, Jim; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing antioxidant levels in fruit through breeding is an important option to support higher antioxidant intake particularly when fruit consumption is low. Indeed, if nutritional components are also combined with a high standard of sensorial fruit quality, the perspective for consumer health can be further improved by encouraging more fruit consumption. Wild species are valued by strawberry breeders as sources of novel traits, especially for pest resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, previous investigations have shown improvements in fruit nutritional quality in breeding material that originated from Fragaria virginiana ssp. glauca (FVG) inter-species crosses. Recently, commercial varieties of strawberries have also shown interesting variability in fruit nutritional quality. Results Strawberry fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities generated by Fragaria inter-species and intra-species crosses were evaluated on 78 offspring derived from 8 families: two that originated from F. × ananassa intra-species crossing; three from back-crossing of F1– FVG × F. × ananassa; and three from back-crossing of BC1– FVG × F. × ananassa. The genetic variability from the three types of cross combinations was analyzed by calculation of the correlations among the fruit sensorial and nutritional parameters. The results obtained show that two subsequent back-crossing generations from an inter-species crossing combination with F. virginiana ssp. glauca provides useful improvement of the fruit nutritional and sensorial qualities that is combined with agronomic standards that are close to those requested at the commercial level. Improvements of these traits can also be achieved by programming F. × ananassa intra-species crosses and producing progeny with productivity traits more similar to those of the commercial cultivars. Conclusions The two types of combination programs (inter-species back-crosses, and intra-species crosses) can be used to

  20. Temperature interactions with transpiration response to vapor pressure deficit among cultivated and wild soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Seversike, Thomas M; Sermons, Shannon M; Sinclair, Thomas R; Carter, Thomas E; Rufty, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    A key strategy in soybean drought research is increased stomatal sensitivity to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which contributes to the 'slow wilting' trait observed in the field. These experiments examined whether temperature of the growth environment affected the ability of plants to respond to VPD, and thus control transpiration rate (TR). Two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and four wild soybean [Glycine soja (Sieb. and Zucc.)] genotypes were studied. The TR was measured over a range of VPD when plants were growing at 25 or 30°C, and again after an abrupt increase of 5°C. In G. max, a restriction of TR became evident as VPD increased above 2.0 kPa when temperature was near its growth optimum of 30°C. 'Slow wilting' genotype plant introduction (PI) 416937 exhibited greater TR control at high VPD compared with Hutcheson, and only PI 416937 restrained TR after the shift to 35°C. Three of the four G. soja genotypes exhibited control over TR with increasing VPD when grown at 25°C, which is near their estimated growth optimum. The TR control became engaged at lower VPD than in G. max and was retained to differing degrees after a shift to 30°C. The TR control systems in G. max and G. soja clearly were temperature-sensitive and kinetically definable, and more restrictive in the 'slow wilting' soybean genotype. For the favorable TR control traits observed in G. soja to be useful for soybean breeding in warmer climates, the regulatory linkage with lower temperatures must be uncoupled.

  1. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  2. Sequence polymorphisms in wild, weedy, and cultivated rice suggest seed-shattering locus sh4 played a minor role in Asian rice domestication

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongqing; Ellstrand, Norman C; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The predominant view regarding Asian rice domestication is that the initial origin of nonshattering involved a single gene of large effect, specifically, the sh4 locus via the evolutionary replacement of a dominant allele for shattering with a recessive allele for reduced shattering. Data have accumulated to challenge this hypothesis. Specifically, a few studies have reported occasional seed-shattering plants from populations of the wild progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza rufipogon complex) being homozygous for the putative “nonshattering” sh4 alleles. We tested the sh4 hypothesis for the domestication of cultivated rice by obtaining genotypes and phenotypes for a diverse set of samples of wild, weedy, and cultivated rice accessions. The cultivars were fixed for the putative “nonshattering” allele and nonshattering phenotype, but wild rice accessions are highly polymorphic for the putative “nonshattering” allele (frequency ∼26%) with shattering phenotype. All weedy rice accessions are the “nonshattering” genotype at the sh4 locus but with shattering phenotype. These data challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that a single nucleotide mutation (“G”/“T”) of the sh4 locus is the major driving force for rice domestication. Instead, we hypothesize that unidentified shattering loci are responsible for the initial domestication of cultivated rice through reduced seed shattering. PMID:23139871

  3. Genic microsatellite markers in Brassica rapa: development, characterization, mapping, and their utility in other cultivated and wild Brassica relatives.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-10-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species.

  4. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions.

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among wild and cultivated Tunisian plums (Prunus spp) using random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Ben Mustapha, S; Baraket, G; Abdallah, D; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2015-03-20

    The usefulness of random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers to study the genetic diversity and relationships among cultivars belonging to Prunus salicina and P. domestica and their wild relatives (P. insititia and P. spinosa) was investigated. A total of 226 of 234 bands were polymorphic (96.58%). The 226 random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers were screened using 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat primers combinations for 54 Tunisian plum accessions. The percentage of polymorphic bands (96.58%), the resolving power of primers values (135.70), and the polymorphic information content demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used in this study. The genetic distances between accessions ranged from 0.18 to 0.79 with a mean of 0.24, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity at the intra- and interspecific levels. The unweighted pair group with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal component analysis discriminated cultivars efficiently and illustrated relationships and divergence between spontaneous, locally cultivated, and introduced plum types. These procedures showed continuous variation that occurs independently of the status of the species and geographical origin of the plums. In this study, random amplified microsatellite polymorphism was found to be as a reliable molecular marker for fingerprinting and for examining the diversity study of the plum and its relatives.

  6. An electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry screening of triacylglycerols in developing cultivated and wild peanut kernels (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Cherif, Aicha O; Leveque, Nathalie; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kallel, Habib; Moussa, Fathi

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of triacylglycerols during the development of three varieties of peanuts was monitored in two Tunisian cultivated peanut (Trabelsia (AraT) and Chounfakhi (AraC)) and one wild Tunisian peanut (Arbi (AraA)). The presence of TAGs composed of rare fatty acid residues such as hexacosanoic acid (C(23:0)) and heneicosanoic acid (C(21:0)) among the triacylglycerols C(23:0) LL, C(23:0) OO and C(21:0) LL was noted. The major molecular species of triacylglycerol detected in the three peanut varieties were dioleoyl linoleoyl (OOL), 1,2,3-trioleyl (OOO), 1,2-dioleyl-3-palmitoyl (POO), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-oleyl (OLL) and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-linolenoyl (OLLn). The TAG composition and content were significantly different among the three peanut varieties. The three major TAGs were OOL (20.6%), OOO (15.6%) and OLLn (13.2%) in AraA; OOL (21.4%), OOO (20.1%) and POO (17.5%) in AraC and finally OLL (20.7%), OOO (19.8%) and OLL (17.7%) in AraT.

  7. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  8. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  9. Allelic diversity of a beer haze active protein gene in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and development of allelic specific markers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Sun, Dongfa; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-07-13

    The formation of haze is a serious quality problem in beer production. It has been shown that the use of silica elute (SE)-ve malt (absence of molecular weight (MW) ∼14000 Da) for brewing can improve haze stability in the resultant beer, and the protein was identified as a barley trypsin inhibitor of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and (2) allele-specific (AS) markers for screening SE protein type. A survey of 172 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 71 cultivated barley genotypes was conducted, and 104 wild accessions and 35 cultivated genotypes were identified as SE+ve and 68 wild accessions and 36 cultivated genotypes as SE-ve. The allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe was investigated by cloning, alignment, and association analysis. It was found that there were significant differences between the SE+ve and SE-ve types in single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 234 (SNP(234)), SNP(313), and SNP(385.) Furthermore, two sets of AS markers were developed to screen SE protein type based on SNP(313). AS-PCR had results very similar to those obtained by immunoblot method. Mapping analysis showed that the gene controlling the MW∼14 kDa band was located on the short arm of chromosome 3H, at the position of marker BPB-0527 (33.302 cM) in the Franklin/Yerong DH population.

  10. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

  11. Variation in seed fatty acid composition and sequence divergence in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated sesame.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenbang; Tonnis, Brandon; Morris, Brad; Wang, Richard B; Zhang, Amy L; Pinnow, David; Wang, Ming Li

    2014-12-03

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examination of fatty acid composition. The coding region of the FAD2 gene for fatty acid desaturase (FAD) in these accessions was also sequenced. Cultivated sesame accessions flowered and matured earlier than the wild species. The cultivated sesame seeds contained a significantly higher percentage of oleic acid (40.4%) than the seeds of the wild species (26.1%). Nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the FAD2 gene coding region between wild and cultivated species. Some nucleotide polymorphisms led to amino acid changes, one of which was located in the enzyme active site and may contribute to the altered fatty acid composition. Based on the morphology observation, chemical analysis, and sequence analysis, it was determined that two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study are useful for sesame improvement in molecular breeding programs.

  12. Metabolomic study of wild and cultivated caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from different areas of Sardinia and their comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Foddai, Marzia; Natella, Fausta; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae), also known as caper, is widely known for its very aromatic flower buds (capers),that are largely employed as a flavouring in cooking. Capparis species are regarded as a potential source of important bioactive compounds, in fact, due to their botanical relationship with Brassica species; they contain glucosinolates, secondary plant metabolites, that have been studied for their potential anticarcinogenic properties. In addition, the presence of other numerous beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, alkaloids, lipids, vitamins and minerals have been reported. The aim of this study was to individuate and determinate the principal bioactive compounds occurring in different part (leaves, buds and flowers) of wild and cultivated C. spinosa collected from different area of Sardinia (Italy). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry methods were used for identification and simultaneous determination of 27 bioactive molecules. Analysis of different samples revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the content of flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In particular, glucocapparin resulted the most abundant with values ranging from 112 to 364 mg/100 g Fresh Weight (FW); followed by rutin with highest value of 126 mg/100 g FW, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin with highest value of 42 mg/100 g FW and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside with highest value of 24 mg/100 g FW. Based on this metabolomic targeted approach, quantitative results were treated by principal component analysis to explore and visualise correlation and discrimination among collections of C. spinosa samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset

  14. Efficacy comparison of Korean ginseng and American ginseng on body temperature and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Park, In-Sun; Yang, Duck-Choon; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng has beneficial effects in cancer, diabetes and aging. There are two main varieties of ginseng: Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). There are anecdotal reports that American ginseng helps reduce body temperature, whereas Korean ginseng improves blood circulation and increases body temperature; however, their respective effects on body temperature and metabolic parameters have not been studied. We investigated body temperature and metabolic parameters in mice using a metabolic cage. After administering ginseng extracts acutely (single dose of 1000 mg/kg) or chronically (200 mg/kg/day for four weeks), core body temperature, food intake, oxygen consumption and activity were measured, as well as serum levels of pyrogen-related factors and mRNA expression of metabolic genes. Acute treatment with American ginseng reduced body temperature compared with PBS-treated mice during the night; however, there was no significant effect of ginseng treatment on body temperature after four weeks of treatment. VO 2, VCO 2, food intake, activity and energy expenditure were unchanged after both acute and chronic ginseng treatment compared with PBS treatment. In acutely treated mice, serum thyroxin levels were reduced by red and American ginseng, and the serum prostaglandin E2 level was reduced by American ginseng. In chronically treated mice, red and white ginseng reduced thyroxin levels. We conclude that Korean ginseng does not stimulate metabolism in mice, whereas a high dose of American ginseng may reduce night-time body temperature and pyrogen-related factors.

  15. Tracking the dispersion of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from wild to cultivated grapevine: use of a novel mark-capture technique.

    PubMed

    Lessio, F; Tota, F; Alma, A

    2014-08-01

    The dispersion of Scaphoideus titanus Ball adults from wild to cultivated grapevines was studied using a novel mark-capture technique. The crowns of wild grapevines located at a distance from vineyards ranging from 5 to 330 m were sprayed with a water solution of either cow milk (marker: casein) or chicken egg whites (marker: albumin) and insects captured in yellow sticky traps placed on the canopy of grapes were analyzed via an indirect ELISA for markers' identification. Data were subject to exponential regression as a function of distance from wild grapevine, and to spatial interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighted and Kernel interpolation with barriers) using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 software. The influence of rainfall and time elapsed after marking on markers' effectiveness, and the different dispersion of males and females were studied with regression analyses. Of a total of 5417 insects analyzed, 43% were positive to egg; whereas 18% of 536 tested resulted marked with milk. No influence of rainfall or time elapsed was observed for egg, whereas milk was affected by time. Males and females showed no difference in dispersal. Marked adults decreased exponentially along with distance from wild grapevine and up to 80% of them were captured within 30 m. However, there was evidence of long-range dispersal up to 330 m. The interpolation maps showed a clear clustering of marked S. titanus close to the treated wild grapevine, and the pathways to the vineyards did not always seem to go along straight lines but mainly along ecological corridors. S. titanus adults are therefore capable of dispersing from wild to cultivated grapevine, and this may affect pest management strategies.

  16. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats), wild/feral (protected habitats), and truly wild cotton (TWC) populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida), as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively low genetic

  17. Distribution and Differentiation of Wild, Feral, and Cultivated Populations of Perennial Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race ‘yucatanense’ from northern Yucatán. ‘Marie-Galante’, the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats), wild/feral (protected habitats), and truly wild cotton (TWC) populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida), as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating ‘Marie-Galante’ from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively low

  18. Oral Toxicity and Intestinal Transport Mechanism of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Treated Red Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Song-Hwa; Yu, Jin; Go, Mi-Ran; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism. (2) Methods: 14-day repeated oral administration of G-red ginseng extract to rats was performed, and body weight, hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological values were analyzed. An in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and an intestinal epithelial monolayer system were used for intestinal transport mechanistic study. (3) Results: No remarkable oral toxicity of G-red ginseng extract in rats was found, and Au-NPs did not accumulate in any organ, although Au-NP transfer to G-red ginseng and some increased saponin levels were confirmed. Au-NPs were transcytozed by microfold (M) cells, but not by a paracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. (4) Conclusion: These findings suggest great potential of Au-NPs for agricultural food crops at safe levels. Further study is required to elucidate the functional effects of Au-NPs on ginseng and long-term toxicity. PMID:28335336

  19. Quantification of two polyacetylenes in Radix Ginseng and roots of related Panax species using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hua; Lee, Che-Sum; Leung, Kit-Ming; Yan, Zhong-Kai; Shen, Bai-Hua; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2007-10-31

    A sensitive method for quantitating the pharmacologically active polyacetylenes panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Ginseng was developed using a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method. The detection mode of selected ion monitoring (SIM) allowed sensitive and selective quantitation of the two compounds in ginseng. Method validation showed that the GC-MS method has much lower detection and quantitation limits than the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. This indicates that GC-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of polyacetylene compounds, which have relatively low abundances compared with ginsenosides in ginseng. Based on the quantitative results of different types of ginseng herbs, it was found that the panaxydol and panaxynol contents were higher in forest ginseng than in cultivated ginseng. This method was further applied to the quantitative analyses of panaxynol and panaxydol in Radix Notoginseng and American ginseng. The ratio of panaxydol to panaxynol can be utilized as a marker for differentiating ginseng, notoginseng, and American ginseng. This study introduces the first GC-MS method for the quantitative analysis of polyacetylenes in herbs of the Panax genus.

  20. Comparison of the chemistry and diversity of endophytes isolated from wild-harvested and greenhouse-cultivated yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica)

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, Robert O.; Kaur, Amninder; Todd, Daniel A.; Egan, Joseph M.; El-Elimat, Tamam; Graf, Tyler N.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    With this study, we explored the identity and chemistry of fungal endophytes from the roots of yerba mansa [Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. (Saururaceae)], a botanical traditionally used to treat infection. We compared the diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from a wild-harvested A. californica population, and those from plants cultivated for one year in a greenhouse environment. The wild-harvested population yielded thirteen fungal strains (eleven unique genotypes). Of the extracts prepared from these fungi, four inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus by >25% at 20 µg/mL, and three inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ≥20% at 200 µg/mL. By comparison, A. californica roots after one year of cultivation in the greenhouse produced only two unique genotypes, neither of which displayed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus Chaetomium cupreum isolated from wild-harvested A. californica yielded a new antimicrobial spirolactone, chaetocuprum (1). An additional fourteen known compounds were identified using LC-MS dereplication of the various fungal endophytes. This study provides new insights into the identity and chemistry of A. californica fungal endophytes, and demonstrates the importance of considering growing conditions when pursuing natural product drug discovery from endophytic fungi. PMID:25642298

  1. Genetic Structure of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli Associated with Wild and Cultivated Bean Plants (Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus) in Morelos, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis; Avila, German; Cappello, Renato; Gallardo, Claudia; Montoya, Javier; Piñero, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli was determined for five populations in three different locations in the state of Morelos, Mexico, by using starch gel electrophoresis for five to nine polymorphic loci. Two populations were sampled during two different years from nodules of cultivated and wild common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris). The three other populations were associated with wild runner beans (P. coccineus) and sampled during 1988. The Rhizobium populations differ genetically both among sites and among populations within the same site in different years, as shown by differences in allelic frequencies, genetic differentiation analysis, and differences in electrotypes. The total genetic diversity for the five populations during 1988 was H = 0.487; there were also high levels of genetic variation within each population. We found the highest linkage disequilibrium in a global analysis for all the populations. At a local scale, we also found significant linkage disequilibrium in two populations, although the distribution of the D′ suggest some recombination at a local scale. The other three rhizobium populations exhibit low linkage disequilibrium. A cluster analysis (UPGMA) of pairwise genetic distances showed that bacteria isolated from most wild Phaseolus spp. are grouped by population, whereas those obtained from cultivated P. vulgaris are very heterogeneous. The analysis of the genetic structure of Rhizobium strains may allow the identification of strains that are naturally well adapted to a wide range of different environments, which may be useful for agricultural purposes or as a starting point for developing improved Rhizobium strains. PMID:16349234

  2. Modelling the distribution of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea): implications of climate change for livelihoods dependent on both cultivation and harvesting from the wild.

    PubMed

    Lötter, Daleen; Maitre, David

    2014-04-01

    Aspalathus linearis (Burm. f.) R. Dahlgren (rooibos) is endemic to the Fynbos Biome of South Africa, which is an internationally recognized biodiversity hot spot. Rooibos is both an invaluable wild resource and commercially cultivated crop in suitable areas. Climate change predictions for the region indicate a significant warming scenario coupled with a decline in winter rainfall. First estimates of possible consequences for biodiversity point to species extinctions of 23% in the long term in the Fynbos Biome. Bioclimatic modelling using the maximum entropy method was used to develop an estimate of the realized niche of wild rooibos and the current geographic distribution of areas suitable for commercially production. The distribution modelling provided a good match to the known distribution and production area of A. linearis. An ensemble of global climate models that assume the A2 emissions scenario of high energy requirements was applied to develop possible scenarios of range/suitability shift under future climate conditions. When these were extrapolated to a future climate (2041-2070) both wild and cultivated tea exhibited substantial range contraction with some range shifts southeastwards and upslope. Most of the areas where range expansion was indicated are located in existing conservation areas or include conservation worthy vegetation. These findings will be critical in directing conservation efforts as well as developing strategies for farmers to cope with and adapt to climate change.

  3. Evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated samples of sage (Salvia fruticosa) by activity-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Kartal, Murat; Sener, Bilge; Kan, Yüksel; Celep, Ferhat; Kahraman, Ahmet; Dogan, Musa

    2011-11-01

    In European folk medicine, Salvia species have traditionally been used to enhance memory. In our previous study of 55 Salvia taxa, we explored significant anticholinesterase activity of cultivated S. fruticosa. In this study, we compared the inhibitory activity of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of 3 wild-grown samples and 1 cultivated sample of S. fruticosa against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (which are associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease) by using the spectrophotometric Ellman method. Antioxidant activities were assessed by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The dichloromethane extract of the cultivated sample was then subjected to fractionation by using open column chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography to obtain the most active fraction by activity-guided fractionation. All fractions and subfractions were tested in the same manner, and inactive subfractions were discarded. The essential oil of the cultivated sample was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  4. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway. PMID:26649061

  5. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    PubMed

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  6. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  7. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740

  8. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and cultivated giant grouper in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Xie, ZhenZhen; Li, Yiqi; Xiao, Ling; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Haifa; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-06-01

    The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different populations. The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.131 to 0.855 with a mean value of 0.623 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.145 to 0.869 with a mean value of 0.379. The allelic richness and heterozygosity studies revealed that the genetic diversity of the cultured population was significantly reduced when compared with that of the wild population. The Fis, pairwise Fst values, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), threedimensional factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis revealed significant population differentiation between the cultured stocks and the wild populations, among the three cultured populations and between the two wild populations. These differences may be caused by random genetic drift, the effects of artificial selection and founder effects. Our results will be useful in the management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the giant grouper.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential. PMID:27069902

  10. Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wei-Yi; Farooqui, Tahira; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide (NO) production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including β-amyloid (Aβ) formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis are presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in neurological disorders. PMID:26236231

  11. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, E; Amato, M; Izzo, A A

    2000-08-01

    Ginseng is the root of the perennial herbs of Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng which contain a series of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) as active ingredients. It is considered a tonic or adaptogenic that enhances physical performance (including sexual), promotes vitality and increases resistance to stress and ageing. The adaptogenic properties of ginseng are believed to be due to its effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevated plasma corticotropin and corticosteroids levels. When used appropriately, ginseng appears to be safe. Nevertheless, documented side effects include hypertension, diarrhoea, restlessness, mastalgia and vaginal bleeding.

  12. Ginseng Diminishes Lung Disease in Mice Immunized with Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus After Challenge by Modulating Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Min Kyoung; Hwang, Hye Suk; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Young-Tae; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunization is known to cause severe pulmonary inflammatory disease after subsequent RSV infection. Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years due to its potential health benefits. We investigated whether ginseng would have immune modulating effects on RSV infection in mice previously immunized with FI-RSV. Oral administration of mice with ginseng increased IgG2a isotype antibody responses to FI-RSV immunization, indicating T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses. Ginseng-treated mice that were nonimmunized or previously immunized with FI-RSV showed improved protection against RSV challenge compared with control mice without ginseng treatment. Ginseng-mediated improved clinical outcomes after live RSV infection were evidenced by diminished weight losses, decreased interleukin-4 cytokine production but increased interferon-γ production, modulation of CD3 T-cell populations toward a Th1 response, and reduced inflammatory response. Ginseng-mediated protective host immune modulation against RSV pulmonary inflammation was observed in different strains of wild-type and mutant mice. These results indicate that ginseng can modulate host immune responses to FI-RSV immunization and RSV infection, resulting in protective effects against pulmonary inflammatory disease. PMID:25051168

  13. Efficacy of random primer-pair arrays in plant genome analysis: a case study of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) for identification of wild and cultivated species.

    PubMed

    Gatphoh, E M; Sharma, S K; Rajkumari, K; Rama Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of random primer-pair arrays compared to conventional RAPD method with a single decamer primer was evaluated using DNA from two species of Cucumis. The banding patterns of amplicons revealed enhanced utility of primer-pair arrays over conventional RAPDs, producing more bands and a higher degree of polymorphism, both at intra- and inter-specific levels. Amplification produced by both methods clearly distinguished a wild from a cultivated species of the genus Cucumis. The main advantage of the primer-pair RAPD over single-primer-based RAPD is the increase in the number of reactions and amplification products in the form of novel/unique bands with a limited number of primers. It also enables the generation of reliable amplicons with a large number of polymorphic bands, which can be linked to gene-governing traits, allowing sequence-characterized partial genome analysis.

  14. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin E.; Kono, Thomas J. Y.; Stupar, Robert M.; Kantar, Michael B.; Morrell, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. PMID:26818076

  15. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, P<0.05 or P<0.01), respectively. Pearson test showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  17. Induction of systemic resistance in Panax ginseng against Phytophthora cactorum by native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HK34

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ryu, Hojin; Yoo, Sung-Je; Suh, Dong-Sang; Park, Kyungseok

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a perennial herb prone to various root diseases, with Phytophthora cactorum being considered one of the most dreaded pathogens. P. cactorum causes foliar blight and root rot. Although chemical pesticides are available for disease control, attention has been shifted to viable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective biological means such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for control of diseases. Methods Native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain HK34 was isolated from wild ginseng and assessed as a biological control agent for ginseng. Leaves from plants treated with HK34 were analyzed for induced systemic resistance (ISR) against P. cactorum in square plate assay. Treated plants were verified for differential expression of defense-related marker genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 78 native rhizosphere bacilli from wild P. ginseng were isolated. One of the root-associated bacteria identified as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HK34 effectively induced resistance against P. cactorum when applied as soil drench once (99.1% disease control) and as a priming treatment two times in the early stages (83.9% disease control). A similar result was observed in the leaf samples of plants under field conditions, where the percentage of disease control was 85.6%. Significant upregulation of the genes PgPR10, PgPR5, and PgCAT in the leaves of plants treated with HK34 was observed against P. cactorum compared with untreated controls and only pathogen-treated plants. Conclusion The results of this study indicate HK34 as a potential biocontrol agent eliciting ISR in ginseng against P. cactorum. PMID:26199552

  18. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower.

  19. Quantitative expression analysis of TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 genes in cultivated and wild wheat plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Amin; Niazi, Ali; Abolimoghadam, Ali Asghar; Zamani Babgohari, Mahboobeh; Deihimi, Tahereh; Ebrahimi, Mahmod; Akhtardanesh, Hosein; Ebrahimie, Esmail

    2013-02-01

    Salt stress is a mixture of ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. The expression of TaSOS1 (a transmembrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter) and TaSOS4 [a cytoplasmic pyridoxal (PL) kinase] genes were measured in four different salinity levels and different time courses of salinity exposure using qRT-PCR technique. Mahuti (salt tolerant) and Alamut (salt sensitive) cultivars were used as cultivated wheat, and T. boeticum and Aegilops crassa as wild wheat plants. Salt-induced expression of TaSOS1 in these wild wheat plants indicates the presence of active TaSOS1 gene on the genomes A and D. The TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 transcript levels were found to be downregulated after salt treatment in all cultivars except in A. crassa, which was in contrast with its expression pattern in roots that was being upregulated from a very low-basal expression, after salt treatments. Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed a significant difference between expression in the 200-mM NaCl concentration with the 50 and 100 mM for the TaSOS1 gene, and no significant difference for TaSOS4. Lack of significant correlation between the TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 gene expressions confirms the theory that PLP has no significant effect on the expression of the TaSOS1 gene in wheat leaves.

  20. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  1. Effects of Panax ginseng in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of the Panax ginseng, has been a popular and widely-used traditional herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan for thousands of years. Now it has become popular as a functional health food and is used globally as a natural medicine. Evidence is accumulating in the literature on the physiological and pharmacological effects of P. ginseng on neurodegenerative diseases. Possible ginseng- or ginsenosides-mediated neuroprotective mechanisms mainly involve maintaining homeostasis, and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and immune-stimulatory activities. This review considers publications dealing with the various actions of P. ginseng that are indicative of possible neurotherapeutic efficacies in neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. PMID:23717136

  2. Changes in the Contents of Prosapogenin in the Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Depending on Steaming Batches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun A; Jo, Hee Kyung; Im, Byung Ok; Kim, Sungun; Whang, Wan Kyun; Ko, Sung Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the contents of ginsenosides depending on steaming conditions of red ginsengs to provide basic information for developing functional foods using red ginsengs. The red ginseng steamed eight times at 98℃ ranked atop the amounts of prosapogenins ever detected in red ginsengs (ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rg6, Rh1, Rh4, Rk1, Rk3, F1, F4, 1.15%) among red ginsengs steamed more than twice. When steamed eight times at 98℃, 2.7 times as much prosapogenins such as ginsenosides Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rg6, Rh1, Rh4, Rk1, Rk3, F1, and F4 as those steamed just once at 98℃ was collected. In addition, the red ginsengs steamed eight times at 98℃ contained more amounting ginsenoside Rg3 (0.28%) than that in the red ginseng steamed several times at random. Accordingly, it is recommendable that red ginsengs steamed 8 times, which proved to be the optimal steaming condition, be used rather than those steamed 9 times (black ginsengs), in order to develop red ginseng products of high prosapogenin concentration and high functions. PMID:23717110

  3. The biosynthesis, structure and gelatinization properties of starches from wild and cultivated African rice species (Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wambugu, Peterson W; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Alex Chi; Henry, Robert J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-09-20

    The molecular structure and gelatinization properties of starches from domesticated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its wild progenitor (Oryza barthii) are determined and comparison made with Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), the commonest commercial rice. This suggests possible enzymatic processes contributing to the unique traits of the African varieties. These have similar starch structures, including smaller amylose molecules, but larger amounts of amylose chains across the whole amylose chain-length distribution, and higher amylose contents, than O. sativa. They also show a higher proportion of two- and three-lamellae spanning amylopectin branch chains (degree of polymerization 34-100) than O. sativa, which contributes to their higher gelatinization temperatures. Fitting amylopectin chain-length distribution with a biosynthesis-based mathematical model suggests that the reason for this difference might be because O. glaberrima and O. barthii have more active SSIIIa and/or less active SBEIIb enzymes.

  4. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    PubMed

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas(n)) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  5. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  6. Ginseng, the 'Immunity Boost': The Effects of Panax ginseng on Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soowon; Min, Hyeyoung

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of literatures have described the diverse role of ginseng in physiological processes such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, insulin resistance, and hypertension. In particular, ginseng has been extensively reported to maintain homeostasis of the immune system and to enhance resistance to illness or microbial attacks through the regulation of immune system. Immune system comprises of different types of cells fulfilling their own specialized functions, and each type of the immune cells is differentially influenced and may be simultaneously controlled by ginseng treatment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of ginseng on immune system. We discuss how ginseng regulates each type of immune cells including macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. We also describe how ginseng exhibits beneficial effects on controlling inflammatory diseases and microbial infections. PMID:23717137

  7. Withania somnifera: an Indian ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S K; Dhir, Ashish

    2008-07-01

    Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana (rejuvenation) and expected to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. Having wide range of activity, it is used to treat almost all disorders that affect the human health. The present review discusses the pharmacological basis of the use of W. somnifera in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly its indication in epilepsy, stress and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disorders, tardive dyskinesia, cerebral ischemia, and even in the management of drug addiction.

  8. Ginseng: a promising neuroprotective strategy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Santiago-Moreno, Juan; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. It has been used in the treatment of various ailments and to boost immunity for centuries; especially in Asian countries. The most common ginseng variant in traditional herbal medicine is ginseng, which is made from the peeled and dried root of Panax Ginseng. Ginseng has been suggested as an effective treatment for a vast array of neurological disorders, including stroke and other acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Ginseng’s neuroprotective effects are focused on the maintenance of homeostasis. This review involves a comprehensive literature search that highlights aspects of ginseng’s putative neuroprotective effectiveness, focusing on stroke. Attenuation of inflammation through inhibition of various proinflammatory mediators, along with suppression of oxidative stress by various mechanisms, including activation of the cytoprotective transcriptional factor Nrf2, which results in decrease in reactive oxygen species, could account for its neuroprotective efficacy. It can also prevent neuronal death as a result of stroke, thus decreasing anatomical and functional stroke damage. Although there are diverse studies that have investigated the mechanisms involved in the efficacy of ginseng in treating disorders, there is still much that needs to be clarified. Both in vitro and in vivo studies including randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to develop in-depth knowledge of ginseng and its practical applications. PMID:25653588

  9. Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Kwan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2011-01-01

    A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng. PMID:23717084

  10. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothée B.; Nabino, Victor B.; Koh, Kwangoh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  11. Uncovering the Salt Response of Soybean by Unraveling Its Wild and Cultivated Functional Genomes Using Tag Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Da Yong; Xu, Zhao Long; Xu, Ling; Yi, Jin Xin; He, Xiao Lan; Huang, Yi Hong; Liu, Xiao Qing; Khan, Asif Ali; Trethowan, Richard M.; Ma, Hong Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity has very adverse effects on growth and yield of crop plants. Several salt tolerant wild accessions and cultivars are reported in soybean. Functional genomes of salt tolerant Glycine soja and a salt sensitive genotype of Glycine max were investigated to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance in soybean. For this purpose, four libraries were constructed for Tag sequencing on Illumina platform. We identify around 490 salt responsive genes which included a number of transcription factors, signaling proteins, translation factors and structural genes like transporters, multidrug resistance proteins, antiporters, chaperons, aquaporins etc. The gene expression levels and ratio of up/down-regulated genes was greater in tolerant plants. Translation related genes remained stable or showed slightly higher expression in tolerant plants under salinity stress. Further analyses of sequenced data and the annotations for gene ontology and pathways indicated that soybean adapts to salt stress through ABA biosynthesis and regulation of translation and signal transduction of structural genes. Manipulation of these pathways may mitigate the effect of salt stress thus enhancing salt tolerance. PMID:23209559

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on Endosperm Protein Synthesis in Wild and Cultivated Barley Grown in Spike Culture

    PubMed Central

    Corke, Harold; Atsmon, Dan

    1988-01-01

    In normal growth conditions, total protein percent (salt soluble plus hordein fractions) in the endosperm at maturity in barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv `Ruth' was about 14%, whereas in an accession of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch line 297, it was about 28%. Spike culture experiments were conducted to ascertain whether there were basic differences between the two genotypes under conditions of widely different nitrogen supply. Spikes of each genotype were grown from 8 to 25 days after flowering in in vitro culture in a growth medium containing 0 to 4 grams per liter nitrogen supplied as NH4NO3. Spikes were pulse-labeled at intervals from 12 to 24 days after flowering with 3.7 megabecquerel of [3H]leucine to determine relative rates of synthesis of hordein-1 and hordein-2 polypeptides. At low nitrogen levels `Ruth' had a lower protein content than 297, but at increasing nitrogen levels its protein content increased rapidly and reached a maximum (35%) higher than 297 (30%). The relative contribution of the hordein fraction to total protein increased mainly with time, and hordein-1 to total hordein increased mainly with nitrogen level, in both genotypes. There appeared to be no fundamental limitations in the capacity of `Ruth' to accumulate protein; 297 appears to have a greater basal level of nitrogen availability under normal conditions. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16666176

  13. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture

    SciTech Connect

    Corke, H.; Atsmon, D. )

    1988-06-01

    In normal growth conditions, total protein percent, in the endosperm at maturity in barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv Ruth was about 14%, whereas in an accession of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch line 297, it was about 28%. Spike culture experiments were conducted to ascertain whether there were basic differences between the two genotypes under conditions of widely different nitrogen supply. Spikes of each genotype were grown from 8 to 25 days after flowering in in vitro culture in a growth medium containing 0 to 4 grams per liter nitrogen supplied as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. Spikes were pulse-labeled at intervals from 12 to 24 days after flowering with 3.7 megabecquerel of ({sup 3}H)leucine to determine relative rates of synthesis of hordein-1 and hordein-2 polypedtides. At low nitrogen levels Ruth had a lower protein content than 297, but at increasing nitrogen levels its protein content increased rapidly and reached a maximum (35%) higher than 297 (30%). The relative contribution of the hordein fraction to total protein increased mainly with time, and hordein-1 to total hordein increased mainly with nitrogen level, in both genotypes. There appeared to be no fundamental limitations in the capacity of Ruth to accumulate protein: 297 appears to have a greater basal level of nitrogen availability under normal conditions.

  14. An ancient R gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans in cultivated potato and tomato.

    PubMed

    van der Vossen, Edwin; Sikkema, Anne; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Gros, Jack; Stevens, Patricia; Muskens, Marielle; Wouters, Doret; Pereira, Andy; Stiekema, Willem; Allefs, Sjefke

    2003-12-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease for potato cultivation. Here, we describe the positional cloning of the Rpi-blb1 gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum known for its high levels of resistance to late blight. The Rpi-blb1 locus, which confers full resistance to complex isolates of P. infestans and for which race specificity has not yet been demonstrated, was mapped in an intraspecific S. bulbocastanum population on chromosome 8, 0.3 cM from marker CT88. Molecular analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone spanning the Rpi-blb1 locus identified a cluster of four candidate resistance gene analogues of the coiled coil, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. One of these candidate genes, designated the Rpi-blb1 gene, was able to complement the susceptible phenotype in a S. tuberosum and tomato background, demonstrating the potential of interspecific transfer of broad-spectrum late blight resistance to cultivated Solanaceae from sexually incompatible host species. Paired comparisons of synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between different regions of Rpi-blb1 paralogues revealed high levels of synonymous divergence, also in the LRR region. Although amino acid diversity between Rpi-blb1 homologues is centred on the putative solvent exposed residues of the LRRs, the majority of nucleotide differences in this region have not resulted in an amino acid change, suggesting conservation of function. These data suggest that Rpi-blb1 is relatively old and may be subject to balancing selection.

  15. Influence of aging process on the bioactive components and antioxidant activity of ginseng (Panax ginseng L.).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Jung; Chung, Soo Im; Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-10-01

    The effects of aging process on the ginsenosides and antioxidant activity of ginseng was investigated. Fresh ginseng roots were aged in oven at 70 or 80 °C for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d. Their ginsenosides, phenolics, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. Ginseng aged at 80 °C for 14 d exhibited the highest amounts of total saponins and phenolics. It also showed markedly higher free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating ability than the other aged ginsengs. The ginsenosides Rb1 , Rb3 , Rg3 , Re, Rg1 , and Rg2 were generated during aging. The Rg2 was the most abundant ginsenoside in aged ginseng, with samples treated at 80 °C for 14 d having the highest amount. These findings provide the first evidence that aging, particularly at 80 °C for 14 d, could increase the bioactive compounds, indicating that this heating process may be useful in enhancing the biological activity of ginseng. PRACTICALAPPLICATION: Ginseng has long been recognized for its various health beneficial effects. The present study showed that aging of ginseng roots at 80 °C for 14 d substantially increased the amount of bioactive compounds ginsenosides and phenolics and enhanced the antioxidant activity. The food industry could use the aging process to improve the functional quality of ginseng.

  16. Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin.

    PubMed

    Im, Dong-soon; Nah, Seung-yeol

    2013-11-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic herb that provides many beneficial effects. Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng. However, the effects of ginseng are not fully explained by ginsenosides. Recently, another class of active ingredients called gintonin was identified. Gintonin is a complex of glycosylated ginseng proteins containing lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) that are the intracellular lipid mitogenic mediator. Gintonin specifically and potently activates the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for LPA. Thus, the actions of ginseng are now also linked to LPA and its GPCRs. This linkage opens new dimensions for ginseng pharmacology and LPA therapeutics. In the present review, we evaluate the pharmacology of ginseng with the traditional viewpoint of Yin and Yang components. Furthermore, we will compare ginsenoside and gintonin based on the modern view of molecular pharmacology in terms of ion channels and GPCRs.

  17. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  18. A study of the relationships of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its most closely related wild species using intron sequences and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Gouvea, Ediene G.; Inglis, Peter W.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Valls, José F. M.; Bertioli, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Arachis contains 80 described species. Section Arachis is of particular interest because it includes cultivated peanut, an allotetraploid, and closely related wild species, most of which are diploids. This study aimed to analyse the genetic relationships of multiple accessions of section Arachis species using two complementary methods. Microsatellites allowed the analysis of inter- and intraspecific variability. Intron sequences from single-copy genes allowed phylogenetic analysis including the separation of the allotetraploid genome components. Methods Intron sequences and microsatellite markers were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in section Arachis through maximum parsimony and genetic distance analyses. Key Results Although high intraspecific variability was evident, there was good support for most species. However, some problems were revealed, notably a probable polyphyletic origin for A. kuhlmannii. The validity of the genome groups was well supported. The F, K and D genomes grouped close to the A genome group. The 2n = 18 species grouped closer to the B genome group. The phylogenetic tree based on the intron data strongly indicated that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the ancestors of A. hypogaea and A. monticola. Intron nucleotide substitutions allowed the ages of divergences of the main genome groups to be estimated at a relatively recent 2·3–2·9 million years ago. This age and the number of species described indicate a much higher speciation rate for section Arachis than for legumes in general. Conclusions The analyses revealed relationships between the species and genome groups and showed a generally high level of intraspecific genetic diversity. The improved knowledge of species relationships should facilitate the utilization of wild species for peanut improvement. The estimates of speciation rates in section Arachis are high, but not unprecedented. We suggest these high rates may be linked to the

  19. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Livia Moura; Le Guen, Vincent; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; Souza, Anete Pereira de

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  20. Morphological and Ginsenoside Differences among North American Ginseng Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, John T. A.; Sullivan, Alan J.; Rupasinghe, Vasantha P. V.; Jackson, Chung-Ja C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaf characteristics of mature 2, 3 and 4-year-old North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) leaves on fruiting and non-fruiting (NF) plants were studied. Leaflets of the 2-year-old plants had the lowest fresh and dry weight, area, volume and internal gas volume. Inflorescence removal in 3-year-old plants did not affect leaf characteristics or ginsenoside concentration but in 4-yearold plants it increased leaf fresh (38.6%) and dry (43.9%) weight, leaf area (29.1%), specific leaf mass (11.4%), leaf volume (43.1%), and leaf thickness (12.1%), and decreased leaf water content (6.2%). Cultivated ginseng, although an understorey plant, had the specific leaf mass, 35.6 g m-2 (range, 36 to 39 g m-2) and a chlorophyll a/b ratio of 2.40 to 2.61, both suggesting the ability to perform like a sunny habitat plant. Also, specific leaf mass of 35.6 g m-2 is similar to that reported for perennial plants, 36.8 g m-2, rather than that for annuals, 30.9 g m-2. PMID:23717057

  1. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on proanthocyanidins in berries of Finnish wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Laaksonen, Oskar; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-02-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) of varieties 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' and one of wild origin were cultivated in southern and northern Finland, harvested during 2007-2013. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were analyzed with HILIC UPLC-ESI-MS. The southern and northern samples were separated in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model (four factors, R(2) 0.75, Q(2) 0.70). The total PAs were more abundant in berries from the north (610-970mg/100gDW) than in those from the south (340-450mg/100gDW) (p<0.05). In northern Finland, the length of the growth season as well as the temperature sum and radiation sum of the growth season until harvest were negatively correlated with the total PAs in all the samples but positively with PA oligomers in 'Tytti' and 'Terhi'. In southern Finland no respective correlations were seen. 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' had different trends in the content of total PA and oligomers in overripe stages.

  2. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rangeline Azevedo; Souza, Gustavo; Lemos, Lívia Santos Lima; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Patrocínio, Nara Geórgia Ribeiro Braz; Alves, Rafael Moysés; Marcellino, Lucília Helena; Clement, Didier; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR) of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI− bands). The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted. PMID:28187131

  3. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rangeline Azevedo; Souza, Gustavo; Lemos, Lívia Santos Lima; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Patrocínio, Nara Geórgia Ribeiro Braz; Alves, Rafael Moysés; Marcellino, Lucília Helena; Clement, Didier; Micheli, Fabienne; Gramacho, Karina Peres

    2017-01-01

    The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR) of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI- bands). The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted.

  4. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA.

  5. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2015-12-11

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, representing >8.3x of the 3.2-Gb ginseng genome. From the sequences, 248,993 unigenes were assembled for whole plant, 61,912-113,456 unigenes for each tissue and 54,444-65,412 unigenes for different year-old roots. We comprehensively analyzed the unigene sets and gene expression profiles. We found that the number of genes allocated to each functional category is stable across tissues or developmental stages, while the expression profiles of different genes of a gene family or involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis dramatically diversified spatially and temporally. These results provide an overall insight into the spatial and temporal transcriptome dynamics and landscapes of Asian ginseng, and comprehensive resources for advanced research and breeding of ginseng and related species.

  6. Ecology and conservation of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in a changing world.

    PubMed

    McGraw, James B; Lubbers, Anne E; Van der Voort, Martha; Mooney, Emily H; Furedi, Mary Ann; Souther, Sara; Turner, Jessica B; Chandler, Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an uncommon to rare understory plant of the eastern deciduous forest. Harvesting to supply the Asian traditional medicine market made ginseng North America's most harvested wild plant for two centuries, eventually prompting a listing on CITES Appendix II. The prominence of this representative understory plant has led to its use as a phytometer to better understand how environmental changes are affecting many lesser-known species that constitute the diverse temperate flora of eastern North America. We review recent scientific findings concerning this remarkable phytometer species, identifying factors through its history of direct and indirect interactions with humans that have led to the current condition of the species. Harvest, deer browse, and climate change effects have been studied in detail, and all represent unique interacting threats to ginseng's long-term persistence. Finally, we synthesize our current understanding by portraying ginseng's existence in thousands of small populations, precariously poised to either escape or be drawn further toward extinction by the actions of our own species.

  7. Contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in wild versus cultivated samples of female and male mussels (Mytilus sp.) from the Northwest Coast of Iberian Peninsula--new application for QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) methodology.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Santos, Cláudia; Velhote, Susana; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    A newly analytical method based on QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was developed and validated for the quantification of 18 PCBs in wild (from Matosinhos Beach, Portugal) and cultivated (from Ria de Arousa, Spain) mussel samples, pooled by sex. Wild animals showed higher PCB levels than cultivated mussels, with males from both origins, presenting an upper contamination profile comparing with females. This fact seems to be correlated with few biometric parameters, but other interdependencies, not addressed herein, such as distinct lipid contents between sexes, as a consequence of the gametogenic stage, may also explain this data. Overall, data reiterate the importance of investigating the presence of PCBs in marine biological samples, which can act both as bioindicators of environmental contamination, either as food quality controls for human health.

  8. Distinct urine metabolome after Asian ginseng and American ginseng intervention based on GC-MS metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Zhang, Wen-Song; Fan, Yong; Ma, Chung-Wah; Liu, Qun; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products worldwide. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) show different properties and medicinal applications in pharmacology, even though the main active constituents of them are both thought to be ginsenosides. Metabolomics is a promising method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to exogenous stimulus. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to study the overall urine metabolic differences between Asian ginseng and American ginseng in mice. Metabolomics analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) together with multivariate statistical data analysis. A total of 21 metabolites related to D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, TCA cycle and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, differed significantly under the Asian ginseng treatment; 34 metabolites mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, TCA cycle and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, were significantly altered after American ginseng treatment. Urinary metabolomics reveal that Asian ginseng and American ginseng can benefit organism physiological and biological functions via regulating multiple metabolic pathways. The important pathways identified from Asian ginseng and American ginseng can also help to explore new therapeutic effects or action targets so as to broad application of these two ginsengs. PMID:27991533

  9. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  10. Arachis batizocoi: a study of its relationship to cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea) and its potential for introgression of wild genes into the peanut crop using induced allotetraploids

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Santos, Silvio P.; Dantas, Karinne M.; Inglis, Peter W.; Nielen, Stephan; Araujo, Ana C. G.; Silva, Joseane P.; Cavalcante, Uiara; Guimarães, Patricia M.; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina M.; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Cook, Douglas; Moretzsohn, Márcio C.; Bertioli, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Arachis batizocoi is a wild relative of cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea), an allotetraploid with an AABB genome. Arachis batizocoi was once considered the ancestral donor of the peanut B genome, but cytogenetics and DNA phylogenies have indicated a new genome classification, ‘K’. These observations seem inconsistent with genetic studies and breeding that have shown that A. batizocoi can behave as a B genome. Methods The genetic behaviour, genome composition and phylogenetic position of A. batizocoi were studied using controlled hybridizations, induced tetraploidy, whole-genome in situ fluorescent hybridization (GISH) and molecular phylogenetics. Key Results Sterile diploid hybrids containing AK genomes were obtained using A. batizocoi and the A genome species A. duranensis, A. stenosperma, A. correntina or A. villosa. From these, three types of AAKK allotetraploids were obtained, each in multiple independent polyploidy events. Induced allotetraploids were vigorous and fertile, and were hybridized to A. hypogaea to produce F1 hybrids. Even with the same parental combination, fertility of these F1 hybrids varied greatly, suggesting the influence of stochastic genetic or epigenetic events. Interestingly, hybrids with A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea were significantly more fertile than those with the subspecies fastigiata. GISH in cultivated × induced allotetraploids hybrids (harbouring AABK genomes) and a molecular phylogeny using 16 intron sequences showed that the K genome is distinct, but more closely related to the B than to the A genome. Conclusions The K genome of A. batizocoi is more related to B than to the A genome, but is distinct. As such, when incorporated in an induced allotetraploid (AAKK) it can behave as a B genome in crosses with peanut. However, the fertility of hybrids and their progeny depends upon the compatibility of the A genome interactions. The genetic distinctness of A. batizocoi makes it an important source of allelic

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of virus isolates from wild and cultivated plants demonstrates that East Africa is a hotspot for the evolution and diversification of sweet potato feathery mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Tugume, Arthur K; Cuéllar, Wilmer J; Mukasa, Settumba B; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2010-08-01

    Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) is globally the most common pathogen of cultivated sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas; Convolvulaceae). Although more than 150 SPFMV isolates have been sequence-characterized from cultivated sweet potatos across the world, little is known about SPFMV isolates from wild hosts and the evolutionary forces shaping SPFMV population structures. In this study, 46 SPFMV isolates from 14 wild species of genera Ipomoea, Hewittia and Lepistemon (barcoded for the matK gene in this study) and 13 isolates from cultivated sweet potatoes were partially sequenced. Wild plants were infected with the EA, C or O strain, or co-infected with the EA and C strains of SPFMV. In East Africa, SPFMV populations in wild species and sweet potato were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-host transmission of SPFMV. Globally, spatial diversification of the 178 isolates analysed was observed, strain EA being largely geographically restricted to East Africa. Recombination was frequently detected in the 6K2-VPg-NIaPro region of the EA strain, demonstrating a recombination 'hotspot'. Recombination between strains EA and C was rare, despite their frequent co-infections in wild plants, suggesting purifying selection against strain EA/C recombinants. Positive selection was predicted on 17 amino acids distributed over the entire coat protein in the globally distributed strain C, as compared to only four amino acids in the coat protein N-terminus of the EA strain. This selection implies a more recent introduction of the C strain and a higher adaptation of the EA strain to the local ecosystem. Thus, East Africa appears as a hotspot for evolution and diversification of SPFMV.

  12. Ginseng for managing menopausal woman's health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Jiae; Lee, YoungJoo; Kil, Ki-Jung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this systematic review was to update, complete, and critically evaluate the evidence from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ginseng for managing menopausal women's health. Methods: We searched the literature using 13 databases (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 6 Korean Medical, and 3 Chinese Databases) from their inception to July 2016 and included all double-blind RCTs that compared any type of ginseng with a placebo control in postmenopausal women. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Ten RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most RCTs had unclear risk of bias. One RCT did not show a significant difference in hot flash frequency between Korean red ginseng (KRG) and placebo. The second RCT reported positive effects of KRG on menopausal symptoms. The third RCT found beneficial effects of ginseng (Ginsena) on depression, well-being, and general health. Four RCTs failed to show significant differences in various hormones between KRG and placebo controls except dehydroepiandrosterone. Two other RCTs failed to show effects of KRG on endometrial thickness in menopausal women. The other RCT also failed to show the effects of American ginseng on oxidative stress markers and other antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: Our systematic review provided positive evidence of ginseng for sexual function and KRG for sexual arousal and total hot flashes score in menopausal women. However, the results of KRG or ginseng failed to show specific effects on hot flash frequency, hormones, biomarkers, or endometrial thickness. The level of evidence for these findings was low because of unclear risk of bias. PMID:27661038

  13. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  14. Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Karmazyn, Morris; Moey, Melissa; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey

    2011-10-22

    Although employed in Asian societies for thousands of years, the use of ginseng as an herbal medication for a variety of disorders has increased tremendously worldwide in recent years. Ginseng belongs to the genus Panax, of which there exists a variety, generally reflecting their geographic origin. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) are two such varieties possessing a plethora of pharmacological properties, which are attributed primarily to the presence of different ginsenosides that bestow these ginsengs with distinct pharmacodynamic profiles. The many cardiovascular benefits attributed to ginseng include cardioprotection, antihypertensive effects, and attenuation of myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. Experimental studies have revealed a number of beneficial properties of ginseng, particularly in the area of cardiac protection, where ginseng and ginsenosides have been shown to protect the ischaemic and reperfused heart in a variety of experimental models. Emerging evidence also suggests that ginseng attenuates myocardial hypertrophy, thus blunting the remodelling and heart failure processes. However, clinical evidence of efficacy is not convincing, likely owing primarily to the paucity of well designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials. Adding to the complexity in understanding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng is the fact that each of the different ginseng varieties possesses distinct cardiovascular properties, as a result of their respective ginsenoside composition, rendering it difficult to assign a general, common cardiovascular effect to ginseng. Additional challenges include the identification of mechanisms (likely multifaceted) that account for the effects of ginseng and determining which ginsenoside(s) mediate these cardiovascular properties. These concerns notwithstanding, the potential cardiovascular benefit of ginseng is worthy of further studies in view of its possible development as a

  15. The mensuration of delayed luminescence on ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fenghua; Bai, Hua; Tang, Guoqing

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, the delayed luminescence of ginseng produced from two different areas was determined with the self built bioluminescence detecting system. And the attenuation curve of bioluminescence of the experimental samples were studied, before and after the samples extracted by 58% alcohol. We primarily gave out the parameters describing emitting characteristic. Using the method of optic induced bioluminescence, we also determined the weak luminescence emitting from the ginseng tuber, and find the intensity and decay time having obvious difference from skin and core, with these data we can distinguish the producing area and feature of the ginseng. In the experiment, the light-induce luminescence of the sample was menstruated, which has been infused by water and 58% alcohol; the difference between two kinds of samples which were infused and not infused has been delivered. In order to investigate the effect of excitation-light spectrum component to delayed luminescence of ginseng, a light filter witch allow a wavelength scope of 225nm~420nm pass through was installed between the light source and sample, keeping other work condition unchanged, the bioluminescence was also determined. For investigating the effect of extracting to emitting, the absorption spectrum of above samples ware studied, and the time-sequence of absorption spectrum was obtained. Based on the data obtained from our experiment, we analyzed the radiation mechanism of ginseng slice and tuber.

  16. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  17. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  18. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  19. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  20. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... in “the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of agricultural or horticultural commodities... ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated does not preclude them from being classed as “agricultural...

  1. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes ("Nature" and "Naturelle"), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions-autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)-using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)-at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m(-1) (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m(-1) (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m(-2)) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m(-2)) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg(-1) FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm(-2)) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg(-1) FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg(-1) FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg(-1) DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg(-1) FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg(-1) FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (-37%). "Naturelle" performed better than "Nature" in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant compounds (TAC, +8%), and

  2. Isolation of a ribonuclease from sanchi ginseng (Panax pseudoginseng) flowers distinct from other ginseng ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-04-28

    A single-chained ribonuclease was isolated from the aqueous extract of sanchi ginseng (Panax pseudoginseng) flowers. It exhibited a molecular mass of 23 kDa, an N-terminal sequence with some similarity to other enzymes involved in RNA metabolism but different from known ribonucleases, and considerably higher activity toward poly U than poly C and only slight activity toward poly A and poly G. The purification protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. Maximal activity of the ribonuclease was attained at pH 7. On either side of this pH the enzyme activity underwent a drastic decline. The enzyme activity was at its highest at 50 degrees C and dropped to about 20% of the maximal activity when the temperature was decreased to 20 degrees C or elevated to 80 degrees C. The characteristics of sanchi ginseng flower ribonuclease were different from those of the ribonucleases previously purified from sanchi ginseng and Chinese ginseng roots including ribonuclease from Chinese ginseng flowers which are morphologically very similar to sanchi ginseng flowers.

  3. Luminescence properties and compositions of contaminating inorganic minerals separated from gamma-irradiated fresh and white ginsengs from different areas

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Jeong, Mi-Seon; Kwak, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation (0-7 kGy) of ginseng is permitted in Korea for the purpose of microbial decontamination; with strict labeling, traceability and monitoring requirements. An identification study was conducted to determine the photostimulated-luminescence (PSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of gamma-irradiated fresh and white ginsengs cultivated in different areas. Dosedependent PSL-based screening was possible for white ginseng samples; however, inappropriate results from non-irradiated fresh ginseng samples were obtained, showing intermediate (700 to 5,000) or positive (T2 >5,000, irradiated) PSL counts due to the abundance of minerals on the surfaces of the samples. TL analysis of separated minerals from all non-irradiated samples gave TL glow curves of low intensity with a maximum peak after 300℃. However, well-defined irradiation-specific (high intensity with a maximum peak at about 200℃) glow curves were observed for all the irradiated samples, regardless of their type and origins. TL ratios (first glow curve /second glow curve) were also determined to confirm the irradiated (>0.1) and non-irradiated (<0.1) results. SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) spectroscopic analyses showed that feldspar and quartz minerals were the main source for the typical radiation-specific luminescence properties. PMID:24235863

  4. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes (“Nature” and “Naturelle”), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions—autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)—using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)—at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m−1 (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m−1 (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m−2) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m−2) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg−1 FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm−2) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg−1 FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg−1 FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg−1 DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg−1 FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg−1 FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (−37%). “Naturelle” performed better than “Nature” in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant

  5. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.).

    PubMed

    Ru, Wenwen; Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Yunpeng; He, Xianxian; Sun, Yang-En; Qian, Liyan; Zhou, Xiangshan; Qin, Yufeng

    2015-02-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.), is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine in the Far East and has gained popularity in the West during the last decade. There is extensive literature on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of ginseng. In this paper we compiled the chemical constituents isolated and detected from ginseng including polysaccharides, ginsenosides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols, fatty acids, etc. Meanwhile we summarized the biological activities of ginseng, which have been reported over the past few decades, including: anti-aging activity, anti-diabetic activity, immunoregulatory activity, anti-cancer activity, neuroregulation activity, wound and ulcer healing activity, etc. Nevertheless, further studies to exploit other kinds of constituents and new biological activities of ginseng are still necessary to facilitate research and development in the future.

  6. [Analysis of saponin in Chinese ginsengs by NIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-jun; Qu, Yan-ling; Feng, Zhi-qing; Cao, Zhi-qiang; Song, Min

    2007-03-01

    In the present paper the saponin in Chinese ginseng was analysed quantitatively by using near infrared spectroscopy. The spectral characteristics of the primary ingredients in Chinese ginseng were obtained by applying second derivative, MSC (Multiple Scatter Correction), and correlation chart to the original absorbance spectra of ginseng. Meantime, in combination with the PLS algorithm the calibration process was performed for the quantitative analysis of saponin in Chinese ginseng. The result obtained shows a fine precision of the method, with RMSEC of 0.154% and correlation coefficient of 0.9828.

  7. Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Miho; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kubo, Michinori

    2003-08-01

    A 70% methanol extract from red ginseng (steamed and dried roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a kind of Ginseng Radix) had superior activity to that of white ginseng (peeled and dried root of P. ginseng, another kind of Ginseng Radix) in a hair growth promoting assay using mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture. Of the major constituents of P. ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb(1) (G-Rb(1)) exhibited activity, but ginsenoside-Rg(1) (G-Rg(1)) and -Ro (G-Ro) were ineffective. Additionally, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg(3) (20(S)-G-Rg(3)) formed by the processing of red ginseng from the crude root of P. ginseng also showed hair growth promoting activity. These results indicate that Ginseng Radix possesses hair growth promoting activity, and its bioactive components are partially attributable to the ginseng saponin components mentioned above.

  8. The perennial wild species Avena macrostachya as a genetic source for improvement of winterhardiness in winter oat for cultivation in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avena macrostachya Bal. et Durieu has been reported as a valuable source of genetic variation for oat because of its winterhardiness and resistance to various diseases and pests. Therefore a series of crosses of cultivated oat with this species was initiated in IHAR-Radzików, Poland, in 2002. Three ...

  9. Comparison of Ginsenoside Contents in Different Parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Ju; Kim, Ji-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the ginsenoside profiles of the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng in order to demonstrate their possible application in medicine. The total ginsenoside content of the leaf was up to 12 times than that in the main root, and the content of protopanaxadiol groups was higher than that of protopanaxatriol groups in all the samples. The leaf was shown to contain high amounts of ginsenosides Rb3 and Rh1, whereas the main root contained large amounts of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rc. Moreover, Rb2, Rb3, and Rg1 were only detected in the root hair, leaf, and main root, respectively. The ginsenoside Re content of Panax ginseng leaf and root hair was 2.6~4 times higher than that of the main root. Therefore, the results indicate that the ginsenoside content of Panax ginseng is higher in the leaf and root hair, and lower in the main root. PMID:28078264

  10. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  12. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  13. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  14. Differential RNA Expression of Bmy1 During Late Seed Development in Wild and Cultivated Barley and the Association With ß-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different ß-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 DNA sequence, Bmy1 RNA expression, ß-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys Ashqelon (Bmy1.c) and PI...

  15. Genotype-by-sequencing facilitates genetic mapping of a stem rust resistance locus in Aegilops umbellulata, a wild relative of cultivated wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wild relatives of wheat play a significant role in wheat improvement as a source of genetic diversity. Stem rust disease of wheat causes significant yield losses at the global level and stem rust pathogen race TTKSK (Ug99) is virulent to most previously deployed resistance genes. Therefo...

  16. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  17. Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment with Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Shim, Chang-Ki; Kim, Yong-Ki; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Jong-Ho; Han, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Seed dehiscence of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five Talaromyces flavus isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia nivalis, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora capsici. The dehiscence ratios of ginseng seed increased more than 33% by treatment of T. flavus GG01, GG02, GG04, GG12, and GG23 in comparison to control (28%). Among the treatments, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 showed the highest of stratification ratio of ginseng seed. After 16 weeks, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 significantly enhanced dehiscence of ginseng seed by about 81% compared to the untreated control. The candidate’s treatment of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 showed the highest decreasing rate of 93% in seed coat hardness for 112 days in dehiscence period. The results suggested that the pre-inoculation of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 found to be very effective applications in improving dehiscence and germination of ginseng seed. PMID:28167883

  18. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  19. Insilico profiling of microRNAs in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yeon Ju; Sun, Myung Suk; Kim, Se Young; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently discovered non-coding small RNA molecules, on average approximately 21 nucleotides in length, which underlie numerous important biological roles in gene regulation in various organisms. The miRNA database (release 18) has 18,226 miRNAs, which have been deposited from different species. Although miRNAs have been identified and validated in many plant species, no studies have been reported on discovering miRNAs in Panax ginseng Meyer, which is a traditionally known medicinal plant in oriental medicine, also known as Korean ginseng. It has triterpene ginseng saponins called ginsenosides, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Predicting conserved miRNAs by homology-based analysis with available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be powerful, if the species lacks whole genome sequence information. In this study by using the EST based computational approach, 69 conserved miRNAs belonging to 44 miRNA families were identified in Korean ginseng. The digital gene expression patterns of predicted conserved miRNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing using small RNA sequences of flower buds, leaves, and lateral roots. We have found that many of the identified miRNAs showed tissue specific expressions. Using the insilico method, 346 potential targets were identified for the predicted 69 conserved miRNAs by searching the ginseng EST database, and the predicted targets were mainly involved in secondary metabolic processes, responses to biotic and abiotic stress, and transcription regulator activities, as well as a variety of other metabolic processes. PMID:23717176

  20. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P < 0.05). Western blotting revealed that the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 14 days of SG administration (P < 0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that SG significantly enhanced the neuronal cell proliferation and the survival of immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal DG region. These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival.

  1. Identification of neutral genes at pollen sterility loci Sd and Se of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) with wild rice (O. rufipogon) origin.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Li, J Q; Liu, X D; Shahid, M Q; Shi, L G; Lu, Y G

    2011-10-31

    Pollen sterility is one of the main hindrances against the utilization of strong intersubspecific (indica-japonica) heterosis in rice. We looked for neutral alleles at known pollen sterility loci Sd and Se that could overcome this pollen sterility characteristic. Taichung 65, a typical japonica cultivar, and its near isogenic lines E7 and E8 for pollen sterility loci Sd and Se were employed as tester lines for crossing with 13 accessions of wild rice (O. rufipogon). Pollen fertility and genotypic segregations of the molecular markers tightly linked with Sd and Se loci were analyzed in the paired F(1)s and F(2) populations. One accession of wild rice (GZW054) had high pollen fertility in the paired F(1)s between Taichung 65 and E7 or E8. Genotypic segregations of the molecular markers tightly linked with Sd and Se loci fit the expected Mendelian ratio (1:2:1), and non-significances were shown among the mean pollen fertilities with the maternal, parental, and heterozygous genotypes of each molecular markers tightly linked with Sd and Se loci. Evidentially, it indicated that the alleles of Sd and Se loci for GZW054 did not interact with those of Taichung 65 and its near isogenic lines, and, thus were identified as neutral alleles Sd(n) and Se(n). These neutral genes could become important germplasm resources for overcoming pollen sterility in indica-japonica hybrids, making utilization of strong heterosis in such hybrids viable.

  2. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    PubMed

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities.

  3. Isolation and analysis of ginseng: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support ginseng’s use worldwide. In the past decade, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of ginseng research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the isolation and analysis of ginseng, and to highlight their new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. The current article reviews the literature between January 2000 and September 2010. PMID:21258738

  4. [Colonization characteristics of endophytic bacteria NJ13 in Panax ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Li, Tong; Li, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the colonization characteristics in host of endophytic biocontrol bacteria NJ13 isolated from Panax ginseng, this study obtained the marked strain NJ13-R which was double antibiotic resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin through enhancing the method of inducing antibiotic. The colonization characteristics in ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria spot of ginseng in the field were studied. The results showed that the strain could colonize in root, stem and leaf of ginseng and the colonization amount was positive correlated with inoculation concentration. Meanwhile, the strain could infect and then transfer in different tissues of ginseng The colonization amount of strain in roots and leaves of ginseng increased first and then decreased. However, the tendency of colonization amount of strain in stems was ascend at first and then descend slowly, and was more than that in roots and leaves along with time, which had a preference to specific tissue of its host. In field experiment, the endophytic bacteria NJ13 was proved to be effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng. The biocontrol efficiency of fermentation broth at the concentration of 0.76 x 10(8) cfu x mL(-1) reached 75.62%, which was close to the controlling level (73.06%) of 0.67 mg x L(-1) 50% cyprodinil WG.

  5. Mass Production of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Embryoids on Media Containing High Concentrations of Sugar1.

    PubMed

    Asaka, I; Ii, I; Hirotani, M; Asada, Y; Yoshokawa, T; Furuya, T

    1994-04-01

    A lot of ginseng embryoids were produced by culturing on high concentrations of sugar media from the embryogenic tissues obtained by moderately high temperature treatment. When the sucrose concentration was 100 g/l, the number of embryoids produced were over 100 pieces per g of inoculum weight. It was about ten times of that produced by culturing on 30 g/l of sucrose. Glucose showed an effect similar to sucrose on the basis of weight percentage. However, mannitol did not show this effect. The embryoids obtained by these processes redifferentiated to normal plantlets on culturing on the medium containing 30 g/l of sucrose. The saponin components of the tissue containing embryoids showed a similar pattern to those of natural GINSENG by HPLC.

  6. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Oliynyk, Sergiy; Oh, Seikwan

    2013-01-01

    Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance. The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax (P. ginseng in particular) and their capabilities as actoprotectors. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of genus Panax attest that P. ginseng (administered as an extract) significantly increased the physical and intellectual work capacities, and the data provided suggests that ginseng is a natural source of actoprotectors. Preparations of ginseng can be regarded as potential actoprotectors which give way to further research of its influence on physical and mental work capacity, endurance and restoration after exhaustive physical loads while compared with reference actoprotectors. PMID:23717168

  7. Difference in yield and physiological features in response to drought and salinity combined stress during anthesis in Tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Mian; Chen, Xianhong; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are the two most common and frequently co-occurring abiotic stresses constraining crop growth and productivity. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance potential and mechanisms of Tibetan wild barley genotypes (XZ5, drought-tolerant; XZ16, salinity/aluminum tolerant) during anthesis compared with salinity-tolerant cv CM72 in response to separate and combined stresses (D+S) of drought (4% soil moisture, D) and salinity (S). Under salinity stress alone, plants had higher Na(+) concentrations in leaves than in roots and stems. Importantly, XZ5 and XZ16 had substantially increased leaf K(+) concentrations; XZ16 was more efficient in restricting Na(+) loading in leaf and maintained a lower leaf Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell membrane stability index (CMSI) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) were accompanied by a dramatic decrease in total biomass under D+S treatment. We demonstrated that glycine-betaine and soluble sugars increased significantly in XZ5 and XZ16 under all stress conditions, along with increases in protease activity and soluble protein contents. Significant increases were seen in reduced ascorbate (ASA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and in activities of H(+)K(+)-, Na(+)K(+)-, Ca(++)Mg(++)-, total- ATPase, and antioxidant enzymes under D+S treatment in XZ5 and XZ16 compared to CM72. Compared with control, all stress treatments significantly reduced grain yield and 1000-grain weight; however, XZ5 and XZ16 were less affected than CM72. Our results suggest that high tolerance to D+S stress in XZ5 and XZ16 is closely related to the lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio, and enhanced glycine-betaine and soluble protein and sugar contents, improved protease, ATPase activities and antioxidative capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species during anthesis. These results may provide novel insight into the potential responses associated with increasing D+S stress in wild

  8. Chemoprevention of mammary, cervix and nervous system carcinogenesis in animals using cultured Panax ginseng drugs and preliminary clinical trials in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium.

    PubMed Central

    Bespalov, V G; Alexandrov, V A; Limarenko, A Y; Voytenkov, B O; Okulov, V B; Kabulov, M K; Peresunko, A P; Slepyan, L I; Davydov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibited the development of mammary tumors induced by intramammary injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats, the development of the brain and spinal cord tumors induced by transplacental administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats, and the development of uterine, cervical and vaginal tumors induced by intravaginal applications of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mice. The ginseng drugs induced the cytotoxic activity of macrophages in mice, enhanced T-lymphocyte rosette formation in guinea pigs exposed to cyclophosphamide, and stimulated the production of thyroid hormones in rats. These mechanisms may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of the ginseng drugs. The organic germanium compounds present in panaxel and panaxel-5 did not potentiate the anticarcinogenic or immuno- stimulatory effects as much as biogeinseng. Preliminary clinical trials with panaxel and bioginseng were carried out in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Panaxel was found to have a strong therapeutic effect in patients suffering from chronic erosive esophagitis. Bioginseng induced the regression of adenomatous-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium in some patients. Thus, we conclude that the drugs of ginseng appear to hold considerable promise for future cancer chemoprevention. PMID:11748376

  9. Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg.) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sserubombwe, W S; Briddon, R W; Baguma, Y K; Ssemakula, G N; Bull, S E; Bua, A; Alicai, T; Omongo, C; Otim-Nape, G W; Stanley, J

    2008-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) growing in Uganda during 2001-2002 has been screened for the presence of begomoviruses using PCR-RFLP, cloning full-length genomic components and nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast with a recent survey in neighbouring Kenya, which identified three distinct strains of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, EACMV-UG and EACMV-KE2) as well as East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus and the new species East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, only EACMV-UG and, to a lesser extent, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were found associated with cassava in Uganda. The integrity of the cloned genomic components of representative virus isolates was confirmed by demonstrating their infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava using biolistic inoculation, providing a convenient means to screen cassava varieties for disease resistance. Both EACMV-UG and ACMV were also associated with Manihot glaziovii. Infectivity studies using cloned components confirmed that viruses from one host could infect the other, suggesting that this wild relative of cassava might be a reservoir host for the disease. The relatively low level of diversity of begomoviruses associated with cassava mosaic disease in Uganda is consistent with reports that EACMV-UG has displaced other begomovirus species and strains during the recent epidemic that swept through the country.

  10. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  11. Ginseng--a root just like a carrot?

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A; Cordess, C

    1994-01-01

    Ginseng has been used for thousands of years in the East as a 'tonic', and in recent years its use has extended to Western society. In the light of the current interest in complementary medicine, we summarize the effects and purported mechanisms of action of ginseng and present two vignettes of its use in relation to psychiatric patients, followed by a general discussion of the implications of the use of herbal products by these patients. PMID:7966106

  12. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    PubMed

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor.

  13. [Mitigative effect of micribial degradation on autotoxicity of Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Long, Qi-Liang; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhao, Dong-Yue

    2014-08-01

    Continuously cropping obstacle restricts ginseng production and rational use of land resource severely, and autotoxicity is one of the most important factors. In our previous work, ginseng autotoxin degrading bacteria were isolated, in the present re- search, plate culturing method and traditional physiological and biochemical method were used to analyze biological indices and protective enzyme activities, in order to elucidate the mitigative effect of autotoxin degrading bacteria on autotoxicity of P. ginseng. Results indicated that, except for palmitic acid, autotoxicity of benzonic acid, diisobutyl phthalate, diisobutyl succinate, and 2,2-bis (4- hydroxyphenyl) propane on the growth of ginseng seeds was significantly alleviated after autotoxins degrading bacteria was inoculated, and which have no evident difference with control. Except for benzoic acid, enzyme activity of SOD, POD and CAT in other autotoxin degrading treatments decreased significantly. The present research showed that, microbial degradation could alleviate the autotoxicity of autotoxins on ginseng seeds effectively, and which will be helpful for the resolution of ginseng continuously cropping obstacle problem.

  14. Enhanced triterpene accumulation in Panax ginseng hairy roots overexpressing mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Soo-Un; Park, Sang Un

    2014-10-17

    To elucidate the function of mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase (MVD) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) in triterpene biosynthesis, the genes governing the expression of these enzymes were transformed into Panax ginseng hairy roots. All the transgenic lines showed higher expression levels of PgMVD and PgFPS than that by the wild-type control. Among the hairy root lines transformed with PgMVD, M18 showed the highest level of transcription compared to the control (14.5-fold higher). Transcriptions of F11 and F20 transformed with PgFPS showed 11.1-fold higher level compared with control. In triterpene analysis, M25 of PgMVD produced 4.4-fold higher stigmasterol content (138.95 μg/100 mg, dry weight [DW]) than that by the control; F17 of PgFPS showed the highest total ginsenoside (36.42 mg/g DW) content, which was 2.4-fold higher compared with control. Our results indicate that metabolic engineering in P. ginseng was successfully achieved through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and that the accumulation of phytosterols and ginsenosides was enhanced by introducing the PgMVD and PgFPS genes into the hairy roots of the plant. Our results suggest that PgMVD and PgFPS play an important role in the triterpene biosynthesis of P. ginseng.

  15. General and Genetic Toxicology of Enzyme-Treated Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ginseng Rh2+ is enzyme-treated ginseng extract containing high amounts of converted ginsenosides, such as compound k, Rh2, Rg3, which have potent anticancer activity. We conducted general and genetic toxicity tests to evaluate the safety of ginseng Rh2+. Methods: An acute oral toxicity test was performed at a high-level dose of 4,000 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A 14-day range-finding study was also conducted to set dose levels for the 90-day study. A subchronic 90-day toxicity study was performed at dose levels of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day to investigate the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of ginseng Rh2+ and target organs. To identify the mutagenic potential of ginseng Rh2+, we conducted a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) using amino-acid-requiring strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli), a chromosome aberration test with Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mice bone marrow as recommended by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Results: According to the results of the acute oral toxicity study, the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of ginseng Rh2+ was estimated to be higher than 4,000 mg/kg. For the 90-day study, no toxicological effect of ginseng Rh2+ was observed in body-weight changes, food consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, and clinical pathology. The NOAEL of ginseng Rh2+ was established to be 2,000 mg/kg/day, and no target organ was found in this test. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found either on the in vitro genotoxicity tests, including the Ames test and the chromosome aberration test, or on the in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus test. Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, ginseng Rh2+ is a non-toxic material with no genotoxicity. We expect that ginseng Rh2+ may be used as a novel adjuvant anticancer agent that is safe for long-term administration. PMID:27695630

  16. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs), which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter, and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology. PMID:26578955

  17. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Cai, Yi; Anderson, Samantha; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possess antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome before being absorbed. The major metabolites, ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K, showed significant potent anticancer activity compared to that of their parent ginsenosides Rb1, Rc and Rd. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ginseng metabolites on cancer chemoprevention, especially apoptosis and angiogenic inhibition, are discussed. Ginseng gut microbiome metabolites showed significant anti-angiogenic effects on pulmonary, gastric and ovarian cancers. This review suggests that in addition to the chemopreventive effects of ginseng compounds, as angiogenic inhibitors, ginsenoside metabolites could be used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents in cancer management. PMID:26941993

  18. Panax ginseng in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah L; Zhang, Anthony L; Zhou, Wenyu; Xue, Charlie C

    2013-07-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a common herb with many purported health benefits. However, there is no conclusive evidence supporting its use in the treatment of any particular disease. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate randomised controlled trials. Four English databases were searched with no publication date restriction. Included studies evaluated P. ginseng in patients with any type of disease or in healthy individuals. We assessed the quality of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of the 475 potentially relevant studies, 65 met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined P. ginseng's effects on psychomotor performance (17 studies), physical performance (ten), circulatory system (eight), glucose metabolism (six), the respiratory system (five), erectile dysfunction (four), immunomodulation (four), quality of life/mood (four), antioxidant function (two), cancer (two), menopausal symptoms (two) and dry mouth (one). The risk of bias was unclear in most studies. Authors evaluated adverse events in 40 studies, with 135 minor events and no serious adverse events reported. P. ginseng shows promising results for improving glucose metabolism and moderating the immune response. This may have implications for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and chronic respiratory conditions. Further studies are needed to explore P. ginseng's potential as an effective treatment for these and other health conditions.

  19. α-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Wu, Di; Ning, Xin; Yang, Guang; Lin, Ziheng; Tian, Meihong; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, α-amylase-assisted extraction was used to isolate the polysaccharide that remained in hot water-extracted ginseng. The yield of the polysaccharide was 9.0%, almost equal to that of the hot water-extracted polysaccharide. Using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, the polysaccharide was fractionated into a neutral polysaccharide fraction and six pectic fractions. The neutral fraction accounted for 76% of the polysaccharide and contained both amylopectin and amylose. The pectic polysaccharide fractions were identified to be arabinogalactan, type-I rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan-type pectin by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Structural and lymphocyte proliferation activity results showed that these polysaccharides were different from those extracted by hot water, indicating that ginseng contains complex polysaccharides with diverse structures, which results in its diverse pharmacological activities. The α-amylase-assisted extraction is a novel method for preparing ginseng polysaccharides and could be applied toward the further study and exploration of ginseng. These findings provide technical and theoretical support for ginseng pharmacology.

  20. Effects and mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides on cognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Imogen; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Putnam, Sophie; Farrimond, Jonathan; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2014-05-01

    Reviewed here is the existing evidence for the effects of ginseng extracts and isolated ginsenosides relevant to cognition in humans. Clinical studies in healthy volunteers and in patients with neurological disease or deficit, evidence from preclinical models of cognition, and pharmacokinetic data are considered. Conditions under which disease modification may indirectly benefit cognition but may not translate to cognitive benefits in healthy subjects are discussed. The number of chronic studies of ginseng effects in healthy individuals is limited, and the results from acute studies are inconsistent, making overall assessment of ginseng's efficacy as a cognitive enhancer premature. However, mechanistic results are encouraging; in particular, the ginsenosides Rg3 , Rh1 , Rh2 , Rb1 , Rd, Rg2 , and Rb3 , along with the aglycones protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, warrant further attention. Compound K has a promising pharmacokinetic profile and can affect neurotransmission and neuroprotection. Properly conducted trials using standardized tests in healthy individuals reflecting the target population for ginseng supplementation are required to address inconsistencies in results from acute studies. The evidence summarized here suggests ginseng has potential, but unproven, benefits on cognition.

  1. Treatment with Panax ginseng antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; Ma, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Ying-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Na

    2014-05-06

    Ginseng is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms; however, no conclusive scientific data has shown ginseng as being efficient in such therapies. The present study was designed to evaluate the estrogenic efficacy of ginseng on reproductive target tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were treated with ginseng at doses of 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0 g/kg per day for four weeks. Ginseng treatments restored the estrus cycle and demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by the reversal of the atrophy of the uterus and vagina, upregulation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and ER β expression at the protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues, where ER α upregulation was stronger than that of ER β. Meanwhile, treatment with ginseng significantly increased adrenal gland weight and serum estradiol and clearly decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in circulation. Notably, the largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose of 24.0 g/kg. Moreover, ginseng at 18.0 g/kg resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. The data suggest that ginseng estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for ginseng components. This study demonstrates that ginseng activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides further evidence for ginseng treatment of postmenopausal symptoms.

  2. Authentication of traditional Chinese medicine using infrared spectroscopy: distinguishing between ginseng and its morphological fakes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Chan, Sui Yung; Lim, Chu Sing

    2007-03-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products such as ginseng is important for ensuring consumer safety and efficacy. Ginseng is an expensive herb, and adulteration with other cheaper products may occur. Quality assurance of ginseng is needed since many of its commercial products now come in various formulations such as capsules, powder, softgels and tea. Thus traditional means of authentication via smell, taste or physical appearance are hardly reliable. Herbs like ginseng tend to exhibit characteristic infrared fingerprints due to their different chemical constituents. Here we report for the first time a rapid means of distinguishing American and Asian ginsengs from two morphological fakes--sawdust and Platycodon grandiflorum, via pattern differences and principal component analysis of their infrared spectra. Our results show that ginseng can be distinguished from both sawdust and Platycodon grandiflorum, hence there is a potential of using infrared spectroscopy as a novel analytical technique in the authentication of ginseng.

  3. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  4. Isozyme variation in wild and cultivated pineapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  5. Corbell PTA's Wild Walk: Fundraiser Cultivates Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    When Corbell Elementary opened its doors in 2006 in Frisco, Texas, its newly formed PTA faced the challenge of implementing a productive fundraiser to get the school off to a great start. The new board chose to focus its efforts on a single fundraiser, rather than a series of smaller ones. They wanted to avoid having the children selling any kind…

  6. Ginseng--is there a use in clinical medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Chong, S. K.; Oberholzer, V. G.

    1988-01-01

    Panax ginseng occupies an important place among the tonic remedies of Oriental medicine. Pharmacological investigations show that crude ginsenosides can increase non-specific resistance of an organism to various untoward influences. The effects of purified derived derivatives have only recently become better studied in immunological and cell growth studies in animals and in man. This has now provided some evidence to suggest that ginseng is a drug that contains many derivatives with different pharmacological properties, which could be useful in clinical medicine. PMID:3076665

  7. Investigation of Phenolic, Flavonoid, and Vitamin Contents in Different Parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the phenolic, flavonoid, and vitamin constituents in the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng. The total individual phenolic and flavonoid contents were the highest in the leaf, followed by the main root and root hair. Ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid were found to be the major phenolics in the main root and root hair, while p-coumaric acid and m-coumaric acid were the major phenolics in the leaf. Catechin was the major flavonoid component in the main root and root hair, while catechin and kaempferol were the major flavonoid components in the leaf. Pantothenic acid was detected in the highest quantity in the non-leaf parts of ginseng, followed by thiamine and cobalamin. Linolenic acid and menadione were the major components in all parts of ginseng. PMID:27752503

  8. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  9. Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yun, T K; Lee, Y S; Lee, Y H; Kim, S I; Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    The failure to improve the five-year survival rate of cancer patients, from one in three in the 1960s to one in two in the 1970s, stimulated awareness of the importance of primary prevention of cancer. Korean investigators carried out extensive long-term anticarcinogenicity experiments with 2000 newborn mice to investigate whether Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer inhibited carcinogenesis induced by several chemical carcinogens in 1978. There was a 22% decrease (p<0.05) in the incidence of urethane induced lung adenoma by the combined use of red ginseng extract. In the group sacrificed at 56 weeks after the treatment with aflatoxin B1, the incidence of hepatoma significantly decreased to 75% by the addition of red ginseng extract (p<0.05). The result showed that natural products can provide hope for human cancer prevention. By the newly established '9 week medium-term anticarcinogenicity test model of lung tumors in mice' (Yun's model), we confirmed significant anticarcinogenic effects of powders and extracts of the 6- yr-old dried fresh ginseng, 5- and 6-yr old white ginsengs, and 4-, 5-, and 6-yr old red ginseng. We also demonstrated that the anticarcinogencity of ginseng was more prominent in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of 6-yr old fresh ginseng and red ginseng, four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, Rg3 and Rg5, major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared. Among the ginsenosides, Rg3 and Rg5 showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh2 had a tendency of decreasing the incidence. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2 were found to be active anticarcinogenic compounds. Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2 are active components in red ginseng, and they prevent cancer either singularly or synergistically. PMID:11748383

  10. [Analysis on composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Dan; Tang, Shi-Huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Use traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) to analyze the composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing Renshen (Panax ginseng) in national standard for Chinese patent drugs (NSCPD) enacted by Ministry of Public Health of China. Via analyzing the regularity of prescriptions containing Ginseng which are recorded in NSCPD, to identify composition pattern and rule. Tweenty four drugs are used more than 50 times, in which, drugs that tonify qi and nourish flood have the highest frequency, and then medicines of liver and kidney tonifying, yin enriching and yang warming follow. Then 45 commonly used core combinations are analyzed via data mining methods such as association rules, improved mutual information method, etc. Meantime, three diseases, namely, palpitation, amnesia and chest discomfort are chosen from the 24 diseases that Ginseng most frequently used to make deeper analysis, which reflect the composition principle of Chinese patent drugs containing Ginseng. Therefore, TCMISS is an important tool in composition principle exploring of herbal formulae and meanwhile, the comparative analysis method contributes a lot to the exploration as well.

  11. Panax ginseng exerts antiproliferative effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemee; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Tae Myoung; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Choi, Haymie

    2013-09-01

    It has been proposed that ginseng has chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activities of fresh ginseng against hepatocarcinogenesis have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we hypothesized that these ginseng species may prevent hepatocarcinogenesis but that the chemopreventive mechanisms may differ by species. To determine the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of 3 different types of fresh ginseng on hepatocarcinogenesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with diethylnitrosamine and fed diets containing 2% Panax japonicus CA Meyer (JN), P. quinquefolius L (QQ), or P. ginseng CA Meyer (GS) for 10 weeks. Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci, a stable marker for rat hepatocarcinogenesis, were shown in all carcinogen-injected rats; but only the GS diet significantly reduced the area and number (62% and 68%, respectively; P < .05) of GST-P-positive foci compared with the diethylnitrosamine control group. In addition, the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes in the GST-P-positive area was significantly decreased in the GS group but not in the JN or QQ groups. Using cDNA microarray analyses to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we observed that the p53 signaling pathway was altered by the GS diet and that the expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin G1, Cdc2a, and Igf-1, which are involved in the p53 signaling pathway, was downregulated by the GS diet. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that GS, but not JN or QQ, induces cell cycle arrest in hepatocarcinogenesis. This study suggests that fresh GS has potential chemopreventive effects and may prove to be a therapeutic agent against hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides in Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) extract prepared by Spezyme and Optidex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Yooheon; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Methods Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Results Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with the control (p < 0.05). In particular, deglycosylated ginsenosides including Rg3, which are known as bioactive compounds, were significantly increased after Rapidase treatment (p < 0.05). The Rapidase-treated group also increased the skin permeability of polyphenols compared with the control, showing the highest level of total sugar content among the enzyme treatment groups. Conclusion This result showed that Rapidase induced the conversion of ginsenoside glycosides to aglycones. Meanwhile, Cytolase PCL5 and Econase treatments led to a significant increase of uronic acid (acidic polysaccharide) level. Taken together, our data showed that the treatments of enzymes including Rapidase are useful for the conversion and increase of ginsenosides in ginseng extracts or products. PMID:25379006

  13. [On Japanese Ginseng-Exports to Qing China during the Middle of the Meiji-Period].

    PubMed

    Tong, Deqin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Early Meiji Japan witnessed a boom in Japanese Ginseng exports, but the years between 1880 and 1886 brought a sharp decline. Previous research linked this recession to chaos in domestic production and by illegal imports of Korean Ginseng without presenting data about the actural fluctuation of Ginseng output. Moreover, as the biggest target market of Japanese Ginseng exportation, the situation in Qing, China should be included in any analysis. Based on statistical data collected in China and Japan, this study clarifies the reasons for the sharp decline during the early 1880s.

  14. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  15. Dual-index evaluation of character changes in Panax ginseng C. A. Mey stored in different conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-yang; Lau, David Tai-wai; Dong, Tina Ting-xia; Zhang, Jian; Choi, Roy Chi-yan; Wu, Hai-qiang; Wang, Li-yan; Hong, Rui-sha; Li, Shi-he; Song, Xun; Yu, Tian; Su, Wei-wei; Tsim, Karl Wah-keung; He, Zhen-dan

    2013-07-03

    Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has been used as a traditional medicine and functional food in Asia for thousands of years for its improvement of human immunity and metabolism and its antitumor and antifatigue activities. This study reports the impact of storage conditions and storage period on the quality of P. ginseng. The contents of four major ginsenosides in P. ginseng and phosphorylation activities of Akt of ginseng extracts were affected by both storage conditions and storage period. In contrast, the ATP generation capacity of ginseng extracts was affected by storage conditions, but not by storage period. The results showed that the quality of P. ginseng could be well maintained at a relative humidity between 70% and 90%, and dry conditions might decrease the quality of P. ginseng. Through dual-index evaluation, the present study extended our knowledge on the changes of ginsenosides and bioactivities in P. ginseng with respect to different storage conditions and storage periods.

  16. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  17. Metabolomic Approach for Discrimination of Four- and Six-Year-Old Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Using UPLC-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Sub; Park, Hee-Won; In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Won, Tae Hyung; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Byung-Goo; Han, Chang Kyun; Shin, Jongheon

    2016-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER is one of the most popular medicinal herbs in Asia and the chemical constituents are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. Metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish age discrimination of four- and six-year-old red ginseng using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of red ginseng of different ages and suggest totally six discrimination markers (two for four-year-old and four for six-year-old red ginseng). Among these, one marker was isolated and the structure determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis was 13-cis-docosenamide (marker 6-1) from six-year-old red ginseng. This is the first report of a metabolomic study regarding the age differentiation of red ginseng using UPLC-QToF-MS and determination of the structure of the marker. These results will contribute to the quality control and standardization as well as provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research on red ginseng.

  18. The demography of wild carrot in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot was likely introduced to North America as a weed from Europe. It has spread since its introduction, now occurs in every state and has been declared invasive. Because wild carrot can easily hybridize with cultivated carrots, is an outcrosser and is pollinated by various insects, the intro...

  19. Mining wild species elleles from introgressed genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum Section Lycopersicon) is composed of one cultivated (S. lycopersicum) and 12 wild species. Because the species are closely related to each other, introgression breeding has been extensive and released cultivars have been improved for many more traits using wild alleles than has any o...

  20. In vitro effects of Panax ginseng in aristolochic acid-mediated renal tubulotoxicity: apoptosis versus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine the effects of a Panax ginseng extract on aristolochic acid-mediated toxicity in HK-2 cells. A methanolic extract of ginseng (50 µg/mL) was able to reduce cell survival after treatment with 50 µM aristolochic acid for 24, 48, and 72 h, as evidenced by a resazurin reduction assay. This result was confirmed by a flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis using annexin V-PI staining, and indicated higher apoptosis rates in cells treated with aristolochic acid and P. ginseng extract compared with aristolochic acid alone. However, P. ginseng extract by itself (5 and 50 µg/mL) increased the Ki-67 index, indicating an enhancement in cellular proliferation. Cell cycle analysis excluded a P. ginseng extract-mediated induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest such as the one typically observed with aristolochic acid. Finally, β-catenin acquisition was found to be accelerated when cells were treated with both doses of ginseng, suggesting that the epithelial phenotype of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was maintained. Also, ginseng treatment (5 and 50 µg/mL) reduced the oxidative stress activity induced by aristolochic acid after 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that the ginseng extract has a protective activity towards the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species induced by aristolochic acid. However, the ginseng-mediated alleviation of oxidative stress did not correlate with a decrease but rather with an increase in aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and death. This deleterious herb-herb interaction could worsen aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity and reinforce the severity and duration of the injury. Nevertheless, increased cellular proliferation and migration, along with the improvement in the epithelial phenotype maintenance, indicate that ginseng could be useful for improving tubular regeneration and the recovery following drug-induced kidney injury. Such dual activities of ginseng certainly warrant further in vivo

  1. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Sandasi, Maxleene; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Weiyang; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-04-12

    The name "ginseng" is collectively used to describe several plant species, including Panax ginseng (Asian/Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. pseudoginseng (Pseudoginseng) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), each with different applications in traditional medicine practices. The use of a generic name may lead to the interchangeable use or substitution of raw materials which poses quality control challenges. Quality control methods such as vibrational spectroscopy-based techniques are here proposed as fast, non-destructive methods for the distinction of four ginseng species and the identification of raw materials in commercial ginseng products. Certified ginseng reference material and commercial products were analysed using hyperspectral imaging (HSI), mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and (orthogonal) partial least squares discriminant analysis models (OPLS-DA) were developed using multivariate analysis software. UHPLC-MS was used to analyse methanol extracts of the reference raw materials and commercial products. The holistic analysis of ginseng raw materials revealed distinct chemical differences using HSI, MIR and NIR. For all methods, Eleutherococcus senticosus displayed the greatest variation from the three Panax species that displayed closer chemical similarity. Good discrimination models with high R²X and Q² cum vales were developed. These models predicted that the majority of products contained either /P. ginseng or P. quinquefolius. Vibrational spectroscopy and HSI techniques in tandem with multivariate data analysis tools provide useful alternative methods in the authentication of ginseng raw materials and commercial products in a fast, easy, cost-effective and non-destructive manner.

  2. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE.

  3. Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-08-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ≥2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots.

  4. Red Ginseng Supplementation More Effectively Alleviates Psychological than Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Young; Woo, Tae Sun; Yoon, Seo Young; Ike Campomayor dela, Peña; Choi, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Lee, Yong Soo; Yu, Gu Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Red ginseng (RG, the extract of Panax ginseng Meyer) has various biological and psychological activities and may also alleviate fatigue-related disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate what kind of fatigue red ginseng alleviate. Animals were orally administered with 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg of RG for 7 days. Before experiments were performed. Physiological stress (swimming, rotarod, and wire test) are behavioral parameters used to represent physical fatigue. Restraint stress and electric field test to a certain degree, induce psychological fatigue in animals. Plasma concentration of lactate and corticosterone (CORT) were also measured after these behavioral assays. RG supplementation (100 mg/kg) increased movement duration and rearing frequency of restrainted mice in comparison with control. 100 and 200 mg/kg of RG increased swimming time in cold water (8±4℃) while at 100 mg/kg, RG increased electric field crossing over frequencies. 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg RG prolonged running time on the rotarod and at 100 mg/kg, it increased balancing time on the wire. RG at those doses also reduced falling frequencies. RG supplementation decreased plasma CORT levels, which was increased by stress. Lactate levels were not significantly altered. These results suggest that RG supplementation can alleviate more the damages induced by psychological than physical fatigue. PMID:23717077

  5. Biosynthesis of panaxynol and panaxydol in Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Knispel, Nihat; Ostrozhenkova, Elena; Schramek, Nicholas; Huber, Claudia; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Bonfill, Mercedes; Palazón, Javier; Wischmann, Gesine; Cusidó, Rosa M; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2013-07-02

    The natural formation of the bioactive C17-polyacetylenes (-)-(R)-panaxynol and panaxydol was analyzed by 13C-labeling experiments. For this purpose, plants of Panax ginseng were supplied with 13CO2 under field conditions or, alternatively, sterile root cultures of P. ginseng were supplemented with [U-13C6]glucose. The polyynes were isolated from the labeled roots or hairy root cultures, respectively, and analyzed by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. The same mixtures of eight doubly 13C-labeled isotopologues and one single labeled isotopologue were observed in the C17-polyacetylenes obtained from the two experiments. The polyketide-type labeling pattern is in line with the biosynthetic origin of the compounds via decarboxylation of fatty acids, probably of crepenynic acid. The 13C-study now provides experimental evidence for the biosynthesis of panaxynol and related polyacetylenes in P. ginseng under in planta conditions as well as in root cultures. The data also show that 13CO2 experiments under field conditions are useful to elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of metabolites, including those from roots.

  6. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG–trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG–trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea. PMID:16126899

  7. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    PubMed

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-06

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  8. Safety of red ginseng oil for single oral administration in Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    The single oral administration of red ginseng oil (5000 mg/kg) to Sprague–Dawley rats induced no changes in behavioral patterns, clinical signs, and body weight, and hepatotoxicity parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase for 14 d. Therefore, these results suggest that the red ginseng oil is safe and nontoxic acutely. PMID:24558315

  9. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  10. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geum-Young; Park, Kang-Gyun; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Current studies of Panax ginseng (or Korean ginseng) have demonstrated that it has various biological effects, including angiogenesis, immunostimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesised that P. ginseng may also play an important role in wound healing. However, few studies have been conducted on the wound-healing effects of P. ginseng. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to determine the effects of P. ginseng on the activities of fibroblasts, which are key wound-healing cells. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of six concentrations of P. ginseng: 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml and 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation was determined 3 days post-treatment using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and collagen synthesis was evaluated by the collagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide method. Cell proliferation levels and collagen synthesis were compared among the groups. The 10 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml P. ginseng treatments significantly increased cell proliferation, and the 1 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml concentrations significantly increased collagen synthesis. The maximum effects for both parameters were observed at 10 ng/ml. P. ginseng stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis at an optimal concentration of 10 ng/ml.

  11. Production of taxadiene from cultured ginseng roots transformed with taxadiene synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mijeong; Shim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung Hong; Kim, Ok Tae; Lee, Se-Weon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Paclitaxel is produced by various species of yew trees and has been extensively used to treat tumors. In our research, a taxadiene synthase (TS) gene from Taxus brevifolia was used to transform the roots of cultured ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) to produce taxadiene, the unique skeletal precursor to taxol. The TS gene was successfully introduced into the ginseng genome, and the de novo formation of taxadiene was identified by mass spectroscopy profiling. Without any change in phenotypes or growth difference in a TS-transgenic ginseng line, the transgenic TSS3-2 line accumulated 9.1 μg taxadiene per gram of dry weight. In response to the treatment of methyl jasmonate for 3 or 6 days, the accumulation was 14.6 and 15.9 μg per g of dry weight, respectively. This is the first report of the production of taxadiene by engineering ginseng roots with a taxadiene synthase gene.

  12. Simultaneous enrichment of deglycosylated ginsenosides and monacolin K in red ginseng by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Yun; Oh, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Inhyung

    2011-01-01

    To improve its bioavailability and pharmacological effects in humans, red ginseng was fermented with a newly isolated fungus, Monascus pilosus KMU103. Most of the ginsenosides were converted to deglycosylated ginsenocides, such as Rh(1), Rh(2), and Rg(3). The total amount of ginsenosides Rh(1), Rh(2), and Rg(3) was 838.7 mg/kg in the red ginseng, and increased to 4,117 mg/kg after 50 L fermentation in 13% red ginseng and 2% glucose. In addition, the Monascus-fermented red ginseng contained 3,089 mg/kg of monacolin K, one of the metabolites produced by Monascus known to reduce cholesterol in the blood. This newly developed Monascus-fermented red ginseng should result in improved health effects, not only by biotransforming gisenosides to deglycosylated ones but also by creating additional bioactive compounds.

  13. Efficacy of Compound Therapy by Ginseng and Ciprofloxacin on Bacterial Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Maryam; Shokri, Saeid; Darabi, Shahram; Alipour Heidari, Mahmood; Ghalyanchi, Akhgar; Karimfar, Mohammad Hassan; Shirazi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genitourinary tract infections play a significant role in male infertility. Infections of reproductive sex glands, such as the prostate, impair function and indirectly affect male fertility. The general aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on prostatitis in male rats treated with ciprofloxacin (CIPX). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we randomly divided 72 two male Wistar rats into 9 groups. The groups were treated as follows for 10 days: i. Control (no medication), ii. Sham [(normal saline injection into the vas deferens and oral administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)], iii. Ginseng, iv. CPIX, v. CIPX+ginseng, vi. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (UPEC), vii. UPEC+ginseng, viii. UPEC+CIPX, and ix. UPEC+ginseng+CIPX. The rats were killed 14 days after the last injection and the prostate glands were removed. After sample preparation, routine histology was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was used to determine the presence of apoptotic cells. Results The severity score for acinar changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the UPEC+CIPX group did not significantly different from the UPEC group. However this score significantly decreased in the UPEC+CIPX+ginseng group compared to the UPEC group. Apoptotic index of all ginseng treated groups significantly decreased compared to the UPEC and CPIX groups. Conclusion These results suggested that ginseng might be an effective adjunct in CIPX treatment of prostatitis. The combined use ginseng and CIPX was more effective than ginseng or CIPX alone. PMID:27054125

  14. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Wu, Sang; Actor, Jeffrey; Olsen, Margaret; Wells, Alice; Datta, Pradip

    2003-02-01

    Asian and Siberian ginsengs contain glycosides with structural similarities to digoxin. We studied potential interference of ginseng in 5 digoxin immunoassays in 3 Asian (2 liquid extracts, 1 capsule) and 3 Siberian ginseng preparations (1 liquid extract, 2 capsules). With the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), we observed apparent digoxin activity in 1 Asian liquid preparation and in the liquid extract and 1 capsule form of Siberian ginseng. In mice fed ginseng, we observed digoxin activities in the serum (Asian, 0.48-0.68 ng/mL [0.6-0.9 nmol/L]; Siberian, 0.20-0.47 ng/mL [0.3-0.6 nmol/L]), indicating that such interferences also occur in vivo. Serum pools prepared from samples from patients receiving digoxin and then supplemented with Asian or Siberian ginseng showed falsely increased digoxin values using the FPIA (e.g., for Asian ginseng, 1.54 ng/mL [2.0 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.10 ng/mL [1.4 nmol/L]) and falsely decreased values using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA; 0.73 ng/mL [0.9 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.04 ng/mL [1.3 nmol/L]). Digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLISs) showed synergistic effects with ginsengs in interfering with the FPIA and MEIA for digoxin. No interference was observed with 3 other digoxin assays, even in the presence of elevated DLISs.

  15. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae.

  16. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  17. Differential RNA Expression of ßm1 during Late Seed Development in Cultivated and Wild Barleys Carrying Different ßmy1 Intron III Alleles and the Association with Beta-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different beta-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 mRNA accumulation, beta-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ...

  18. Infrared authentication of ginseng species: the use of the 2-6PC rule.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Lai, Tommy Kok Heng; Chan, Sui Yung; Lim, Chu Sing

    2009-01-01

    The quality of herbal products is important for ensuring efficacy and consumer safety. Traditional methods of authenticating herbs like ginseng via their morphology are hardly reliable. Different chemical constituents in herbs like ginseng tend to exhibit characteristic IR fingerprints that enable their identification. We previously introduced an IR-based protocol known as the "2-6PC rule" to categorize and identify ginseng and its products, as well as distinguishing it from morphological fakes. Here, we describe the use of this rule as a rapid and effective means of analyzing the IR spectral fingerprints of the biologically active components of ginseng, as well as distinguishing among its species. Our results show that Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng can be differentiated from each other. Our results also indicate the presence of starch, carbohydrates, calcium oxalate, and ginsenosides Re and Rg1 in commercial ginseng roots sold in Singapore. This work effectively demonstrates the usefulness of the 2-6PC rule as a rapid screening tool in the authentication of ginseng species.

  19. Ginseng alleviates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity via reversing disordered homeostasis of glutathione and bile acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Long, Min-Hui; Wu, Jie; Wang, Meng-Meng; Li, Xiu-Yang; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Li; Fang, Zhi-Jun; Luo, Yi; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a chemotherapeutic agent, is restricted due to its side effects, especially hepatotoxicity. Ginseng has often been clinically used with CP in China, but whether and how ginseng reduces the hepatotoxicity is unknown. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms under the combined usage were investigated. It was found that ginseng could ameliorate CP-induced elevations of ALP, ALT, ALS, MDA and hepatic deterioration, enhance antioxidant enzymes’ activities and GSH’s level. Metabolomics study revealed that 33 endogenous metabolites were changed by CP, 19 of which were reversed when ginseng was co-administrated via two main pathways, i.e., GSH metabolism and primary bile acids synthesis. Furthermore, ginseng could induce expression of GCLC, GCLM, GS and GST, which associate with the disposition of GSH, and expression of FXR, CYP7A1, NTCP and MRP 3, which play important roles in the synthesis and transport of bile acids. In addition, NRF 2, one of regulatory elements on the expression of GCLC, GCLM, GS, GST, NTCP and MRP3, was up-regulated when ginseng was co-administrated. In conclusion, ginseng could alleviate CP-induced hepatotoxicity via modulating the disordered homeostasis of GSH and bile acid, which might be mediated by inducing the expression of NRF 2 in liver. PMID:26625948

  20. Identification of a Panax ginseng fruit fingerprint by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H F; Xu, F F; Guo, Y T; Mi, H

    2016-03-11

    Over many years, parts of Panax ginseng (root and rhizome) have been identified and applied for medical purposes as traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, research has indicated that ginseng fruit also contains similar compounds and is as rich as the other parts of the ginseng. This discovery may dramatically improve the efficient of outputs derived from ginseng products. Here, a new technique combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was employed to identify the fingerprint of P. ginseng fruit. Using HPLC, compounds that are important for medical purposes were extracted and purified. Combined with ESI-MS, the characteristic peaks (nine common peaks) of those compounds were identified, and the accuracy was confirmed by analysis using the Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004A edition). Overall, 15 batches of ginseng fruit had a similarity of more than 0.80, 13 batches of samples had a similarity between 0.97 and 0.99, and two batches had a similarity less than 0.90. The test solution and mobile phase selection was discussed. The HPLC-ESI-MS method can produce repeatable and reliable results and can be applied in the quality control of P. ginseng fruit.

  1. Interactive effects of harvest and deer herbivory on the population dynamics of American ginseng.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Susan J; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Drees, Dan; Knight, Tiffany M

    2009-06-01

    Few demographic models for any species consider the role of multiple, interacting ecological threats. Many forest herbs are heavily browsed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a number of these are also harvested for the medicinal, floral, or horticultural trades. Previous studies of the viability of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) have separately examined the effects of harvesting and deer herbivory. We followed individually marked ginseng plants in 6 populations for 8 years and documented deer browse levels, conducted helicopter surveys to estimate the deer herd size, and documented 2 ginseng harvests. We used this long-term data set to develop a stochastic demographic model that quantified the separate and interactive role of these threats to ginseng viability. Although harvesting and deer herbivory negatively affected ginseng population growth, their effects were not additive. Deer herbivory negatively affected population growth in the absence but not in the presence of harvesting. Life table response experiments revealed that in the presence of harvesting, deer herbivory had some positive effects on vital rates because browsed plants were less apparent to harvesters. Ginseng populations that were harvested responsibly (i.e., planting seeds from harvested individuals) had higher growth rates than those that were harvested irresponsibly. We concluded that both deer populations and harvesting must be managed to ensure sustainable populations of American ginseng. Our findings underscore the importance of long-term monitoring to assess threats to viability and the need for a broad ecological understanding of the complexity of ecosystem management.

  2. Effects of American Ginseng on Preimplantation Development and Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Danyka; Calder, Michele D; Gianetto-Berruti, Alessandra; Lui, Edmund M; Watson, Andrew J; Feyles, Valter

    2016-01-01

    In North America, a high proportion of pregnant women use herbal medications including North American ginseng. This medicinal plant contains high amounts of triterpene saponins (ginsenosides), which are the main bioactive compounds. It is important to assess ginseng's impact on all reproductive functions to ensure the safety of pregnant women and fetuses. In this study, we defined the concentration-responsive effects of North American alcoholic and aqueous ginseng extracts on preimplantation development in vitro and on pregnancy and post-partum development in the mouse. Two-cell mouse embryos were cultured with 5 different concentrations of whole ginseng root extracts, or ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1 and Re alone, a combinatorial ginsenoside solution and a crude polysaccharide fraction solution. Embryonic development and recovery from each treatment was assessed. To investigate the in vivo effects of ginseng extracts, female mice were gavaged with 50[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day, 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day or 2000[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day of either extract (treatment) or water (sham) for 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout gestation. Gestation period, litter size, pup growth and pup sex ratio were evaluated. Oral ginseng consumption did not significantly affect fertility or pregnancy in the mouse. High doses of ginseng (2000[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day) decreased maternal weight gain. Direct treatment of preimplantation embryos in vitro demonstrated that ALC and AQ extract treatment reduced development in a concentration responsive manner, while only ALC extract effects were largely reversible. Treatments with individual or combinatorial ginsenosides, or the polysaccharide fraction solution alone did not impair preimplantation development, in vitro. In conclusion, maternal oral consumption of ginseng has little negative impact on pregnancy in the mouse, however, direct exposure to ginseng extract during mouse preimplantation development in vitro is detrimental.

  3. Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    CALATAYUD, P.‐A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

  4. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization.

  5. CAPS markers using mitochondrial consensus primers for molecular identification of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jei-Wan; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Seo, A-Yeon; Jo, Ick-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Ok-Tae; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Cha, Seon-Woo; Cho, Joon-Hyeong

    2012-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker system using mitochondrial consensus primers was applied for molecular identification of Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng). Initially, a total of 34 primers were tested to six Korean ginseng cultivars and two foreign Panax species, P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng. In the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification results, four primers (mt7, mt11, mt13, and mt18) generated co-dominant polymorphic banding patterns discriminating the Korean ginseng cultivars from P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng. In the CAPS analysis results, the majority of the cleaved PCR products also yielded additional latent polymorphisms between the Korean ginseng cultivars and two foreign Panax species. Specific latent CAPS polymorphisms for cultivar Gopoong and Chunpoong were detected from internal region amplified with mt9 primer by treating HinfI and Tsp509I endonucleases, respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed that the length of amplified region of Korean ginseng cultivars was 2,179 bp, and those of P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng were 2,178 and 2,185 bp, respectively. Blast search revealed that the amplified region was a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) gene intron II region. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) including each specific SNP for Gopoong and Chunpoong, and three insertion and deletion (InDel) polymorphisms were detected by sequence alignment. The CAPS markers developed in this study, which are specific to Gopoong and Chunpoong, and between the Korean ginseng cultivars and two foreign Panax species, will serve as a practical and reliable tool for their identification, purity maintenance, and selection of candidate lines and cultivars.

  6. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  7. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of ginseng leaf extract UG0712

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Young; Ri, Yu; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Although ginseng (genus Panax) leaf extract contains high concentrations of bioactive constituents, its effects have been reported in few preclinical studies, and information regarding its toxicity is not sufficient to allow for its clinical use. We evaluated the genotoxicity of UG0712, which is a powdered extract of ginseng leaves. UG0712 did not increase the number of revertant colonies in 4 histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537) or in a tryptophan auxotrophic strain of Escherichia coli (WP2uvrA(pKM101)) at any concentration evaluated, either in the absence or presence of the metabolic activation system. There was no significant increase in the number of metaphase cells with structural or numerical aberrations in the UG0712-treated groups compared to the concurrent vehicle control at any dose, regardless of the presence of the metabolic activation system. Oral administration of the extract at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg in male mice did not increase the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow, and did not result in any significant clinical signs, body weight loss, gross findings, or mortality. These results suggest that UG0712 does not act as a mutagenic or genotoxic material at the concentrations evaluated. PMID:25324871

  8. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  9. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  10. Evolution of Cuphea PSR23 under cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments carried out under controlled environments and field conditions (2002-2008) evaluated populations of the potential oilseed crop PSR23, a selection from a cross between two wild Cuphea species (C. viscosissima and C. lanceolata) for indicators of evolution under cultivation and...

  11. [Research on identification of American ginseng and panax ginseng by near infrared spectra of samples' cross section].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-ling; Huang, Ya-wei; Qi, Shu-ye; Shan, Jacqueline J; Lei, Ling; Han, Dong-hai

    2012-04-01

    In order to identify American ginseng and panax ginseng samples accurately and rapidly, the authors acquired the NIR spectra of the samples' cross-sections. Then the spectra were respectively analyzed according to the samples' physical structure factors and chemical factors. The authors selected appropriate bands and built a physical factor leading model, a chemical factors leading model as well as a comprehensive factor model. The authors found that all the three models' discriminant rates were above 96 percents, which can meet the needs of the rapid detection of raw Chinese medicinal crop materials. While the physical factors model had a simple operation, the discriminant rate was relatively low. The chemical factors model' discriminant rate was higher, but the computation is much more complex. Among the three models, the mixed factor model had the best result with the highest discrimination rate (100 percents) and a smaller number of principal components (4). The effect was the most ideal. It proved that physical factors play an important part in NIR modeling. The cross section method is accurate and convenient which can be used in the quality control in enterprise, realizing the rapid screening of the medicine raw materials.

  12. Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ozone Treatment on Hygienic Quality of Korean Red Ginseng Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen doanting activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  13. In situ green synthesis of biocompatible ginseng capped gold nanoparticles with remarkable stability.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kwati; Ahmmad, Bashir; Okamura, Hiroaki; Kurawaki, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    We report herein an unprecedented one-step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (G-AuNps), using naturally occurring Korean red ginseng root (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) without any special reducing/capping agents. The AuNps generated through this ginseng-mediated process did not aggregate suggesting that the phytochemicals present in them serve as excellent coatings on the nanoparticles and thus, provide robust shielding from aggregations. The ginseng-generated AuNps exhibit remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including: cysteine, histidine, saline, sodium chloride and a host of pH ranges. Furthermore, the phytochemical coatings on the G-AuNps rendered them nontoxic as demonstrated through detailed cytotoxicity assays using WST-8 counting kit, performed on normal cervical cells lines. The present study opens up a new possibility of conveniently synthesizing AuNps using natural products which will be useful in optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

  14. Ginseng on Cancer: Potential Role in Modulating Inflammation-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daisy; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Williams, Stephanie; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a regulated process integral to many physiological and pathological situations, including carcinogenesis and tumor growth. The majority of the angiogenic processes are related to inflammation. The interplay is not only important in the case of pathogen entry but also influential in chronic inflammatory diseases, tumor growth and tissue regeneration. Modulating the interaction between inflammation and angiogenesis could be an important target for cancer treatment and wound healing alike. Ginseng has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating activities. This paper presents the recent research progresses on the inhibition of angiogenesis by ginseng and its active constituents, with a particular focus on processes mediated by inflammation. The modulatory role of ginseng compounds in inflammation-mediated angiogenesis involving hypoxia and microRNAs are also discussed. With the potential to modulate the angiogenesis at the transcriptional, translational and protein signaling level via various different mechanisms, ginseng could prove to be effective in cancer therapeutics.

  15. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  16. Flavobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Sang-Rae; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2013-11-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY54(T), was isolated from a field cultivated with ginseng in Yongin, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, and strictly aerobic. They were motile by gliding and produced flexirubin-type pigments. Growth occurred optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 5.0-7.0 and in the presence of 0-1 % NaCl. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis demonstrated that strain DCY54(T) was most closely related to Flavobacterium defluvii EMB117(T) (96.9 %). The only isoprenoid quinone of strain DCY 54(T) was menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The major cellular fatty acids (>15 %) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data supported affiliation of strain DCY54(T) to the genus Flavobacterium. Several physiological and biochemical tests differentiated strain DCY54(T) from the species of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names. On the basis of data from a polyphasic study, strain DCY54(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium for which the name Flavobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY54(T) ( = KCTC 23318(T) = JCM 17336(T)).

  17. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So W.; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H.; Min, Cheol W.; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B.; Jo, Ick H.; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K.; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H.; Kim, Sun T.

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects. PMID:27458475

  18. First preliminary results of an observation of Panax ginseng treatment in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, with impairments in reciprocal social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. There is often the need of psychopharmacological intervention in addition to psychobehavioral therapies, but benefits are limited by adverse side effects. For that reason, Panax ginseng, which is comparable with Piracetam, a substance effective in the treatment of autism, was investigated for possible improvement of autistic symptoms. There was some improvement, which suggests some benefits of Panax ginseng, at least as an add-on therapy.

  19. Embryoid Formation by High Temperature Treatment from Multiple Shoots of Panax ginseng1.

    PubMed

    Asaka, I; Li, I; Yoshikawa, T; Hirotani, M; Furuya, T

    1993-08-01

    We developed a new technology to induce embryoids by a moderate high temperature treatment from multiple shoots of PANAX GINSENG (Araliaceae). The number of formed embryoids was 10 times higher than that of untreated tissue. Normal plantlets were regenerated from the embryoids by transplanting them on a hormone-free medium. They contained ginsenosides Rb (1), Rg (1) and the other saponins as well as those of natural ginseng.

  20. Chemistry and cancer preventing activities of ginseng saponins and some related triterpenoid compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S

    2001-01-01

    More than 25 dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from ginseng, the root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). The genuine sapogenins of those saponins, 20(S)-protopanaxa-diol and -triol, were identified as 20(S) 12beta-hydroxy-and 20(S) 6alpha,12beta-dihydroxy-dammarenediol-II, respectively. There are two types of preparations from ginseng: white ginseng prepared by drying after peelling off and red ginseng prepared by steaming and drying. Some partly deglycosylated saponins such as ginsenoside Rh-1, Rh-2, and Rg-3 are obtained from red ginseng as artifacts produced during steaming. Several workers studied the metabolic transformation by human intestinal bacteria after oral administration of ginsenoside Rb-1 and Rb-2 and found that the stepwise deglyco-sylation yielded compound K and finally 20(S)-protopanaxadiol. Ginsenoside Rg-1 was converted into 20(S)-protopanaxatriol via ginsenoside Rh-1. Yun et al. in Korea conducted the epidemiological case-control studies of ginseng and suggested its cancer preventing activities. Kitagawa et al. demonstrated in vitro that ginsenosides, especially 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg-3, specifically inhibited cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Azuma et al. found that ginsenoside Rb-2 inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and Kikuchi et al. reported that ginsenoside Rh-2 inhibited the human ovarian cancer growth in nude mice. Recently, ginsenoside Rg-3 was produced as an anti-angiogenic anti-cancer drug in China. The aforementioned reports suggest that less glycosylated protopanaxadiol derivatives are effective in cancer prevention. Apart from Ginseng tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, some oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds showed the anti-carcinogenic activity in the two-stage anti-cancer-promotion experiments in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11748374

  1. An Integrated Biochemical, Proteomics, and Metabolomics Approach for Supporting Medicinal Value of Panax ginseng Fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, So W; Gupta, Ravi; Lee, Seo H; Min, Cheol W; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Jong B; Jo, Ick H; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jae K; Kim, Young-Chang; Bang, Kyong H; Kim, Sun T

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) profiling of ginseng fruit proteins (cv. Cheongsun) showed more than 400 spots wherein a total of 81 protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry using NCBInr, UniRef, and an in-house developed RNAseq (59,251 protein sequences)-based databases. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins were related to the hydrolase (18%), oxidoreductase (16%), and ATP binding (15%) activities. Further, a comparative proteome analysis of four cultivars of ginseng fruits (cvs. Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Chunpoong, and Cheongsun) led to the identification of 22 differentially modulated protein spots. Using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS), 66 metabolites including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and policosanols were identified and quantified. Some of these are well known medicinal compounds and were not previously identified in ginseng. Interestingly, the concentration of almost all metabolites was higher in the Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Parallel comparison of the four cultivars also revealed higher amounts of the medicinal metabolites in Chunpoong and Gumpoong cultivars. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ginseng fruits are a rich source of medicinal compounds with potential beneficial health effects.

  2. American ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Western diets increase colon cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that ginseng can inhibit colon cancer development. In this study we asked if ginseng could inhibit Western diet (20% fat) promoted colonic tumorigenesis and if compound K, a microbial metabolite of ginseng could suppress colon cancer xenograft growth. Methods Mice were initiated with azoxymethane (AOM) and, two weeks later fed a Western diet (WD, 20% fat) alone, or WD supplemented with 250-ppm ginseng. After 1 wk, mice received 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days and were sacrificed 12 wks after AOM. Tumors were harvested and cell proliferation measured by Ki67 staining and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Levels of EGF-related signaling molecules and apoptosis regulators were determined by Western blotting. Anti-tumor effects of intraperitoneal compound K were examined using a tumor xenograft model and compound K absorption measured following oral ginseng gavage by UPLC-mass spectrometry. Effects of dietary ginseng on microbial diversity were measured by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA. Results Ginseng significantly inhibited colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis and concomitantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. The EGFR cascade was up-regulated in colonic tumors and ginseng significantly reduced EGFR and ErbB2 activation and Cox-2 expression. Dietary ginseng altered colonic microbial diversity, and bacterial suppression with metronidazole reduced serum compound K following ginseng gavage. Furthermore, compound K significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. Conclusions Ginseng inhibited colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis promoted by Western diet. We speculate that the ginseng metabolite compound K contributes to the chemopreventive effects of this agent in colonic tumorigenesis. PMID:22070864

  3. Ginseng Compounds: An Update on Their Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, appear to be responsible for most of the activities of ginseng including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Approximately 40 ginsenoside compounds have been identified. Researchers are now focused on using purified individual ginsenoside to reveal the specific mechanism of functions of ginseng instead of using whole ginseng root extracts. Each ginsenoside may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. Among them the most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, Rd and Rh1. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides have attracted much attention and hundreds of papers have been published in the last few years. The general purpose of this update is to provide current information on recently described effects of ginsenosides on antioxidation, vascular system, signal transduction pathways and interaction with receptors. Their therapeutic applications in animal models and humans as well as the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of ginsenosides are also discussed in this review. This review concludes with some thoughts for future directions in the further development of ginseng compounds as effective therapeutic agents. PMID:19601854

  4. Korean Red Ginseng Powder in the Treatment of Melasma: An Uncontrolled Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Margaret; Mun, Je-Ho; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to the sun, ultraviolet radiation, and oxidative stress are the chief etiologic factors responsible for melasma. The ingredients of Korean red ginseng powder, which include ginsenoside and phenolic compounds, have antioxidative effects and reduce ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Korean red ginseng powder in patients with melasma. In 25 female patients, 3 g of Korean red ginseng powder was orally administered for a 24 week period. The level of pigmentation and erythema were determined and clinical improvement was evaluated by the melasma area and severity index (MASI), melasma quality of life scale (MELASQoL), and patient- and investigator-rated global improvement scale. After 24 weeks, the MASI score decreased from 8.8 to 5.6, and MELASQoL showed improvement in 91% of patients (p<0.05). The mean level of pigmentation decreased from 184.3 to 159.7 and erythema levels decreased from 253.6 to 216.4 (p<0.05). Additionally, 74% of the patients showed some improvement in both patient- and investigator-rated global improvement scales at week 24. Korean red ginseng powder was well tolerated by most of the patients. In conclusion, Korean red ginseng powder showed good tolerability and beneficial effects in patients with melasma. The use of Korean red ginseng would be counted as a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with melasma. PMID:23717059

  5. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) suppresses β-adrenergic-dependent signalling, hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xilan; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Huang, Cathy Xiaoling; Xue, Jenny; Lui, Edmund M K; Karmazyn, Morris

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a beneficial effect of ginseng on cardiac pathology. Here, we determined whether North American ginseng can modulate the deleterious effects of the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol on cardiac hypertrophy and function using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Isoproterenol was administered for 2 weeks at either 25 mg/kg per day or 50 mg/kg per day (ISO25 or ISO50) via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pump to either control rats or those receiving ginseng (0.9 g/L in the drinking water ad libitum). Isoproterenol produced time- and dose-dependent left ventricular dysfunction, although these effects were attenuated by ginseng. Improved cardiac functions were associated with reduced heart masses, as well as prevention in the upregulation of the hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression. Lung masses were similarly attenuated, suggesting reduced pulmonary congestion. In in vitro studies, ginseng (10 μg/mL) completely suppressed the hypertrophic response to 1 μmol/L isoproterenol in terms of myocyte surface area, as well as reduction in the upregulation of fetal gene expression. These effects were associated with attenuation in both protein kinase A and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Ginseng attenuates adverse cardiac adrenergic responses and, therefore, may be an effective therapy to reduce hypertrophy and heart failure associated with excessive catecholamine production.

  6. Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that investigated the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement compared with placebos were included. The main outcome measures were fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement. Out of 155 articles meeting initial criteria, 12 RCTs involving 630 participants (311 participants in the intervention group and 319 participants in the placebo group) were included in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect meta-analysis of four RCTs, there was a statistically significant efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.52). However, ginseng supplements were not associated with physical performance enhancement in the fixed-effect meta-analysis of eight RCTs (SMD = −0.01; 95% CI = −0.29 to 0.27). We found that there was insufficient clinical evidence to support the use of ginseng supplements on reducing fatigue and enhancing physical performance because only few RCTs with a small sample size have been published so far. Further lager RCTs are required to confirm the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction. PMID:27822924

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  9. Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bach, Hoang Viet; Kim, Jeongseon; Myung, Seung Kwon; Cho, Young Ae

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that investigated the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement compared with placebos were included. The main outcome measures were fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement. Out of 155 articles meeting initial criteria, 12 RCTs involving 630 participants (311 participants in the intervention group and 319 participants in the placebo group) were included in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect meta-analysis of four RCTs, there was a statistically significant efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.52). However, ginseng supplements were not associated with physical performance enhancement in the fixed-effect meta-analysis of eight RCTs (SMD = -0.01; 95% CI = -0.29 to 0.27). We found that there was insufficient clinical evidence to support the use of ginseng supplements on reducing fatigue and enhancing physical performance because only few RCTs with a small sample size have been published so far. Further lager RCTs are required to confirm the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction.

  10. Polyacetylenic compounds, ACAT inhibitors from the roots of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Hyun Sun; Lee, Seung Woong; Chang, Jong Sun; Kwon, Oh Eok; Chung, Mi Yeon; Kim, Young Kook

    2005-02-23

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), which plays a role in the absorption, storage, and production of cholesterol, has been explored as a potential target for pharmacological intervention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerotic disease. In our search for ACAT inhibitors from natural sources, the petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng showed moderate inhibition of ACAT enzyme from rat liver microsomes. Bioactivity-guided fractionations led to the isolation of one new polyacetylenic compound, (9R,10S)-epoxy-16-heptadecene-4, 6-diyne-3-one (1), in addition to the previously reported polyacetylenic compounds 2 and 3. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence (UV, IR, NMR, and MS). The compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed significant ACAT inhibition with IC(50) values of 35, 47, and 21 microM, respectively.

  11. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  12. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  13. Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Attenuates Inflammatory Symptoms of Gastritis, Hepatitis and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Rhee, Man Hee; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Han Gyung; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chaekyun; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine prescribed worldwide that is prepared from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Out of ginseng's various components, ginsenosides are regarded as the major ingredients, exhibiting anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Although recent studies have focused on understanding the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, compounds that are major anti-inflammatory components, precisely how these can suppress various inflammatory processes has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to identify inhibitory saponins, to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the saponins, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms. To do this, we employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays. Out of all the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) showed the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], and interferons (IFNs). Similarly, this compound attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation. These anti-inflammatory effects were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also attenuated the increased levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1 but not NF-[Formula: see text]B. In support of this phenomenon, G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that

  14. Interspecific hybridization between the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subspecies tuberosum L. and the wild species S. circaeifolium subsp. circaeifolium Bitter exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens : 2. Sexual hybrids.

    PubMed

    Louwes, K M; Hoekstra, R; Mattheij, W M

    1992-07-01

    Crossability between the diploid species S. circaeifolium subsp. circaeifolium (crc) and other diploid species, primarily diploid S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (tbr-2x), was studied. Forty-seven hybrids were obtained from crosses between crc as female parent and tbr-2x and some other species from series Tuberosa as male parents. Of these hybrids 17% were diploids; the other 83% were triploids, probably carrying two genomes of crc. Female fertility was sufficient to obtain offspring from backcrosses with the cultivated parent. Pollen stainability of the f1 varied, and micro-pollen as well as unreduced pollen occurred. During meiosis of the diploids and triploids a rather high proportion of univalents was found, and in the triploids on average two or three trivalents per cell were found. All hybrids were resistant to Globodera pallida pathotypes 2 and 3, and 75% of the tested genotypes were highly resistant to Phytophthora infestans. Solanidine, tomatidine, tomatidenol, and demissidine glycosides were found in tubers of the hybrids. Comparisons with somatic hybrids between crc and tbr-2x are made. It is concluded that crc is a valuable Solanum species that can and should be included in potato breeding programs.

  15. The Population Genetics of Cultivation: Domestication of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A.; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection

  16. The study of the E-class SEPALLATA3-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and mutant flowers of cultivated saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) and its putative progenitors.

    PubMed

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Makris, Antonios; Darzentas, Nikos; Polidoros, Alexios; Kalivas, Apostolos; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2011-09-15

    To further understand flowering and flower organ formation in the monocot crop saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.), we cloned four MIKC(c) type II MADS-box cDNA sequences of the E-class SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) subfamily designated CsatSEP3a/b/c/c_as as well as the three respective genomic sequences. Sequence analysis showed that cDNA sequences of CsatSEP3 c and c_as are the products of alternative splicing of the CsatSEP3c gene. Bioinformatics analysis with putative orthologous sequences from various plant species suggested that all four cDNA sequences encode for SEP3-like proteins with characteristic motifs and amino acids, and highlighted intriguing sequence features. Phylogenetically, the isolated sequences were closest to the SEP3-like genes from monocots such as Asparagus virgatus, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and the dicot Arabidopsis SEP3 gene. All four isolated C. sativus sequences were strongly expressed in flowers and in all flower organs: whorl1 tepals, whorl2 tepals, stamens and carpels, but not in leaves. Expression of CsatSEP3a/b/c/c_as cDNAs was compared in wild-type and mutant flowers. Expression of the isolatedCsatSEP3-like genes in whorl1 tepals together with E-class CsatAP1/FUL subfamily and B-class CsatAP3 and CsatPI subfamilies of genes, fits the ABCE "quartet model," an extended form of the original ABC model proposed to explain the homeotic transformation of whorl1 sepals into whorl1 tepals in Liliales and Asparagales plants such as C. sativus. This conclusion was also supported by the interaction of the CsatSEP3b protein with CsatAP1/FUL and CsatAP3 proteins. In contrast, expression of both B-class CsatAP3 and CsatPI genes and the C-class CsatAGAMOUS genes together with E-class CsatSEP3-like genes in carpels, without any phenotypic effects on carpels, raises questions about the role of these gene classes in carpel formation in this non-grass monocot and requires further experimentation. Finally, taking advantage of the size and sequence differences in

  17. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Hichri, Imène; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Václav; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-05-01

    A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Ions K(+) and Na(+) were the major contributors of osmotic adjustment in S. chilense, accounting respectively for 47 and 60% of osmotic potential. In contrast the contributions of proline and soluble sugars remained marginal for the two species although salt-induced accumulation of proline was higher in S. lycopersicum than in S. chilense. Both species also differed for their hormonal status under salinity and concentrations of most hormonal compounds were higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Interestingly, salicylic acid, ethylene and cytokinins were positively correlated with osmotic potential in S. chilense under salinity while these hormones were negatively correlated with osmotic adjustment in S. lycopersicum. Our results suggested that the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica may improve salt resistance in S.chilense and that phytohormones could be involved in this process.

  18. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  19. Draft genome sequencing of Bacillus sp. strain M2-6, isolated from the roots of Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, after high-hydrostatic-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Maeng, Hack Young; Kwak, Jangyul; Chun, Jongsik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Maeng, Jin-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A bacterium, designated M2-6, was isolated from Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, roots after high-hydrostatic-pressure processing. On the basis of 16 rRNA gene phylogeny, the isolate was presumptively identified as a Bacillus sp. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain M2-6 (= KACC 16563).

  20. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  1. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Panax ginseng Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial in Healthy Korean Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Hun; Yoo, Sa-Ra; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies. Given the lack of toxicological studies in human, this study investigated whether P. ginseng administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. Methods This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel group trial in healthy volunteers. The subjects were required to be healthy, free from any significant disease, as assessed at screening by physical examination, medical history, and laboratory (hematological and biochemical) tests. Eligible subjects received P. ginseng extract (1 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo over a 4-week period. Results Although mild adverse events, such as dyspepsia, hot flash, insomnia, and constipation, were reported in both P. ginseng and placebo group, no serious untoward reactions were reported following P. ginseng administration. Nonsignificant changes were observed in hematological and biochemical tests. Conclusions P. ginseng administration for 4 weeks was shown to be safe, tolerable, and free of any untoward toxic effect in healthy male and female volunteers. Future results from ongoing multicenter collaborative efforts to evaluate short- and long-term effects of P. ginseng may contribute to our current understanding of safety and tolerability of this herbal product. PMID:22909282

  3. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  4. Chemical and antihyperglycemic activity changes of ginseng pectin induced by heat processing.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingzhu; Li, Bo; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shuying

    2014-12-19

    Six pectic polysaccharides were obtained from white ginseng (GPW-1 and GPW-2), red ginseng (GPR-1 and GPR-2, steamed ginseng at 100°C) and steamed ginseng (GPS-1 and GPS-2, steamed ginseng at 120°C) by combination of water extraction, ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatographies. Based on the data from monosaccharide composition and (13)C NMR analysis, GPW-1, GPR-1 and GPS-1 were identified as type-I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I)-rich pectins, GPW-2, GPR-2 and GPS-2 were homogalacturonan (HG)-rich pectins with different degrees of methyl-esterification. Remarkably, GalA increased with the increase of processing temperatures in these six fractions, which might be caused by the transformation of esterified GalA into un-esterified form during heat processing. In vivo animal experiments showed that GPs exhibited significant antiohyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and the effects increased with the processing temperature, with the most potent activity in GPS.

  5. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852 PMID:26938637

  6. Heat-processed Panax ginseng and diabetic renal damage: active components and action mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Jeong Hill; Cho, Eun-Ju; Yamabe, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24233065

  7. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  8. Novel polyacetylene derivatives and their inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase obtained from Panax ginseng roots.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Iida, Daiki; Ueno, Yoshihiro; Samukawa, Keiichi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Kotake, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In our research program to identify cholinesterase and β-secretase inhibitors, we investigated Ginseng (root of Panax ginseng), a crude drug described as a multifunctional drug in the ancient Chinese herbal book Shennong Ben Cao Jing. Results from hexane and methanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. This suggests that ginseng roots may be effective for the prevention of and therapy for dementia. We then focused on hexane extracts of raw ginseng root and dried ginseng root since the determination of hexane extract constituents has not been studied extensively. Activity-guided fractionation and purification led to the isolation of 4 polyacetylene compounds; homopanaxynol, homopanaxydol, (9Z)-heptadeca-1, 9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-one, and (8E)-octadeca-1,8-diene-4,6-diyn-3,10-diol. The chemical structures of these compounds, including stereochemistry, were determined. This is the first study to identify the structure of homopanaxynol and homopanaxydol. Moreover, the modes of action of some compounds were characterized as competitive inhibitors. This study showed, for the first time, that polyacetylene compounds possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

  9. Panax ginseng is neuroprotective in a novel progressive model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David B; Shaw, Christopher A; Kay, Denis G

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Among its various benefits is a pluripotent targeting of the various events involved in neuronal cell death. This includes anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. Indeed, ginseng extract and its individual ginsenosides have been demonstrated to influence a number of biochemical markers implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. We have reported previously that administration of the ginseng extract, G115, afforded robust neuroprotection in two rodent models of PD. However, these traditional rodent models are acute in nature and do accurately recapitulate the progressive nature of the disease. Chronic exposure to the dietary phytosterol glucoside, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of neurological deficits, with behavioral and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in PD patients. Clinical signs and histopathology continue to develop for several months following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult. Here, we utilized this model to further characterize the neuroprotective effects of the ginseng extract, G115. Oral administration of this extract significantly reduced dopaminergic cell loss, microgliosis, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates. Further, G115 administration fully prevented the development of locomotor deficits, in the form of reduced locomotor activity and coordination. These results suggest that ginseng extract may be a potential neuroprotective therapy for the treatment of PD.

  10. Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder)

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Ying; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), extruded white ginseng (EWG), red ginseng (RG), and extruded red ginseng (ERG) was performed. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties of ginseng by extrusion cooking. The highest value of the water absorption index (WAI) was 3.64 g/g obtained from EWG, and the highest value of the water solubility index (WSI) was 45.27% obtained from ERG. The ERG had a better dispersibility compared with other samples. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in acidic polysaccharide and total sugar content but resulted in a decrease in crude fat and reducing sugar contents. Enzyme treatment led to a sharp increase in acidic polysaccharide content, especially the cellulose enzyme. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the increases in WG and RG were 13.56% (0.038) and 3.56% (0.026), respectively. The data of this study provide valuable information about the effects of extrusion on quality changes of EWG and ERG. PMID:24748839

  11. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Tso, Gertie; Wells, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian Ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha demonstrated modest interference with serum digoxin measurements by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Recently, Abbott Laboratories marketed a new digoxin immunoassay, Digoxin III for application on the AxSYM analyzer. We studied potential interference of these herbal supplements on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III assay in vitro and compared our results with the values obtained by Tina-quant assay. Aliquots of drug-free serum pool were supplemented with various amounts of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, or Ashwagandha approximating expected concentrations after recommended doses and overdoses of these herbal supplements in serum. Then digoxin concentrations were measured by the Digoxin III and Tina-quant (Roche Diagnostics) assay. We also supplemented aliquots of a digoxin pool prepared from patients receiving digoxin with various amounts of these herbal supplements and then measured digoxin concentrations again using both digoxin immunoassays. We observed modest apparent digoxin concentrations when aliquots of drug-free serum pool were supplemented with all three herbal supplements using Digoxin III assay (apparent digoxin in the range of 0.31-0.57 ng/ml), but no apparent digoxin concentration (except with the highest concentration of Ashwagandha supplement for both brands) was observed using the Tina-quant assay. When aliquots of digoxin pool were further supplemented with these herbal supplements, digoxin concentrations were falsely elevated when measured by the new Digoxin III assay. For example, we observed 48.2% (1.63 ng/ml digoxin) increase in digoxin concentration when an aliquot of Digoxin pool 1 (1.10 ng/ml digoxin) was supplemented with 50 microl of Asian ginseng extract (Brand 2). Measuring free digoxin does not eliminate the modest interferences of these herbal supplements in serum digoxin measurement by the Digoxin III assay.

  12. Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Singh, Priyanka; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Lee, Hyun A; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated DCY106(T), was isolated from soil collected from the rhizosphere of ginseng (Panax ginseng), in Gochang, Republic of Korea. Strain DCY106(T) is Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellate, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and strictly aerobic. The strain grows optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5. Phylogenetically, strain DCY106(T) is closely related to Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans KCTC 22507(T) (98.41 %), followed by Flavobacterium cutihirudini LMG 26922(T) (97.67 %), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens LMG 28694(T) (97.59 %), Flexibacter auranticus LMG 3987(T) (97.38 %), Flavobacterium defluvi KCTC 12612(T) (97.21 %) and Flavobacterium chilense LMG 26360(T) (97.05 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Flavobacterium species were below 97 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY106(T) is 34.2 mol% and the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY106(T) and F. cutihirudini LMG 26922(T), F. auranticus LMG 3987(T), F. defluvi KCTC 12612(T) and F. chilense LMG 26360(T) were below 40.0 %. The menaquinone of the type MK-6 was found to be the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unidentified aminolipids (APL1, APL6) and one unidentified lipid L2. C15:0, iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2OH/C16:1 ω7c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in DCY106(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY106(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY106(T) (= JCM 31468(T)= KCTC 42747(T)).

  13. Ginseng extract in aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E; Daggfeldt, A; Hu, S

    2003-01-10

    Ginseng, the dry extract prepared from the Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer-root contain immunomodulators named ginsenosides, which in the pig enhance the antibody response to viral and bacterial antigens. The enhancing effect of ginseng was demonstrated vaccinating pigs against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections, using commercially available vaccines. The potency of the licensed, aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted; vaccines were compared with those supplemented with ginseng. The antibody response to PPV was measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test whereas the mouse potency test and ELISA evaluated the immune response to E. rhusiopathiae. Antibodies to the 64-66 kDa glycoprotein of the E. rhusiopathiae were demonstrated by immunoblotting. The qualitative antibody responses were evaluated by means of ELISA(s) using monoclonal antibodies to swine IgG1 and IgG2. The addition of 2mg ginseng per vaccine dose, potentiate the antibody response of the commercial vaccines without altering their safety. Significantly higher (P<0.001) antibody titres were achieved to both PPV and to E. rhusiopathiae by the supplementation with ginseng. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines favoured the production of IgG1 antibodies. Interestingly, the vaccines supplemented with ginseng favoured IgG2. The vaccines used in the evaluations varied in their immunogenic potency. However, after the addition of ginseng the less immunogenic vaccine proved to be as potent as the better one without ginseng. Thus, the use of ginseng as a co-adjuvant provides a simple, safe and cheap alternative for improving the potency of aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines.

  14. Adaptogenic herb ginseng (Panax) as medical food: Status quo and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here. In this regard, the recent publications on health benefits of ginseng have been extracted from NCBI and ScienceDirect database. The claimed antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue, antidiabetic, antitumor, immunomodulation, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and aphrodisiac properties have been analyzed. This review presents a fair assessment and insights on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) potential of this herb.

  15. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  16. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  17. Optimal Sensor Selection for Classifying a Set of Ginsengs Using Metal-Oxide Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jiacheng; Zhang, Tinglin; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The sensor selection problem was investigated for the application of classification of a set of ginsengs using a metal-oxide sensor-based homemade electronic nose with linear discriminant analysis. Samples (315) were measured for nine kinds of ginsengs using 12 sensors. We investigated the classification performances of combinations of 12 sensors for the overall discrimination of combinations of nine ginsengs. The minimum numbers of sensors for discriminating each sample set to obtain an optimal classification performance were defined. The relation of the minimum numbers of sensors with number of samples in the sample set was revealed. The results showed that as the number of samples increased, the average minimum number of sensors increased, while the increment decreased gradually and the average optimal classification rate decreased gradually. Moreover, a new approach of sensor selection was proposed to estimate and compare the effective information capacity of each sensor. PMID:26151212

  18. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shihong; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Chow, Moses Sing Sum

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer. PMID:24876866

  19. An approach for simultaneous determination for geographical origins of Korean Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS coupled with OPLS-DA models.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Doo-Young; Woo, Soyeun; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2013-07-01

    Identification of the origins of Panax ginseng has been issued in Korea scientifically and economically. We describe a metabolomics approach used for discrimination and prediction of ginseng roots from different origins in Korea. The fresh ginseng roots from six ginseng cooperative associations (Gangwon, Gaeseong, Punggi, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, and Anseong) were analyzed by UPLC-MS-based approach combined with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis multivariate analysis. The ginsengs from Gangwon and Gaeseong were easily differentiated. We further analyzed the metabolomics results in subgroups. Punggi, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, and Anseong ginseng could be easily differentiated by the first two orthogonal components. As a validation of the discrimination model, we performed blind prediction tests of sample origins using an external test set. Our model predicted their geographical origins as 99.7% probability. The robust discriminatory power and statistical validity of our method suggest its general applicability for determining the origins of P. ginseng samples.

  20. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract on uterine contractility in nonpregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Sukwan, Catthareeya; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng Java or Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Geartn has long been used in herbal recipes because of its various therapeutic properties. Ginseng Java is believed to be beneficial to the female reproductive system by inducing lactation and restoring uterine functions after the postpartum period. There are, however, no scientific data on verifying the effects on the uterus to support its therapeutic relevance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginseng Java root extract and its possible mechanism(s) of action on uterine contractility. Female virgin rats were humanely killed by CO2 asphyxia and uteri removed. Isometric force was measured in strips of longitudinal myometrium. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract at its IC50 concentration (0.23 mg/mL) on spontaneous, oxytocin‐induced (10 nmol/L), and depolarized (KCl 40 mmol/L) contraction were investigated. After establishing regular phasic contractions, the application of Java root extract significantly inhibited spontaneous uterine contractility (n =5). The extract also significantly inhibited the contraction induced by high KCl solution (n =5) and oxytocin (n =5). The extract also inhibited oxytocin‐induced contraction in the absence of external Ca entry (n =7) and the tonic force induced by oxytocin in the presence of high KCl solution. Taken together, the data demonstrate a potent and consistent ability of extract from Ginseng Java root to reduce myometrial contractility. The tocolytic effects were demonstrated on both spontaneous and agonist‐induced contractions. The fact that force was inhibited in depolarized conditions suggests that the possible mechanisms may be blockade of Ca influx via L‐type Ca channels. The data in Ca‐free solutions suggest that the extract also reduces IP3‐induced Ca release from the internal store. These tocolytic effects do not support the use of ginseng to help with postpartum contractility, but instead suggest it may be

  1. Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Methods Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 μg/100 μL acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the peri-initiation, postinitiation, and peri–post-initiation stages. Results Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene–croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. Conclusion These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals. PMID:26199559

  2. Grouping and characterization of putative glycosyltransferase genes from Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-15

    Glycosyltransferases are members of the multigene family of plants that can transfer single or multiple activated sugars to a range of plant molecules, resulting in the glycosylation of plant compounds. Although the activities of many glycosyltransferases and their products have been recognized for a long time, only in recent years were some glycosyltransferase genes identified and few have been functionally characterized in detail. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), belonging to Araliaceae, has been well known as a popular mysterious medicinal herb in East Asia for over 2,000 years. A total of 704 glycosyltransferase unique sequences have been found from a ginseng expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and these sequences encode enzymes responsible for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Finally, twelve UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in triterpenoid synthesis. In this study, we classified the candidate P. ginseng UGTs (PgUGTs) into proper families and groups, which resulted in eight UGT families and six UGT groups. We also investigated those gene candidates encoding for glycosyltransferases by analysis of gene expression in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated ginseng adventitious roots and different tissues from four-year-old ginseng using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For organ-specific expression, most of PgUGT transcription levels were higher in leaves and roots compared with flower buds and stems. The transcription of PgUGTs in adventitious roots treated with MeJA increased as compared with the control. PgUGT1 and PgUGT2, which belong to the UGT71 family genes expressed in MeJA-treated adventitious roots, were especially sensitive, showing 33.32 and 38.88-fold expression increases upon 24h post-treatments, respectively.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome provides insight into the evolution and polymorphism of Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongbing; Yin, Jinlong; Guo, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuyu; Xiao, Wen; Sun, Chen; Wu, Jiayan; Qu, Xiaobo; Yu, Jun; Wang, Xumin; Xiao, Jingfa

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) is an important medicinal plant and is often used in traditional Chinese medicine. With next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Chinese P. ginseng strains, which are Damaya (DMY), Ermaya (EMY), Gaolishen (GLS), and Yeshanshen (YSS). The total chloroplast genome sequence length for DMY, EMY, and GLS was 156,354 bp, while that for YSS was 156,355 bp. Comparative genomic analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences indicate that gene content, GC content, and gene order in DMY are quite similar to its relative species, and nucleotide sequence diversity of inverted repeat region (IR) is lower than that of its counterparts, large single copy region (LSC) and small single copy region (SSC). A comparison among these four P. ginseng strains revealed that the chloroplast genome sequences of DMY, EMY, and GLS were identical and YSS had a 1-bp insertion at base 5472. To further study the heterogeneity in chloroplast genome during domestication, high-resolution reads were mapped to the genome sequences to investigate the differences at the minor allele level; 208 minor allele sites with minor allele frequencies (MAF) of ≥0.05 were identified. The polymorphism site numbers per kb of chloroplast genome sequence for DMY, EMY, GLS, and YSS were 0.74, 0.59, 0.97, and 1.23, respectively. All the minor allele sites located in LSC and IR regions, and the four strains showed the same variation types (substitution base or indel) at all identified polymorphism sites. Comparison results of heterogeneity in the chloroplast genome sequences showed that the minor allele sites on the chloroplast genome were undergoing purifying selection to adapt to changing environment during domestication process. A study of P. ginseng chloroplast genome with particular focus on minor allele sites would aid in investigating the dynamics on the chloroplast genomes and different P. ginseng strains

  4. Tuberization Response to Photoperiod in Potato Haploid-Wild Species Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful quality and disease resistance traits for potato improvement come from wild Solanum relatives. Thus, an understanding of inheritance of tuberization in hybrid populations between wild and cultivated potatoes is important for the integration of good traits from wild potatoes. Four familie...

  5. Significant difference in active metabolite levels of ginseng in humans consuming Asian or Western diet: The link with enteric microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Liu, Zhi; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-04-01

    After ingestion of ginseng, the bioavailability of its parent compounds is low and enteric microbiota plays an important role in parent compound biotransformation to their metabolites. Diet type can influence the enteric microbiota profile. When human subjects on different diets ingest ginseng, their different gut microbiota profiles may influence the metabolism of ginseng parent compounds. In this study, the effects of different diet type on gut microbiota metabolism of American ginseng saponins were investigated. We recruited six healthy adults who regularly consumed different diet types. These subjects received 7 days' oral American ginseng, and their biological samples were collected for LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. We observed significant ginsenoside Rb1 (a major parent compound) and compound K (a major active metabolite) level differences in the samples from the subjects consuming different diets. Subjects on an Asian diet had much higher Rb1 levels but much lower compound K levels compared with those on a Western diet. Since compound K possesses much better cancer chemoprevention potential, our data suggested that consumers on a Western diet should obtain better cancer prevention effects with American ginseng intake compared with those on an Asian diet. Ginseng compound levels could be enhanced or reduced via gut microbiota manipulation for clinical utility.

  6. Acclimation of hydrogen peroxide enhances salt tolerance by activating defense-related proteins in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Parvin, Shonana; Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Khorolragchaa, Atlanzul; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effect of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Pretreatment of ginseng seedlings with 100 μM H2O2 increased the physiological salt tolerance of the ginseng plant and was used as the optimum concentration to induce salt tolerance capacity. Treatment with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in ginseng seedlings by increasing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and by decreasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous H2O2 as well as the production rate of superoxide radical (O2(-)). There was a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed seedlings by exogenous H2O2 as measured by ginseng dry weight and both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Exogenous H2O2 induced changes in MDA, O2(-), antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for increases in salt stress tolerance. Salt treatment caused drastic declines in ginseng growth and antioxidants levels; whereas, acclimation treatment with H2O2 allowed the ginseng seedlings to recover from salt stress by up-regulation of defense-related proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds.

  7. Pedobacter panacis sp. nov., isolated from Panax ginseng soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-02-01

    A novel strain, DCY108(T) was isolated from soil of a Panax ginseng field, Yeoncheon province (38°04'N 126°57'E), Republic of Korea. Strain DCY108(T) is Gram-negative, non-motile, non-flagellate, rod-shaped, and aerobic. The bacterium grows optimally at 25-30 °C, pH 6.5-7.0 and 1 % NaCl. Phylogenetically, strain DCY108(T) is closely related to Pedobacter jejuensis JCM 18824(T), Pedobacter aquatilis JCM 13454(T), Pedobacter kyungheensis LMG 26577(T) and the type strain of the genus Pedobacter heparinus DSM 2366(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DCY108(T) and its close phylogenetic neighbors were below 30.0 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY108(T) was determined to be 45.1 mol%. The predominant quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and three unidentified aminolipids AL1, AL13 and AL17. Iso-C15:00, iso-C17:03OH and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in strain DCY108(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY108(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Pedobacter. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Pedobacter panacis sp. nov is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY108(T) (=CCTCCAB 2015196(T) = KCTC 42748(T)).

  8. Cohnella saccharovorans sp. nov., isolated from ginseng soil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Seok, Ji-Hye; Jang, Ho-Jin; Cha, Ju-Hee; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain, CJ22T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Anseong, Korea. Cells of strain CJ22T were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive and rod-shaped. The isolate grew optimally at pH 7 and 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain CJ22T belonged to the genus Cohnella, displaying highest sequence similarity of 97.3% with Cohnella panacarvi Gsoil 349T. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CJ22T and its closest relative was 35.5 % (reciprocal value, 23.8%). The phenotypic features of strain CJ22T also distinguished it from related species of the genus Cohnella. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain CJ22T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain CJ22T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella saccharovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CJ22T (=KACC 17501T=JCM 19227T).

  9. Flavobacterium ginsengiterrae sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Rae; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Min, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Ji-Na; Yang, Dong-Uk; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2011-01-01

    A novel strain of Flavobacterium, DCY55(T), a Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and gliding-motile bacterium, was isolated from the soil of a ginseng field in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA sequence, demonstrated that strain DCY55(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain DCY55(T) showed the highest similarity with F. johnsoniae UW101(T) (97.1%), F. ginsenosidimutans THG 01(T) (96.8%), F. defluvii EMB 117(T) (96.6%), F. banpakuense 15F3(T) (96.3%) and F. anhuiense D3(T) (95.8%). Chemotaxonomic results showed that strain DCY55(T) predominantly contains menaquinone MK-6, that its DNA G+C content is 36.1mol%, and that its major cellular fatty acids are iso-C(15:0), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1) ω 7c) and C(16:0). The chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics support the taxonomic classification of strain DCY55(T) to the genus Flavobacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests confirmed that strain DCY55(T) is distinct from previously validated species. We conclude that strain DCY55(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ginsengiterrae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DCY55(T) (=KCTC 23319(T) = JCM 17337(T)).

  10. Functional regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis by RNA interferences of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Zhao, Shoujing; Wei, Guanning; Zhao, Huijuan; Qu, Qingling

    2017-02-01

    Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius. In ginseng plants, various ginsenosides are synthesized via three key reactions: cyclization, hydroxylation and glycosylation. To date, several genes including dammarenediol synthase (DS), protopanaxadiol synthase and protopanaxatriol synthase have been isolated in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Although some glycosyltransferase genes have been isolated and identified association with ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng, little is known about the glycosylation mechanism in P. quinquefolius. In this paper, we cloned and identified a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene named Pq3-O-UGT2 from P. quinquefolius (GenBank accession No. KR106207). In vitro enzymatic activity experiments biochemically confirmed that Pq3-O-UGT2 catalyzed the glycosylation of Rh2 and F2 to produce Rg3 and Rd, and the chemical structure of the products were confirmed susing high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). High sequence similarity between Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 indicated a close evolutionary relationship between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Moreover, we established both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius RNAi transgenic roots lines. RNA interference of Pq3-O-UGT2 and PgUGT94Q2 led to reduce levels of ginsenoside Rd, protopanaxadiol-type and total ginsenosides. Expression of key genes including protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol synthases was up-regulated in RNAi lines, while expression of dammarenediol synthase gene

  11. [Theory and practice of bionic cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahui; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan; Chen, Meilan

    2009-03-01

    The bionic cultivation of medicinal plant is an ecological cultivation pattern, which is adopting ecological engineering and modern agricultural techniques to simulate the natural ecosystem of wild medicinal plant community, and has been given greater attention on the agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is also the cross subject that combines Chinese traditional medicine, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, agricultural engineering and management. Moreover, it has significant technology advantages of promoting the sustainable utilization of medicinal plant resources, improving the ecological environment and harmonizing man and nature. So it's important to develop the bionic cultivation of TCM.

  12. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue.

  13. The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Sun, Chengxin; Zheng, Yan; Pan, Hongling; Zhou, Yifa; Fan, Yuying

    2014-04-01

    Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.

  14. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  15. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  16. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  17. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  18. Protopanaxatriol, a novel PPARγ antagonist from Panax ginseng, alleviates steatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Lijing; Cai, Wujie; Fan, Shengjie; Feng, Li; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is prevalent worldwide, and is highly associated with metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and steatosis. Ginseng has been used as food and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms how ginseng and its components participate in the regulation of lipogenesis are still largely unclear. Here, we identified that protopanaxatriol (PPT), a major ginseng constituent, inhibited rosiglitazone-supported adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by repressing the expression of lipogenesis-related gene expression. In high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, PPT reduced body weight and serum lipid levels, improved insulin resistance, as well as morphology and lipid accumulation, particular macrovesicular steatosis, in the livers. These effects were confirmed with genetically obese ob/ob mice. A reporter gene assay showed that PPT specifically inhibited the transactivity of PPARγ, but not PPAR α, β/δ and LXR α, β. TR-FRET assay revealed that PPT was specifically bound to PPARγ LBD, which was further confirmed by the molecular docking study. Our data demonstrate that PPT is a novel PPARγ antagonist. The inhibition of PPARγ activity could be a promising therapy for obesity and steatosis. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25487878

  19. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J. J.; Kim, G. R.; Chung, H. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, K. S.; Park, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Ahn, D. U.

    2009-07-01

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10 6 to 10 3 CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  20. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant and quinone reductase (QR) inducing activities of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng have been reported using various plant materials, solvents, and assays. To directly establish their comparative bioactivity, the effects of extracts obtained from acidified methanol (MeOH), a gas...

  1. Effects of American ginseng on pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Yi-Sheng; Sun, Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yang, Jie; Li, Ping; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with or without American ginseng (seven-consecutive days oral dose) in rats were evaluated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse LC column within a total run time of 6.5 min, which allowed for a relatively quick analysis. The limit of quantification for 5-FU was 15 ng/mL and this method was linear over 15-50,000 ng/mL. This method supported stabilizing determination of the plasma concentration of 5-FU over a period of 24 h. Precision both interday and intraday (coefficient of variation) was within 14% and accuracy (relative error) ranged from -5 to 14%. In view of the observed pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), mean residence time, elimination half-life and clearance, our results showed no significant differences in all of the pharmacokinetic parameters between the ginseng co-treated group and 5-FU alone group. Some increase in AUC was observed in 5-FU plus ginseng group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance compared with 5-FU alone. It appeared that American ginseng administration did not significantly alter the kinetics of 5-FU. More studies are still needed to confirm our results.

  2. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo-Tang, Wu; Wen-Zhou, Xiang; Cheng-Kui, Zeng

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  3. Apparent Amylose Determination in Wild and Cultivated Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a storage organ, a potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch (around 70%) in the tuber is amylopectin; the remainder is amylose. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property...

  4. Analyzing the genomes of wild and cultivated beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is an important crop plant that accounts for roughly 25% of the world's sugar production per year. We have previously shown that sugar beet has a quite narrow genetic base, presumably due to a domestication bottleneck. To increase the crop ´s stress tolerance, the introduction of desirabl...

  5. A hexane fraction of American ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Deepak; Le, Phuong Mai; Davis, Tia; Hofseth, Anne B; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Wargovich, Michael J; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J

    2012-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. We have previously reported that American ginseng extract significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters of chemically induced colitis. The aim of this study was to further delineate the components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer. Among five different fractions of American ginseng (butanol, hexane, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and water), a hexane fraction has particularly potent antioxidant and proapoptotic properties. The effects of this fraction were shown in a mouse macrophage cell line (ANA-1 cells), in a human lymphoblastoid cell line (TK6), and in an ex vivo model (CD4(+)/CD25(-) primary effector T cells). A key in vivo finding was that compared with the whole American ginseng extract, the hexane fraction of American ginseng was more potent in treating colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model, as well as suppressing azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon cancer. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes was elevated in mice consuming DSS + the hexane fraction of American ginseng. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that the hexane fraction of American ginseng has anti-inflammatory properties and drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which this fraction protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. This study moves us closer to understanding the molecular components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer associated with colitis.

  6. Abundant Microsatellite Diversity and Oil Content in Wild Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou

    2012-01-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great

  7. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2003-02-01

    Configurations of mitochondrial coxI and orfB gene regions were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three wild and one cultivated species of Raphanus. A total of 207 individual plants from 60 accessions were used. PCR with five combinations of primers identified five different amplification patterns both in wild and cultivated radishes. While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) type of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was distinguishable from the normal type, the mtDNAs of normal radishes were further classified into four types. The variations were common to wild and cultivated radishes, although contrasting features were found depending on the region of cultivation. These results provide evidence that cultivated radishes have multiple origins from various wild plants of Raphanus.

  8. Black ginseng inhibits ethanol-induced teratogenesis in cultured mouse embryos through its effects on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Park, Chun Gui; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang-Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by excessive ethanol consumption during pregnancy. We investigated the effect of black ginseng (red ginseng that is subjected to 9 cycles of 95-100 degrees C for 2-3h) on ethanol-induced teratogenesis using an in vitro whole embryo culture system. Postimplantational mouse embryos at embryonic day 8.5 were exposed to ethanol (1 microl/ml) in the presence or absence of black ginseng (1, 10, and 100 microg/ml) for 2 days, and then morphological scoring and real-time PCR analysis were carried out. In ethanol-treated embryos, the total morphological score and individual scores for flexion, heart, fore-, mid-, and hindbrains, otic, optic, and olfactory systems, branchial bars, maxillary and mandibular processes, caudal neural tube, and somites were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Treatment with black ginseng improved most of the morphological scores significantly as compared to ethanol-treated embryos (p<0.05). The mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx, and selenoprotein P were significantly decreased in ethanol-treated embryos, but co-treatment with black ginseng restored the mRNA levels to those of control embryos. These results indicate that black ginseng has a protective effect on ethanol-induced teratogenesis through the augmentation of antioxidative activity in embryos.

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR) in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus. PMID:24069603

  10. Physical and Biological Modification of Polycaprolactone Electrospun Nanofiber by Panax Ginseng Extract for Bone Tissue Engineering Application.

    PubMed

    Pajoumshariati, Seyedramin; Yavari, Seyedeh Kimia; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Medicinal plants as a therapeutic agent with osteogenic properties can enhance fracture-healing process. In this study, the osteo-inductive potential of Asian Panax Ginseng root extract within electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) based nanofibers has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that all nanofibers were highly porous and beadles with average diameter ranging from 250 to 650 nm. The incorporation of ginseng extract improved the physical characteristics (i.e., hydrophilicity) of PCL nanofibers, as well as the mechanical properties. Although ginseng extract increased the degradation rate of pure PCL nanofibers, the porous structure and morphology of fibers did not change significantly after 42 days. It was found that nanofibrous scaffolds containing ginseng extract had higher proliferation (up to ~1.5 fold) compared to the pristine PCL. The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the addition of ginseng extract into PCL nanofibers induced significant expression of osteogenic genes (Osteocalcin, Runx-2 and Col-1) in MSCs in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, higher calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and higher mineralization of MSCs were observed compared to the pristine PCL fibers. Our results indicated the promising potential of ginseng extract as an additive to enhance osteo-inductivity, mechanical and physical properties of PCL nanofibers for bone tissue engineering application.

  11. A comprehensive review of the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides in central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Pitna; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng’s therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only the various types of diseases but also the diverse array of target pathways or molecules ginseng exerts its effect on. These range, for example, from neuroprotection to the regulation of synaptic plasticity and from regulation of neuroinflammatory processes to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, too many to mention. In general, ginseng and even a single compound of ginsenoside produce its effects on multiple sites of action, which make it an ideal candidate to develop multi-target drugs. This is most important in CNS diseases where multiple of etiological and pathological targets working together to regulate the final pathophysiology of diseases. In this review, we tried to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on neurodegenerative and other neurological diseases. Side by side comparison of the therapeutic effects in various neurological disorders may widen our understanding of the therapeutic potential of ginseng in CNS diseases and the possibility to develop not only symptomatic drugs but also disease modifying reagents based on ginseng. PMID:23717153

  12. Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on cisplatin ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; Chang, Ji Won; Choi, June; Chae, Sung Won; Ko, Eun Ju; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2010-04-01

    Ginseng extract is known to have many beneficial effects, including the reversal of pathological and physiological changes induced by ischemia, stress, and aging. Cisplatin, an effective antineoplastic drug, can cause irreversible sensorineural hearing loss and serious tinnitus in humans; thus cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is a useful experimental model for ototoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in auditory cells. Pretreatment with 2.5 mg/mL of ginseng extract prior to application of 20 microM of cisplatin significantly increased cell viability after 48 h of incubation in auditory cells. Pretreatment with ginseng extract significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginseng extract also inhibited the expression of caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase related to cisplatin-induced apoptosis because a major mechanism of cisplatin-induced toxicity involves ROS production. Thus, Korean red ginseng extract can play both an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line.

  13. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  14. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  15. Genetic variation in cultivated Rheum tanguticum populations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanping; Xie, Xiaolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Huaigang; Yang, Jian; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether cultivation reduced genetic variation in the important Chinese medicinal plant Rheum tanguticum, the levels and distribution of genetic variation were investigated using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight R. tanguticum individuals from five cultivated populations were studied. Thirteen primers were used and a total of 320 DNA bands were scored. High levels of genetic diversity were detected in cultivated R. tanguticum (PPB = 82.19, H = 0.2498, HB = 0.3231, I = 0.3812) and could be explained by the outcrossing system, as well as long-lived and human-mediated seed exchanges. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more genetic variation was found within populations (76.1%) than among them (23.9%). This was supported by the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.2742) and Bayesian analysis (θB = 0.1963). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations (r = 0.1176, p = 0.3686). UPGMA showed that the five cultivated populations were separated into three clusters, which was in good accordance with the results provided by the Bayesian software STRUCTURE (K = 3). A short domestication history and no artificial selection may be an effective way of maintaining and conserving the gene pools of wild R. tanguticum. PMID:25249777

  16. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  17. Twenty-five years of collecting and taxonomy of wild potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) are a difficult group taxonomically, complicated by interspecific hybridization, introgression, allopolyploidy, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, and possible recent species divergence. Various workers have interpreted the variation t...

  18. Differentiation of Asian ginseng, American ginseng and Notoginseng by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guang-hua; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Leung, Kelvin Sze-yin; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-zhen

    2008-07-01

    The herbal materials of Asian ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng), American ginseng (the root of Panax quinquefolius) and Notoginseng (the root of Panax notoginseng) were differentiated by conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (1D-FTIR) and two-dimensional (2D) correlation FTIR applying a thermal perturbation. Altogether 30 samples were collected and analyzed. Their entire 1D-FTIR spectra in the range of 4000-400 cm -1 and 2D-FTIR spectra in the region of 850-1530 cm -1 were generally similar based on the peaks position and intensities. This indicated the chemical constituents in these species of herbs were not distinctively different. However, variation in peak intensity were observed at about 1640 cm -1, 1416 cm -1, 1372 cm -1 and 1048 cm -1 in the 1D-FTIR spectra among these species for their ease differentiation. Clustering analysis of 1D-FTIR showed that these species located in different clusters. Much difference in their second derivative FTIR pattern among the three species also provided information for easy differentiation. These species of herbs were further identified based on the positions and intensities of relatively strong auto-peaks, positive or negative cross-peaks in their 2D-FTIR spectra. The findings provide a rapid and new operational procedure for the differentiation of these notable herbs. The visual and colorful 2D-FTIR spectra can provide dynamic structural information of chemical components in analyte and demonstrated as a powerful and useful approach for herbs identification.

  19. Cultivated and weedy rice interactions and the domestication process.

    PubMed

    Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Burgos, Nilda

    2010-08-01

    Examining the targets of selection in crop species and their wild and weedy relatives sheds light on the evolutionary processes underlying differentiation of cultivars from progenitor lineages. On one hand, human-mediated directional selection in crops favours traits associated with the streamlining of controllable and predictable monoculture practices alongside selection for desired trait values. On the other hand, natural selection in wild and especially weedy relatives presumably favours trait values that increase the probability of escaping eradication. Gene flow between crops and wild species may also counter human-mediated selection, promoting the evolution and persistence of weedy forms. In this issue, two studies from a group of collaborators examine diversity and divergence patterns of genes underlying two traits associated with red rice (Oryza sp.), the conspecific relative of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that is a non-native weed (see Fig. 1). In the first study by Gross et al. (2010), genetic variation in the major gene underlying the hallmark red pigmentation characterizing most weedy rice (Rc) is found to have a pattern consistent with non-reversion from U.S. cultivated rice (i.e. the cultivar did not 'go feral'). This suggests that U.S. weedy rice is not an escaped lineage derived from U.S. cultivated rice populations; weedy rice likely differentiated prior to the selective sweep occurred in this gene within cultivated rice populations. Using the major seed shattering locus sh4 gene and the neighbouring genomic region, Thurber et al. (2010) track the molecular evolutionary history of the high shattering phenotype, a trait contributing dramatically to the success of crop selection in cultivated rice as well as the persistence and expansion of weedy red rice. In this study, the shared fixation of a sh4 mutation in both cultivated rice and weedy rice indicates that weedy rice arose subsequent to the strong selective sweep leading to significant

  20. Development of highly transferable microsatellites for Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) using whole-genome data1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ya-Ling; Liu, Bao; Li, Lin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Highly transferable expressed sequence tag (EST) microsatellites were developed for Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), one of the most celebrated traditional Chinese medicines and an endangered species in East Asia, using whole-genome data. Methods and Results: Twenty-one EST microsatellites were characterized from next-generation sequencing and were composed of di- and trinucleotide repeats. Polymorphisms and genetic diversity were evaluated for 45 accessions of three ginseng landraces. The number of alleles for each locus ranged from one to five among the landraces, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.0000 to 0.6450. These microsatellites were also tested for congeneric amplification with P. notoginseng, P. stipuleanatus, P. quinquefolius, P. bipinnatifidus, and the closely related species Aralia elata. Conclusions: These novel EST-derived microsatellite markers will facilitate further population genetic studies of the genera Panax and Aralia. PMID:27843725

  1. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems.

  2. Recent advances in ginseng as cancer therapeutics: a functional and mechanistic overview.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alice S T; Che, Chi-Ming; Leung, Kar-Wah

    2015-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Ginseng, a key ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, shows great promise as a new treatment option. As listed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health as a complementary and alternative medicine, its anti-cancer functions are being increasingly recognized. This review covers the mechanisms of action of ginsenosides and their metabolites, which can modulate signaling pathways associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, metastasis, and stem/progenitor-like properties of cancer cells. The emerging use of structurally modified ginsenosides and recent clinical studies on the use of ginseng either alone or in combination with other herbs or Western medicines which are exploited as novel therapeutic strategies will also be explored.

  3. Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25°C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108 CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

  4. Changes in the Ginsenoside Content During Fermentation Using an Appliance for the Preparation of Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Jin; Ha, Na; Kim, Yunjeong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of ginsenoside in fermented red ginseng (FRG) is increased by microbial fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fermentation time and temperature affect the ginsenoside content during fermentation using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The FRG and fermented red ginseng extracts (FRG-e) were prepared using an appliance for the preparation of red ginseng. The temperature was recorded and time points for sampling were scheduled at pre-fermentation (0[Formula: see text]h) and 18, 36, 48, 60 and 72[Formula: see text]h after the addition of the microbial strains. Samples of FRG and FRG-e were collected to identify changes in the ginsenoside contents at each time point during the fermentation process. The ginsenoside content was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The levels of ginsenoside Rh1, Rg3, and compound Y, which are known to have effective pharmacological properties, increased more than three-fold in the final products of FRG relative to samples prior to fermentation. Although the ginsenoside constituents of FRG-e decreased or increased and then decreased during fermentation, the total amount of ginsenoside in FRG-e was even higher than those in FRG; the total amounts of ginsenoside in FRG-e and FRG were 8282.8 and 738.0[Formula: see text]mg, respectively. This study examined the changes in composition of ginsenosides and suggests a method to manufacture high-content total ginsenosides according to the fermentation temperature and process time. Reducing the extraction time is expected to improve the decrease of ginsenosides in FRG-e as a function of the fermentation time.

  5. A new triterpenoid compound from stems and leaves of American ginseng.

    PubMed

    Han, Liu; Li, Zhuo; Zheng, Qian; Liu, Jin-Ping; Li, Ping-Ya

    2016-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpenoid compound was isolated from stems and leaves of American ginseng. The structure of the new sapogenin was elucidated by the combined analysis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS as dammar-20S, 25S-epoxy-3β, 12β, 26-triol (1). Compound 1 showed cytotoxic effect on human SM7721 and human Hela cells in vitro.

  6. Effects of nonsaponin fraction of red ginseng on learning deficits in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Hiroaki; Nishijo, Hisao; Uwano, Teruko; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Kawanishi, Kazuko; Ono, Taketoshi

    2004-09-15

    Previously we reported that oral application of red ginseng significantly ameliorated learning deficits in aged rats and young rats with hippocampal lesions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the nonsaponin fraction of red ginseng on learning deficits in aged rats in behavioral studies and those on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA3 subfield in young rats in electrophysiological studies. In the behavioral studies, three groups of rats [aged rats with and without oral administration of the nonsaponin fraction of red ginseng and young rats] were tested with the three types of spatial-learning task [distance movement task (DMT), random-reward place search task (RRPST), and place-learning task (PLT)] in a circular open field. The results in the DMT and RRPST indicated that motivational and motor activity was not significantly different among the three groups of rats. However, performance of the aged rats without nonsaponin was significantly impaired in the PLT when compared with the young rats. Treatment with nonsaponin significantly ameliorated deficits in place-navigation learning in the aged rats in the PLT. In the electrophysiological studies, effects of nonsaponin on the LTP in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slices were investigated in vitro. Pretreatment with nonsaponin significantly augmented the increase in population spike amplitudes in the CA3 subfield after LTP induction. These results suggest that the nonsaponin fraction of red ginseng contains important substances to improve learning and memory in aged rats and that this amelioration by nonsaponin might be attributed partly to augmentation of LTP in the CA3 subfield.

  7. Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52 weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (57–73 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n = 5) (200 mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n = 5), and then followed-up for an additional 4 weeks for a total of 10 weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

  8. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed

    Abbai, Ragavendran; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg⋅mL(-1). However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng.

  9. [Determination of seven toxaphene congeners in ginseng and milkvetch root by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaoqiong; Mao, Xiuhong; Miao, Shui; Jia, Zhengwei; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of representative toxaphene congeners in traditional Chinese herbal medicines was developed. Ginseng and Milkvetch Root were selected as the samples and seven toxaphene congeners were selected as the monitoring objects. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with cyclohexane-acetone (9:1, v/v), then cleaned-up by Florisil solid phase extraction with hexane as the eluent and the residues were detected by gas chromatography-electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The performance was demonstrated by the analysis of Ginseng and Milkvetch Root samples spiked with toxaphene congeners at three concentration levels of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 72.4% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.96%-10.4%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2-1.7 microg/kg. This method is sensitive and efficient in the aspect of extraction, and can be applied to monitor the residue of toxaphene congeners in Ginseng and Milkvetch Root.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of AP-SF, a ginsenoside-enriched fraction, from Korean ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hong, Yong Deog; Kim, Yong; Sung, Nak Yoon; Yang, Sungjae; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Joo Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng is an ethnopharmacologically valuable herbal plant with various biological properties including anticancer, antiatherosclerosis, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Since there is currently no drug or therapeutic remedy derived from Korean ginseng, we developed a ginsenoside-enriched fraction (AP-SF) for prevention of various inflammatory symptoms. Methods The anti-inflammatory efficacy of AP-SF was tested under in vitro inflammatory conditions including nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammatory gene expression. The molecular events of inflammatory responses were explored by immunoblot analysis. Results AP-SF led to a significant suppression of NO production compared with a conventional Korean ginseng saponin fraction, induced by both lipopolysaccharide and zymosan A. Interestingly, AP-SF strongly downregulated the mRNA levels of genes for inducible NO synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase) without affecting cell viability. In agreement with these observations, AP-SF blocked the nuclear translocation of c-Jun at 2 h and also reduced phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and TAK-1, all of which are important for c-Jun translocation. Conclusion Our results suggest that AP-SF inhibits activation of c-Jun-dependent inflammatory events. Thus, AP-SF may be useful as a novel anti-inflammatory remedy. PMID:26045689

  11. Ultrasound-induced stress responses of Panax ginseng cells: enzymatic browning and phenolics production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Lin, Lidong

    2002-01-01

    The stress metabolic activities of Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) cells induced by low-energy ultrasound (US) were examined. P. ginseng cells in suspension cultures were exposed to 38.5 kHz US at two power levels (power density 13.7 and 61 mW/cm(3)) for 2 min. The US treatment caused rapid increase in the intracellular levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and the production of polyphenols (PP) and phenolic compounds. The US-induced enzyme activities and phenolics production are part of plant stress responses to a mechanical stimulus. The much higher PPO activity and rate of PP production in the sonicated cultures are correlated to enzymatic browning, suggestive of physical damage and membrane permeabilization of the cells by US. The cells after sonication also showed decreased water content and cell volume, which may also be attributed to US-induced cell membrane permeabilization and water release. High-pressure shock and fluid shear stress arising from acoustic cavitation were regarded as the major causes of the responses. Nevertheless, the US exposure caused only temporary cell growth depression but no net loss of biomass yield of the culture.

  12. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung. PMID:25658239

  13. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-ray irradiated ginseng.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2006-03-13

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed the presence of four radical species in gamma-ray irradiated ginseng (Agaliaceae). Before irradiation, the representative ESR spectrum of ginseng is composed of a sextet centered at g = 2.0, a sharp singlet at the same g-value, and a singlet at about g = 4.0. The first one is attributable to a hyperfine (hf) signal of Mn2+ ion (hf constant: 7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one is originated from Fe3+. Upon gamma-ray irradiation, a new ESR (the fourth) signal was detectable in the vicinity of g = 2.0 region. The progressive saturation behaviors of the ESR signals at various microwave power levels were indicative of different relaxation time for those radicals. The anisotropic ESR spectra were detected by the angular rotation of the sample tube. This is due to the existence of anisotropic microcrystalline in the ginseng powder sample.

  14. An electron spin resonance study of γ-ray irradiated ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2006-03-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed the presence of four radical species in γ-ray irradiated ginseng ( Agaliaceae). Before irradiation, the representative ESR spectrum of ginseng is composed of a sextet centered at g = 2.0, a sharp singlet at the same g-value, and a singlet at about g = 4.0. The first one is attributable to a hyperfine (hf) signal of Mn 2+ ion (hf constant: 7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one is originated from Fe 3+. Upon γ-ray irradiation, a new ESR (the fourth) signal was detectable in the vicinity of g = 2.0 region. The progressive saturation behaviors of the ESR signals at various microwave power levels were indicative of different relaxation time for those radicals. The anisotropic ESR spectra were detected by the angular rotation of the sample tube. This is due to the existence of anisotropic microcrystalline in the ginseng powder sample.

  15. Consequences of harvesting for genetic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.): A simulation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruse-Sanders, J. M.; Hamrick, J.L.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is one of the most heavily traded medicinal plants in North America. The effect of harvest on genetic diversity in ginseng was measured with a single generation culling simulation program. Culling scenarios included random harvest at varying levels, legal limit random harvest and legal limit mature plant harvest. The legal limit was determined by the proportion of legally harvestable plants per population (% mature plants per population). Random harvest at varying levels resulted in significant loss of genetic diversity, especially allelic richness. Relative to initial levels, average within-population genetic diversity (H e) was significantly lower when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (Mann-Whitney U = 430, p < 0.001) or when only mature plants were culled (Mann-Whitney U = 394, p < 0.01). Within-population genetic diversity was significantly higher with legal limit mature plant harvest (H e = 0.068) than when plants were culled randomly at the legal limit (H e = 0.064; U = 202, p < 0.01). Based on these simulations of harvest over one generation, we recommend that harvesting fewer than the proportion of mature plants could reduce the negative genetic effects of harvest on ginseng populations. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Coalescence of functional gold and monodisperse silver nanoparticles mediated by black Panax ginseng Meyer root extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Ahn, Sungeun; Aceituno, Verónica Castro; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    A rapid biological synthesis of multifunctional gold nanoparticle (AuNp) and monodisperse silver nanoparticle (AgNp) was achieved by an aqueous extract of black Panax ginseng Meyer root. The physicochemical transformation into black ginseng (BG) greatly enhanced the pharmacological activities of white ginseng and its minor ginsenoside content. The optimal temperature conditions and kinetics of bioreduction were investigated. Formation of BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps was verified by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry at 548 and 412 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized BG-AgNps were spherical and monodisperse with narrow distribution, while BG-AuNps were icosahedral-shaped and moderately polydisperse. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited long-term stability in buffers of pH 7.0-8.0 and biological media (5% bovine serum albumin) at an ambient temperature and at 37°C. BG-AgNps showed effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps demonstrated increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. In addition, BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps were nontoxic to HaCaT and MCF-7 cells; the latter showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 10 µg/mL. At higher concentrations, BG-AgNps exhibited apparent apoptotic activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line through reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear fragmentation.

  17. Coalescence of functional gold and monodisperse silver nanoparticles mediated by black Panax ginseng Meyer root extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dandan; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Ahn, Sungeun; Aceituno, Verónica Castro; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    A rapid biological synthesis of multifunctional gold nanoparticle (AuNp) and monodisperse silver nanoparticle (AgNp) was achieved by an aqueous extract of black Panax ginseng Meyer root. The physicochemical transformation into black ginseng (BG) greatly enhanced the pharmacological activities of white ginseng and its minor ginsenoside content. The optimal temperature conditions and kinetics of bioreduction were investigated. Formation of BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps was verified by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry at 548 and 412 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized BG-AgNps were spherical and monodisperse with narrow distribution, while BG-AuNps were icosahedral-shaped and moderately polydisperse. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited long-term stability in buffers of pH 7.0–8.0 and biological media (5% bovine serum albumin) at an ambient temperature and at 37°C. BG-AgNps showed effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps demonstrated increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. In addition, BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps were nontoxic to HaCaT and MCF-7 cells; the latter showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 10 µg/mL. At higher concentrations, BG-AgNps exhibited apparent apoptotic activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line through reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear fragmentation. PMID:28008248

  18. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  19. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis. PMID:26726017

  20. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  1. Collection of wild sunflowers from the land down under

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. How...

  2. Collection of wild naturalized sunflowers from the land down under

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. How...

  3. The potential of wild sunflower species for industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the past decade, the desire for alternative sources of fuels, chemicals, feeds, and other materials has received increased attention. Wild sunflower species have the potential to contribute to these renewable resources. During the past three decades, the narrow genetic base of cultivated sun...

  4. Phytochemicals in fruits of Hawaiian wild cranberry relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profile of the Hawaiian Native Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) has not been thoroughly described. Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition of diverse wild and cultivated samples of the low-growing ‘ohelo, V. reticulatum Smith. In 2009, ripe fruit samples were collected f...

  5. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  6. Developing Sclerotinia Resistant Sunflower Germplasm Utilizing Wild Perennial Helianthus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sunflower lacks a sufficient level of resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, but abundant resistance in perennial Helianthus species has been confirmed. The objectives of this project were to transfer Sclerotinia head and stalk rot resistance genes from wild perennial hexaploi...

  7. Determination of American ginseng saponins and their metabolites in human plasma, urine and feces samples by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-03-15

    American ginseng is a commonly consumed herbal medicine in the United States and other countries. Ginseng saponins are considered to be its active constituents. We have previously demonstrated in an in vitro experiment that human enteric microbiota metabolize ginseng parent compounds into their metabolites. In this study, we analyzed American ginseng saponins and their metabolites in human plasma, urine and feces samples by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Six healthy male volunteers ingested 1 g of American ginseng twice a day for 7 days. On day 7, biological samples were obtained and pretreated with solid phase extraction. The ginseng constituents and their metabolites were characterized, including 5 ginseng metabolites in plasma, 10 in urine, and 26 in feces. For the plasma, urine and feces samples, the levels of ginsenoside Rb1 (a major parent compound) were 8.6, 56.8 and 57.7 ng/mL, respectively, and the levels of compound K (a major metabolite) were 58.4 ng/mL, 109.8 ng/mL and 10.06 μg/mL, respectively. It suggested that compound K had a remarkably high level in all three samples. Moreover, in human feces, ginsenoside Rk1 and Rg5, Rk3 and Rh4, Rg6 and F4 were detected as the products of dehydration. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pharmacological activities of the identified ginseng metabolites.

  8. Profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Panax ginseng based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Sun, Le; Zhang, Zhe; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2015-03-25

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and structural analysis of ginsenosides in white ginseng and related processed products (red ginseng). Original neutral, malonyl, and chemically transformed ginsenosides were identified in white and red ginseng samples. The aglycone types of ginsenosides were determined by MS/MS as PPD (m/z 459), PPT (m/z 475), C-24, -25 hydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 477 or m/z 493), and Δ20(21)-or Δ20(22)-dehydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 441 or m/z 457). Following the structural determination, the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based chemical profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method was applied for global analysis of white and processed ginseng samples. The chemical markers present between the processed products red ginseng and white ginseng could be assigned. Process-mediated chemical changes were recognized as the hydrolysis of ginsenosides with large molecular weight, chemical transformations of ginsenosides, changes in malonyl-ginsenosides, and generation of 20-(R)-ginsenoside enantiomers. The relative contents of compounds classified as PPD, PPT, malonyl, and transformed ginsenosides were calculated based on peak areas in ginseng before and after processing. This study provides possibility to monitor multiple components for the quality control and global evaluation of ginseng products during processing.

  9. Transcriptome analysis reveals ginsenosides biosynthetic genes, microRNAs and simple sequence repeats in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. Complete genome information for this species remains unavailable due to its large genome size. At present, analysis of expressed sequence tags is still the most powerful tool for large-scale gene discovery. The global expressed sequence tags from P. ginseng tissues, especially those isolated from stems, leaves and flowers, are still limited, hindering in-depth study of P. ginseng. Results Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated a total of 2,423,076 reads from P. ginseng roots, stems, leaves and flowers. The high-quality reads from each of the tissues were independently assembled into separate and shared contigs. In the separately assembled database, 45,849, 6,172, 4,041 and 3,273 unigenes were only found in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers database, respectively. In the jointly assembled database, 178,145 unigenes were observed, including 86,609 contigs and 91,536 singletons. Among the 178,145 unigenes, 105,522 were identified for the first time, of which 65.6% were identified in the stem, leaf or flower cDNA libraries of P. ginseng. After annotation, we discovered 223 unigenes involved in ginsenoside backbone biosynthesis. Additionally, a total of 326 potential cytochrome P450 and 129 potential UDP-glycosyltransferase sequences were predicted based on the annotation results, some of which may encode enzymes responsible for ginsenoside backbone modification. A BLAST search of the obtained high-quality reads identified 14 potential microRNAs in P. ginseng, which were estimated to target 100 protein-coding genes, including transcription factors, transporters and DNA binding proteins, among others. In addition, a total of 13,044 simple sequence repeats were identified from the 178,145 unigenes. Conclusions This study provides global expressed sequence tags for P. ginseng, which will contribute significantly to further genome-wide research and analyses in this species. The novel

  10. New Method for Simultaneous Quantification of 12 Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Powder and Extract: In-house Method Validation.

    PubMed

    In, Gyo; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Bae, Bong-Seok; Han, Sung-Tai; Noh, Kil-Bong; Kim, Cheon-Suk

    2012-04-01

    For quality control of components in Korean red ginseng powder and extract, a new method for simultaneous quantification of 12 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2[S], Rg2[R], Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3[S], and Rg3[R]) was studied. Compared to the official method for quantification of marker substances (ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1), the proposed methods were guaranteed by in-house method validation. Several criteria such as linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. For red ginseng powder, recovery (averaging 95% to 105%) was calculated, and analysis of variance was carried out to estimate the relative standard deviation (0.20% to 2.12%). For red ginseng extract, the average recovery rate was 90% to 99% and the relative standard deviation was 0.39% to 2.40%. These results indicate that the proposed method could be used in the laboratory for determination of 12 ginsenosides in red ginseng powder and extract. In addition, this method was found to be suitable for quality control of ginseng products and potentially offer time and cost benefits.

  11. Rapid differentiation of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Han; So, Pui-Kin; Lo, Samual Chun-Lap; Ng, Eddy Wing Yin; Poon, Terence Chuen Wai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2012-11-13

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectro