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Sample records for cultural anthropology

  1. Anthropological Theory: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to various theoretical perspectives, terms, and influential figures within the field of anthropology. The following historical and conceptual influences on anthropological theory are discussed: (1) the Greek…

  2. Psychological Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module traces the history of psychological anthropology, introducing various schools and perspectives within the field of psychology. First, a discussion is provided of biological determinism, examining its historical development and the…

  3. Cultural Anthropology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Carmel

    After the Second World War, the field of cultural anthropology underwent an explosive development. Sociologists, psychologists, educators, and economists all added to the increasing interest in a discipline which began by assuming that culture is the foundation of social structures and that every institution manifests itself as a system of…

  4. Cultural Anthropology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Carmel

    After the Second World War, the field of cultural anthropology underwent an explosive development. Sociologists, psychologists, educators, and economists all added to the increasing interest in a discipline which began by assuming that culture is the foundation of social structures and that every institution manifests itself as a system of…

  5. Subdisciplines of Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the idea that anthropology is composed of a number of subdisciplines and that cultural anthropology has numerous subfields which are the specialty areas for many practicing anthropologists. Beginning with a general discussion…

  6. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  7. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  8. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  9. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  10. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

  11. Bibliography of Methods in Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, James, Comp.

    Over 300 resources on methods in cultural anthropology are listed under the following headings: archaeological methods; visual methods, tape recordings, and technical aids; cognitive anthropology and emic methods; community studies and complex societies; cross-cultural and hologeistic methods; ethnohistory; field work techniques and participant…

  12. [Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xia; Liu, Jian-ping; Ai, Yan-ke; Li, Liu-ji

    2008-07-01

    Biological, psychological and sociological model of medicine substantializes the old model lacking the social humane attributes. The new medical model makes people take medical anthropology into research and highly evaluate traditional medical system. Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is part of medical anthropology with three major characteristics: wide research scope, specificity, and integration. It has developed its own research methods, such as field investigation, comprehensive inspection and comparison study. Cultural anthropology provides an efficient research method for TCM, and its application would further develop TCM theory and form comprehensive evaluation on TCM effects.

  13. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  14. Economic Systems: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module uses a systems approach to allow students to see the connections and similarities which most cultural groups share on the basis of the type of economic organization that they exhibit. The module begins with a general discussion of…

  15. Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

  16. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  17. Toward a Cultural Anthropology of Disability and Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershenson, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which cultural anthropology's concepts, theories, and methods have been applied to the understanding and conceptualization of disability and rehabilitation as a cultural phenomenon. Reviews the literature of anthropology and the literature of disability and rehabilitation. Results revealed that a lot of anthropologists'…

  18. Anthropology and cultural neuroscience: creating productive intersections in parallel fields.

    PubMed

    Brown, R A; Seligman, R

    2009-01-01

    Partly due to the failure of anthropology to productively engage the fields of psychology and neuroscience, investigations in cultural neuroscience have occurred largely without the active involvement of anthropologists or anthropological theory. Dramatic advances in the tools and findings of social neuroscience have emerged in parallel with significant advances in anthropology that connect social and political-economic processes with fine-grained descriptions of individual experience and behavior. We describe four domains of inquiry that follow from these recent developments, and provide suggestions for intersections between anthropological tools - such as social theory, ethnography, and quantitative modeling of cultural models - and cultural neuroscience. These domains are: the sociocultural construction of emotion, status and dominance, the embodiment of social information, and the dual social and biological nature of ritual. Anthropology can help locate unique or interesting populations and phenomena for cultural neuroscience research. Anthropological tools can also help "drill down" to investigate key socialization processes accountable for cross-group differences. Furthermore, anthropological research points at meaningful underlying complexity in assumed relationships between social forces and biological outcomes. Finally, ethnographic knowledge of cultural content can aid with the development of ecologically relevant stimuli for use in experimental protocols.

  19. Kinship and Social Groups: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces commonly employed terms used in the study of kinship and social groups. Conceptual categories used to describe the social structures of society are defined first, including culture, material culture, nonmaterial culture,…

  20. Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Serena

    1985-01-01

    Presents three exercises that encourage active participation in cultural anthropology classes: (1) use of a puzzle to demonstrate focal issues about culture; (2) discussion of a specific piece of fieldwork to demonstrate the relationship among fieldwork, ethics, and cultural relativity; and (3) use of study questions in ethnographic films to allow…

  1. Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Serena

    1985-01-01

    Presents three exercises that encourage active participation in cultural anthropology classes: (1) use of a puzzle to demonstrate focal issues about culture; (2) discussion of a specific piece of fieldwork to demonstrate the relationship among fieldwork, ethics, and cultural relativity; and (3) use of study questions in ethnographic films to allow…

  2. The psychiatric cultural formulation: translating medical anthropology into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation for clinical practice. The author begins by exploring the theoretical development of and assumptions involved in the Cultural Formulation. A case presentation is then used to demonstrate shortcomings in the current implementation of the Cultural Formulation based on older definitions of culture. Finally, the author recommends practical questions based on the growing anthropological literature concerning the interpersonal elements of culture and the social course of illness. A simple clear format that clinically translates social science concepts has the potential to increase use of the Cultural Formulation by all psychiatrists, not just those specializing in cultural psychiatry.

  3. A Conceptual/Cross-cultural Model for Teaching Anthropology in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    A conceptual/cross-cultural model, developed to help elementary teachers cope with the problems of initiating cultural, ethnic, or anthropology studies, is presented in five sections. (1) A brief description of the structure and methodology of anthropology defines in outline form the fields of cultural and social anthropology, physical…

  4. Cultivating Common Ground: Cultural Revitalization in Anishinaabe and Anthropological Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores some of the most prominent ways that cultural revitalization has been contemplated within Anishinaabe and anthropological arenas of discourse. She draws reflexively on her own personal positionality and academic theoretical background as well as on her observations of how Anishinaabe anti-clear-cutting…

  5. Cross-Cultural Psychiatry in the Field: Collaborating with Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folmar, Steven; Palmes, Guy K.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric and anthropological collaborations have produced robust literatures on varied topics but there are challenges in the working relation between these two fields. A research into how cultures deal with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Afghanistan is discussed to highlight the challenges in the working relations between…

  6. Cross-Cultural Psychiatry in the Field: Collaborating with Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folmar, Steven; Palmes, Guy K.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric and anthropological collaborations have produced robust literatures on varied topics but there are challenges in the working relation between these two fields. A research into how cultures deal with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Afghanistan is discussed to highlight the challenges in the working relations between…

  7. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.

  8. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed. PMID:19959484

  9. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology, University of... affiliated with the unassociated funerary objects should contact Carla Sinopoli, Museum of Anthropology...

  10. [Urban culture and mental health: an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    Andrès, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    This article is an anthropological reflection on the trans-cultural issues specific to large urban centers. The author questions how can a person develop and create an identity in this context. He then examines how proximity and isolation relative to urban settings contribute to the mental health of urban populations. Finally, he examines how characteristics of city life conditions assistance to people with mental disorders in urban settings.

  11. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... with the cultural item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

  12. Cultural anthropology approach to psychopathology of Muslim murderer.

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Satoh, S; Morita, N; Konishi, T; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, H; Oda, S

    1994-03-01

    We report a case involving a 31-year-old Islamic male who murdered his associate under particular circumstances. We took the opportunity to test psychiatrically this man who has been diagnosed in his mother country as a schizophrenic. He came to Japan and was working as a laborer. He is an earnest practicing Muslim. We took an interest in this case because of his bizarre behavior previous to the actual crime. We are interested in the actual method of the murder in relation to Mr. A's cultural and religious background. We demonstrated the significance of the religious cultural knowledge relative to the indigenous ritual for expelling satan and the Islamic pilgrimage to Mekka (Hajj). We conclude that a cultural anthropological and religious viewpoint is necessary in objectively understanding the sources of suffering in patients with mental illness who are from foreign countries.

  13. Dialogue and the Transmission of Culture: The Spindlers and the Making of American Anthropology. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the contributions of G. Spindler and L. Spindler to anthropology in "The American Cultural Dialogue and Its Transmission" (Falmer Press, 1990), "Interpretive Ethnography and Education: At Home and Abroad" (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1987), and "Education and Cultural Process: Anthropological Approaches" (Waveland…

  14. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences.

  15. CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGICALLY INFORMED CONCEPTIONS OF CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley; López, Steven R.; Garro, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply two contemporary notions of culture to advance the conceptual basis of cultural competence in psychotherapy: Kleinman’s (1995) definition of culture as what is at stake in local, social worlds, and Mattingly and Lawlor’s (2001) concept of shared narratives between practitioners and patients. The authors examine these cultural constructs within a clinical case of an immigrant family caring for a young boy with an autism-spectrum disorder. Their analysis suggests that the socially based model of culture and the concept of shared narratives have the potential to broaden and enrich the definition of cultural competence beyond its current emphasis on the presumed cultural differences of specific racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:22122131

  16. Cultural Models of Domestic Violence: Perspectives of Social Work and Anthropology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cyleste C.; Dressler, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a unique theoretical approach and a series of participant-based ethnographic interviewing techniques that are traditionally used in cognitive anthropology to examine and compare social work and anthropology students' cultural models of the causes of domestic violence. The study findings indicate that although social work…

  17. Cultural Models of Domestic Violence: Perspectives of Social Work and Anthropology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cyleste C.; Dressler, William W.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a unique theoretical approach and a series of participant-based ethnographic interviewing techniques that are traditionally used in cognitive anthropology to examine and compare social work and anthropology students' cultural models of the causes of domestic violence. The study findings indicate that although social work…

  18. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  19. [Biology and culture: a dimension of collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Leiming; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Biology is the important basis of epidemiological study. Based on biology, psychology, social and cultural factors can influence human's health and disease incidence. The medical mode has changed from "biomedical mode" to "bio-psycho-social medical model" , but culture factor was neglected somewhat during this process, so paying attention to culture factor in anthropologic study and using it as biologic basis in epidemiologic study might be a dimension of collaboration between of anthropology and epidemiology.

  20. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University on an unknown...

  1. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by Whitney...

  2. Perfectible Apes in Decadent Cultures: Rousseau's Anthropology Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wokler, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the views of Claude Levi-Strauss and Robert Ardrey who cite Rousseau as a personal influence even though they hold opposing anthropological ideals. The author claims that this situation is due to misinterpretations of Rousseau's work. An interpretation of Rousseau's anthropology is given reconciling the differences. (BC)

  3. Perfectible Apes in Decadent Cultures: Rousseau's Anthropology Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wokler, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the views of Claude Levi-Strauss and Robert Ardrey who cite Rousseau as a personal influence even though they hold opposing anthropological ideals. The author claims that this situation is due to misinterpretations of Rousseau's work. An interpretation of Rousseau's anthropology is given reconciling the differences. (BC)

  4. 78 FR 19308 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    .... History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1968, the University of Denver Museum of Anthropology acquired the collection of Mr. Fallis F. Rees, an amateur archeologist, who researched ancient...

  5. The contribution of medical anthropology to a comparative study of culture: susto and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rubel, A J; Moore, C C

    2001-12-01

    Results of studies of the popular illness susto and the biomedical entity pulmonary tuberculosis are offered to illustrate how comparisons of sick and well people can elucidate societal processes in cultural anthropology.

  6. 78 FR 45963 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Item: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology...: The Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native... the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control...

  7. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology... with the sacred objects may contact the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology. DATES...

  8. 77 FR 46114 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of... Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico, has determined... Anthropology at the address below by September 4, 2012. ADDRESSES: David Phillips, Curator of Archaeology...

  9. The misconstruction of critical medical anthropology: a response to a cultural constructivist critique.

    PubMed

    Baer, H A

    1997-05-01

    Since its emergence over a decade ago as a distinct theoretical framework, critical medical anthropology (CMA) has engaged in debate and dialogue with various other perspectives within medical anthropology, particularly clinical anthropology, medical ecology, and, to a lesser degree, postmodernism. While at least two genres of CMA have emerged, both of which are involved in a dialogue with each other, proponents of other perspectives often misread or "misconstruct" the agenda of CMA as both a theoretical framework and a strategy for health activism. This essay in particular critiques this process among proponents of the interpretative or cultural constructivist perspective. On a positive note, however, I urge critical medical anthropologists and cultural constructivists within medical anthropology to enter into a dialogue with each other because their two perspectives, despite the presence of obvious epistemological differences, share commonalities.

  10. Trends in Anthropology, #116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belshaw, Cyril; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on trends and future perspectives in the field of anthropology. Articles include "Challenges for the Future of Social and Cultural Anthropology"; "Anthropology in the Twenty-First Century"; "A New Interdisciplinary Impulse and the Anthropology of the 1990s"; and "Liberation Anthropology for the Year 2000." (GEA)

  11. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  12. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  13. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  14. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  15. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society.

  16. CULTURE IN AMERICAN EDUCATION--ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO MINORITY AND DOMINANT GROUPS IN THE SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANDES, RUTH

    THIS BOOK DESCRIBES AN EXPERIMENTAL TEACHER AND SOCIAL WORKER TRAINING PROGRAM WHICH COMBINED THE TENETS OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND EDUCATION IN AN EFFORT TO SOLVE THE SCHOOL AND WELFARE PROBLEMS OF MINORITY GROUPS IN CALIFORNIA, ESPECIALLY THOSE OF NEGROES AND MEXICAN AMERICANS. THIS CULTURAL APPROACH IS DISCUSSED IN CHAPTERS ON THE CULTURE CLASH IN THE…

  17. The interface of anthropology and nursing guiding culturally competent care in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J S; Engebretson, J

    2000-08-01

    Nurses and all health care providers are called on to involve patients and families in health care decision-making and to accommodate culturally diverse populations. This article describes the Interface of Anthropology and Nursing Model (IAN), which is derived from the works of Kleinman and Peplau, classical theorists from anthropology and nursing, respectively. This model provides a framework for nurses to uncover cultural information through the elicitation, analysis, transfer, restructure, and feedback of explanatory models within the interpersonal nurse-patient relationship. Such integration of theory enhances a holistic nursing practice incorporating good communication, mutual decision making, and fostering patient agency.

  18. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  19. Anthropological Methods of Formation of University Students' Spiritual and Moral Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurbanov, Rashad A.; Nikonova, Elina I.; Gurbanov, Ramin A.; Svechnikova, Natalia V.; Tumarov, Konstantin B.; Marin, Evgeniy M.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is reasoned by the increasing complexity of life activity in modern society, which results in distortion of the moral and value criteria and norms. The purpose of the article is to reveal anthropological methods of formation of university students' spiritual and moral culture. The leading approach to the study is the…

  20. Applying Medical Anthropology: Developing Diabetes Education and Prevention Programs in American Indian Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Brooke

    1999-01-01

    Medical anthropology provides a broader contextual framework for understanding complex causal factors associated with diabetes among American Indians and how to minimize these factors in education/treatment programs. Discusses historical, epidemiological, and genetic considerations in American Indian diabetes; cultural factors related to foods,…

  1. Strengthening Pedagogy and Praxis in Cultural Anthropology and Service-Learning: Insights from Postcolonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Maryann

    2004-01-01

    This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…

  2. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  3. ANTHROPOLOGY AT WAR: ROBERT H. LOWIE AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CULTURE CONCEPT, 1904 to 1954.

    PubMed

    Bargheer, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists' involvement in the war effort. It was advanced by the second generation of Boas' students such as Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, who stressed the homogeneity of cultures. The contrast highlights the diversity of approaches available within anthropology in the first half of the century and the crucial impact of World War II in determining which of these possibilities became institutionalized in the decades after the war. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Psychiatric Cultural Formulation: Applying Medical Anthropology in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation from the perspective of clinical practice. First, the paper explores the theoretical development of the Cultural Formulation. Next, a case presentation demonstrates challenges in its actual implementation. Finally, the paper recommends a set of questions for the clinician on barriers to care and countertransference. The development of a standardized, user-friendly format can increase the Cultural Formulation’s utilization among all psychiatrists beyond those specializing in cultural psychiatry. PMID:22418398

  5. The Rise of Class Culture Theory in Educational Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This article chronicles how the ideas of neo-Weberians, Marxists, feminists, and critical race thinkers have merged to create a new cultural production or class culture paradigm of schooling. Reviews of recent ethnographic work illustrates how the articulations among class, race, gender, and sexual identity practices in schools are studied without…

  6. An anthropological approach to teaching health sciences students cultural competency in a field school program.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Frank T; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Poulsen, Keith P

    2014-02-01

    International immersion experiences do not, in themselves, provide students with the opportunity to develop cultural competence. However, using an anthropological lens to educate students allows them to learn how to negotiate cultural differences by removing their own cultural filters and seeing events through the eyes of those who are culturally different. Faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Global Health Institute believed that an embedded experience, in which students engaged with local communities, would encourage them to adopt this Cultural Competency 2.0 position. With this goal in mind, they started the Field School for the Study of Language, Culture, and Community Health in Ecuador in 2003 to teach cultural competency to medical, veterinary, pharmacy, and nursing students. The program was rooted in medical anthropology and embraced the One Health initiative, which is a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to obtain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. In this article, the authors identify effective practices and challenges for using a biocultural approach to educating students. In a semester-long preparatory class, students study the Spanish language, region-specific topics, and community engagement principles. While in Ecuador for five weeks, students apply their knowledge during community visits that involve homestays and service learning projects, for which they partner with local communities to meet their health needs. This combination of language and anthropological course work and community-based service learning has led to positive outcomes for the local communities as well as professional development for students and faculty.

  7. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment-that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

  8. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  9. Culture and Commerce in France: An Anthropological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Guessler

    A cooperative effort of the School of Business and the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Toledo (Ohio) developed a program to provide an opportunity for business students to develop (1) foreign language skills for effective communication and performance in international trade and (2) an awareness of the importance of culture and its…

  10. On some neurobiological and cultural-anthropological aspects of the contralateral-neglect syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muzur, A; Rudez, J; Sepcić, J

    1998-06-01

    Contralateral neglect is a frequent clinical syndrome which can be provoked by lesions in several brain areas (primarily inferior parietal and frontal) and includes symptoms of motor and perceptual negligence of both real and imaginative contralateral hemi-space. Attentional and representative theories attempting to explain neglect are presently the most popular. This paper analyzes two cases of neglect patients. Paying attention especially to their reading defects, a possible role of the persons with contralateral neglect is proposed in the development of script. Other neurobiological and cultural-anthropological questions arising from the analysis of these cases are also discussed.

  11. Anthropology and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Walter

    1976-01-01

    Traces anthropology as a discipline from its origins in the 19th century to the present, defines the areas of interest of physical and cultural anthropologists, reviews major anthropological works, and identifies contributions made to American anthropology by sociology, psychology, and economics. (Author/DB)

  12. Anthropological Assessment for Culturally Appropriate Interventions Targeting Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Silenzio, Vincent M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Although social and cultural factors play a fundamental role in the health of sexual minority populations and the development of culturally appropriate interventions, public health activities and research have sometimes lacked appropriate sophistication or attention to issues of cultural competency. In areas such as HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM), biomedical interpretations of same-sex phenomena should be applied with caution. Communities and societies may broadly understand same-sex desire, attraction, behavior, and identity through age-structured/initiatory, gender-defined, profession/social role–defined, or egalitarian/gay frameworks. When more detailed, locally specific information is required, such as for youth, ethnic minorities, or urban versus rural populations, the approach to rapid anthropological assessment presented can provide nuanced insights for effective health programs targeting MSM. PMID:12773342

  13. On crafting a cultural mind: a comparative assessment of some recent theories of 'internalization' in psychological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-03-01

    This article reviews a number of recent publications in psychological anthropology that draw in varying degrees from psychoanalytic premises in order to theoretically address problems concerning the internalization of cultural meaning. The article begins with a discussion and critical comparison of Spiro's and Obeyesekere's perspectives on internalization that are in line with a number of classical formulations in anthropological and psychoanalytic theory, before turning to explore what appears to be an emerging new wave of perspectives in contemporary psychological anthropology that set out to discuss problems of internalization in the context of a complex modeling of psychological, social, and cultural processes. The article concludes with a brief discussion of where researchers may need to turn to further our understanding of 'internalization' in relation to those intrapsychic, interpsychic, and extrapsychic processes underpinning the crafting of cultural minds.

  14. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by Rev...

  15. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  16. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  17. Cultural scripts for multiple and concurrent partnerships in southern Africa: why HIV prevention needs anthropology.

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2009-06-01

    Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships have been identified as southern Africa's key behavioural driver of HIV, resulting in calls to make partner reduction programming central to an intensified HIV prevention focus. Various efforts are currently being made in the region in response to this call. Such efforts will likely have as limited success as past prevention efforts if the cultural milieu in which sexual partnering practices are located and reproduced remains poorly understood, unaccounted for, and unaddressed in prevention programming. Focussed ethnographic discussions were held between October 2007 and November 2008 with 228 members of southern African non-government organisations representing seven countries. Discussions formed part of follow-up activities to a high level regional meeting and were aimed at exploring contextual factors in HIV transmission, most especially the role of culture in relation to multiple and concurrent partnerships. Common patterns in cultural scripts for the performance of sexuality were discernable. Several predominant scripts that tend to affirm and lend cultural legitimacy to multiple and concurrent partnering were identified, discussed and analysed. Effectuating change at the level of cultural scripting to discourage multiple and concurrent partnerships is required for sustainable long-term protection of people and communities against HIV. The success of partner reduction programs will be largely determined by the extent to which they are informed by anthropological knowledge and work with cultural logics to allow people to envision how they can transform obstacles into support for risk reduction.

  18. Making sense of HIV in southeastern Nigeria: fictional narratives, cultural meanings, and methodologies in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Brown, Peter J; Patterson, Amy E; Burkot, Camilla; Mbakwem, Benjamin C

    2013-06-01

    Fictional narratives have rarely been used in medical anthropological research. This article illustrates the value of such narratives by examining how young people in southeastern Nigeria navigate the cultural resources available to them to make sense of HIV in their creative writing. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, it analyzes a sample (N = 120) from 1,849 narratives submitted by Nigerian youth to the 2005 Scenarios from Africa scriptwriting contest on the theme of HIV. The narratives are characterized by five salient themes: tragedy arising from the incompatibility of sex outside marriage and kinship obligations; female vulnerability and blame; peer pressure and moral ambivalence; conservative Christian sexual morality; and the social and family consequences of HIV. We consider the strengths and limitations of this narrative approach from a theoretical perspective and by juxtaposing our findings with those generated by Daniel Jordan Smith using standard ethnographic research methods with a similar Igbo youth population. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. [Drawer of boundaries: Franz Boas and the (im)possibility of the concept of culture in anthropology].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The history of anthropology has tended towards two extremes in its analyses of the works of Franz Boas: aggrandizement or underestimation. This disparity can be explained by the author's liminal relationship with two research approaches in anthropology: universalist theories (evolutionism, difussionism, racialism, etc.) and culturalist theories, prevalent between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With this argument in mind, the article discusses the emergence of the Boasian concept of culture and endeavors to show how this concept proves both possible and impossible within the author's own work.

  20. 77 FR 5839 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology. DATES...

  1. Public science of the savage mind: contesting cultural anthropology in the Cold War classroom.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    "What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so?" These three questions formed the basis of a fifth-grade social studies curriculum project developed in the 1960s called Man: A Course of Study, or MACOS. In the years between the curriculum's development in the 1960s and its controversial implementation in the 1970s, two separate sets of concerns served to problematize the use of anthropological materials in public school classrooms. On the one hand, MACOS designers were wary of the possibly racist interpretations of exploring so-called "primitive" cultures in the classroom. On the other, conservative textbook reformers objected to claims that all cultural solutions to biological problems were morally equivalent. Once MACOS earned a place in national news, it came to embody both hopes for the redemption of American democratic society and fears about the violent nature of humans, depending on one's political perspective. These mixed messages eventually undermined the long-term success of the program as public science.

  2. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning.

    PubMed

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  3. Socio-cultural anthropology and alcohol and drug research: towards a unified theory.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G; Barker, J C

    2001-07-01

    The arrival of the millennium has understandably created a growing tendency for social commentators to evaluate the current state of the world, assess prior developments and suggest new and enlightened ways forward. In this time of re-appraisals, we assess the current state of the anthropology of alcohol and drug research, consider its early history, examine the range and theoretical underpinnings of work done today, and propose the elements of a possible future model. In formulating the model, we have borrowed from a number of different theoretical approaches and insights not only from anthropological discussions of alcohol and drug issues but also from anthropological research outside these arenas. In examining these issues, and as a way of attempting to answer the question--where has the field come from and where is it heading--we situate anthropological contributions to this area not merely within the wider context of anthropological thought and research, but more importantly within a wider social and political context that takes account of the organizational, funding and conceptual influences, constraints and pressures that operate on anthropologists who wish to conduct research on alcohol and drug issues.

  4. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 10. 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 15 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including archaelology, biological anthropology, linguistics, regional studies, and cultural-social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in colleges and universities. Topics…

  5. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 10. 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 15 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including archaelology, biological anthropology, linguistics, regional studies, and cultural-social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in colleges and universities. Topics…

  6. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  7. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  8. New Directions in Social and Cultural Anthropology: Pushing Back the Chairs, Opening the Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beverly B.

    The need to prepare students for intercultural communication and understanding has stimulated interest in global studies. Within the community college, global studies have been encouraged, but also limited by uncertainties in funding and resource commitment. In this period of confusion, it is important that college anthropology instructors adopt…

  9. Aging in cultural context and as narrative process: conceptual foundations of the anthropology of aging as reflected in the works of Margaret Clark and Sharon Kaufman.

    PubMed

    Perkinson, Margaret A; Solimeo, Samantha L

    2014-02-01

    Although the discipline of anthropology has much to contribute to the understanding of the nature and experience of aging, it is a relative latecomer to gerontology. After briefly discussing why this is the case, the authors discuss the contributions of two anthropologists who brought a substantive anthropological voice to gerontological discussion of aging. Examining the "ancestral roots" of the anthropology of aging, we spotlight the intellectual heritage of Margaret Clark, arguably the "mother" of this anthropological subfield, and that of Sharon Kaufman, her student, colleague, and a pioneer in her own right. Clark and Anderson's Culture and aging: an anthropological study of older Americans (1967; Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas) remains a touchstone for the concept of situated aging. This examination of value orientations and mental health of older San Franciscans is foundational for understanding aging as an interactive, socially embedded process that is adapted to specific sociocultural contexts. Research and therapies grounded in narrativity and meaning benefit from Sharon Kaufman's The ageless self: sources of meaning in late life (1986; Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press), which articulated narrative thinking as a conduit for understanding, performing, and constructing identity and meaning. Kaufman's work has ongoing relevance to gerontological research on embodiment, chronic illness, and later life social transitions. Their research has continued relevance to contemporary gerontological scholarship and practice, signaling both prevailing and emergent agendas for anthropologically informed gerontology.

  10. Gone the bull of winter? Grappling with the cultural implications of and anthropology's role(s) in global climate change.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Because global climate change is intimately linked to culture, anthropologists are strategically well-placed to interpret it, communicate information about it, and act in response to it both in the field and at home. Fieldworkers are increasingly encountering reports of the local effects of climate change from their research partners, and it is becoming apparent that indigenous peoples' recognized capacity for adaptation to change may not be sufficient to cope with these effects. Fieldwork among Viliui Sakha of northeastern Siberia suggests an action-oriented approach to anthropological climate change research that begins by developing cultural models of the local effects of global climate change, goes on to fill in the gaps with Western scientific knowledge, and ends with the dissemination of that information and its use for the development of adaptive strategies, policy recommendations, and advocacy.

  11. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, that meets the... Humboldt County, CA. The belt was donated to the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University...

  12. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  14. Masters of their Conditions III: Clinical applications of theater anthropology in cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Arpin, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    Body learning gives actors basic structures and references that enable them to codify their actions in a script or score. With this score, acquired through training, performing and transmitting, actors who work with theater anthropology methodology offer strategies and tools that healers can use with their patients. This actor's score has inspired a mode of working with patients both to understand the case history and guide the course of therapy. In this approach, patients are like authors who want to act out their dramaturgy, but who need a director-healer to organize the story and help them build their healing process. Together, patient and therapist work on stage to advance the treatment, at the same time enhancing their strategies and methods for collaboration.

  15. Masters of their Conditions III: Clinical applications of theater anthropology in cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Body learning gives actors basic structures and references that enable them to codify their actions in a script or score. With this score, acquired through training, performing and transmitting, actors who work with theater anthropology methodology offer strategies and tools that healers can use with their patients. This actor’s score has inspired a mode of working with patients both to understand the case history and guide the course of therapy. In this approach, patients are like authors who want to act out their dramaturgy, but who need a director-healer to organize the story and help them build their healing process. Together, patient and therapist work on stage to advance the treatment, at the same time enhancing their strategies and methods for collaboration. PMID:24077898

  16. Alternative Databases for Anthropology Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Fern; Lambert, Maureen

    1984-01-01

    Examines online search results of sample questions in several databases covering linguistics, cultural anthropology, and physical anthropology in order to determine if and where any overlap in results might occur, and which files have greatest number of relevant hits. Search results by database are given for each subject area. (EJS)

  17. Anthropology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Suzy M., Comp.

    The guide identifies approximately 100 anthropology source materials in the reference department of McLennan Library at McGill University. It was designd to help students doing anthropological research and to illustrate the variety of materials on social and cultural anthropology in the McLennan Library. Physical anthropolgy, linguistics, and…

  18. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  19. The Teaching of Visual Anthropology at Temple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Jay; Chalfen, Richard

    The exploration of nonverbal forms of culture and communication has led to the development of visual anthropology courses within the anthropology department at Temple University. Visual anthropology is conceptualized as the study of human nonlinguistic forms of communication involving film making for data collecting and analysis. Several areas of…

  20. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  1. Teaching Anthropology at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dward A., Jr.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents two articles: "Modular Flexibility in an Individualized Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course," by Daniel D. Whitney and Patrick J. Dubbs, and, "Physical Anthropology as a Laboratory Science Course in a Community College," by Yechiel M. Lehavy. The former describes an individualized approach to anthropology, whereas the latter…

  2. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving.

  3. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of…

  4. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of…

  5. [Forensic anthropology].

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  6. Safety and risk in a context of cultureAn anthropological perspective on the relativity of health and care.

    PubMed

    Sachs, L

    1990-01-01

    The question of safety and risk in people's ideas about health and care is approached here from an anthropological perspective. One strength of such an interpretive approach which seems especially important in this context, is that, although the researcher provides an account of the beliefs and actions of other people, the exercise is undertaken with an awareness that the interpretation is itself a product of particular historical and cultural determinants.Cultures, including those of industrial-capitalistic societies like Sweden, form systems of meanings which provide explanations of how the world works, of what is thought of as real and what is designated as natural and inevitable as well as what is morally right. These meanings link people to one another and form the basis for social action. It is thus within this framework that the notion of risk and safety get their content and meaning.In this line of thought a description is provided of what happens when people meet in joint health care encounters where their interests do not coincide, their understanding of what is going' on is not the same, or their expectations of what the other should or should not do differ. How considerations of safety and risk in our health care may be interpreted by people with other health theories and views or other understandings about such things as what life is, what is a person, what is good health, a good life or a normal body, and what death means, are also discussed. An attempt is made to profile the need to define variations in the notions of risk and safety in health care over cultural boundaries with examples from cross-cultural studies.

  7. Anthropology at Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Describes a one-semester general anthropology course designed primarily for interested juniors and seniors as well as six courses which have students "do" anthropology in a way that serves to teach them the field and "interests the kid," e.g. courses in cultural anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology and school ethnography. (Author/JM)

  8. The Ecological Perspective in Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews various major concepts of culture which have formed the bases of anthropological perspectives. Suggests that an ecological perspective is necessary to analyze environmental constraints on human behavior. (Author/DB)

  9. Anthropology, health and illness: an introduction to the concept of culture applied to the health sciences.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Wiik, Flávio Braune

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a reflection as to how notions and behavior related to the processes of health and illness are an integral part of the culture of the social group in which they occur. It is argued that medical and health care systems are cultural systems consonant with the groups and social realities that produce them. Such a comprehension is fundamental for the health care professional training.

  10. Ethno-Logic: A Cultural-Materialistic Interpretation of Human Learning. Darwinian Issues in Educational Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Henry G.

    The application of cultural materialism, a Darwinistic approach to social forces, reveals that human learning is ultimately governed by the required process of human energy procurement. This "ethno-logic" interpretation of the correlation between techno-environmental levels and human learning stands in contrast to the conventional but…

  11. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts.

  12. The Relevance of Anthropology to Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Beverly

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of anthropological theory, methodology, and literature to language teaching is discussed. It is argued that culture should be taught explicitly in the language classroom, and that the anthropological theory of cultural relativity is useful in creating a judgment-free atmosphere. (Author/RM)

  13. The social production of health: critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Betty Wolder; Browner, C H

    2005-08-01

    In 1946, the newly formed World Health Organization boldly sought to conceptualize "health" as wellbeing in the positive sense, "not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Yet nearly six decades later, researchers are still principally concerned with pathology and its characteristics and consequences. This special issue is the result of an effort to broaden the focus. Anthropologists working from evolutionary, biological and sociocultural perspectives and in diverse geographic regions were asked to examine meanings associated with health and/or to identify social conditions and practices that have contributed to positive physiological and psychological states in particular cultures, times, or across time. Most notable, perhaps, was discovering how difficult it is for Western social scientists to move beyond pathology-based thinking; most authors represented here regard health primarily as the absence of disease. Still, these papers articulate and address questions key to understanding health in and of itself, including: How is health conceptualized? What kinds of social conditions lead to health? And, how do social inequalities affect health? This introduction critically discusses previous work on the subject to contextualize the original research papers offered here.

  14. Anthropology: Adrenalin for a Tired High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Orry

    1973-01-01

    Anthropology, particularly cultural anthropology, can bring new life into an overworked curriculum provided great care is taken in assembling appropriate materials and in devising good instructional approaches. Article provides guides for selection of recommended materials. (Editor/RK)

  15. Cultural Resources and Cognitive Frames: Keys to an Anthropological Approach to Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, Ian

    In this chapter, I suggest a methodological and theoretical framework for preliminary investigations designed to gauge the potential societal response to the discovery of either microbial or intelligent extraterrestrial life. The uncritical use of analogies to the ethnographic record of contact between societies and the discovery of extraterrestrial life has been, rightfully, the target of sharp criticism since the earliest days of the scientific search for this life. However, I argue that by approaching this record with different epistemological premises, and shifting the focus from the material to the symbolic and cognitive dimensions of this contact, one can avoid many of the pitfalls of the analogical mode of argumentation, and provide a solid conceptual basis for the development of an adequate heuristic. Specifically, I draw upon the germinal debate between Sahlins and Obeyesekere over the nature of human meaning-making in the face of radically other societies and their meanings to treat the discovery of an intelligent civilization. In parallel, I draw upon Sharp's discussion of the relationship between the changes in the symbolic order and the material organization of society to suggest that much of this analysis also applies to the discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life. In both cases, I do not argue for a one-to-one correspondence between the historical and the contemporary, but rather use these arguments as illustrations of what I see as particularly profitable modes of conceptualizing the universal human processes of making sense out of novel objects and phenomena. Finally, this chapter argues for a mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative investigation into the character and distribution of societal resources for understanding life and intelligence, rather than the extraterrestrial as such. The qualitative is advanced as a necessary adjunct to the quantitative, as the best method for gaining access to the repertoire of cultural frames upon which

  16. Medical anthropology and the physician assistant profession.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that investigates how culture influences people's ideas and behaviors regarding health and illness. Medical anthropology contributes to the understanding of how and why health systems operate the way they do, how different people understand and interact with these systems and cultural practices, and what assets people use and challenges they may encounter when constructing perceptions of their own health conditions. The goal of this article is to highlight the methodological tools and analytical insights that medical anthropology offers to the study of physician assistants (PAs). The article discusses the field of medical anthropology; the advantages of ethnographic and qualitative research; and how medical anthropology can explain how PAs fit into improved health delivery services by exploring three studies of PAs by medical anthropologists.

  17. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  18. Anthropology in the Marketplace: Some Textbook Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Michael F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews 16 successful, college-level anthropology textbooks, examining content, clarity, readability, audience level, scholarship, and focus. Advocates greater coverage of topics such as applied anthropology and suggests attention be given to alternatives to the standard cultural institutions of marriage, religion, etc. States that the scientific…

  19. Anthropology and the Teaching of Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Richard H.; De Vita, Philip

    1985-01-01

    Argues that college introductory anthropology courses should focus on helping students to examine their values and convictions, not on preparing them for upper level courses. Suggests a teaching approach that relates an issues-and-values orientation to anthropological concepts (culture, beliefs, and values) and topics (means of production,…

  20. Anthropology: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Louise

    This essay examines the ways in which anthropology, as a discipline, currently reflects ongoing scholarship on gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. It argues that feminist anthropology since the 1970s has become an important subdiscipline, primarily within cultural anthropology, but also with a growing impact on…

  1. Introduction to Anthropology. Social Studies: 0425.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roe, Margaret E.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course in anthropology for grades 9-12. Having completed the course, the student will be able to (1) describe in general terms the social science of anthropology; (2) demonstrate the concept of culture through definition and examples; (3) identify some important goals of anthropology; (4) describe the various fields…

  2. Approaching and Attending College: Anthropological and Ethnographic Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: This review article draws on the growing body of literature at the interfaces of anthropology and education, as well as other educational studies outside anthropology that have relevance to social and cultural frames. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Drawing together and analyzing anthropological and…

  3. Virtual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  4. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  5. Anthropology. SSEC Publication No. 106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannan, Paul

    The major concepts, structure, and methods of anthropology are presented for persons concerned with teaching or constructing new curriculum approaches. Man is a mammalian, social, and cultural animal, who has needs that are satisfied through social relationships. Because these relationships are repetitive, they form a structure. This social…

  6. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  7. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  8. A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse

    2013-04-01

    Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.

  9. Anthropology Beyond the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Alden, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to attempt to illustrate some of the interrelationships between anthropology and other fields, offering students the opportunity to discover inductively some of the core ideas in anthropology. Furthermore, the potential job market for people with training in anthropology, whether consisting of a few courses or a…

  10. Biological anthropology and aging.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H

    2005-06-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 and older is increasing dramatically in both developed and developing nations of the world, the health and well-being of elders has become a worldwide public health concern. Although older adults are now found in higher proportions across all cultures, the biology, behavior, and environment vary tremendously across older populations. Biomedical research largely follows a reductionist paradigm separating the domains of culture and biology. Even when health is examined in association with culture and behavior, biomedical researchers largely focus on static unidirectional associations instead of examining the dynamic multidirectional impact of culture, behavior, and the environment on physiology and ultimately health. Since aging and the processes of senescence clearly involve complex interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains, anthropologists with a bio-cultural and evolutionary perspective are well-equipped to study variation in aging and senescence. While relatively few biological anthropologists have focused their attention on aging, a growing literature has demonstrated the utility of biocultural approaches to aging. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights the core of the biological anthropology of aging.

  11. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and Soil Science 176: 479-493. Lindemann, S. (2009). Success and failure in international river basin management - the case of Southern Africa. Facing global environmental change: environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts. H.-G. Brauch, U. Oswald Spring, J. Grinet al. Berlin, Springer: 699-710. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, D.C., Island Press. Pröpper, M., T. Falk, et al. (2013). "Partly subsistent household economies and modern consumerism in the Namibian Kavango: Assets, income, expenditure and socio-economic stratification." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 379-391. Rieprich, R. (2013). Mapping Environmental Valuations. An Ethnographic Case Study of Ecosystem Services and Landscape Values in Kavango, Namibia. Social and Cultural Anthropology. Hamburg, University of Hamburg. Master of Arts: 111. Röder, A., M. Stellmes, et al. (2013). "Cumulative effects of policy and management actions on ecosystem services. Challenges and methodological approaches in the Future Okavango project." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 167-183. Röder, A., Pröpper, M., Stellmes, M., Schneibel, A. & Hill, J. (2015): Assessing urban growth and rural land use transformations in a cross-border situation in Northern Namibia and Southern Angola. Land Use Policy 42: 340-254. Rogge, D. M., B. Rivard, et al. (2006). "Iterative spectral unmixing for optimizing per-pixel endmember sets." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44(12): 3725-3736. Sala, O. E., F. S. Chapin III, et al. (2000). "Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2011." Science 287: 1770-1774. Weber, M., N. Krogman, et al. (2012). "Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions." Ecology and Society 17(2)

  12. [Anthropology of curses].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Reyes-Rivas, José R

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic order offers a great number of opportunities for understanding man's greatest fears. Based on Lévi-Strauss' original concept, we can study the symbolic efficacy of curses and enrich it with the most recent contributions of neuroscience, philosophy, and the anthropology of consciousness. This is a report of qualitative research traversed by the methods of phenomenology and symbolic hermeneutics on a rarely addressed subject of unique significance to cultural psychiatry. We have worked on the empirical data of some classic religious curses of great historical value, but we have also inquired into the phenomenon of secular excommunication. Finally, we have interpreted the symbols used in curses and the areas of the psyche that they succeed in mobilizing. We suggest that the primary core of curses is dogma, without which their symbolic efficacy would not be possible.

  13. [ANTHROPOLOGY OF CURSES].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Reyes-Rivas, José Refugio; Mobilli-Rojas, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The symbolic order offers a great number of opportunities for understanding man's greatest fears. Based on Lévi-Strauss' original concept, we can study the symbolic efficacy of curses and enrich it with the most recent contributions of neuroscience, philosophy, and the anthropology of consciousness. This is a report of qualitative research traversed by the methods of phenomenology and symbolic hermeneutics on a rarely addressed subject of unique significance to cultural psychiatry. We have worked on the empirical data of some classic religious curses of great historical value, but we have also inquired into the phenomenon of secular excommunication. Finally, we have interpreted the symbols used in curses and the areas of the psyche that they succeed in mobilizing. We suggest that the primary core of curses is dogma, without which their symbolic efficacy would not be possible.

  14. The role of gender, psycho-social factors and anthropological-cultural dimensions on pain in neurorehabilitation. Evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, Anna M; Berlincioni, Vanna; Torta, Riccardo; Nappi, Rossella E; Tassorelli, Cristina; Barale, Francesco; Ieraci, Valentina; Giusti, Emanuele M; Pietrabissa, Giada; Tamburin, Stefano; Manzoni, Gian M; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Pain is frequent in patients undergoing neurorehabilitation, but there is a number of still unanswered questions on this topic. The Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) was constituted with the purpose to identify the best practices that can be used in this context. In this article we summarize the existing evidence and recommendations provided by the ICCPN about the role of gender, psycho-social factors and anthropological-cultural dimensions on pain in neurorehabilitation. Sex, gender, psycho-social variables, anthropological and cultural features may influence pain expression, and its pharmacological and non-pharmacological outcome, but the role of these factors has not been consistently explored in neurorehabilitation. There is a number of psychological factors that can be correlated with or represent a predictor for pain, or may influence the treatment and outcome of neurorehabilitation programs. All these factors should be considered when designing these programs, and future studies should incorporate them as potential covariates that may influence outcome.

  15. Toward an Anthropology of Dogmatism: II. Traditionalism, Modernism, Existentialism, and the Counter Culture: All in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Stanley

    1971-01-01

    Suggests that traditional man may possess considerable existentialist and counter-culture capability as well as his usual intolerance. Uses Archie Bunker of television's All in the Family" as the illustration. (MB)

  16. Anthropology and the humanization of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Ben R.

    Because of its broad evolutionary perspective, and its focus on both technology and culture, anthropology offers a unique perspective on why we are going into space and what leaving Earth will mean for humanity. In addition, anthropology could help in the humanization of space through: (1) overcoming socio-cultural barriers to working and living in space; (2) designing societies appropriate for permanent space settlement; (3) promoting understanding among differentiated branches of humankind scattered through space; (4) deciphering the cultural systems of any extraterrestrial civilizations contacted.

  17. [Medical anthropology evidences on the Pishtaco origin].

    PubMed

    de Pribyl, Rosario

    2010-03-01

    This paper will contribute to the scientific development of a new approach on the pishtaco in Peru by means of medical anthropological analysis. The model emphasizes presentation and analysis of historical, pharmaceutical, and anthropological evidence supporting use of human tissues with specific medical goals in Peruvian and European regions. We can find the origin of this phenomenon around the sixteen and seventeen centuries in Europe: The pishtaco has no an Andean origin. The methodology and main conclusions of this paper could provide to the scientific community an alternative perspective to the conventional anthropological and ethnological research, as an example of a medical anthropological analysis of the pishtaco character. Professionals involved in intercultural health projects could have a new insight on this issue thanks to these results. They will obtain an adequate historical-cultural context for the interpretation and understanding of people and native communities' beliefs about health, body and medical systems.

  18. Biological ancestries, kinship connections, and projected identities in four central Anatolian settlements: insights from culturally contextualized genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Ömer; Gultekin, Timur; Alakoc, Yesim Dogan; Tug, Aysim; Gulec, Erksin; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    Previous population genetics studies in Turkey failed to delineate recent historical and social factors that shaped Anatolian cultural and genetic diversity at the local level. To address this shortcoming, we conducted focused ethnohistorical fieldwork and screened biological samples collected from the Yuksekyer region for mitochondrial, Y chromosome, and autosomal markers and then analyzed the data within an ethnohistorical context. Our results revealed that, at the village level, paternal genetic diversity is structured among settlements, whereas maternal genetic diversity is distributed more homogenously, reflecting the strong patrilineal cultural traditions that transcend larger ethnic and religious structures. Local ancestries and origin myths, rather than ethnic or religious affiliations, delineate the social boundaries and projected identities among the villages. Therefore, we conclude that broad, ethnicity-based sampling is inadequate to capture the genetic signatures of recent social and historical dynamics, which have had a profound influence on contemporary genetic and cultural regional diversity.

  19. Networks, narratives and territory in anthropological race classification: towards a more comprehensive historical geography of Europe's culture.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity.

  20. [Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  1. Anthropology and addiction: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews the world anthropology of drugs and alcohol use literature, identifying key issues addressed by anthropologists, methods and theoretical models in use, trends in focus over time and future directions. Papers and books that comprise the literature were identified through computer search using the keywords: ethnography of drug use (and variants, e.g. drug ethnography, qualitative approaches in drug research), ethnography of drinking, anthropology and drug use, and anthropology and drinking. Search engines included Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, AnthroSource and PubMed. Identified sources were read and integrated into the review. The literature search identified a rich and growing literature on the anthropology of drinking and drug use. The research and published literature on the anthropology of drug use has grown and diversified since the 1970s, found acceptance in the wider multi-disciplinary domain of alcohol and drug studies and developed beyond the socio-cultural model to include life-style, critical medical anthropology and experiential explanatory models. Anthropological research has helped to shape the field of addiction science, e.g. ethnographic studies show that the lived worlds and self-identities of drug users have cultural order and socially constructed purpose and meaning, and experiential research shows that some addictions or aspects of addictions can be affirmative, creative and sustainable, at least at the individual level. The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic has significantly increased anthropological research on drug-related issues world-wide. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Is there really such a thing as "one health"? Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Meike

    2015-03-01

    Today's era of globalization is characterized by intensified interspecies encounters, growing ecological concerns and the (re-)emergence of infectious diseases, manifesting themselves in the interplay of medical and biological, but also social, cultural and political processes. One health approaches - which combine multidisciplinary efforts to stimulate collaborations between different health professionals such as veterinarians, medical practitioners, biologists, and public health professionals - can be understood as a response to this complex interconnectedness. Integrating a social science perspective might prove beneficial to this endeavor. This essay locates the one health discussion on disease ecologies in a more than human world within recent developments in cultural and medical anthropology that focus on the entanglements between health and a multitude of animals, plants or microbes, as they are characteristic of a globalized modernity. The paper aims to examine the social dimensions of human-animal-disease-interactions, claiming that disease is a biocultural phenomenon and that social factors generally play a crucial role in the emergence, spread and management of (infectious) disease. Consequently, it will be argued that there is a need to rethink our objects of inquiry and any given assumptions of human health, the human body or the constitution of "the global" as such. Incorporating the social sciences into one health approaches can help address topics such as consumption patterns, human-animal behavior or environmental conflicts in a novel way and on a grander scale than ever before. Yet, a greater sensitivity to context may entail some skepticism about the idea of one health - not in spite of the complex entanglements between humans, environments, animals and pathogens, but precisely because of them.

  3. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  4. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  5. The Sioux and Other Native American Cultures of the Dakotas: An Annotated Bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Anthropology, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Herbert T., Comp.; Zimmerman, Karen P., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains 1,504 entries focusing on Native American cultures that existed across North and South Dakota in relative isolation from non-Indian influences before and immediately after contact with Whites. The book is aimed particularly at scholars and teachers of Native American studies. Entries include books, journal…

  6. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 106, ANTHROPOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHANNAN, PAUL

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES THE MAJOR CONCEPTS, STRUCTURE, AND METHODS OF ANTHROPOLOGY FOR GRADES K-6. THE FOLLOWING UNIT AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) NEEDS AND NEED SATISFACTION, (2) HUMAN PERSONALITY, (3) SOCIAL GROUPS, (4) SOCIAL NETWORKS, (5) HUMAN CULTURE, (6) CHANGE AND EVOLUTION, AND (7) CURRENT CULTURAL CHANGES. A SUMMARY CHART PRESENTS A FLOW…

  7. We Must Fight the Militarization of Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    When students take introductory courses in cultural anthropology, they learn the techniques necessary for understanding daily life in peasant villages or among bands of hunter-gatherers. Professors teach them about the importance of building rapport with informants, the insights gained from cultural immersion, and the benefits of linguistic…

  8. We Must Fight the Militarization of Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    When students take introductory courses in cultural anthropology, they learn the techniques necessary for understanding daily life in peasant villages or among bands of hunter-gatherers. Professors teach them about the importance of building rapport with informants, the insights gained from cultural immersion, and the benefits of linguistic…

  9. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  10. Social Anthropology and Social Science History.

    PubMed

    Kertzer, David I

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced-and shunned-history in recent years.

  11. Veterinary anthropology explored.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2016-06-04

    Veterinary and social scientists came together at the Centre for Medical Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in April to discuss areas of common interest and the possibility of defining a new interdisciplinary field of 'veterinary anthropology'. Andrew Gardiner, one of the organisers of the international meeting, reports. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Anthropology. Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Museum of Natural History.

    This document is a collection of materials developed for the Smithsonian Institution/George Washington University Anthropology for Teachers Program. The program was established to encourage junior and senior high school teachers to integrate anthropology into their social studies and science classes. The materials include several bibliographies:…

  13. Space colonization as a tool for teaching anthropology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchionne, Thomas L.; Rosen, Steven L.

    1986-08-01

    One hundred years of anthropological research has sought to discover the properties of human nature. This research bears directly on the problem of creating new societies in alien environments. Space colonization presents theoretical and practical problems which anthropology can help solve. These problems and the attempt to solve them can be used in the classroom as a vehicle for teaching both ethnology and physical anthropology. In such a course students would explore the findings of both cultural and biosocial anthropology, and use these findings to construct a space colony which has reasonable prognosis for survival.

  14. Ecce Homo: Science and Society Need Anthropological Collections.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Bell, Joshua A; Rick, Torben C

    2016-08-01

    Scientific collections are crucial to understanding the biological and cultural diversity of the Earth. Anthropological collections document the human experience and the interactions between people, ecosystems, and organisms. Unfortunately, anthropological collections are often poorly known by the public and face a variety of threats to their permanent care and conservation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  16. 77 FR 65403 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology.... Heather Edgar, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131...

  17. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  18. 77 FR 32983 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of Anthropology...

  19. 76 FR 56468 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico has completed an inventory of human remains, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology...

  20. 77 FR 32991 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology Museum at the University... Department of Anthropology Museum at the University of California, Davis, has completed an inventory of human... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Department of Anthropology...

  1. Cyber anthropology or anthropology in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-03-01

    As a variety of anthropology, cyber anthropology is considered to be the fastest growing sub branch in the science. It is based on synergic effects of multimedia systems and hypermedia, using their comparative advantages. One of the least researched fields of cyber anthropology is the relationship of individuals and social groups with a multimedia document in terms of their perception of such subject. This is because the foundation of social-informatics perception in the society is created based on the evidence of a real life, whereas here the perception is established at the level of virtual, i.e. online life. The rhetorical question here is whether an identical content causes the same or different user reactions, depending on whether it was perceived offline or online, i.e. to what extend does the medium (and not the information content) dictate the user perception. In this respect the research titled "Perception of online museum content creators and actual habits of Croatian online museum visitors" can be a "case study" for the impact of "cyber potential" on the classic anthropological paradigm.

  2. Cognitive anthropological fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    In their introduction, Beller et al. point to important issues regarding the problematic interaction of anthropology and cognitive sciences (CS). I address some of these issues in stressing first some limitations of the current state of the fields of anthropology and CS. In the second half of this article, using data from studies I have been conducting among the Yucatec Mayas (Mexico), I present some concrete cases where anthropological and CS methods and approaches are complementary. Finally, I propose some solutions to find common ground and ways to improve cross-disciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. [Psychoanalysis and social anthropology].

    PubMed

    Thisted, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore some subjects originated in the work of psychoanalysts and social anthropologists that generated an interesting discussion about the transmission of cultural trends along generations, as well as psychological family features from one generation to the other: we refer to the Oedipus complex model, as it was introduced by S. Freud, and to Malinowski's work on children's sexuality and incest. This text examines the emergency of fieldwork methodology (ethnography), that is, living in the place in which the research is conducted, sharing native languages and listening to the meanings attributed by the people to aspects of their lives. We also show another perspective, in which the researchers share place, language and customs but study for their own sake in order to justify a theoretical concept: resilience. This is one of the results of the transdisciplinary works -carried out by the UBA anthropology and education teams- to which we refer, together with the discussion about the category "educability" and some issues related to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity. This article proposes a critical approach on the ontological premises of racionalism, idealism and empiricism that preceded the researches mentioned. Finally it presents a perspective in which the imaginary institution of society and the emergency of psychism in singular subjects merge.

  4. Doing dementia better: anthropological insights.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elizabeth Herskovits

    2011-05-01

    Dementia, or neurodegenerative disease, is a disease category, and yet it is widely described in popular and professional media as a horror story. Patients with dementia and their families frequently report that they are less than pleased with their clinical encounters. This article reveals the deleterious impact that cultural assumptions about dementia have on the care provided, and, through an exploration of anthropological theories of personhood, suggests strategies for seeking improved quality of life through personhood-centered care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social anthropology in INCAP.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard N

    2010-03-01

    Social anthropology at INCAP evolved through a series of stages. The initial work in the 1950s was concerned with finding ways to make INCAP nutritional research more effective. In a second phase, emerging in the 1960s, anthropology examined the nutrition process in the population, especially as it was manifested in child care and feeding, lactation, and population growth and in the relation of economic process to nutritional progress. In the 1970s, anthropology once more became an adjunct of nutritional research. Anthropological awareness was introduced into project planning, and field studies were undertaken by way of shaping the research process to work in accord with local realities. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a shift away from more descriptive research to research directed to supporting and facilitating specific nutrition and health behavior change.

  6. Anthropology and history: the revaluation of history in anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Colić, S

    1999-12-01

    The main premise of this paper is that the accepted view of history based on written documents (historiography) is marked by hierarchical ordering and evaluation implicit in it. The paper examines the context of the negation of history, and the revaluation of history in anthropological research. The lack of written documents concerning particular social groups on the internal plane, but also particular nations (ethnic groups) on the global plane, earned them the name of "nations (groups) without history". This criterion of historicity--the existence of a writing system and written documents--implies the hypothesis about the inferiority of those nations and groups. The attributes of history seen in this way are modernity, linearity and cumulativeness. This system implies ethnocentrism based on a twofold negation: a) the negation history, and b) the negation of otherness. What we must not forget is that the symbolic universes are social products with a history, and in order to understand their meaning, one must understand the history of their production. It is very important to pay close attention to the historical practice of projecting our cultural practices onto others. The question of who determines the history and which views are presented to a particular audience is a matter of power and contest. contemporary history-oriented sociocultural anthropology focuses on the total reconstruction of the way of life and thinking in particular periods of history: on the everyday life. This brought together the intellectual traditions of "new history", ethnology, sociocultural anthropology and the sociology of culture. While modernism stresses the present change versus the static past, postmodernism denies the past ever being static and hypostatises fluidity and change as permanent condition. Postmodernism strives to undermine the old, Euro-centric notion that "we" have a history but "they" do not; it has also lead to social scientists' renewed interest in history.

  7. Budget Anthropology. Integrating Anthropology Concepts into a Social Studies Curriculum. Report No. 78-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, G. Alan

    Materials developed by high school anthropology students to investigate and explain American culture are presented. The purpose of the handbook is to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on the American way of life within the context of global culture. The activities presented in the handbook can…

  8. Budget Anthropology. Integrating Anthropology Concepts into a Social Studies Curriculum. Report No. 78-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, G. Alan

    Materials developed by high school anthropology students to investigate and explain American culture are presented. The purpose of the handbook is to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on the American way of life within the context of global culture. The activities presented in the handbook can…

  9. [Care and anthropology: a thinking process].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cécilia

    2007-09-01

    Caring for human beings, calls for relating unity and diversity in order to respect the equality of cultures and to recognize their cultural differences. Cultural difference is, however, privileged by recent publications within the culture caring domain, based on cultural relativism and disregarding the unity of humanity, transcultu-ral nursing theory is the case. For this reason, some historical elements related to the two original anthropological theories are included in this text to understand the philosophical and ethical implications of transcultural nursing theory. The objective of this article is to analyse six recent publications within the caring and anthropology field, through a reflexive method identifying two different caring traditions and demonstrating their philosophical and ethical reach for caring practice.

  10. Letter Writing and Learning in Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheld, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Writing has special importance in anthropology. Writing fieldnotes is a central methodology for documenting and analyzing culture, and written personal reflections upon this process are viewed as providing insight into how knowledge is produced by a "situated" researcher. That said, there is little discussion in the discipline about the…

  11. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Anthropology, Ethnology and Ethnic and Racial Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Yu. V.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews anthropological thinking on ethnic and racial prejudice. Provides examples of discrimination and cites the major theorists who have played a part in developing anti-racist views of society. Concludes that racism has no scientific or legal justification, that racism is a crime against humanity, and that it is the enemy of peace, culture,…

  13. Tracking Porters: Learning the Craft of Techno-Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The anthropological perspective is grounded in socio-cultural theory and forged by a distinct relativist or contextualist epistemological stance. The point is to understand events, concepts and phenomena from the insiders' point of view and to show how this view relates to the particular social and cultural context. In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology - including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories - it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific 'anthropological sensibility' that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital.

  14. Millennial medical anthropology: from there to here and beyond, or the problem of global health.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Atwood D

    2011-03-01

    While much of Medical Anthropology was and is what we can call "Normal" (following Kuhn) Medical Anthropology, I coined the term Millennial Medical Anthropology for that branch of the discipline that, in the 1990s, was departing from the Normal research paradigms and was deserving of a distinct sobriquet. This paper considers the Strong Program in Medical Anthropology's Millennial Medical Anthropology and its key subdivisions, the Cultural Studies of Science and Cultural Bioethics. Specifically it considers Medical Anthropology's movement from the past into an ethical future wherein Normal Biomedicine, Bioethics and Global Health are problematized. This provides the basis for the construction of a truly anthropological global health (i.e., Global, Global Health or Global Health 2.0).

  15. Anthropology and Education Quarterly. Special Issue: Anthropological Resources and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The theme of the journal of the Council on Anthropology and Education focuses on anthropological resources and teaching. Nine major articles comprise the special issue of the journal. The first article traces the development of the academic study and teaching of anthropology beginning in 1501. Although mentioned as early as the 1500s, anthropology…

  16. [A anthropological critique of the ethic of care].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Aliénor

    2011-03-01

    This article is a critique of the anthropology of vulnerability and of the needs on which the ethics of care are based. Firstly, this critique confronts the universal postulate of the anthropology of vulnerability to the history of the anthropology of illness. The latter manages to build up a specific disciplinary field in refusing the supervision of the medical sciences and the implicit principle to consider illness as an universal fact. The paper refers to the anthropology of nature and Philippe Descola's work in order to develop a comparative study of the systems of representations, including the naturalism of biomedicine as a model among others. It then presents the descriptions of the representations of vulnerability and the needs which are linked to the four main ontologies defined by anthropology of nature, animism, totemism, analogy and naturalism, and gives a new light to the anthropology on which the ethics of care rest. That anthropology of vulnerability could be an involuntary factor in order to make societies conform to an hygienic constraint. The ethics of care would therefore benefit greatly in freeing themselves from anthropology of vulnerability and focus on their original contextualism; in particular, they would benefit of the knowledge of the limits of naturalism at their basis. It will also allow them to provide a new tool for engineering social transformations in a time, the beginning of XXI century, when cultures happen to mix.

  17. Service-Learning and Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Arthur S.; Colligan, Sumi

    2004-01-01

    This special journal issue is devoted to an exploration of the intersection of service-learning and anthropology. We are interested in the contributions that the field of anthropology can make to community service learning (CSL) and we are interested in how service-learning can and does inform anthropological practice. The assembled papers, 8 case…

  18. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  19. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Educational Anthropology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    This paper attempts to summarize the state of the field of educational anthropology, as it relates to studies of educational institutions and processes. Major research done by anthropologists in three areas--school ethnographies, school-community contacts with ethnic minorities, and cognitive and linguistic development--is reviewed. Topics covered…

  1. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  2. Spaces for Anthropological Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural Record, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Designed to effectively display Northwest Coast Indian artifacts, the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology evokes the form and spirit of the old Indian villages. Available from: Architectural Record, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020, $5.00 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  3. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  4. [Environmental history as an anthropologic topic. Contribution to "chemical anthropology"].

    PubMed

    Grupe, G

    1990-06-01

    Human population history is firmly connected with temporal and regional changes of the environment. Whether natural or anthropogene, alteration of environmental features lead to changes of human life-style and to the development of adaptive strategies. The demand of resources for his subsistence has led man to diverse impacts on his environment since ever. Thus, environmental history is a scientific topic for anthropologists. The research potential of trace element studies of excavated human skeletons for the reconstruction of natural and socio-cultural environments as well as for distribution patterns of hazardous substances is outlined for the European Middle Ages. The scientific value of unravelling past man/environment-interrelationships for both the historical and applied sciences and the place of any "chemical anthropology" within this context is discussed.

  5. From Background to Foreground: Toward an Anthropology of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Judith Friedman

    1982-01-01

    An anthropology of knowledge transmission must expand its focus beyond child development, schooling, and cultural continuity in order to probe the relationship between cultural knowledge and scientific knowledge and inquiry and to analyze processes of knowledge construction and transmission, structural variables, cultural assumptions,…

  6. The repatriation of anthropology: Some observations on Endo-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, R

    1998-12-01

    For a few decades, anthropologists have increasingly turned to the study of their own society and culture. This article addresses the problems and the relative advantages and disadvantages of endogenous ethnography. It devotes special attention to the experiences of medical anthropologists who have conducted fieldwork at home. It is concluded that anthropology at home has no special epistemological position compared with anthropological research abroad, though there may be differences at the practical level of fieldwork and publishing.

  7. The Development of Man and His Culture: Old World Prehistory. Grade 5. Teacher Guide [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test Form 5, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-Test. Revised, January 1968. Publications No. 25, 31, 23, 24 and 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potterfield, James E.; And Others

    This social studies unit includes a teaching guide, student text, study guide, teacher background material, and composite pretest/posttest covering archaeological methods, evolution, fossils and man, and development of culture during the prehistoric periods in the Old World. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed for…

  8. [Anthropology, gender, and contemporary nursing].

    PubMed

    Lillo Crespo, Manuel

    2002-12-01

    We live in an age when decisive changes occur. Social changes in the field of Genre and Work Cultures will take on a crucial role regarding the development of Nursing. New technological advances, and a higher degree of specialization in the Nursing field, as well as the increase in the number of nursing professionals coming from the male genere, enter into conflict with traditional social structures and act as intellectual tools which are necessary to acquire a critical understanding of the times in which we live, where an anthropological evaluation of the Genre factor is essential as a beginning principle in order to explain the subordination of nursing professionals as this has existed up until our times.

  9. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 6, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 20 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in various areas of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology or linguistics in United States…

  10. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 6, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 20 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in various areas of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology or linguistics in United States…

  11. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves.

  12. Anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Etkin, N L

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology to advance a critical and biobehavioral perspective for the construction of primary data in the light of indigenous paradigms of health and therapeutics. The unique contributions of anthropology are the conceptual and practical tools that allow one to develop the ethnography of plant use in sufficient depth to correlate with laboratory and clinical investigations of plant constituents and activities. This serves an ethnopharmacology that links bioscientific research to traditional empirical knowledge. Specific methods discussed include: key respondents, participant observation, focus groups, structured and unstructured interviews, survey instruments and questionnaires, lexical and semantic studies, and discourse and content analysis. The accommodation of rapid ethnographic techniques for ethnopharmacologic research is described, and several problem orientations based on assessments of efficacy are offered.

  13. Virtual reality and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Recheis, W; Weber, G W; Schäfer, K; Knapp, R; Seidler, H; zur Nedden, D

    1999-08-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimen were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology.

  14. Anthropology and Multicultural Education: Classroom Applications. Publication 83-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Yolanda T., Ed.; Higgins, Patricia J., Ed.

    Useful models and ideas for multicultural and cross-cultural educators at all levels who want to use anthropological concepts and processes in the classroom are provided in eight papers. Papers describe six different projects which (1) involved high school students in the collection and analysis of data about local youth cultures; (2) engaged…

  15. [Understanding and intervention: a dimension of collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Lei-Ming; Wang, Ning

    2012-10-01

    'Epidemiological intervention' involves many social and cultural contents and can be recognized as a social cultural practice. If we know more about the relevant social cultural background of the objects on intervention measures and intervention, the goals would more successful and effective be reached. Since anthropology is specialized in understanding relevant social and cultural contents, the understanding of anthropology should be viewed both as important prerequisite and foundation of the epidemiological intervention programs.

  16. Anthropology, tooth wear, and occlusion ab origine.

    PubMed

    Young, W G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this essay is to emphasize that anthropology, the study of man in his environments, is a potent tool for scientific discovery and inspiration in dental science. It attempts to capture flashes of creative anthropological insight which have illuminated studies of tooth wear and occlusion in the past. While it documents contributions, understandings, and misunderstandings from Australian and New Zealand dentists, it is not a hagiography. The real saint of this essay is the Australian aborigine. For when men and women are understood in their environments, much is learned from them which challenges preconceptions of our dental science culture. The essay concludes that new, contemporary Australian culture needs to be studied by anthropological approaches if we are to understand how dental erosion is exacerbating tooth wear and damaging the occlusions of contemporary Australians. Much remains to be discovered about contemporary lifestyles, habits, and diets that lead to dental erosion, the principal cause of contemporary tooth wear in this part of the world.

  17. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C.; Throop, C. Jason

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education. PMID:20706551

  18. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C; Throop, C Jason

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education.

  19. Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    2001-12-01

    This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory.

  20. Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M; Vuckovic, N

    1994-12-01

    Over the last two decades, patterns of pharmaceutical-related behavior and the cultural interpretation of medicines have been examined by anthropologists in several cultural settings. In this paper the authors identify additional issues warranting study so as to broaden the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology, utilizing as a unifying focus the examination of pharmaceutical use in the context of social transformation. Ten interactive themes are presented which bridge micro-level and macro-level investigations of pharmaceutical use. The discussion moves from the discourse on 'rational drug use' to the rationales which underscore drug prescription, manufacture, and demand.

  1. Bridging Anthropology and Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Zuni students from Twin Buttes High School (Zuni, New Mexico) made a presentation at the annual meeting of the Society of Applied Anthropology addressing the age-old conflict between Indians and anthropology. The presentation, entitled "Zuni Students Look at Frank Hamilton Cushing," examined the career of a famous ethnologist who spent…

  2. Budget Anthropology: A Unit Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraker, G. Alan

    Creative and inexpensive teaching suggestions for high school anthropology courses are presented. They are chosen specifically for programs which cannot afford expensive curriculum materials. All activities demonstrate the application of universal anthropological principles to the American society. Seven areas which reflect the general functions…

  3. Anthropological Perspectives on Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcott, John H.

    An anthropological analysis of the phenomenon of citizenship education in the United States is summarized in this paper. Since school ethnography lacks depth in its use of anthropological theory, an attempt is made to overcome this deficiency by applying five theoretical approaches (evolutionary, functionalist, structuralist-functionalist,…

  4. Bridging Anthropology and Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Zuni students from Twin Buttes High School (Zuni, New Mexico) made a presentation at the annual meeting of the Society of Applied Anthropology addressing the age-old conflict between Indians and anthropology. The presentation, entitled "Zuni Students Look at Frank Hamilton Cushing," examined the career of a famous ethnologist who spent…

  5. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    PubMed

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  6. Space migrations: Anthropology and the humanization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finney, Ben R.

    1992-01-01

    Because of its broad evolutionary perspective and its focus on both technology and culture, anthropology offers a unique view of why we are going into space and what leaving Earth will mean for humanity. In addition, anthropology could help in the humanization of space through (1) overcoming socioculture barriers to working and living in space, (2) designing societies appropriate for permanent space settlement, (3) promoting understanding among differentiated branches of humankind scattered through space, (4) deciphering the cultural systems of any extraterrestrial civilizations contacted.

  7. Neoliberal Individualism in Dutch Universities: Teaching and Learning Anthropology in an Insecure Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Ellen; Grassiani, Erella; Kirk, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on our own experiences and that of several of our colleagues teaching social and cultural anthropology in different Dutch institutions for higher learning. We focus in particular on teaching and learning in two small liberal arts and science (LAS) colleges, where anthropology makes up part of the social science curriculum…

  8. Writing at the margin of the margin: medical anthropology in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Comelles, Josep M

    2002-04-01

    This critical review explores the problems posed in Southern Europe by the recent development of medical anthropology, focusing on three issues: the problems derived from research in languages other than English, the idiosyncratic developments of social and cultural research within European continental health sectors, and the theoretical specificity of Southern European medical anthropologies.

  9. Neoliberal Individualism in Dutch Universities: Teaching and Learning Anthropology in an Insecure Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Ellen; Grassiani, Erella; Kirk, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on our own experiences and that of several of our colleagues teaching social and cultural anthropology in different Dutch institutions for higher learning. We focus in particular on teaching and learning in two small liberal arts and science (LAS) colleges, where anthropology makes up part of the social science curriculum…

  10. Looking Out Is In: 12 Lesson Television Series for Sixth Grade Anthropology. Teacher Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Educational Service Agency 13, Waupun, WI.

    Teacher developed guides for a twelve-unit series on anthropology at the sixth grade level are outlined. Although these materials were designed to accompany a lesson on a state instructional television network they can be utilized to a degree without the video experience. Topics of the units consist of what is anthropology; what is culture; why is…

  11. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 8, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 23 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, social anthropology, and linguistics. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in United States colleges and universities. Topics of the…

  12. Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Ian; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    A nonsecular medical anthropology insists on the ways medicine and science have constituted 'the secular' itself through the 'secular self'-how medical knowing has been used to craft the secular political subject. As James Boon noted, too often in social theory, "religion gets safely tucked away-restricted theoretically to 'meaning' rather than power" (1998:245). The authors of the six articles in this special issue 'untuck' religiosity from within the norms and numbers of medicine itself, and examine how 'secular' medicine has relied on religious traditions to produce political secularity. These articles demonstrate that 'secular' medicine relies on religious others whose exclusion bespeaks latent religious commitments of citizenship in the modern political realm of health.

  13. Bereavement: An anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Souza, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The literature on bereavement has been dominated by psychology. Social science has expanded that perspective by illustrating the ways in which the bereaved maintain continuing bonds with the deceased. In this article I build upon the social science literature from an anthropological perspective. I focus upon how the bereaved must learn to live in the social environment without the deceased in what I call a "new normal." The connections to their social environment have been altered as a link in those connections has been broken. The bereavement process requires repairing that rupture and developing a new way in which to adopt a new sense of self. This article mainly focuses on issues involved with the loss of a spouse.

  14. An anthropological approach to teach and evaluate cultural competence in medical students – the application of mini-ethnography in medical history taking

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jyh-Gang; Hsu, Mutsu; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use mini-ethnographies narrating patient illness to improve the cultural competence of the medical students. Methods Between September 2013 and June 2015, all sixth-year medical students doing their internship at a medical center in eastern Taiwan were trained to write mini-ethnographies for one of the patients in their care. The mini-ethnographies were analyzed by authors with focus on the various aspects of cultural sensitivity and a holistic care approach. Results Ninety-one students handed in mini-ethnographies, of whom 56 were male (61.5%) and 35 were female (38.5%). From the mini-ethnographies, three core aspects were derived: 1) the explanatory models and perceptions of illness, 2) culture and health care, and 3) society, resources, and health care. Based on the qualities of each aspect, nine secondary nodes were classified: expectations and attitude about illness/treatment, perceptions about their own prognosis in particular, knowledge and feelings regarding illness, cause of illness, choice of treatment method (including traditional medical treatments), prejudice and discrimination, influences of traditional culture and language, social support and resources, and inequality in health care. Conclusions Mini-ethnography is an effective teaching method that can help students to develop cultural competence. It also serves as an effective instrument to assess the cultural competence of medical students. PMID:27662824

  15. An anthropological approach to teach and evaluate cultural competence in medical students - the application of mini-ethnography in medical history taking.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jyh-Gang; Hsu, Mutsu; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use mini-ethnographies narrating patient illness to improve the cultural competence of the medical students. Methods Between September 2013 and June 2015, all sixth-year medical students doing their internship at a medical center in eastern Taiwan were trained to write mini-ethnographies for one of the patients in their care. The mini-ethnographies were analyzed by authors with focus on the various aspects of cultural sensitivity and a holistic care approach. Results Ninety-one students handed in mini-ethnographies, of whom 56 were male (61.5%) and 35 were female (38.5%). From the mini-ethnographies, three core aspects were derived: 1) the explanatory models and perceptions of illness, 2) culture and health care, and 3) society, resources, and health care. Based on the qualities of each aspect, nine secondary nodes were classified: expectations and attitude about illness/treatment, perceptions about their own prognosis in particular, knowledge and feelings regarding illness, cause of illness, choice of treatment method (including traditional medical treatments), prejudice and discrimination, influences of traditional culture and language, social support and resources, and inequality in health care. Conclusions Mini-ethnography is an effective teaching method that can help students to develop cultural competence. It also serves as an effective instrument to assess the cultural competence of medical students.

  16. [Disease, body and corporeity: an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a reflection on the perception of disease, taking the body and its relation to the world as a crucial point of departure. We develop some key notions of body and corporeity that throughout history involve different symbolic conceptions of the diseased body from an anthropological perspective. We highlight the polysemic nature of bodily performance that involves nature and culture as well as the mind-body dual condition. Thus, the notion of embodiment involves our body consciousness, not just the experience of what we feel through it, but the set of meanings from it that we give the world.

  17. Second nature: on Gramsci's anthropology.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to convey the relevance of a Gramscian perspective in medical anthropology, stressing his anti-essentialist way of reasoning about 'nature'. The author claims that Gramsci's understandings of the bodily life of the state can deconstruct naturalized realities in ways that are helpful for the ethnographer engaged in the political anthropology of embodiment and the management of health, persons, and life itself. The paper is presented in three parts. An attempt is made, first, to frame the relevance of Gramsci for Italian medical anthropology and second, to explore the components of the Gramscian concept of 'second nature' within the perspective that he himself calls 'an anthropology'. Third, an example is given of how the proposed Gramscian insights could inform an ethnography on the biopolitical aspects for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently being carried out in Perugia.

  18. Comments on "Teaching Urban Anthropology."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the "risks" and "benefits" inherent in the field-oriented urban anthropology courses described in the preceding articles and recommends the development of more long-term large-scale research projects within such courses. (CJM)

  19. Race and Anthropology: A Core Concept without Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Leonard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Race is no longer considered to be a core anthropological concept by a majority of anthropologists. This article proposes that the dual notions of ethnicity, to account for cultural variation, and "cline," or geographic variation, to account for biological variation, are appropriate alternatives to the race concept for classroom…

  20. Apaches in Three Dimensions: Anthropology, History and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Leo E.

    As many disciplines as possible should be used in the teaching of Indian Studies. In particular, creative literature adds another dimension to the understanding of Indian culture and the history of Indian-white relations when it is used in conjunction with historical and anthropological material. The serious student should read historical novels…

  1. Anthropology for Contemporary Nurses: A Paper for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The integration of culturally relevant concepts into nursing education is essential for the effective delivery of health care in a modern, multi-ethnic, multi-racial, mobile society. Several key concepts from anthropology and specific areas of individual interpersonal behavior have particular relevance to nursing education. It is important, for…

  2. Council on Anthropology and Education Newsletter. Volume III, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, John Ed.

    General information on format, included, materials, broad concerns, objectives, and availability of the newsletter are described in Volume I, ED 048 049. This issue focuses on ethnology, offering two papers presented at the American Anthropological Association symposiums. The lead paper presents a psycho-cultural developmental approach to the…

  3. Teaching Anthropological Processes and Perspectives in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleford, Michael S.

    The subject of this paper is a black twelfth grade experimental class in the Problems of American Democracy conducted in the fall of the 1969 school year. They were concerned with studying the local black community in its past and present forms from a cross-cultural anthropological point of view. A conceptual scheme of natural history involved the…

  4. Genetics and Genomics as an Anthropological Subject: Approaching with Caution

    PubMed Central

    Fendos, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Speaking at the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference, cultural anthropologist Margaret Lock pointed out that the advent of the genomic revolution brings with it important societal, political, and social issues that have the potential to radically change both human life and interaction. PMID:20027283

  5. Access to Legal Anthropology: An Approach to Teaching Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, M.E.R.

    1981-01-01

    This description of two courses of college level Legal Anthropology for senior citizens in continuing education shows how students with widely varying backgrounds examined legal dilemmas within their international cultural contexts using mystery stories and other fiction. The need for innovative teaching methods for adult learners is stressed. (AM)

  6. Culture, territories, and confidence in food: an anthropological view on health in the context of environmental pollution and socio-political tension.

    PubMed

    Bargès, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants in the environment as well as potential risks to human health and health policies are leading to profound changes in the food chain. Whether dietary patterns and medical interventions are accepted, depends on the cultural and territorial anchorage of the populations, their socio-cultural past as well as scientific uncertainty and modalities of objectification of social actors. Controversies, debates, and the media influence governance. Local and minority experiences open up global perspectives. This paper focuses on the necessary contextualization of events at the crossroads of various social sciences. The exposure of fish-eating native people to methylmercury in Canada is used as an example.

  7. International Institute of Archaeology Anthropology: Early Human Culture. Grade 6 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mary

    In this lesson, student teams research one of the species of early humans. Teams will create presentations that include information on physical traits, habitat, era, means of survival, culture, and relationship to modern humans. Students are provided with background information, detailed instructions, on-line resources, and reflection questions.…

  8. Culture and Disability in the Pacific. Summaries of Papers Prepared for a Working Session of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania (New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Maureen, Ed.; Armstrong, Jocelyn, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue is devoted to summaries of 12 papers on culture and disability issues in the Pacific. The summaries presented span Oceania and are based on papers representing Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Nstasinge: The Sickness of a Small Boy from the Finisterre Range in Papua New…

  9. Toward Common Ground: The Uses of Educational Anthropology in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter; Mattheis, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews advances of interest to multicultural educators and researchers in the complementary disciplines of multicultural education and educational anthropology including the culture concept; biological and sociological conceptions of "race;" postmodern understandings of identity and subjectivity; and ethnographic accounts…

  10. On Not Liking What One Sees: Anthropology and the Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that an anthropological perspective offers exciting possibilities for developing intercultural understanding in the visual arts. Examines the problems encountered when applying this perspective to the visual art of radically different cultures. (JDH)

  11. On Not Liking What One Sees: Anthropology and the Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nick

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that an anthropological perspective offers exciting possibilities for developing intercultural understanding in the visual arts. Examines the problems encountered when applying this perspective to the visual art of radically different cultures. (JDH)

  12. Virtual anthropology meets biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gerhard W; Bookstein, Fred L; Strait, David S

    2011-05-17

    A meeting in Vienna in October 2010 brought together researchers using Virtual Anthropology (VA) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in order to explore the benefits and problems facing a collaboration between the two fields. FEA is used to test mechanical hypotheses in functional anatomy and VA complements and augments this process by virtue of its tools for acquiring data, for segmenting and preparing virtual specimens, and for generating reconstructions and artificial forms. This represents a critical methodological advance because geometry is one of the crucial inputs of FEA and is often the variable of interest in functional anatomy. However, we currently lack tools that quantitatively relate differences in geometry to differences in stress and strain, or that evaluate the impact on FEA of variation within and between biological samples. Thus, when comparing models of different geometry, we do not currently obtain sufficiently informative answers to questions such as "How different are these models, and in what manner are they different? Are they different in some anatomical regions but not others?" New methodologies must be developed in order to maximize the potential of FEA to address questions in comparative and evolutionary biology. In this paper we review these and other important issues that were raised during our Vienna meeting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Care for infibulated women giving birth in Norway: an anthropological analysis of health workers' management of a medically and culturally unfamiliar issue.

    PubMed

    Johansen, R Elise B

    2006-12-01

    The focus of this article is on Norwegian health care workers' experience and management of birth care of women who have undergone infibulation. Because infibulation is the most extensive form of female genital cutting, infibulated women experience a higher risk of birth complications, and health workers generally experience delivery care for this group as challenging. Infibulated women, who come from recently arrived immigrant groups, are a challenge to the predominant Norwegian birth philosophy of "natural childbirth" and the positive evaluation of everything considered natural. The challenges relate to a mixture of technical know-how and a complex set of interpretations of central cultural elements of gender, nature, health, and gender equity. The findings suggest that a combination of taboo, silence, limited knowledge, and emotional difficulty along with a wish to be culture sensitive may at times prove counterproductive to giving the best help. Health care workers often seem to impose "imagined" cultural values on infibulated women, rather than clarifying them through personal communication.

  14. Applying Anthropology to Eliminate Tobacco-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana; Olayinka, Abimbola; Whembolua, Guy Lucien S.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Disparities in tobacco’s harm persist. Declines in smoking among the general population have not been experienced to the same extent by vulnerable populations. Innovative strategies are required to diminish disparities in tobacco’s harm. As novel tools, anthropological concepts and methods may be applied to improve the design and outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions. Methods: We reviewed over 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1995 for content on anthropology and smoking cessation. The specific questions framing the review were: (a) “How can lessons learned from anthropological studies of smoking improve the design and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions?” (b) How can anthropology be applied to diminish disparities in smoking cessation? and (c) How can qualitative methods be used most effectively in smoking cessation intervention research? Results: Three specific disciplinary tools were identified and examined: (a) culture, (b) reflexivity, and (c) qualitative methods. Examining culture as a dynamic influence and understanding the utilities of smoking in a particular group is a precursor to promoting cessation. Reflexivity enables a deeper understanding of how smokers perceive quitting and smoking beyond addiction and individual health consequences. Qualitative methods may be used to elicit in-depth perspectives on quitting, insights to inform existing community-based strategies for making behavior changes, and detailed preferences for cessation treatment or programs. Conclusions: Anthropological tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of intervention research studies targeting individuals from vulnerable groups. Synthesized applications of anthropological concepts can be used to facilitate translation of findings into clinical practice for providers addressing tobacco cessation in vulnerable populations. PMID:22271609

  15. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual.

  16. Should Medical Anthropology be Required for Family Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The educational preparation of practitioners might change as family medicine shifts its emphasis to a more humanistic approach. Medical anthropology offers particular promise as a training experience. Learning about the role of culture, including beliefs and values surrounding illness, can supplement basic science training. Improved delivery of health care is likely if caregivers are sensitive to cultural dimensions of patients' illnesses. Imagesp1178-ap1179-ap1180-a PMID:21221336

  17. Education science and biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This contribution states deficits and makes proposals in order to overcome them. First there is the question as to why the Biological Anthropology--despite all its diversifications--hardly ever deals with educational aspects of its subject. Second it is the question as to why Educational Science neglects or even ignores data of Biological Anthropology which are recognizably important for its subject. It is postulated that the stated deficits are caused by several adverse influences such as, the individual identity of each of the involved single sciences; aspects of the recent history of the German Anthropology; a lack of conceptual understanding of each other; methodological differences and, last but not least, the structure of the universities. The necessity to remedy this situation was deduced from two groups of facts. First, more recent data of the Biological Anthropology (e.g. brain functions and learning, sex specificity and education) are of substantial relevance for the Educational Science. Second, the epistemological requirements of complex subjects like education need interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a few suggestions of concrete topics are given which are related to both, Educational Science and Biological Anthropology.

  18. Disciplining the Discipline: Anthropology and the Pursuit of Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Disciplinary knowledge in anthropology occupies a unique position in relation to quality education: anthropology in education and the anthropology of education. This essay differentiates between anthropology as a field, as a repository of content and disciplinary knowledge (anthropology in education), and anthropology as a tool, as a theoretical…

  19. Disciplining the Discipline: Anthropology and the Pursuit of Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Disciplinary knowledge in anthropology occupies a unique position in relation to quality education: anthropology in education and the anthropology of education. This essay differentiates between anthropology as a field, as a repository of content and disciplinary knowledge (anthropology in education), and anthropology as a tool, as a theoretical…

  20. Reflections on the future of anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-12-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference's theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline.

  1. Cultural barriers to effective communication between Indigenous communities and health care providers in Northern Argentina: an anthropological contribution to Chagas disease prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Methods Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities’ approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Results Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person’s violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina

  2. Cultural barriers to effective communication between Indigenous communities and health care providers in Northern Argentina: an anthropological contribution to Chagas disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Dell'Arciprete, Ana; Braunstein, José; Touris, Cecilia; Dinardi, Graciela; Llovet, Ignacio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2014-01-29

    Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities' approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person's violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina. This is especially important when

  3. Cross-cultural structures of concentric and diametric dualism in Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology: structures of relation underlying the self and ego relation?

    PubMed

    Downes, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The parallels between Jung's and Lévi-Strauss' concentric cross-cultural structures of the unconscious are highlighted. Lévi-Strauss' basic contrasts between concentric and diametric dualisms are developed into psychologically relevant differences regarding symmetry, connection and separation, and interaction between foreground and background structures respectively. These contrasts between concentric and diametric structures are applied as a common structural framework for understanding Jungian conceptions of the self, the ego and their relations, Freudian views of compensation and repetition in obsessional neurosis, and Winnicott's conception of a child's transitional object. Developing the contrasts between concentric and diametric structures reveals a compensatory relation between both structures. This supports an argument that concentric structures express the self and diametric structures express the ego in their mutual compensatory interrelation. Contrasting concentric with diametric structures challenges traditional Western logic, including Fordham's view that it is contradictory to treat the self as both centre and totality. It also develops an understanding of Jung's transcendent function which seeks to go beyond the ego-shadow opposition.

  4. Beyond critique: rethinking roles for the anthropology of mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The current supremacy of the 'bio-bio-bio' model within the discipline of psychiatry has progressively marginalized social science approaches to mental health. This situation begs the question, what role is there for the anthropology of mental health? In this essay, I contend that there are three essential roles for the anthropology of mental health in an era of biological psychiatry. These roles are to (i) provide a meaningful critique of practices, beliefs, and movements within current psychiatry; (ii) illuminate the socio-cultural, clinical, and familial context of suffering and healing regarding emotional distress/mental illness; and (iii) act as a catalyst for positive change regarding healing, services and provisions for people with emotional distress/mental illness. My argument is unified by my contention that a credible anthropology of mental health intending to make a societal contribution should offer no opposition without proposition. In other words, any critique must be counter-balanced by the detailing of solutions and proposals for change. This will ensure that the anthropology of mental health continues to contribute critical knowledge to the understanding of mental suffering, distress, and healing. Such social and cultural approaches are becoming especially important given the widespread disenchantment with an increasingly dominant biological psychiatry.

  5. Anthropological Contributions to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Three recent annual conferences of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) have included symposia on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). This paper reviews these symposia, which dealt with themes associated with the overarching AAA conference themes for each year: in 2004, the SETI session addressed Anthropology, Archaeology, and Interstellar Communication: Science and the Knowledge of Distant Worlds; in 2005, it dealt with Historical Perspectives on Anthropology and SETI; and in 2006, the session examined Culture, Anthropology, and SETI. Among the topics considered in these symposia were analogues for contact with extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), examining anthropologists’ experience in the field encountering other cultures-past and present. Similarly, the methodologies of archaeologists provide analogies for making contact with temporally distant civilizations, based on reconstructions from fragmentary information. Case studies helped make such analogies concrete in the symposia. The challenges of comprehending intelligences with different mental worlds was explored through a study of the meetings of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, for example, while the decryption of Mayan hieroglyphics provided lessons on understanding others of own species.

  6. Utopian Education and Anti-Utopian Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the connection of education, utopia and anthropology, aiming to tease out some educational implications of anti-utopian anthropological essentialism and to show why these should be staved off. It will be shown how an anthropology that tarnishes human nature operates and how it affects educational intervention in the shaping…

  7. Anthropology and Jobs. A Guide for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Willis E.

    Focus in this anthropology career guide is on suggestions about how to combine a degree in anthropology with supplementary training in order to qualify for a variety of positions after undergraduate study. A series of steps which the undergraduate major in anthropology might pursue to prepare for employment are outlined, and the significance of…

  8. Human evolution across the disciplines: spotlights on American anthropology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    When thinking about human evolution across the disciplines, terms such as "anthropological genetics" or "genetic anthropology" that brazenly defy the existence of the two-cultures divide seem to promise important insights. They refer to the application of genetic techniques to the past of humankind and human groups, a fact emphasized most strongly by the expression "genetic history." Such daring linguistic alliances have been forming since 1962 when the name "molecular anthropology" was introduced in the American context. This was an opportune moment for biochemists and physical chemists to enter anthropology, because in the U.S. a rapprochement between the fields was aimed for. However, a belief in and a discourse of a hierarchy of disciplines structured along the lines of methodology and epistemic object worked as an obstacle to the achievement of transdisciplinarity. Especially the DNA-sequence, initially approached through the proxy of the protein, was regarded as the most informative historical document due to its distance from the environment and its amenability to rigorous scientific techniques. These notions had a particular power at a time when anthropology was confronted with its legacy of race science. For some, the perceived objectivity of the new molecular approaches and the neutrality of molecules would render anthropology more natural-scientific and by inference less culturally contaminated. Others, to the contrary, believed that this legacy demanded a holistic and ethically reflexive anthropology. The different perceptions thus went along with different understandings of such crucial terms as "anthropology" and "history." In the paper, I revisit interfaces between different anthropological fields in the U.S. context and suggest that the beliefs in a hierarchy of approaches as well as in a nature free from culture embodied in the DNA-sequence has worked as one of the primary obstacles to an integration of these fields.

  9. Confessions of an Anthropological Poser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, David Delgado

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's confessions about being an anthropological poser. He shares a series of short fragments that evidence the ways he has drawn the line around his work. He draws some lessons about how to work collaboratively and effectively as Natives, scholars, and Native scholars. He closes this confession by admitting that he…

  10. Anthropology: For Whom and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Anselm

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that anthropology has been an instrument of imperialist intervention and control in the Third World as it has been used against the oppressed and colonized people of the world. It becomes the responsibility of the revolutionary and socialist anthropologists to make the discipline a tool of liberation. (Author/AM)

  11. Why and how to include anthropological perspective into multidisciplinary research in the Polish health system.

    PubMed

    Witeska-Młynarczyk, Anna D

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on ways in which anthropological knowledge, incorporated into multidisciplinary and multilevel research projects, can be applied for understanding health- and illness-related behaviours and functioning of the health system in Poland. It selectively presents potential theoretical and methodological contributions of the anthropological discipline to the field of applied health research, and briefly reviews selected ethnographic theories and methods for researching and interpreting socio-cultural conditioning of healing, health and illness related practices. The review focuses on the following approaches: Critical Medical Anthropology, Cultural Interpretive Theory, phenomenology, narrative analysis, and the biography of pharmaceuticals. The author highlights the need for team work and use of a holistic perspective while analyzing the health system in Poland, and underlines the need for serious attention and financial support to be given to multidisciplinary research projects of which anthropology is a part.

  12. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  13. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  14. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346...

  15. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY 13346.... Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate...

  16. Anthropology And Appropriate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Frank, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers concentrates on alternate approaches to education and the necessity for considering indigenous modes of education. Seven chapters include (1) "The Early Peace Corps: A Retrospective on Cross-Cultural Learning" examines the Peace Corps as a new kind of overseas work; (2) "Analysis of Differences in Cognitive…

  17. Anthropology And Appropriate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Frank, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers concentrates on alternate approaches to education and the necessity for considering indigenous modes of education. Seven chapters include (1) "The Early Peace Corps: A Retrospective on Cross-Cultural Learning" examines the Peace Corps as a new kind of overseas work; (2) "Analysis of Differences in Cognitive…

  18. Genomic anthropology: coming in from the cold?

    PubMed

    Pálsson, Gísli

    2008-08-01

    By rendering obsolete the theoretical opposition of nature and culture, the study of the human genome has given rise to fresh networks among anthropologists and other scholars. These developments, in turn, invite a refashioning of anthropology. Because genomic studies are directly concerned with the constitution of personhood, they must engage with local notions of personhood and belonging, thus undermining the distinction between experts and laypersons and demonstrating the need for new frameworks for collaboration between anthropologists and their subjects. These trends are illustrated by research in Nunavut (Canada) and Greenland, in particular an examination of the similarities and differences between modern gene talk about the constitution of the individual and "Inuit epigenetics"--local notions of naming, subjectivity, and relatedness.

  19. Toward a medical anthropology of sensations: definitions and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Howes, David; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we outline the importance of a medical anthropology of sensations for theories of psychopathology and psychological healing. We define what is meant by ;sensation' (differentiating monomodal and polymodal sensations) and describe some of the mechanisms that generate and amplify sensations. We propose the heuristic use of the concepts of sensation schemas, sensation interpretants, and sensation scripts. We argue against the naive assumption that sensation experience is the same across cultures. Finally, we consider how healing may occur through 'sensation semiosis.'

  20. Supernatural impotence: historical review with anthropological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Margolin, J; Witztum, E

    1989-12-01

    The historical and cultural background of the belief in supernatural impotence is presented, emphasizing its possible implications for clinical practice. A brief historical survey of the concept in Judaism and Christianity is followed by a short anthropological survey of supernatural impotence in different ethnic subcultures in Israel. A case demonstration exemplifies the connection between understanding the patient's cultural background and beliefs and the clinical competence of the therapist. The relationship between the clinical-therapeutic process in psychiatric practice and knowledge of the patient's cultural background and beliefs is stressed.

  1. [Clinical medical anthropology and immigrant's mental health in France].

    PubMed

    Bennegadi, R

    1996-01-01

    Clinical anthropology offers a great advantage for understanding and managing patient/caretaker relationships in intercultural situations. Instead of falling into the trap of marginalizing and above all needless culturalization, health care workers must learn to integrate the cultural aspects of the representation of mental health and illness as opposed to using them as a guiding light. In this way, since the caretaker or therapist does not have to master anthropologic factors, he/she is not obliged to unknowingly hide his/her own nosographic explanatory model which does not necessarily take cultural aspects into account. Clinical anthropology allows the general practitioner and specialist as well as the psychologist and psychiatrist of all theoretical orientations to manage patient relationships and care more efficiently with regard to diagnosis, therapeutic decision-making, analysis, and psychotherapy. The question of whether the patient and caretaker are of the same origin is asked differently: the question of the universality of psychopathology is asked with greater clarity and less risk of error. Our health care system, which is based on common law benefits as do consulting immigrants since their request for services are answered more efficiently and directly. The only problem is that the conceptual and clinical horizon health care workers must be broadened. This goal cannot be achieved by magic and will require training and education.

  2. Teaching a Non-Traditional, Honors Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Sharlotte

    An undergraduate "Anthropology Through Science Fiction" honors course is described. Participation in the course was by invitation only and included both anthropology and non-anthropology majors. By using science fiction, non-anthropology students quickly became familiar with weekly topics and anthropology majors found the readings a new way to…

  3. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  4. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  5. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  6. Deaf epistemologies as a critique and alternative to the practice of science: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Goedele A M

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, and responding to the criticism of orientalism, anthropology has engaged in a self-critical practice, working toward a postcolonial perspective on science and an epistemological stance of partial and situated knowledge (Pinxten, 2006; Pinxten & Note, 2005). In deaf studies, anthropological and sociological studies employing qualitative and ethnographic methods have introduced a paradigm shift. Concepts of deaf culture and deaf identity have been employed as political tools, contributing to the emancipation process of deaf people. However, recent anthropological studies in diverse local contexts indicate the cultural construction of these notions. From this viewpoint, deaf studies faces a challenge to reflect on the notions of culture, emancipation, and education from a nonexclusive, noncolonial perspective. Deaf studies research in a global context needs to deal with cultural and linguistic diversity in human beings and academia. This calls for epistemological reflection and new research methods.

  7. Archaeology as anthropology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnby, Johan

    2007-12-01

    The interaction between humans and the maritime coastal landscape must be one of the central theoretical questions for maritime archaeology. How should an academic discipline, which is defined by its studies in a certain physical milieu, avoid the trap of environmental determinism and still be able to argue for the special influence of the maritime factor? And how should this long-term relation to the sea be interpreted and described? In this article, based mainly on material from the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast, three examples of long-term structures regarding the relationship between people and the sea are discussed. The structures, here called “maritime durees”, which almost all coastal habitants in the analyzed area seem to have had in common are linked to: exploitation of marine resources, communication over water and the mental presence of the sea. In conclusion the actual meaning of these long-term structures for everyday life and for cultural and social change are discussed in comparison to more short term structures: the changing historical circumstances and possibilities for people to choose different strategies.

  8. [Social anthropology and anthropologists of the past and present: from exoticism and the imagined reciprocity to everyday inequalities].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine two moments in anthropology. First we characterize anthropology as a subject specialized in the study of "the others", which developed in those countries that led the European and North American colonial expansion. We underline the links that existed between this historical context, the features of ethnography -the theoretic-methodological approach developed by anthropologistsand the concept of culture, that became the core of this discipline. Secondly, we intend to further the understanding of some trends of contemporary anthropology: the fact that nowadays anthropologists work on the societies they belong to, their operations (documenting the undocumented, unveiling dayliness, de-naturalizing), which find their roots in earlier anthropology. It also highlights the shift of focus from reciprocity relations to power and inequity relations. Finally it sheds light on some original developments in Latin American anthropology, considering some cases in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

  9. The tempering of medical anthropology: troubling natural categories.

    PubMed

    Lock, M

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews an approach in medical anthropology that commenced in the early 1980s and that continues to the present day in which biomedical knowledge and practices are systematically incorporated into anthropological analyses. Discussion then focuses on contributions made by feminists and medical anthropologists to the literature on medicalization and resistance, illustrating how the ethnographic approach has been crucial in critically reconceptualizing and situating these concepts historically and cross-culturally. The concept of local biologies is introduced in the third section of the article in creating the argument that the coproduction of biologies and cultures contributes to embodied experience, which, in turn, shapes discourse about the body. Subjective reporting at menopause provides an illustrative case study of local biologies in action. The final part of the article takes up the question of the moral economy of scientific knowledge. Comparative ethnographic work in intensive care units in Japan and North America reveals how a moral economy is put into practice in connection with brain-dead bodies and the procurement of organs from them. Medical anthropological contributions to policy making about biomedical technologies is briefly considered in closing.

  10. Cultural Change. Teacher Background Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This essay on cultural change is intended to provide background reading material for teachers using "The Changing World Today" or "Cultural Change in Mexico and the United States," two textbooks from the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The essay can also be used, however, as a high school semester course in anthropology or as…

  11. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching Anthropology Is a Good Way to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas Bradley

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that an undergraduate writing course which focuses on the literature of anthropology and intercultural communication can effectively teach anthropology, writing, and the philosophy of rhetoric. (DD)

  13. Influenza, anthropology, and global uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Kendall, Carl

    2009-07-01

    The response to the novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) pandemic has been overwhelmingly biological and epidemiological in scope. While plans are moving forward on a vaccine, few of the social effects of a truly massive global catastrophe-or the issues of communication, responding to predictable inappropriate reactions, preparation of populations for these effects, or using local population resources in the epidemic-have been well considered. Anthropology can play an important and underutilized role in planning and responding to influenza and other global emergencies. This editorial discusses these issues and makes some preliminary recommendations.

  14. Hair morphology and anthropological applications.

    PubMed

    Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Blanc, Antony; Crubezy, Eric; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Rouge, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The histological study of hair has a long history, dating from the 19th century. We obtained a collection of hair taken from people of known geographic origin. We analyzed these samples according to their transversal cut shape index, derived from computerized image-processing. We noted statistically significant variation according to the geographic origin of subjects. This morphological variation may reflect genetic distance. This reliable, quick, and cheap technique could be used in other existing anthropological material for which DNA analysis is usually difficult.

  15. Degree Program in Applied Sociology/Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights.

    The Northern Kentucky University Bachelor of Science in Applied Sociology and Anthropology (ASAN), which is described in this report, involves a strong liberal arts background combined with a thorough preparation in social science research skills. ASAN students take introductory and basic methods courses in sociology and anthropology, applied…

  16. History and future of visual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2011-03-01

    Visual recording of communication processes between communities or individuals by means of filming of photographing is of significant importance in anthropology, as it documents on site the specific features of various social communities in their encounter with the researcher. In terms of film industry, it is a sort of ethno-documentary pursuing originality and objectivity in recording the given subject, thus fulfilling the research mission. However, the potential of visual anthropology significantly exceeds the mere audiovisual recording of ethnologic realities. Modern methods of analysing and evaluating the role of visual anthropology suggest that it is a technical research service aimed at documenting the status quo. If the direction of proactive approach were taken, then the term ,visual anthropology' could be changed to ,anthropology of the visual,. This apparently cosmetic change of name is actually significantly more accurate, suggesting the denoted proactive swift in perceiving visual anthropology, where visual methods are employed to ,provoke< the reaction of an individual or of the community. In this way the "anthropology of the visual, is promoted to a new scientific sub-anthropological discipline.

  17. Reflections on the Future of Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285

  18. Pre-collegiate Anthropology: Progress or Peril?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    Pre-collegiate anthropology is traced from the 1940's, when it was nothing more than an incidental footnote in most social studies textbooks, to 1978, when, according to a survey of state social studies specialists, it was part of the social studies curriculum in most states. Reasons for the development of pre-collegiate anthropology during the…

  19. Smithsonian Publications Bring Anthropology to the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ruth O.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the continuing contribution of "Anthronotes," a Smithsonian publication supporting efforts to teach pre-collegiate anthropology. Anthronotes works to keep teachers informed about recent findings in anthropology, help teachers use community and instructional materials in their courses, and create a support network for teachers…

  20. The Anthropology of Women: An Advocacy Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Colleen Ballerino

    The anthropological study of women has recently developed into an intellectual discipline which investigates women's relationships to themselves, men, and society. The creation of this new subject of inquiry poses important demands upon anthropological theory and method. The nature of the subject demands a reassessment of potential bias derived…

  1. Integrating Anthropology in Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how anthropology can be integrated into the social studies classroom focusing on second and fifth grade levels. Demonstrates how different subject areas can be integrated with anthropology, such as history, geography, science, mathematics, and art. Covers topics such as foods, American Indian folklore, moonsticks, and myths and legends.…

  2. Anthropology. Teacher Edition. Revised [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The teacher and student editions of this book introduce students to the subject of anthropology and the subfields into which it is divided. Students learn about the beginnings of anthropology as an outgrowth of the curiosity stimulated by the Age of Exploration and how it grew into the basic field it is today. Students examine the origins and…

  3. The Status of Anthropology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    1974-01-01

    The role of anthropology in the "new social studies" movement, survey results of its part in public school curriculum, and arguments for and against teaching it in public schools are offered to sum up the status of anthropology. (Author/KM)

  4. Using Fiction to Teach Introductory Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenbaum, Charles O.

    A discussion of the role of fiction in a college level anthropology course is divided into two sections. The first section describes several advantages of using fiction rather than a text to teach anthropology. Teacher and students share more or less equally in the teaching process with this approach. The teacher is no longer an authority on a…

  5. Iberia: population genetics, anthropology, and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Martínez-Laso, J; Alonso-García, J

    1999-10-01

    Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians have been studied for HLA and mitochondrial DNA markers, and the data analysis suggests that pre-Neolithic gene flow into Iberia came from ancient white North Africans (Hamites). The Basque language has also been used to translate the Iberian-Tartesian language and also Etruscan and Minoan Linear A. Physical anthropometry of Iberian Mesolithic and Neolithic skeletons does not support the demic replacement in Iberia of preexisting Mesolithic people by Neolithic people bearing new farming technologies from Europe and the Middle East. Also, the presence of cardial impressed pottery in western Mediterranean Europe and across the Maghreb (North Africa) coasts at the beginning of the Neolithic provides good evidence of pre-Neolithic circum-Mediterranean contacts by sea. In addition, pre-dynastic Egyptian El-Badari culture (4,500 years ago) is similar to southern Iberian Neolithic settlements with regard to pottery and animal domestication. Taking the genetic, linguistic, anthropological, and archeological evidence together with the documented Saharan area desiccation starting about 10,000 years ago, we believe that it is possible that a genetic and cultural pre-Neolithic flow coming from southern Mediterranean coasts existed toward northern Mediterranean areas, including at least Iberia and some Mediterranean islands. This model would substitute for the demic diffusion model put forward to explain Neolithic innovations in Western Europe.

  6. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  7. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  8. Reticulate evolution and the human past: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Winder, Nick P

    2014-01-01

    The evidence is mounting that reticulate (web-like) evolution has shaped the biological histories of many macroscopic plants and animals, including non-human primates closely related to Homo sapiens, but the implications of this non-hierarchical evolution for anthropological enquiry are not yet fully understood. When they are understood, the result may be a paradigm shift in evolutionary anthropology. This paper reviews the evidence for reticulated evolution in the non-human primates and human lineage. Then it makes the case for extrapolating this sort of patterning to Homo sapiens and other hominins and explores the implications this would have for research design, method and understandings of evolution in anthropology. Reticulation was significant in human evolutionary history and continues to influence societies today. Anthropologists and human scientists-whether working on ancient or modern populations-thus need to consider the implications of non-hierarchic evolution, particularly where molecular clocks, mathematical models and simplifying assumptions about evolutionary processes are used. This is not just a problem for palaeoanthropology. The simple fact of different mating systems among modern human groups, for example, may demand that more attention is paid to the potential for complexity in human genetic and cultural histories.

  9. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  10. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  11. Some Guidelines for the Development of Curriculum for Applied Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry

    Applied anthropology seeks to integrate anthropological values and knowledge with a rational approach to policy decision-making. This paper discusses some of the barriers faced by those who care about anthropology and are concerned with making a viable space for the discipline in the college curriculum. Anthropology teachers need to further refine…

  12. Brainhood, anthropological figure of modernity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    If personhood is the quality or condition of being an individual person, "brainhood" could name the quality or condition of being a brain. This ontological quality would define the "cerebral subject" that has, at least in industrialized and highly medicalized societies, gained numerous social inscriptions since the mid-20th century. This article explores the historical development of brainhood. It suggests that the brain is necessarily the location of the "modern self," and that, consequently, the cerebral subject is the anthropological figure inherent to modernity (at least insofar as modernity gives supreme value to the individual as autonomous agent of choice and initiative). It further argues that the ideology of brainhood impelled neuroscientific investigation much more than it resulted from it, and sketches how an expanding constellation of neurocultural discourses and practices embodies and sustains that ideology.

  13. [Theoretical pathology and medical anthropology].

    PubMed

    Lolas, F

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the concept of theoretical pathology as mostly German authors have been developing it in recent years now, and hints at the conceptual foundation of Medicine which is deemed essential if the formulation of a unifying meta-theory bound to integrating part approaches and perspectives is to be reached at. It is suggested that both the historical and anthropological roots are convergent indeed as regards their basic tenets and fundamental aims. Although speculative such an endeavour is needed since it is an apt means to providing grounds for a program of studies on the foundations of Medicine and Psychiatry as well. Ultimately, it may heighten the awareness for basic aspects of practice, and lead to a re-appraisal of its assumptions.

  14. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  15. Anthropology in the cognitive sciences: the value of diversity.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Sara J

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) offer a provocative proposal outlining several reasons why anthropology and the rest of cognitive science might consider parting ways. Among those reasons, they suggest that separation might maintain the diversity needed to address larger problems facing humanity, and that the research strategies used across the disciplines are already so diverse as to be incommensurate. The present paper challenges the view that research strategies are incommensurate and offers a multimethod approach to cultural research that can help to establish common ground while maintaining diversity. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Ribot, Binet, and the emergence from the anthropological shadow.

    PubMed

    Staum, Martin S

    2007-01-01

    In the drive to establish a naturalistic psychology in France, anthropological assumptions about a hierarchy of physically determined racial groups with inherent psychological characteristics and about the nearly insurmountable retardation of primitive cultures permeated the work of the founder of French empirical psychology, Théodule Ribot. Assumptions about the correlation of brain mass and head size with intelligence affected Alfred Binet. The rise of sociology and challenges to existing theories of inheritance led Ribot to surrender fitfully some hereditarian assumptions. Binet's experimental caution and contemporary critiques of anthropometry tempered, but did not fully extinguish, his enthusiasm for psychophysical correlations.

  17. Medical anthropology enters the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Young, Allan; Rees, Tobias

    2011-08-01

    Medical anthropology is the smallest and perhaps least understood of the social and behavioral sciences of medicine. In this article, we indicate what makes the field distinctive and describe significant developments during the past two decades.

  18. Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea; Medin, Douglas L

    2012-07-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive science (CS) subdisciplines currently maintain a troubled relationship. With a debate in topiCS we aim at exploring the prospects for improving this relationship, and our introduction is intended as a catalyst for this debate. In order to encourage a frank sharing of perspectives, our comments will be deliberately provocative. Several challenges for a successful rapprochement are identified, encompassing the diverging paths that CS and anthropology have taken in the past, the degree of compatibility between (1) CS and (2) anthropology with regard to methodology and (3) research strategies, (4) the importance of anthropology for CS, and (5) the need for disciplinary diversity. Given this set of challenges, a reconciliation seems unlikely to follow on the heels of good intentions alone. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. An Annotated Bibliography in Anthropological Research Metthodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, Richard B.

    1972-01-01

    This bibliography is a limited investigation into the area of anthropological research methods through an analysis of texts and articles, to see if any of the methodologies discussed could be utilized by art education. (Author)

  20. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics].

    PubMed

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  1. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries.

  2. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail.

  3. Bridging Psychiatric and Anthropological Approaches: The Case of “Nerves” in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Britt; Barg, Frances K.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wittink, Marsha N.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps “individual disease” and “culture” disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. PMID:20428332

  4. Film in the Undergraduate Anthropology Classroom: Applying Audience Response Research in Pedagogical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, S. Elizabeth; Godwin, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    While we often assume media are highly effective tools for learning, research shows an unpredictable relationship between text and audience response, with variable interpretation being the norm. This can be especially problematic in anthropology, whose central goal is to understand different cultures; some studies suggest that films may reinforce…

  5. Anthropological Diplomacy: Issues and Principles. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Mario D.; And Others

    The focus of this volume is anthropological diplomacy: the promotion of peace and prevention of war by knowing, understanding, and appreciating the basic affirmations of society. Eight articles examine the role of race, language, and culture in inter-ethnic and international relations. Vinson Sutlive, Jr. examines the interrelationship of race and…

  6. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or......

  7. An Anthropology of "Familismo": On Narratives and Description of Mexican/Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…

  8. Proposed Anthropology Elective-One Semester. Plan I and Plan II. Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, David; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers two approaches to the teaching of tenth grade anthropology. The first approach is a more traditional approach to the subject area presented with the idea of simply giving the teacher something to build on. The second approach follows "History as Culture Change: An Overview" developed by the Anthropology…

  9. An Anthropology of "Familismo": On Narratives and Description of Mexican/Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…

  10. Anthropology and International Business. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrie, Hendrick, Ed.

    The range and possibilities of "business anthropology" are explored in fourteen papers. The papers are presented in an order designed to illustrate five major roles for anthropologists interested in working with business: (1) conducting cross-cultural orientation programs for business personnel working in foreign countries or with different…

  11. Eleven Propositions for Innovative Research in the Social Studies: An Anthropological Approach to Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Social studies educators are encouraged to investigate propositions that have been extracted from anthropological literature in order to determine their value in shedding new light on learning and teaching. For example, anthropologists believe that learning and teaching are processes associated with cultural transmission and that social…

  12. Teaching World History: Structured Inquiry through a Historical-Anthropological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Douglas D., Ed.; Linden, Glenn M., Ed.

    Suggestions are offered to help K-12 teachers integrate anthropological approaches and content into the world history curriculum. The paper contains nine inquiry lessons which ask students to explore how the various societies have dealt with kinship, decision making, distribution of resources, transmission of values, and other cultural universals.…

  13. Anthropology 101 and English 101: Ethnography as Data Source and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, John H.

    At Utica College, Anthropology 101 seeks to help students begin to detect ethnocentrism in themselves and others, to get an understanding of the varieties of cultural systems, and to see their own society as simply one example of shapes a society can take. An "ethnography project" is a useful device in advancing these goals. Students are…

  14. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a < culturalist > vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  15. Cultural Content in Introductory Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapoint, Elwyn C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the design of an undergraduate survey course in anthropological linguistics that both acquaints students with language structure and traces the cross-fertilizing relationships that bind it to other specialties within anthropology. Considers utilizing the holistic approach which views language and culture as forming a continuum of coded…

  16. Informal Kinship-Based Fostering Around the World: Anthropological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2015-01-01

    Anthropological research around the world has documented informal, kinship-based foster care cross culturally. That research suggests that children are more likely to benefit from informal kinship-based fostering in cultural contexts where fostering expands the pool of relatives rather than substituting one parent for another, fostering is expected to provide children with positive opportunities for learning and development, and/or children are granted some autonomy or decision-making power. However, informal kinship-based fostering seems to place children at risk in cultural contexts where the process of children’s attachment to caregivers resembles the Western child development model, communities are highly stratified along socioeconomic lines, and/or exploitation of children is permitted. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for both research and policy. PMID:26973709

  17. Informal Kinship-Based Fostering Around the World: Anthropological Findings.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2014-09-01

    Anthropological research around the world has documented informal, kinship-based foster care cross culturally. That research suggests that children are more likely to benefit from informal kinship-based fostering in cultural contexts where fostering expands the pool of relatives rather than substituting one parent for another, fostering is expected to provide children with positive opportunities for learning and development, and/or children are granted some autonomy or decision-making power. However, informal kinship-based fostering seems to place children at risk in cultural contexts where the process of children's attachment to caregivers resembles the Western child development model, communities are highly stratified along socioeconomic lines, and/or exploitation of children is permitted. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for both research and policy.

  18. Ethnographic Encounters: The Processes of Cultural Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Shirley Ann

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the ways in which the contested concept of cultural translation has been interpreted in anthropology. Describes what cultural translation now involves for practitioners who research and teach within interdisciplinary frameworks--particularly those constituted by the interface between anthropology and modern language learning.…

  19. Applying Anthropology to Educational Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Leona M.; Little Soldier, Dale

    1981-01-01

    Utilization of ethnographic models to analyze, compare, and locate conflicts and/or discontinuities between home and school cultures can make the blending of those cultures more harmonious for Native American students. Differentiates between enculturation and acculturation. (CM)

  20. Anthropology at the University of Michigan in the late 1950s.

    PubMed

    Steegmann, Theodore

    2003-08-01

    By 1958, the Anthropology Department at the University of Michigan had emerged as a major center in the discipline. Its excellence derived from a strong faculty, commitment to an integrated view of the field, and broader support from a rising national tide of scholarship. While many new intellectual currents developed, among the strongest was biological-behavioral theory--somewhat ironically flourishing in a biological anthropology program that viewed itself as a nexus of population genetics. The biological anthropology faculty thought like anthropologists. From this environment, Frank Livingstone not only drew intellectual support, but also became a key player in demonstrating the importance of historical and cultural factors to shaping biological patterns. A biocultural perspective is evident in Michigan research to this day.

  1. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940

    PubMed Central

    Turda, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists’ professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism. PMID:24363494

  2. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism.

  3. Film and television in Croatia today: production, new technologies and the relationship with visual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Vidacković, Zlatko

    2013-03-01

    This paper seeks to explain some of the most important recent production and technological changes that have affected the relationship between television and film, especially in Croatia, from the aspect of the development of visual anthropology. In the production segment, special attention was given to the role of Croatian television stations in the production of movies, "splitting" the movies into mini-series, interrupting movies with commercial breaks, and to television movies turned into feature films. This paper tries to perceive and define the structure of methodical processes of visual anthropology (reactive process). The development of photographic and film technology and the events which led to the rapid development of visual culture also point to the inseparable duality of observing visual anthropology within reactive and proactive processes, which are indirectly closely related to the technical aspects of these processes. Defining the technical aspect of visual anthropology as such "service" necessarily interferes with the author's approach in the domain of the script and direction related procedures during pre-production, on the field and during post-production of the movie. The author's approach is important because in dependence on it, the desired spectrum of information "output", susceptible to subsequent scientific analysis, is achieved. Lastly, another important segment is the "distributive-technological process" because, regardless of the approach to the anthropologically relevant phenomenon which is being dealt with in an audio-visual piece of work, it is essential that the work be presented and viewed adequately.

  4. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  5. Application and limitations of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G

    2015-06-01

    The use of endoscopy in anthropological and archaeological research was been well documented in the literature. This article explores the varied settings in which endoscopy is beneficial in gathering visual data for interpretation related to cultural remains and artifacts. Endoscopic data may be used to assist in the pursuit of answering such bioanthropological questions as sex, age at death, presence of paleopathologies, dental conditions, and cultural practices. Endoscopy is often used to guide and document biopsy procedures as well as the retrieval of artifacts from within poorly accessible locations such as body cavities, coffins, or tombs. In addition, endoscopic data is used to examine such archaeological features as tomb structure and design. A contrast between the medical and anthropological approach is described. Endoscopic research is enhanced when applied in conjunction with additional varied imaging modalities. While invasive, endoscopy is a nondestructive methodological approach. As with all methods, endoscopy has application and interpretational limitations, which can be described as limitations resulting from instrumentation, and those arising from personnel less familiar with the various approaches to endoscopy in both field and laboratory settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Techno-Anthropological Ethics and Health Information Systems Technologies.

    PubMed

    Børsen, Tom; Danborg, Pia Brandt

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important Techno-Anthropological intellectual virtues is the ability to make contextualized ethical judgments of new and emerging technologies. This Techno-Anthropological core competence is especially relevant in Health Information Systems Technologies, which is a field characterized by inherent ethical dilemmas such as the pros and cons of regulation of research databases with sensitive information, or storing and application of tissue and blood samples. In this paper we present a method to make 'proper and quick' ethical estimates in Health Information. The method guides its user to make ethical judgments by splitting the judgment process into four steps: (1) Identification of intended beneficial consequences, potential misuse, unintended side effects and long-term consequences for culture and society. (2) Linkage of intended consequences, misuse, side effects and cultural implications to appropriate ethical values. (3) Identification of ethical dilemmas related to a specific use of the Health Information Systems Technology under assessment. (4) Formulation of appropriate technological and institution design criteria that can transcend the identified ethical dilemmas. The methodology will be applied to a the discussions at a hearing on ethical challenges accompanying research involving health data organized by the Danish Council of Ethics and the case of risk reducing breast cancer surgery based on diagnosed genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  7. Immunogenetics as a tool in anthropological studies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Middleton, Derek; Hollenbach, Jill A; Buhler, Stéphane; Di, Da; Rajalingam, Raja; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mack, Steven J; Thorsby, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system – immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) – exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. ‘Genetic marker’ (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains of IgG antibodies have been studied for over 40 years through serological typing, leading to the identification of a variety of GM haplotypes whose frequencies vary sharply from one geographic region to another. An impressive diversity of HLA alleles, which results in amino acid substitutions located in the antigen-binding region of HLA molecules, also varies greatly among populations. The KIR differ between individuals according to both gene content and allelic variation, and also display considerable population diversity. Whereas the molecular evolution of these polymorphisms has most likely been subject to natural selection, principally driven by host–pathogen interactions, their patterns of genetic variation worldwide show significant signals of human geographic expansion, demographic history and cultural diversification. As current developments in population genetic analysis and computer simulation improve our ability to discriminate among different – either stochastic or deterministic – forces acting on the genetic evolution of human populations, the study of these systems shows great promise for investigating both the peopling history of modern humans in the time since their common origin and human adaptation to past environmental (e.g. pathogenic) changes. Therefore, in addition to mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms and other markers, immunogenetic polymorphisms represent essential and complementary tools for anthropological studies. PMID:21480890

  8. Immunogenetics as a tool in anthropological studies.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Middleton, Derek; Hollenbach, Jill A; Buhler, Stéphane; Di, Da; Rajalingam, Raja; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mack, Steven J; Thorsby, Erik

    2011-06-01

    The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system--immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)--exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. 'Genetic marker' (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains of IgG antibodies have been studied for over 40 years through serological typing, leading to the identification of a variety of GM haplotypes whose frequencies vary sharply from one geographic region to another. An impressive diversity of HLA alleles, which results in amino acid substitutions located in the antigen-binding region of HLA molecules, also varies greatly among populations. The KIR differ between individuals according to both gene content and allelic variation, and also display considerable population diversity. Whereas the molecular evolution of these polymorphisms has most likely been subject to natural selection, principally driven by host-pathogen interactions, their patterns of genetic variation worldwide show significant signals of human geographic expansion, demographic history and cultural diversification. As current developments in population genetic analysis and computer simulation improve our ability to discriminate among different--either stochastic or deterministic--forces acting on the genetic evolution of human populations, the study of these systems shows great promise for investigating both the peopling history of modern humans in the time since their common origin and human adaptation to past environmental (e.g. pathogenic) changes. Therefore, in addition to mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms and other markers, immunogenetic polymorphisms represent essential and complementary tools for anthropological studies.

  9. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  10. "Ethno-Pedagogy": A Manual in Cultural Sensitivity, with Techniques for Improving Cross-Cultural Teaching by Fitting Ethnic Patterns. Revised Edition, May 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Henry G.

    The document presents material and personnel to alleviate the ignorance of the nature and extent of ethnic differences in the United States through applied educational anthropology. Using the term "ethno-pedagogy" for the application of cultural anthropology to education, the chapters discuss: (1) the need for applied educational anthropology; (2)…

  11. Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

    PubMed

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Jobling, Mark A; Rocha, Jorge; Novembre, John; Richards, Martin B; Mulligan, Connie; Batini, Chiara; Manni, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Anthropology is a relatively young field of research. In fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium "Classification and Human Evolution" (1962, Burg Wartenstein, Austria), where the term was formally introduced by Emil Zuckerkandl. In this time, Molecular Anthropology has developed both methodologically and theoretically and extended its applications, so covering key aspects of human evolution such as the reconstruction of the history of human populations and peopling processes, the characterization of DNA in extinct humans and the role of adaptive processes in shaping the genetic diversity of our species. In the current scientific panorama, molecular anthropologists have to face a double challenge. As members of the anthropological community, we are strongly committed to the integration of biological findings and other lines of evidence (e.g. linguistic and archaeological), while keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level. In this framework, the meeting "DNA Polymorphisms in Human Populations: Molecular Anthropology in the Genomic Era" (Rome, December 3-5, 2009) offered an opportunity for discussion among scholars from different disciplines, while paying attention to the impact of recent methodological innovations. Here we present an overview of the meeting and discuss perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era.

  12. Japanese Culture: A Study of Origins and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Eiichiro

    The culture and people of Japan are described from an ethnological/cultural anthropology viewpoint. The author begins his description with an introduction to the study of cultures and peoples. He then discusses the Japanese as a racial, ethnic, and language group. He later presents a historical/anthropological discussion of the formation of the…

  13. [Anthropology of the individual, sex, and race in the works of Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919)].

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2015-11-01

    By analysing his unpublished and published works, we have identified anthropological elements in the studies of Croatian physician Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919) that distinguish him as one of the rare researchers in Croatia who attempted to synthesize cultural and biological anthropology. Gundrum collected comparative data on biological characteristics of various ethnic groups, searched for a connection between biological structures and cultural development, and assessed certain social facts and customs from the perspective of medical teleology. This article presents the four most frequent anthropological issues raised in his work: anatomy and physiology of individuals, ethnic groups and "races"; attitudes on prostitution; Jews as a model of alcohol abstinence; and the "degeneration" of Western culture/civilisation. In spite of pronounced linear evolutionism, his work compares social and medical practices between Western and non-Western nations.

  14. The GenoChip: a new tool for genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project's new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic

  15. The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G.; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project’s new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic

  16. Fractal analysis of palmar electronographic images. Medical anthropological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Guja, Cornelia; Voinea, V; Baciu, Adina; Ciuhuţa, M; Crişan, Daniela A

    2008-01-01

    The present paper brings to the medical specialists' attention a possibility of multivalent imagistic investigation--the palmar electrographic method submitted to a totally new analysis by the fractal method. Its support for information recording is the radiosensitive film. This makes it resemble the radiological investigation, which opened the way of correlating the shape of certain structures of the organism with their function. By the specific electromagnetic impressing of the ultra photosensitive film, palmar electrography has the advantage of catching the shape of certain radiative phenomena, generated by certain structures in their functional dynamics--at the level of the human palmar tegument. This makes it resemble the EEG, EKG and EMG investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight a new modality of studying the states of the human organism in its permanent adaptation to the living environment, using a new anthropological, informational vision--by fractal processing and by the couple of concepts system / interface--much closer to reality than the present systemic thinking. The human palm, which has a special medial-anthropological relevance, is analysed as a complex adaptive biological and socio-cultural interface between the internal and external environment. The fractal phenomena recorded on the image are ubicuitary in nature and especially in the living world and their shapes may he described mathematically and used for decoding their informational laws. They may have very useful implications in the medical act. The paper presents a few introductory elements to the fractal theory, and, in the final part, the pursued objectives are concretely shown by grouping the EG images according to certain more important medical-anthropological themes.

  17. Welcome home, Descartes! rethinking the anthropology of the body.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropology's best and most comprehensive anti-Cartesian manifesto to date. This volume brings together some of the finest studies on the cultural and historical diversity of bodies and minds. Yet anthropologists' blanket rejection of the mind/body dualism seems politically self-defeating. If anthropologists want to criticize racism, gender hierarchies, or discrimination against disabled people, they need to believe that the mind is independent from the body. In other words, they need to uphold the Cartesian split.

  18. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  19. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  20. [Aspects of fatigue in medieval anthropology].

    PubMed

    König-Pralong, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Psychosomatic sympton of the sinful human soul, progress of natural and progressive wear of the psychic or corporeal machinery, exclusive property of the world of bodies or place of the obligatory link between the intellect and the body, fatigue crosses the philosophical and theological medieval literature. The various treatments of fatigue can, in their turn, serve as symptoms to differentiate the medieval anthropologies. This article presents four of their figures: the anthropology of danger elaborated by Augustin, Greek and Arabe medical diagnosis which is passed on the XIth century, and the readings of Aristotle's psychology by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas in the XIIIth century.

  1. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR. The human remains and associated funerary object were removed... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology professional staff in...

  2. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven cultural...

  3. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  4. Research and Relevance in the University: The Case for Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upham, Steadman

    Suggestions for overcoming declining enrollments in the field of anthropology are proposed that have relevance for other humanities disciplines. Declining enrollments in anthropology are linked to its perceived academic relevance; students are concerned about employment after graduation. The problem of declining anthropology enrollments and majors…

  5. Outline of Basic Concepts in Anthropology. Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Anthropology Curriculum Project.

    This teaching aid outlines basic anthropological concepts described in the various units of the Anthropology Curriculum Project. The outline of important concepts to be learned is intended to be used by the teacher in conjunction with the other instructional materials in each unit. The introduction defines anthropology, its branches and purposes.…

  6. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors.

  7. On being a Gulf veteran: an anthropological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kilshaw, Susie

    2006-01-01

    There is no doubt that Gulf service has affected the well-being of some of the members of the UK armed forces who served in that conflict, yet the reason for this remain unclear. At present, the debate surrounding Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) has become stagnant and highly polarized. This paper argues that a new perspective is needed to further improve our understanding of the problem and suggests that the methods and theories of anthropology, with its focus on nuances and subtleties, can provide new insights. Data were generated from 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork in the UK including participant observation, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Anthropology provides a unique way of approaching and understanding somatic symptoms and suggests that GWS symptom reporting can be seen as a form of communication. The work focuses on the sufferers' accounts, the symptoms themselves and the context within which we find them in order to better understand what was being expressed and commented upon. Although necessary to contextualize GWS through situating it among other emergent illnesses and widespread health beliefs, this paper shows there is a need to bring back the particular. This work seeks to make sense of the cultural circumstances, specific and general, which gave rise to the illness. PMID:16687272

  8. Role of physical anthropology in intermediate and secondary education.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, Pamela C

    2005-01-01

    The role of physical anthropology in precollegiate education has been limited, but has the potential to play a vital and integral role in promoting students' understanding of themselves and others. This study describes the development, implementation, and results of a program constructed on an inquiry-based learning model that introduces middle and high school students to the content of physical anthropology. Demonstrated student learning indicates that intermediate and secondary students are capable of acquiring and applying complex content about human evolution and diversity. Program findings indicate that students frequently had previous knowledge about the hominid fossil record but little information about the significance of human biological diversity. Teaching intermediate and high school students about our common evolutionary heritage and the fact that humans exhibit clinal variation were found to be both powerful and effective content material. The fact that program participants lacked previous knowledge about the relationship between human biological diversity (illustrated in this program by light and dark skin color) and the erroneous sociocultural construction of this diversity confirmed the suspicion that this content is not being addressed in precollegiate education. Traditionally, intermediate and secondary students are taught about human variation within the context of social studies, reading, communication, and fine-arts classes. This program identifies a new paradigm for teaching about human variation. Providing students with scientific knowledge about human origins and diversity provides a constructive starting point, creating a common platform and knowledge base on which to then frame discussions about cultural variation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  10. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan H., Ed.; Fischer, John L., Ed.

    This book is one of a series prepared in connection with the Survey of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The primary goal of the report is to provide a balanced statement of the past accomplishments, present status, and future prospects of anthropology. Although selective, the report attempts a great deal: 1)…

  11. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  12. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan H., Ed.; Fischer, John L., Ed.

    This book is one of a series prepared in connection with the Survey of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The primary goal of the report is to provide a balanced statement of the past accomplishments, present status, and future prospects of anthropology. Although selective, the report attempts a great deal: 1)…

  13. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  14. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  15. ARCHEOLOGY AS ANTHROPOLOGY: A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    LONGACRE, W A

    1964-06-19

    Anthropological inferences, made possible by advances in techniques for collecting data in archeological field work and the processing of data with a computer, permit a comparison to be made between the modern western Pueblos and their prehistoric background. One point in the development of Pueblo social organization (approximately A.D. 1200) is examined and compared with the present.

  16. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  17. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  18. How to Find Out in: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is a guide for the anthropology student. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research, and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in six categories: (1) general, including guides and literature surveys; (2) encyclopedias and…

  19. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  20. How to Find Out in: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara K.

    This library handbook is a guide for the anthropology student. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research, and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in six categories: (1) general, including guides and literature surveys; (2) encyclopedias and…

  1. Anthropology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's research guide for the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is designed for junior and senior high school teachers to integrate anthropology into their social studies and science classes. The information in this packet consists of a list of books for teachers and students, classroom activities, and other…

  2. Anthropological Materials Available from the Smithsonian Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Museum of Natural History.

    This bulletin is a detailed list of source materials and resource packets for teachers, covering specific topics from the perspectives of anthropology, archaeology, and ethnography. All materials listed are available through the Smithsonian Institution. Pricing information is given with each item, and many materials are free of charge. Materials…

  3. Looking at physiological anthropology from a historical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    As one way of thinking about physiological anthropology, let us survey it from a historical viewpoint. At the beginning of the 19th century, Blumenbach, considered the father of Physical Anthropology, wrote his "Handbook of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology." The subsequent research conducted and papers written by researchers such as Broca and Martin pointed in the direction of physiological anthropology; furthermore, the research carried out by the American researchers Demon and Baker had a physiological anthropology "feel." The courses in Physiological Anthropology taught by Tokizane exerted a major influence on physiological anthropology in Japan. The precursor of the Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology, organized by Sato in 1978, was extremely significant in the effect that it had on the subsequent development of physiological anthropology. The holding of the biennial International Congress of Physiological Anthropology, along with the allocation of the Research sub-field of Physiological Anthropology in the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, would seem to suggest that the field of physiological anthropology is set to increasingly grow and evolve.

  4. Managing Student Culture and Culture Shock: A Case from European Tirol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Martha C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the anthropology field school or structured cultural-immersion experience held in the summer at a castle in German-speaking Italy. Students from the United States experience culture shock but usually learn new social and survival skills. (SLD)

  5. Learning Styles: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Studies of the brain and of the human culture can be used to demonstrate the limits of traditional approaches (based on psychological perspectives which are often narrow and restrictive) to learning styles and to offer additional perspectives on the complexity of learning. The study of the hemispheres of the brain and its triune nature indicates…

  6. Boas, Darwin, science, and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H S

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents a new reading of Franz Boas's philosophy of science and his approach to the understanding of culture and behavior. It points out that his approach had important parallels with the worldview of the major figures associated with pragmatism and suggests that a similar perspective can be useful today.

  7. Variability in the efficacy of psychopharmaceuticals: contributions from pharmacogenomics, ethnopsychopharmacology, and psychological and psychiatric anthropologies.

    PubMed

    Ninnemann, Kristi M

    2012-03-01

    Psychological and psychiatric anthropology have long questioned the universality of psychiatric diagnoses, bringing to light the fluidity of mental disorder, and recognizing that the experience and expression of psychopathology is influenced by complex and interacting genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. The majority of our discussions, however, have remained centered around the role of culture in shaping mental illness: drawing attention to subjective experiences of mental illness and culturally patterned modes of symptom presentation, and interrogating the cogency of universal diagnostic rubrics. Psychological and psychiatric anthropology have yet to robustly engage the broadly assumed universal validity of psychiatric medications and the ways in which they are prescribed and experienced. This article provides an introduction into the fields of pharmacogenomics and ethnopsychopharmacology, areas of inquiry seeking to understand the ways in which genetic variability occurring between, and within, large population groups influences individual ability to metabolize psychotropic medications. This piece further addresses the complex issue of psychopharmaceutical efficacy, stressing the ways in which, just as with psychopathology, medications and their outcomes are likewise influenced by the complex interactions of genes, environment, and culture. Lastly, ways in which anthropology can and should engage with the growing fields of pharmacogenomics and ethnopsychopharmacology are suggested.

  8. Critical Medical Anthropology--a voice for just and equitable healthcare.

    PubMed

    Witeska-Młynarczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a paradigm current in contemporary medical anthropology - Critical Medical Anthropology (CMA), which merges political-economic approaches with a culturally sensitive analysis of human behaviour grounded in anthropological methods. It is characterized by a strongly applied orientation and a devotion to improving population health and promoting health equity. The beginning of CMA dates back to the 1970s when the interdisciplinary movement called the political economy of health was developed. Today, CMA has grown into one of three major perspectives used in anthropological research devoted to health, illness and wellbeing. The author discusses the origins, key concepts and CMA's usefulness for social research, and its significance for the design of effective policies in the realm of public health. Examplary interventions and ethnographic researches are introduced and wider usage is advocated of such works and methods by bureaucrats and medical staff for understanding the patients' behavior, and the influence of social, economic and political factors on the workings of particular health systems.

  9. Biological anthropology of aging--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H

    2003-06-01

    Biological anthropologists have a strong tradition of studying growth and development and research on aging has been limited. This paper explores the past and current contribution of biological anthropologists to the field of aging through an examination of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA) and the American Journal of Human Biology (AJHB). It is clear from this survey that biological anthropologists and human biologists have predominantly studied growth and developmental processes relative to aging. However, there is a trend of increasing interest in aging over time. In the AJHB, papers discussing chronic disease were predominant, followed by reproductive aging (19%), bone aging (15%) and body composition (10%). Within the AJPA, the majority of articles were in the field of human biology (43%) and bioarchaelogy (42%) with a lesser contribution from primatology (14%) and dermatogliphics (1%). Biological anthropologists still have great potential to make contributions to gerontology with our evolutionary and holistic perspectives and focus on cross-cultural research.

  10. 75 FR 30427 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is..., Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID, that meet the definitions of ``unassociated... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural...

  11. Native Indian Youth in Museums: Success in Education at the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Madeline Bronsdon

    In 1979, the Native Indian Youth in Museums project began placing Musqueam teenagers in the University of British Columbia's Museum of Anthropology to teach them about traditional coastal Indian culture, and train them to share this information with museum visitors. Co-sponsored by the Native Indian Youth Advisory Society and the Native Youth…

  12. Native Indian Youth in Museums: Success in Education at the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Madeline Bronsdon

    In 1979, the Native Indian Youth in Museums project began placing Musqueam teenagers in the University of British Columbia's Museum of Anthropology to teach them about traditional coastal Indian culture, and train them to share this information with museum visitors. Co-sponsored by the Native Indian Youth Advisory Society and the Native Youth…

  13. The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, A; Weijts, W; Reddy, P; Meijer-Weitz, A

    2001-04-01

    In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions.

  14. 76 FR 80401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO. The human remains and... transferred to Fallis F. Rees, who donated them to the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

  15. Modern morphometry: new perspectives in physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Simone; Ripani, Maurizio

    2009-06-01

    In the past one hundred years physical anthropology has recourse to more and more efficient methods, which provide several new information regarding, human evolution and biology. Apart from the molecular approach, the introduction of new computed assisted techniques gave rise to a new concept of morphometry. Computed tomography and 3D-imaging, allowed providing anatomical description of the external and inner structures exceeding the problems encountered with the traditional morphometric methods. Furthermore, the support of geometric morphometrics, allowed creating geometric models to investigate morphological variation in terms of evolution, ontogeny and variability. The integration of these new tools gave rise to the virtual anthropology and to a new image of the anthropologist in which anatomical, biological, mathematical statistical and data processing information are fused in a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Anthropological determinants of success in young judoists.

    PubMed

    Krstulović, Sasa; Sekulić, Damir; Sertić, Hrvoje

    2005-12-01

    There is an evident lack of experimental studies dealing with the anthropological determinants of success in judo, especially concerning young athletes. In this paper we have attempted to establish some of the anthropological factors potentially related to judo competition achievement in 15-16 year old athletes. A set of 14 anthropometric and 12 motor-endurance variables was tested on the best young judoists in Croatia (all males, N = 34). All the subjects had competed on the National Championship (NC), and the criterion was defined according to their final NC achievement. Factor analysis and discriminant canonical analysis (DISCRA) were calculated separately on the motor-endurance and anthropometric status variables. DISCRA showed the successful judoists as dominant in strength and endurance status. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the anthropometric dimensions regarding any differentiation between the more and less successful athletes. Possible explanations are discussed.

  17. New methods and techniques in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Recheis, W; Weber, G W; Schäfer, K; Prossinger, H; Knapp, R; Seidler, H; zur Nedden, D

    1999-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991, advanced imaging and post-processing techniques have been successfully applied to anthropological research. Among the specific techniques are spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions, which include stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be produced using stereolithography; subsequently, it has been successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end performance graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions have become established as routine tools for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques enabled dramatically new insights to be gained in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without even touching--let alone damaging--them. Among the most precious are specimens from the genus Australopithecus (1.8 Myr-3.5 Myr), as well as representatives of Homo heidelbergensis (200 kyr-600 kyr) and Homo neanderthalensis (40 kyr-100 kyr); such fossils have been CT-scanned during the last five years. The fossils often are filled with a stone matrix or other encrustations. During the post-processing routines, highly advanced algorithms were used to remove these encrustations virtually (the concrete fossils remain untouched). Thus it has been possible to visualize the morphological structures that are hidden by the matrix layer. Some specimens have been partially destroyed, but it has been possible for the missing parts were reconstructed on the computer screen in order to get estimations of brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover, the data in computerized form allows new descriptions of morphological structures using geometric morphometrics. Some of the results may change aspects and

  18. [Interests of applied anthropology to oncology].

    PubMed

    Soum-Pouyalet, Fanny; Hubert, Annie; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    From now on the introduction of social and human sciences studies in the field of oncology has not always been conclusive. This article aims to analyze the bounds that border the meeting and the understanding between physicians, patients and anthropologists. It also treats the problems due to the introduction of applied anthropology in the field of oncology and points up the interests and practical contributions that this disciplinary bring and could bring.

  19. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  20. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  1. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  2. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  3. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  4. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department..., Anthropology Department, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department. Disposition...

  5. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... associated funerary objects may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

  6. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... may contact Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains...

  7. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National..., Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from... physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains...

  8. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... the possession and control of the Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA... Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst professional staff in consultation with...

  9. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington University...

  10. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains. The...

  11. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  12. 75 FR 67999 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections Facility, Sonoma State University... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Anthropological Studies Center.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Anthropological Studies...

  13. From forest fires to fisheries management: anthropology, conservation biology, and historical ecology.

    PubMed

    Braje, Todd J; Rick, Torben C

    2013-01-01

    Human-environmental relationships have long been of interest to a variety of scientists, including ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and many others. In anthropology, this interest was especially prevalent among cultural ecologists of the 1970s and earlier, who tended to explain culture as the result of techno-environmental constraints. More recently researchers have used historical ecology, an approach that focuses on the long-term dialectical relationship between humans and their environments, as well as long-term prehuman ecological datasets. An important contribution of anthropology to historical ecology is that anthropological datasets dealing with ethnohistory, traditional ecological knowledge, and human skeletal analysis, as well as archeological datasets on faunal and floral remains, artifacts, geochemistry, and stratigraphic analysis, provide a deep time perspective (across decades, centuries, and millennia) on the evolution of ecosystems and the place of people in those larger systems. Historical ecological data also have an applied component that can provide important information on the relative abundances of flora and fauna, changes in biogeography, alternations in food webs, landscape evolution, and much more. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aging and social change among Abaluyia in western Kenya: anthropological and historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cattell, Maria G

    2008-06-01

    This article presents narrative accounts which illustrate ways that modernization and social change have transformed the daily lives of Abaluyia, especially older people, in rural western Kenya since the late nineteenth century. The narratives reveal history as lived experience, as observed and recorded by an anthropologist who has been doing research among Abaluyia in Bunyala and Samia over the past 25 years. The story involves continuity of cultural beliefs and practices, and it involves change-change imposed by the macro-events of globalizing processes, from colonialism to Structural Adjustment Programs, and change as people's adaptive responses to those processes, particularly how changing cultural practices have impacted elders. The grand narrative is historical, the overarching story of the incorporation of Kenya and Kenyans into the global political economy from the colonial period to the present. Other narratives are biographical, case studies of individuals from two extended families and their personal experiences of social change over the past century. The background narrative is autobiographical, the anthropologist's story of the practice of anthropological fieldwork and her own experiences and observations of social change in western Kenya. Since anthropological data over time become history, the approach here is both anthropological and historical.

  15. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    PubMed

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  16. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely ‘cultural’ fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted. PMID:21041203

  17. Culture, Meaning, and Interstellar Message Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphagan, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation explores the concept of culture as it is used in anthropology and instances of contact between anthropologists and terrestrial "alien" civilizations and considers how these can inform thinking about potential contact with ETI.

  18. Federal repatriation legislation and the role of physical anthropology in repatriation.

    PubMed

    Ousley, Stephen D; Billeck, William T; Hollinger, R Eric

    2005-01-01

    Two laws governing the disposition of Native American human remains in museums and institutions have had a profound impact on anthropology, and especially physical anthropology. In contrast to the perception of constant conflict between Native Americans and physical anthropologists, the repatriation process based on these laws has been in large part harmonious between institutions and Native peoples in the US. Despite misconceptions, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAPGRA; 25 United States Code (U.S.C.) 3001-3013) was not intended to halt further research on Native American remains in museums. In fact, court decisions have affirmed that the documentation of human remains produces information no other methods can provide, and provides necessary evidence to be incorporated and weighed, along with other evidence, in evaluating "cultural affiliation," the legal term for the required connection from federally recognized Native American groups to their ancestors. The wide variety of osteological data collected at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, have proven indispensable when evaluating cultural affiliation, especially when other information sources are unhelpful or ambiguous, and provide an empirical basis for determining the ancestry of individuals whose remains will be discovered in the future. To date, the claim-driven process at the NMNH has resulted in the affiliation and repatriation of more Native American remains than any other institution in the country. Repatriation experiences at the NMNH demonstrate the changing relationships between museums and Native peoples, the continuing important contributions that physical anthropology makes to the repatriation process, and the importance of physical anthropology in understanding the recent and ancient history of North America. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [Racial characteristics from the industrial anthropology aspect].

    PubMed

    Pieper, U

    1978-03-01

    Often industrial-anthropological research cannot be limited to a particular population. Whenever export and/or migration brings people and conditions together which go beyond the usual area of a population characterized by a particular morphological trait, the question arises as to how technical conditions can best be adapted to humans. The automobile seat is used to illustrate to what extent race-specific size and body proportion differences effect technical practice. Since the safety of an automobile is in part dependent upon an efficient adaptation of the vehicle to the user, these investigations have considerable practical importance.

  20. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  1. Public Anthropology as Public Pedagogy: An Autobiographical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…

  2. Methods in Social Anthropology: New Directions and Old Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard W.; Roper, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses major methodological advances of the past 20 years within social anthropology. The advances fall into three broad areas: comparative studies and large-scale multicultural and holocultural investigations; cognitive anthropology, encompassing formal analysis and decision processes; and studies of intracultural diversity. (Author/KC)

  3. A Program for High School Social Studies: Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Pam

    GRADES OR AGES: High School. SUBJECT MATTER: Anthropology. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers three units: 1) "The Study of Man"; 2) "Introduction to Physical Anthropology," including the process of evolution, descent and change in time, chronology of events, dawn of man, fossil man, race, and definitions of race; and 3)…

  4. The Teaching of Anthropology: Problems, Issues, and Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Ed.; White, Jane J., Ed.; Furlow, Richard H., Ed.; Rice, Patricia C., Ed.

    This volume brings together the insights of more than 40 contributors who demonstrate that anthropology has timely, important, and enduring messages for students and the public. The book provides the first comprehensive examination of teaching issues across all the subfields of anthropology since the 1963 publication of "The Teaching of…

  5. The Committee on Anthropology and Education. Report and Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Washington, DC.

    The document consists of a report by the chairman of the Committee on Anthropology and Education and six essays commissioned by the committee. In addressing the need to support educational anthropology programs, the report suggests: creation of a national fellowship program for graduate students; interchanges among educational anthropology…

  6. Mexican American Televison: Applied Anthropology and Public Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselein, E. B.; Marshall, Wes

    1976-01-01

    Fiesta Project provides a classic example of action anthropology in broadcasting. The project involved the research and production of a Spanish language public television series designed to attract, retain, and realistically help a Mexican American audience in southern Arizona. The project used anthropological research in initial program…

  7. Course File for "Documentary Film, Visual Anthropology, and Visual Sociology."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaselli, Keyan G.; Shepperson, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that addresses and relocates questions of representation and reconstruction in the context of reflexive explanations for ethnographic films. Examines questions of power/power relations; anthropological and media construction of the Other; and trends in visual anthropology. Contextualizes the course within the human experience of…

  8. Course File for "Documentary Film, Visual Anthropology, and Visual Sociology."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaselli, Keyan G.; Shepperson, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course that addresses and relocates questions of representation and reconstruction in the context of reflexive explanations for ethnographic films. Examines questions of power/power relations; anthropological and media construction of the Other; and trends in visual anthropology. Contextualizes the course within the human experience of…

  9. Medical Anthropology in the Curriculum: A Revisit to the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Robert E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the last 15 years in the development of medical school departments with interests in the various behavioral science fields, including anthropology, based on this study only five percent of U.S. medical students had the opportunity to attend lectures in the field of medical anthropology. (Editor/JT)

  10. Mexican American Televison: Applied Anthropology and Public Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselein, E. B.; Marshall, Wes

    1976-01-01

    Fiesta Project provides a classic example of action anthropology in broadcasting. The project involved the research and production of a Spanish language public television series designed to attract, retain, and realistically help a Mexican American audience in southern Arizona. The project used anthropological research in initial program…

  11. Teaching Anthropology as Science at the Junior High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decanay, Al, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an elective anthropology course of eighth grade students taught in 1974-75 and 1975-76. The course was offered as part of the science rather than social studies program, and emphasized physical anthropology and archaeology with laboratory and field methods. The content was within the grasp of motivated average and above average eighth…

  12. The Teaching of Anthropology: Problems, Issues, and Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottak, Conrad Phillip, Ed.; White, Jane J., Ed.; Furlow, Richard H., Ed.; Rice, Patricia C., Ed.

    This volume brings together the insights of more than 40 contributors who demonstrate that anthropology has timely, important, and enduring messages for students and the public. The book provides the first comprehensive examination of teaching issues across all the subfields of anthropology since the 1963 publication of "The Teaching of…

  13. Anthropology - Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit may be used as an introduction to the study of anthropology, the influence of ecology on the study of anthropology, and an introduction to the physical school environment. For best results, it should be used at the beginning of the…

  14. Material of Geographic Import in the National Anthropological Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, James R.

    Presenting specific examples of the manuscripts, cartographic materials, and pictorial materials found in the National Anthropological Archives, this paper describes Archive holdings (in such areas as archeology, linguistics, physical anthropology, and various branches of ethnology) which are dated from 1850 to the present and are representative…

  15. Heart in anatomy history, radiology, anthropology and art.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Lazić, D; Kanjuh, V; Valjarević, S; Tomić, I; Aksić, M; Starčević, A

    2014-05-01

    Anthropologic, artistic and medical significance of heart inspired usto undertake this multidisciplinary study. Amongst the 24 obtained echocardiograms and phonograms, 1 was used for a Photoshop processing. In addition, over 20,000 art work reproductions were examined in this study. Artistic and symbolic presentation of heart started some 15,000 years ago. First heart models were made by the Egyptian and Olmec civilisations. Ancient cultures regarded heart as the seat of the soul, spirit and intelligence. First anatomical and artistic images of heart were created by Leonardo da Vinci in the15th century, and first wax models by the Italian anatomists in the 17th century. Mediaeval religious symbolism of heart was replaced in the Renaissance and later on mainly by its role in the romantic love. Anatomical heart art continued in the 18th and 19th centuries through the works of Sénac, Cloquet, Hirschfeldand Bourgery. Some modern artists, such as Dalí, Kahlo, Rivera, Warhol, Ivanjicki, Vital, Kober and Mastrlova, created the anatomical heart images or sculptures, whereas some others, such as Duchamp, Klee, Miró, Matisse and Dine, presented heart symbol in their artworks. New radiologic technologies produce fine images of heart, some of which are similar to the works of modern artists. Heart biology and symbolism have had a tremendous influence on our culture, including art and medical sciences. New radiologic techniques and computer technology have produced such images of heart, which substantially improved diagnosis, but also enhanced the heart aesthetics.

  16. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis

    2012-01-01

    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  17. Culture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Development of Man and His Culture: New World Prehistory. Grade Two. Teacher's Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil's Study Guide [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test: Form 2, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-test. Publications No. 28, 29, 30, 33 and 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Carol E.; And Others

    The social studies unit includes a teaching guide, teacher background material, student text, study guide, and composite pretest/posttest. Subject matter focuses on archaeological methods, history of man in America, and the Hopi Indians in the past and present. The unit is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed to be used in…

  19. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  20. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  1. Soulside: Inquiries into Ghetto Culture and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannerz, Ulf

    This is an anthropological study of a black ghetto in Washington, D.C. The focus of the book is on the nature of ghetto culture and its relationship to mainstream American culture. The author contends that the ghetto has developed a unique culture of its own which co-exists with aspects of mainstream American culture. The discussion dwells on the…

  2. Geostatistics and spatial analysis in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Relethford, John H

    2008-05-01

    A variety of methods have been used to make evolutionary inferences based on the spatial distribution of biological data, including reconstructing population history and detection of the geographic pattern of natural selection. This article provides an examination of geostatistical analysis, a method used widely in geology but which has not often been applied in biological anthropology. Geostatistical analysis begins with the examination of a variogram, a plot showing the relationship between a biological distance measure and the geographic distance between data points and which provides information on the extent and pattern of spatial correlation. The results of variogram analysis are used for interpolating values of unknown data points in order to construct a contour map, a process known as kriging. The methods of geostatistical analysis and discussion of potential problems are applied to a large data set of anthropometric measures for 197 populations in Ireland. The geostatistical analysis reveals two major sources of spatial variation. One pattern, seen for overall body and craniofacial size, shows an east-west cline most likely reflecting the combined effects of past population dispersal and settlement. The second pattern is seen for craniofacial height and shows an isolation by distance pattern reflecting rapid spatial changes in the midlands region of Ireland, perhaps attributable to the genetic impact of the Vikings. The correspondence of these results with other analyses of these data and the additional insights generated from variogram analysis and kriging illustrate the potential utility of geostatistical analysis in biological anthropology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Froude number corrections in anthropological studies.

    PubMed

    Steudel-Numbers, Karen; Weaver, Timothy D

    2006-09-01

    The Froude number has been widely used in anthropology to adjust for size differences when comparing gait parameters or other nonmorphological locomotor variables (such as optimal walking speed or speed at gait transitions) among humans, nonhuman primates, and fossil hominins. However, the dynamic similarity hypothesis, which is the theoretical basis for Froude number corrections, was originally developed and tested at much higher taxonomic levels, for which the ranges of variation are much greater than in the intraspecific or intrageneric comparisons typical of anthropological studies. Here we present new experimental data on optimal walking speed and the mass-specific cost of transport at that speed from 19 adult humans walking on a treadmill, and evaluate the predictive power of the dynamic similarity hypothesis in this sample. Contrary to the predictions of the dynamic similarity hypothesis, we found that the mass-specific cost of transport at experimentally measured optimal walking speed and Froude number were not equal across individuals, but retained a significant correlation with body mass. Overall, the effect of lower limb length on optimal walking speed was weak. These results suggest that the Froude number may not be an effective way for anthropologists to correct for size differences across individuals, but more studies are needed. We suggest that researchers first determine whether geometric similarity characterizes their data before making inferences based on the dynamic similarity hypothesis, and then check the consistency of their results with and without Froude number corrections before drawing any firm conclusions.

  4. Pembina River Cultural Resources Literature and Records Search,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    FRED SCHNEIDER ci:- /l #1u * U’ LU SP .2...PEMBINA RIVER CULTURAL RESOURCES LITERATURE AND RECORDS SEARCH - a- by Fred Schneider Department of Anthropology and Archaeology University of North...area. The project was directed by Dr. Fred Schneider, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of North Dakota. The search

  5. Utilization of Standardized Mental Health Assessments in Anthropological Research: Possibilities and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; Yarris, Kristin; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade anthropologists working the boundary of culture, medicine, and psychiatry have drawn from ethnographic and epidemiological methods to interdigitate data and provide more depth in understanding critical health problems. But rarely do these studies incorporate psychiatric inventories with ethnographic analysis. This article shows how triangulation of research methods strengthens scholars' ability (1) to draw conclusions from smaller data sets and facilitate comparisons of what suffering means across contexts; (2) to unpack the complexities of ethnographic and narrative data by way of interdigitating narratives with standardized evaluations of psychological distress; and (3) to enhance the translatability of narrative data to interventionists and to make anthropological research more accessible to policymakers. The crux of this argument is based on two discrete case studies, one community sample of Nicaraguan grandmothers in urban Nicaragua, and another clinic-based study of Mexican immigrant women in urban United States, which represent different populations, methodologies, and instruments. Yet, both authors critically examine narrative data and then use the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to further unpack meaning of psychological suffering by analyzing symptomatology. Such integrative methodologies illustrate how incorporating results from standardized mental health assessments can corroborate meaning-making in anthropology while advancing anthropological contributions to mental health treatment and policy.

  6. ['Biomedicine' in anthropological literature. The career of a concept between analysis and polemics].

    PubMed

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2010-01-01

    During its career in North American social sciences and anthropology since the late 1960s the concept of 'biomedicine' acquired a large variety of meanings, sometimes even contradictory ones. Originating in research on biological and medical phenomena in technical areas like nuclear weapons, space flight, informatics or engineering, the term 'biomedical' entered politics and the social sciences, especially medical anthropology. Here it could mean medical research methods derived from biology as opposed to behavioural research or social sciences in general, the complex of Western health care n non-Western countries and the reductionism and alleged Cartesian dualism of its approach - the opposite of traditional, religious, holistic and psychic views and treatment of illness. Oscillating between the levels of anthropological research or analysis and of practical health care delivery, intra- and cross-cultural perspectives and affirmative and critical attitudes the term has to be carefully considered in any reading of past and recent literature. The rather ate German reception included replacing the term Schulmedizin born of older controversies on naturopathy, as well as naming the more somatic part of illness and medicine-as opposed to psychic or social aspects-and serving as the criticised object of many feminist and post-colonial studies on health.

  7. Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina

    2016-02-01

    Anthropologists' contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline's perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology's past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of "real history" in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits' framework and subsequent anthropological literature.

  8. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  9. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  10. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  11. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  12. 78 FR 36239 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Anthropology, Detroit, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology (hereafter WSU Museum) has completed an inventory of... Anthropology, Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology, 3056 F/AB, Detroit, MI 48202...

  13. Towards a psycho-anthropological view of religious violence.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Aziz

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the phenomenon of religious violence requires a theoretical approach to the task. Ideally, the theoretical framework must integrate (1) the insights of neurobiology and ethnology elucidating the roots of aggression in the organism and its manifestations in animal behaviour, (2) the expression of these in human violence, which requires careful attention to linguistic and other expressions in culture, (3) the special role of religious representations in this connection, and (4) the mechanisms, in time and place, whereby the role of religion in the maintenance of cultural order is reversed, and becomes an ally of violence. Psychological theories, like the psychoanalytic school, have a contribution to make to this end. But they also exhibit limitations. The most compelling anthropological theory to date is René Girard's, which focuses on mimetic desire, violence, its resolution through scapegoating and subsequent enactment in ritual. The sacred is seen to lie at the origins of cultural order. But it also harbours a potential for a resurgence of the violence it conceals. Other researchers have shown how certain features of modernity unwittingly fuel violence through the promulgation of stereotypical, group identities. Contemporary Islamist violence (Jihadism) offers a case-study for these theoretical axioms. The example is not peculiar or sui generis. Rather it illustrates, more widely, the nature of the sacred and its relation to history. The Islamic tradition and modern Muslim history also provide a template for an analytic understanding of religious symbols, and their degradation into symbols of a typically modern demand for recognition of ego and group orientated identities. This psychosocial configuration necessarily escapes the attention of the actors, and because of the nominal persistence of old symbols, may also escape the attention of observers. To expose and explain these discrepancies is one of the central tasks of analysis in the proposed

  14. [Medical anthropological aspects of hand phalanx dermatoglyphics].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Shpak, L Iu

    2000-01-01

    Main and middle phalanx skin patterns represent a polymorphic hereditary system of signs practically not studied in anthropology, but interesting for forensic medicine and criminology from the viewpoint of expert evaluation of relation and personality identification. Based on a vast scope of data (600 hand impressions of 300 subjects from Russian families), a classification of patterns on the main and middle finger phalanges has been developed and their incidence evaluated. The proposed classification includes 15 types and 40 subtypes. The incidence of individual patterns on phalanges of different site and order has been determined. The problem of genetic determination, i.e. inheritance of certain patterns from father and mother, remains open and requires a special research.

  15. Critical Medical Anthropology in Midwifery Research

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, Elizabeth C.; Pincombe, Jan I.; McKellar, Lois V.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the use of critical medical anthropology (CMA) as a theoretical framework for research in the maternity care setting. With reference to the doctoral research of the first author, we argue for the relevance of using CMA for research into the maternity care setting, particularly as it relates to midwifery. We then give an overview of an existing analytic model within CMA that we adapted for looking specifically at childbirth practices and which was then used in both analyzing the data and structuring the thesis. There is often no clear guide to the analysis or writing up of data in ethnographic research; we therefore offer this Critical analytic model of childbirth practices for other researchers conducting ethnographic research into childbirth or maternity care. PMID:28462347

  16. [Death as a process: an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Bárbara

    2013-09-01

    This article combines recent approximations that question the homology between death and biological demise from an anthropological perspective with the tradition of studies that review the death rituals in the Andean geographical area. In particular, it examines how in El Cajón, Catamarca, Northeast Argentina the dead are incorporated in the cosmologic scheme, and how death, being the initial step for this to occur, is not merely a biological event but also a highly dynamic social process. Based on ethnographical field work and using multiple-session open interviews and participant observation as methodological tools, it presents an analytical proposal that seeks to transcend the homology between death and biological demise, suggesting a notion that includes not only the organic dimension but also the social dimension: the process of death.

  17. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Shoemaker, Anna C; McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J; McAlvay, Alex C; Boles, Oliver J; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

  18. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects

    PubMed Central

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  19. Anthropology in Agricultural Health and Safety Research and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dangerous industry, even as agricultural science and technology continue to advance. Research that goes beyond technological changes to address safety culture and policy are needed to improve health and safety in agriculture. In this commentary, I consider the potential for anthropology to contribute to agricultural health and safety research by addressing three aims: (1) I briefly consider what the articles in this issue of the Journal of Agromedicine say about anthropologists in agricultural health and safety; (2) I discuss what anthropologists can add to agricultural health and safety research; and (3) I examine ways in which anthropologists can participate in agricultural health and safety research. In using their traditions of rigorous field research to understand how those working in agriculture perceive and interpret factors affecting occupational health and safety (their "emic" perspective), and translating this perspective to improve the understanding of occupational health professionals and policy makers (an "etic" perspective), anthropologists can expose myths that limit improvements in agricultural health and safety. Addressing significant questions, working with the most vulnerable agricultural communities, and being outside establishment agriculture provide anthropologists with the opportunity to improve health and safety policy and regulation in agriculture.

  20. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  1. Towards non-reductionistic medical anthropology, medical education and practitioner-patient-interaction: the example of Anthroposophic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Peter; Scheffer, Christian; Neumann, Melanie; Tauschel, Diethart; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    To develop the hypothesis that reductionism in medical anthropology, professional education and health care influences empathy development, communication and patient satisfaction. We identified relevant literature and reviewed the material in a structured essay. We reflected our hypothesis by applying it to Anthroposophic Medicine (AM), an example of holistic theory and practice. Reductionism in medical anthropology such as in conventional medicine seems to lead to a less empathetic and less communicative health care culture than holism such as in CAM disciplines. However, reductionism can be transformed into a systemic, multi-perspective holistic view, when the emergent properties of the physical, living, psychic, spiritual and social levels of human existence and the causal relations between them are more carefully accounted for in epistemology, medical anthropology and professional education. This is shown by the example of AM and its possible benefits for communication with and satisfaction of patients. A non-reductionistic understanding of the human being may improve communication with patients and enhance patient benefit and satisfaction. Interdisciplinary qualitative and quantitative studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and to understand the complex relations between epistemology, medical anthropology, education, health care delivery and benefit for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seeking a rapprochement between anthropology and the cognitive sciences: a problem-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Cohen, Emma

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin question the necessity of including social anthropology within the cognitive sciences. We argue that there is great scope for fruitful rapprochement while agreeing that there are obstacles (even if we might wish to debate some of those specifically identified by Beller and colleagues). We frame the general problem differently, however: not in terms of the problem of reconciling disciplines and research cultures, but rather in terms of the prospects for collaborative deployment of expertise (methodological and theoretical) in problem-driven research. For the purposes of illustration, our focus in this article is on the evolution of cooperation.

  3. Cyber-anthropology: a new study on human and technological co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Libin, Alexander; Libin, Elena

    2005-01-01

    For the first time cyber-anthropology is defined as a concept and a new field of study aimed at the analysis of person's reciprocal relations with the computer-generated (CG) world evolved as a result of technological progress. In the cyber-era, simulated reality has come to the point of becoming a force that has the potential to transform the human race. Digital beings such as virtual and embodied agents, although not a part of the natural human habitat, have become necessary elements of people's surroundings and life conditions. As a theoretical construct, Cyber-anthropology is concerned with the merger of natural and artificial worlds mediated by the human imagination, as well as compatibility between people and digital life they have created. As an empirical study, Cyber-anthropology deals with the psychophysiology and psychophysics, semantic and semiotics of human engagement with computer-generated reality that is viewed as a Complex Interactive System. Personal competence as a crucial element of any cyber-system underlines the importance of psychological culture in artificial world exploration. A newly developed concept of Psychological Culture is viewed as an essential part of Cyber-anthropology while concentrating on the following core issues: (1) ethical questions, such as whether or not technological tools can be employed to solve human problems; (2) moral consequences of bringing cutting edge technology into our every day life; (3) studies of individual differences regarding psychological competence of technology users through effective vs. ineffective, independent vs. addictive, and active vs. passive dichotomies. Psychological Culture is defined as the study of a person's competence associated with the use of modern technology and individual acceptability of technological innovations. Several crucial dilemmas arise when a human being is engaged in a simulated environment, and artificial agents inhabit a human world. The ultimate goal of Psychological

  4. Phrenology between anthropology and neurology in a nineteenth-century collection of skulls.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Alberto; Scattolin, Giuliano; Thiene, Gaetano; Zampieri, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The University of Padua has many legends about its cultural heritage. One of these concerns a collection of eight skulls still preserved in the Hall of Medicine at Bo Palace, near the old anatomy theatre built in 1545. It is said that some famous professors of the University donated their bodies to medical science, and the skulls were from these bodies. From multidisciplinary research, both historical and anthropological, we have discovered that Francesco Cortese, Professor of Medicine and Rector of the University, started this personal collection of colleagues' skulls, although they had not donated their bodies to science, so that he could make his own detailed phrenology study.

  5. Cable Television: Applied Anthropology in a New Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, Martin D.; Wilson, W. Leigh

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist's role in using cable television as a tool of applied anthropology in a new town was examined. The project's purpose was to give a group of people a new usage for a communications medium. (Author/NQ)

  6. Physical anthropology and the dental and medical specialties.

    PubMed

    Krogman, W M

    1976-11-01

    The rise of two sub-specialties in Physical Antrhopology traces back to the Anatomy Departments of Schools of Medicine in Germany and France during the nineteenth century. The study of human diversity in bones and bodies was largely by medically-trained anatomists. There developed Medical Antropology and Dental Anthropology, employing osteometry and craniometry on the skeleton, somatometry and cephalometry on the living body. As a result cross-sectional studies gave way to longitudinal studies and X-ray techniques were added to purely mensurational procedures. In Medical Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pediatrics, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and orthopaedics. In Dental Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pedodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery, and prosthodontics. The contributions of Physical Anthropology to each is discussed.

  7. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  8. An Anthropological Perspective: Another Dimension to Modern Dental Wear Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kaidonis, John A.; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Lekkas, Dimitra; Townsend, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For many years, research on tooth wear by dental academics has been diametrically opposite to that of anthropological research, with each discipline having a different understanding as to the nature of the wear processes. Dental focus revolved around preventive and restorative considerations while the anthropological focus was a biological understanding related to human evolution, diet, environment, form, and function and included all the craniofacial structures. Introducing the anthropological perspective into modern dentistry gives an insight into the “bigger picture” of the nature and extent of tooth wear. By combining anthropological evidence with clinical knowledge and experience, it is most likely to provide the best-informed and biologically based approach to the management of tooth wear in modern societies. PMID:23304146

  9. Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Outram, Simon M; Ellison, George T H

    2006-01-01

    Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses explore how and why race/ethnicity comes to be used in the context of genetic research, set against the background of continuing critiques from anthropology and related human sciences that focus on the social construction, structural correlates and limited genetic validity of racial/ethnic categories. The analyses demonstrate how these critiques have failed to engage geneticists, and how geneticists use a range of essentially cultural devices to protect and separate their use of race/ethnicity as a genetic construct from its use as a societal and social science resource. Given its multidisciplinary, biosocial nature and the cultural gaze of its ethnographic methodologies, anthropology is well placed to explore the cultural separation of science and society, and of natural and social science disciplines. Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore disparities in health suggest that moving beyond genetic explanations of innate difference might benefit from a more even-handed critique of how both the natural and social sciences tend to essentialize selective elements of race/ethnicity. Drawing on the example of HIV/AIDS, this paper demonstrates how public health has been undermined by the use of race/ethnicity as an analytical variable, both as a cipher for innate genetic differences in susceptibility and response to treatment, and in its use to identify 'core groups' at greater risk of becoming infected and infecting others. Clearly, a tendency for biological reductionism can place many biomedical issues beyond the scope of public health interventions, while socio-cultural essentialization has

  10. Searching for "voices": feminism, anthropology, and the global debate over female genital operations.

    PubMed

    Walley, C J

    1997-08-01

    This article lays the groundwork for a feminist and anthropological political response to female genital "operations" that transcends the current debate over the phenomenon, which is couched in terms of cultural relativism or of politically-informed outrage. After an introduction, the study considers the politics involved in assigning a name to the procedure and explains the author's reason for choosing female genital "operation" over the more commonly used "circumcision," "mutilation," or "torture." In the next section, clitoridectomy is contextualized through a recounting of the circumstances under which the procedure was performed in the western Kenyan village of Kikhome in 1988. This discussion focuses on the ceremonies surrounding the circumcisions of young men and women, the author's attempts to discover how the young women involved really felt about the tradition, and a review of the anthropological literature on the significance and impact of these practices. The analysis then examines the international controversy surrounding female genital mutilation and provides an overview of the colonial discourse on female genital mutilation in Africa to expose 1) the origins of justifications for colonial dominance in the dominance of non-Western women by non-Western men and 2) the fact that use of cultural arguments that fuse women and tradition can support culturally-defined power relationships. The article concludes with a consideration of who is qualified to speak out against female genital mutilation given the fact that all women and all debates are the products of longstanding, tenacious power relationships.

  11. A Pilot Study Integrating Visual Form and Anthropological Content for Teaching Children Ages 6 to 11 about Cultures and Peoples of the World; Specifically, the Preparation of a Danced Presentation with Lecture Interpreting Some of the Cultural Values in West and Central African Communities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primus, Pearl E.

    A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the use of dance as a method for improving and extending curriculum content of world cultures in elementary schools. The secondary objectives emphasized nonverbal experience as a means of interpreting the patterns of cultural values in West and Central Africa. Most of the 41 presentations of the dance…

  12. Humans, brains, and their environment: marriage between neuroscience and anthropology?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2010-03-25

    How do we define ourselves as humans and interact with our various environments? Recently, neuroscience has extended into other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, questioning the existence of distinct disciplines like anthropology, which describes the relationship between humans and their various environments. However, rather than being incorporated into neuroscience, anthropology may be considered complementary, and a marriage of the two disciplines can provide deep insight into these fundamental questions.

  13. Anthropological approach of adherence factors for antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Egrot, Marc; Blance, Marie Anne; Faure, Muriella

    2010-05-01

    Uncontrolled high blood pressure leads clinicians to wonder about adherence degree among hypertensive patients. In this context, our study aims to describe and analyze patients' experience of antihypertensive drugs in order to shed light on the multiple social and symbolic logics, forming part of the cultural factors shaping personal medication practices. The medical inductive and comprehensive anthropological approach implemented is based on an ethnographic survey (observations of consultations and interviews). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 68 hypertensive patients (39 women and 29 men, between the ages of 40 and 95, of whom 52 were over 60) who had been receiving treatment for over a year. Antihypertensive drugs are reinterpreted when filtered through the cultural model of physiopathology (the body as an engine). This symbolic dimension facilitates acceptance of therapy but leads to a hierarchization of other prescribed drugs and of certain therapeutic classes (diuretics). Prescription compliance does not solely depend on the patient's perception of cardiovascular risk, but also on how the patient fully accepts the treatment and integrates it into his or her daily life; this requires identification with the product, building commitment and self-regulation of the treatment (experience, managing treatment and control of side effects, intake and treatment continuity). Following the prescription requires a relationship based on trust between the doctor and patient, which we have identified in three forms: reasoned trust, emotional trust and conceded trust. Consideration and understanding of these pragmatic and symbolic issues by the treating physician should aid practitioners in carrying out their role as medical educators in the management of hypertension. This paper was originally published in French, in the journal Pratiques et organisation des soins 39(1): 3-12.

  14. Anthropological Approach of Adherence Factors for Antihypertensive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Egrot, Marc; Blance, Marie Anne; Faure, Muriella

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Uncontrolled high blood pressure leads clinicians to wonder about adherence degree among hypertensive patients. In this context, our study aims to describe and analyze patients' experience of antihypertensive drugs in order to shed light on the multiple social and symbolic logics, forming part of the cultural factors shaping personal medication practices. Methods: The medical inductive and comprehensive anthropological approach implemented is based on an ethnographic survey (observations of consultations and interviews). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 68 hypertensive patients (39 women and 29 men, between the ages of 40 and 95, of whom 52 were over 60) who had been receiving treatment for over a year. Results: Antihypertensive drugs are reinterpreted when filtered through the cultural model of physiopathology (the body as an engine). This symbolic dimension facilitates acceptance of therapy but leads to a hierarchization of other prescribed drugs and of certain therapeutic classes (diuretics). Prescription compliance does not solely depend on the patient's perception of cardiovascular risk, but also on how the patient fully accepts the treatment and integrates it into his or her daily life; this requires identification with the product, building commitment and self-regulation of the treatment (experience, managing treatment and control of side effects, intake and treatment continuity). Following the prescription requires a relationship based on trust between the doctor and patient, which we have identified in three forms: reasoned trust, emotional trust and conceded trust. Conclusion: Consideration and understanding of these pragmatic and symbolic issues by the treating physician should aid practitioners in carrying out their role as medical educators in the management of hypertension. This paper was originally published in French, in the journal Pratiques et organisation des soins 39(1): 3-12. PMID:21532764

  15. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  16. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  17. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  18. The Importance of Culture for Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, it is argued that a general understanding of human development needs a unified framework based on evolutionary theorizing and cross-cultural and cultural anthropological approaches. An eco-social model of development has been proposed that defines cultural milieus as adaptations to specific socio-demographic contexts. Ontogenetic…

  19. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  20. Culture and Cognition in Information Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holvikivi, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining the outcomes of information technology education for international students using anthropological theories of cultural schemas. Even though computer science and engineering are usually assumed to be culture-independent, the practice in classrooms seems to indicate that learning patterns depend on culture. The…

  1. Managing Across Cultures: A Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena S.; And Others

    An approach to managing personnel across cultures is outlined. A framework is provided to help the supervisor become aware of beliefs and values that underlie the workplace preferences of managers in the United States and of other cultures. It integrates research in anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business management. An…

  2. Contexts and Culture in Psychological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Draws on research in cultural anthropology and cultural psychology to place the current movement toward qualitative methods of inquiry in historical perspective. Asserts that a new methodology of achievement motivation--one that seeks to identify the cultural and personal meanings of educational performance through methods that clarify its…

  3. Managing Across Cultures: A Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena S.; And Others

    An approach to managing personnel across cultures is outlined. A framework is provided to help the supervisor become aware of beliefs and values that underlie the workplace preferences of managers in the United States and of other cultures. It integrates research in anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business management. An…

  4. Human Images: A Communications Approach to Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    The premise of this 14 week anthropology course is that endeavors by the mass media should be understood as cultural enterprises. Students will examine the means by which anthropologists, photographers, filmmakers, writers, new reporters or other observers translate their observations of another culture to members of their own culture. The Eskimo…

  5. Sherwood Washburn's New physical anthropology: rejecting the "religion of taxonomy".

    PubMed

    Mikels-Carrasco, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Many physical anthropologists and nearly all of those studying primatology today can trace their academic genealogy to Sherwood Larned Washburn. His New physical anthropology, fully articulated in a 1951 paper, proposed that the study of hominid evolution must link understandings of form, function, and behavior along with the environment in order most accurately to reconstruct the evolution of our ancestors. This shift of concentration from strictly analyzing fossil remains to what Washburn termed adaptive complexes challenged not only Washburn's predecessors, but also led Washburn to critique the very system of academia within which he worked. Collaboration across multiple disciplines, linking the four fields of anthropology in order to understand humans and application of our understandings of human evolution to the betterment of society, are the hallmarks of Washburnian anthropology. In this paper I will explore how Washburn's New physical anthropology led him to not only change the research direction in physical anthropology, but also to challenge the academia within which he worked. I will conclude by reflecting on the prospects of continuing to practice Washburnian Anthropology.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Diabetes Prevention: Anthropology, Public Health, and Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Mishra, Shiraz I.; Niforatos, Joshua; Regino, Lidia; Bulten, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is an enormous public health problem with particular concern within Hispanic communities and among individuals with low wealth. However, attempts to expand the public health paradigm to include social determinants of health rarely include analysis of social and contextual factors considered outside the purview of health research. As a result, conceptualization of the dynamics of diabetes health disparities remains shallow. We argue that using a holistic anthropological lens has the potential to offer insights regarding the nature of the interface between broader social determinants, health outcomes and health disparity. In a primarily Hispanic, immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we conducted a mixed methods study that integrates an anthropological lens with a community engaged research design. Our data from focus groups, interviews, a survey and blood sampling demonstrate the need to conceptualize social determinants more broadly, more affectively and more dynamically than often considered. These results highlight a need to include, in addition to individual-level factors that are traditionally the focus of public health and more innovative structural factors that are currently in vogue, an in-depth, qualitative exploration of local context, social environment, and culture, and their interactions and intersectionality, as key factors when considering how to achieve change. The discussion presented here offers a model for culturally situated and contextually relevant scientific research. This model achieves the objectives and goals of both public health and anthropology while providing valuable insights and mechanisms for addressing health disparity such as that which exists in relation to diabetes among Hispanic immigrants in New Mexico. Such an approach has implications for how research projects are designed and conceptualizing social determinants more broadly. The discussion presented provides insights with relevance for both disciplines

  7. Mitochondria in anthropology and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Tomasz; Rogalla, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria's role in crucial metabolic pathways is probably the first answer which comes to our minds for the question: what do these tiny organelles serve for? However, specific features of their DNA made them extremely useful also in the field of anthropology and forensics. MtDNA analyses became a milestone in the complex task of unraveling earliest human migrations. Evidence provided by these experiments left no doubts on modern humans origins pointing to Africa being our cradle. It also contributed to interpretation of putative ways of our dispersal around Asia and Americas thousands years ago. On the other hand, analysis of mtDNA is well established and valuable tool in forensic genetics. When other definitely more popular markers give no answer on identity, it is the time to employ information carried by mitochondria. This chapter summarizes not only current reports on the role of mitochondria in forensics and reconstruction of modern humans phylogeny, but also calls one's attention to a broad range of difficulties and constraints associated with mtDNA analyses.

  8. Dismemberment and disarticulation: A forensic anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Porta, Davide; Amadasi, Alberto; Cappella, Annalisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Magli, Francesca; Gibelli, Daniele; Rizzi, Agostino; Picozzi, Massimo; Gentilomo, Andrea; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    The dismemberment of a corpse is fairly rare in forensic medicine. It is usually performed with different types of sharp tools and used as a method of concealing the body and thus erasing proof of murder. In this context, the disarticulation of body parts is an even rarer event. The authors present the analysis of six dismemberment cases (well-preserved corpses or skeletonized remains with clear signs of dismemberment), arising from different contexts and in which different types of sharp tools were used. Two cases in particular showed peculiar features where separation of the forearms and limbs from the rest of the body was performed not by cutting through bones but through a meticulous disarticulation. The importance of a thorough anthropological investigation is thus highlighted, since it provides crucial information on the manner of dismemberment/disarticulation, the types of tools used and the general context in which the crime was perpetrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural

    Treesearch

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  10. [The anthropology of women in the Orthodox Jewish community of Antwerpen: identity, emancipation and integration].

    PubMed

    Longman, C

    2010-01-01

    This contribution contains a synthesis of the results of two socio-cultural anthropological research projects among Orthodox Jewry concerning the 'identity', 'emancipation' and 'integration' of women. First the meaning of female religiosity from the perspective of strictly Orthodox, including Chassidic, women is discussed. Whereas in the public and institutional religious sphere men are the paradigmatic "Orthodox Jews", due to the sacralisatie of daily life, religious roles for women are not less extensive or any less important but are predominantly situated in the private and domestic sphere. It is argued that from an anthropological and gender critical perspective, women's religious gender identity therefore cannot be straightforwardly interpreted as either "oppressed" nor "emancipator". The second study concerns Jewish Orthodox women (ranging from strictly to modern Orthodox) in Antwerp who transgress religious gender norms by studying or working in the surrounding secular society. Their life stories show very different trajectories of encounters with the "outside world" that are sometimes enriching yet sometimes also experienced in terms of intercultural conflicts. It is concluded that maintaining cultural identity, next to emancipation and integration from within the Orthodox Jewish community is not impossible, but that this requires minimal mutual dialogue and understanding.

  11. Anthropology, organ transplantation and the immune system: resituating commodity and gift exchange.

    PubMed

    Kierans, Ciara

    2011-11-01

    This article reflects on contributions from medical anthropology to our understanding of the bio-social and bio-political implications of renal transplantation. Taking up the idea of transplantation as a 'complex', a vast assemblage of people, places, practices and procedures which intersect medical, social and cultural domains, I point to a reliance in the anthropological literature on overly pre-determined conceptual frameworks, organised around a distinct polarisation between organ giving and receiving, where one side (supply) takes analytical, and indeed moral, precedence over the other (receipt). These frameworks tend to fail us when it comes to thinking about the wider social, cultural and political implications of transplant technologies. In an attempt to offer a less polarised view, I draw attention to the material and symbolic role of the immune system in transplantation and the ways in which it simultaneously shapes opportunities for procurement and the lived realities of recipiency. This helps us see the many complex ways in which suffering and inequality are constituted all along the variegated chains of supply and demand that are internal to, and made possible by, transplantation practices themselves.

  12. Anthropological perspectives on money management: considerations for the design and implementation of interventions for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There remains a long-standing argument regarding the need for money management strategies to control poor spending habits among people with substance use disorders. The objective was to review issues relevant to the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions for substance abuse. Using a comparative, cross-cultural framework of anthropology, this manuscript examines three challenges for the design and implementation of money management interventions for substance abuse: (i) clients may not trust mental health centers to manage their money, (ii) clients may have different economic perspectives from clinicians and researchers, and (iii) clients may obtain substances through informal networks of exchange. This article clarifies the inherently complex symbolic and social dimensions of money and addiction and illustrates the need for researchers and clinicians to be mindful of the cultural assumptions that underlie money management interventions for substance abuse. Using an anthropological approach toward understanding the issues surrounding money management for individuals struggling with addiction and mental illness has the potential to strengthen the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions in a manner that is acceptable and meaningful for this target population.

  13. Deviance as Pedagogy: From Nondominant Cultural Capital to Deviantly Marked Cultural Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Pierre Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital has been employed extensively in sociological, educational, and anthropological research. However, Bourdieu's conceptualization of cultural capital has often been misread to refer only to "high status" or dominant cultural norms and resources at the cost of…

  14. Deviance as Pedagogy: From Nondominant Cultural Capital to Deviantly Marked Cultural Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Pierre Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital has been employed extensively in sociological, educational, and anthropological research. However, Bourdieu's conceptualization of cultural capital has often been misread to refer only to "high status" or dominant cultural norms and resources at the cost of…

  15. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.

  16. Theory and the scientific basis for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Clifford; Boyd, Donna C

    2011-11-01

    Forensic anthropology has long been criticized for its lack of a strong theoretical and scientific foundation. This paper addresses this problem by examining the role of theory in forensic anthropology at different hierarchical levels (high-level, middle-range, and low-level) and the relevance of various theoretical concepts (taphonomic, agency, behavioral archaeology, nonlinear systems, and methodological theories) to the interpretation of forensic contexts. Application of these theories to a case study involving the search for the WWII Goettge Patrol illustrates the explanatory power these theories offer to the interpretation of forensic events as the end product of an often complex set of environmental constraints and behavioral interactions and choices. It also emphasizes the importance of case studies in theory building and hypothesis testing. A theoretical foundation does indeed currently exist in forensic anthropology; however, a recognition and broader implementation of anthropological (archaeological) theory is warranted and will further define forensic anthropology as a scientific endeavor. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand.

  18. History in the gene: negotiations between molecular and organismal anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of primate phylogeny and human evolution on the molecular level, asserted its claim to the privilege of interpretation regarding hominoid, hominid, and human phylogeny and evolution vis-à-vis other historical sciences such as evolutionary biology, physical anthropology, and paleoanthropology. This process will be discussed on the basis of three key conferences on primate classification and evolution that brought together exponents of the respective fields and that were held in approximately ten-years intervals between the early 1960s and the 1980s. I show how the anthropological gene and genome gained their status as the most fundamental, clean, and direct records of historical information, and how the prioritizing of these epistemic objects was part of a complex involving the objectivity of numbers, logic, and mathematics, the objectivity of machines and instruments, and the objectivity seen to reside in the epistemic objects themselves.

  19. [Molecular anthropology and the origin of modern human].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Lai, Xu-Long; Wang, Wei

    2004-09-01

    Since Watson & Crick put forward the double-helix model of DNA structure and hereditary mechanism in 1953, it is generally accepted that this event marks the birth of modern molecular biology. This new field of biology has experienced a flourishing development in the past 50 years. On one hand, the development of molecular biology has been deeply influencing many relative fields; on the other hand, its own proceeding pace has been accelerated by the reaction from the other fields. Anthropology is one of the fields most deeply impacted by the theory and method of molecular biology. Most importantly, molecular anthropology was born as a result of combination of molecular biology, anthropology as well as paleoanthropology. This new branch provides reliable method and vital direction for paleoanthropology. This paper systematically reviews the history, principle and method of molecular anthropology. Two hypotheses on the origin of modern human, which include "out-of-African theory" and "theory of multiregional evolution" are also discussed for the purpose of showing how molecular anthropology is applied in paleoanthropology.

  20. A Cultural Resource Survey at Orwell Reservoir, Otter Tail County, Minnesota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Theory, Statistics, Computers, Museology . COURSES TAUGHT Introduction to Social Science, Intr jdu. pololgy, Cultural Anthropology, Archmew-,o...16 A pological Theory, Archaeological Field School, Statistics, Computers Museums and Archaeology, Museology , Language and the Human Condition FIELD...Paleoecology, Conservation Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, Museology . PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS Society for American Archaeology Council for

  1. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  2. Introducing Contemporary Anthropology: A Team-Taught Course for Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnicov, Leonard

    1985-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching large sections of college introductory anthropology by members of the anthropology faculty giving their best lectures. Presents details of how such a course was initiated, operated, and evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh. (KH)

  3. Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.

    PubMed

    Aryiku, S A; Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Jablonski, N G

    2015-09-01

    The culturally engrained practice of 'relaxing' afro-textured hair has been linked with hair and scalp disorders. Herein, we discuss the evolution of human hair types, focusing in particular on afro-textured hair. We explore the biological features of this hair type, and discuss the different methods employed to straighten afro-textured hair, focusing in particular on chemical straightening. We also examine clinical, anthropological, and psychological issues associated with this latter practice. Examples of common scalp pathologies associated with chronic hair relaxing, such as alopecia, hair breakage, caustic burns and irritant contact dermatitis, are also highlighted. The data presented herein should enable clinicians to engage in culturally appropriate discussions with their patients about issues of appearance and conformity.

  4. An Artist's Anthropological Approach to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon-Day, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of sustainability draw attention to the impact art and culture have on communities. The Earth Charter, which originated in 1968, fostered the idea of "a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace." This article supports the idea that art can…

  5. An Artist's Anthropological Approach to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon-Day, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of sustainability draw attention to the impact art and culture have on communities. The Earth Charter, which originated in 1968, fostered the idea of "a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace." This article supports the idea that art can…

  6. Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.

  7. [The biolaw anthropological basis. A philosofical reflection of biolaw].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Fernández Postigo, José

    2015-01-01

    From a basic terminological clarification, we seek to examine briefly what can be acknowledged as the two biggest attempts of foundation in the Biolaw contemporary area, that of the Kantian tradition and that of the anthropological and metaphysical realism. Through a critical examination of the first one, we attempt to show that only from a freedom or an autonomy assumed from the anthropological and metaphysical realism, is possible to hold a Biolaw as a true impervious limit against the technological power regarding human life and human procreation.

  8. Contribution of anthropology to the study of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica; Dove, Michael; Lahsen, Myanna; Mathews, Andrew; McElwee, Pamela; McIntosh, Roderick; Moore, Frances; O'Reilly, Jessica; Orlove, Ben; Puri, Rajindra; Weiss, Harvey; Yager, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the challenge that climate change poses and crafting appropriate adaptation and mitigation mechanisms requires input from the breadth of the natural and social sciences. Anthropology's in-depth fieldwork methodology, long engagement in questions of society-environment interactions and broad, holistic view of society yields valuable insights into the science, impacts and policy of climate change. Yet the discipline's voice in climate change debates has remained a relatively marginal one until now. Here, we identify three key ways that anthropological research can enrich and deepen contemporary understandings of climate change.

  9. The lived body as aesthetic object in anthropological medicine.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, W

    1999-01-01

    Medicine does not usually consider the human body from an aesthetic point of view. This article explores the notion of the lived body as aesthetic object in anthropological medicine, concentrating on the views of Buytendijk and Straus on human uprightness and gracefulness. It is argued that their insights constitute a counter-balance to the way the human body is predominantly approached in medicine and medical ethics. In particular, (1) the relationship between anthropological, aesthetic and ethical norms, (2) the possible danger of a naturalistic fallacy, (3) the implications for the care of disabled people and (4) the intrinsic aesthetic quality of the human body are dealt with.

  10. Issues in the global applications of methodology in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2008-05-01

    The project and research reported in this collection of articles follows a long-term historical pattern in forensic anthropology in which new case work and applications reveal methodological issues that need to be addressed. Forensic anthropological analysis in the area of the former Yugoslavia led to questions raised regarding the applicability of methods developed from samples in other regions. The subsequently organized project reveals that such differences exist and new methodology and data are presented to facilitate applications in the Balkan area. The effort illustrates how case applications and court testimony can stimulate research advances. The articles also serve as a model for the improvement of methodology available for global applications.

  11. 78 FR 45962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human...

  12. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  13. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  14. 78 FR 56733 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Logan Museum of Anthropology... Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  15. 77 FR 65404 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional.... ADDRESSES: Dr. Heather Edgar, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, MSC01 1050, University of New Mexico...

  16. 78 FR 45961 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Denver Museum of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human...

  17. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV... of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of Anthropology...

  18. 77 FR 74868 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of... Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation..., Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if...

  19. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if...

  20. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated below...